Study Guide For Microbiology Exam 3

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                                   Study Guide For Microbiology Exam 3

Chapter 13

   1. What are the basic characteristics of viruses, viroids, and prions?
   2. What must viruses, viroids, and prions do to be infective?
   3. What are the basic components of a virus, viroid, and prion?
   4. Identify the four major variations of viral genomes.
   5. What is a capsomere?
   6. Identify the three basic capsid shapes.
   7. What is the source of a viral envelop?
   8. List and discuss the five steps to viral replication.
   9. Describe a lytic viral life cycle
   10. Describe a lysogenic viral life cycle.
   11. How do enveloped and naked viruses enter cells
   12. What is the threat of viroids to humans?
   13. Why are prions a threat to humans?

Chapter 14

   1. Be able to define the following terms:
          a. Symbiosis
          b. Mutualism
          c. Commensalism
          d. Pathogen
   2. What are normal flora?
   3. When does acquisition of normal flora begin?
   4. What is an opportunistic organism?
   5. What is the difference between a resident microbiota and a transient microbiota?
   6. List the four main portals of entry.
   7. What is the role of adhesion in the induction of an infection?
   8. Be able to define the following terms:
          a. Disease
          b. Morbidity
          c. Symptoms
          d. Syndrome
          e. Asymptomatic
   9. What is etiology?
   10. Be able to define:
          a. Pathogenicity
          b. Virulence
          c. Virulence factors
   11. Be able to identify or list virulence factors.
   12. How do extracellular enzymes increase virulence?
   13. Identify the role of the following extracellular enzymes
          a. Hyaluronidase
          b. Collagenase
          c. Kinases
           d. Coagulase
   14. Define exotoxin.
   15. Define the following types of exotoxins
           a. Cytotoxins
           b. Neurotoxins
           c. Enterotoxins
   16. Define endotoxin
   17. Identify the group of bacteria which are largely responsible for endotoxins.
   18. Are exotoxins or endotoxins more liable to heat?
   19. Are exotoxins or endotoxins more liable to exposure to oxygen?
   20. Describe the four stages of an infectious disease.
   21. Which stage of an infectious disease is not infectious?
   22. What is a zoonoses?
   23. List the four most common nonliving reservoirs.
   24. Which type of human carrier is the most dangerous to other humans?
   25. Discus direct transmission.
   26. Identify and discuss means of indirect transmission.
   27. Identify and discuss means of vehicle transmission>
   28. What group of animals most commonly serves in vector transmission?
   29. Define the classes of infectious diseases
           a. Acute
           b. Chronic
           c. Subacute
           d. Latent
   30. What is the difference between a communicable and noncommunicable disease?
   31. Define incidence.
   32. Define prevalence.
   33. In what numerical form should these incidence and prevalence be reported.
   34. Define the following terms;
           a. Endemic
           b. Sporadic
           c. Epidemic
           d. Pandemic
   35. Define the following terms
           a. Nosocomial infection
           b. Exogenous nosocomial infection
           c. Endogenous nosocomial infection
           d. Iatrogenic infections
           e. Idiopathic infections
   36. What factors contribute to nosocomial infections?
   37. How can nosocomial infections be reduced or controlled?

Chapter 16

   1.   How is specific immunity acquired?
   2.   Which type of molecule is the most common antigen?
   3.   What is a hapten?
   4.   Be able to identify the three classes of antigens
   5. What are exogenous antigens?
   6. Be able to list exogenous antigens.
   7. What are endogenous antigens
   8. What are autoantigens?
   9. What is the function of autoantigens?
   10. How is “self-tolerance” developed?
   11. What is the function of B-cells
   12. What does the CD designation mean?
   13. Where are B-cells (CD cells) usually found?
   14. Discuss the structure of an antibody.
   15. List the five types of antibodies with reference to their Fc region.
   16. List the five modes of antibody action.
   17. Be able to identify the following terms
           a. Opsinization
           b. Agglutination
           c. Neutralization
           d. Activation of complement
           e. Stimulation of inflammation
   18. What is an epitope?
   19. List the five classes antibodies, state where they are found and identify their mode of action
   20. What is the mode of action of Tc cells?
   21. What is the role of the TH1 and TH2 cells?
   22. What is the role of cytokines?
   23. What are the roles of the following types of cytokines?
           a. Interleukins
           b. Interferon
           c. Growth factors
           d. Tumor necrosis factors
           e. Chemokines
   24. What type of cells have class 1 MHC proteins
   25. What type of cells have class 2 MHC proteins
   26. Discuss antigen processing and presentation.
   27. Discuss antibody production in terms of primary and secondary response in terms of IgG and IgM
   28. List and characterized the types of passively and actively acquired immunity.

Chapter 17
   1. What are the three applications of immunology?
   2. What is a vaccine?
   3. What is the purpose of vaccination?
   4. What is an attenuated vaccine?
   5. Describe four ways to prepare an attenuated vaccine.
   6. What is an inactivated vaccine?
   7. What are subunit vaccines and what is their advantage?
   8. What is a toxoid vaccine?
   9. Are vaccines always safe?
   10. What are some safety issues?
   11. What is passive immunity?
   12. What is the purpose of passive immunization?
   13. What are some antiserum limitations or problems?
   14. List three typical ways in which passive immunization act.
   15. What is an antivenin?
   16. What does an antitoxin act against?
   17. Describe a precipitation test.
   18. Describe immunodiffusion.
   19. What is involved in hemaglutination?
   20. What is the advantage of a complement fixation test?
   21. Describe a labeled antibody test?
   22. What is the difference between a direct fluorescent antibody test and an indirect fluorescent antibody

Chapter 18
   1. What is hypersensitivity?
   2. What is the nature of a type I hypersensitivity?
   3. Are B-cells or T-cells the primary source of a type I hypersensitivity?
   4. Describe the steps of a type I hypersensitivity.
   5. What types of blood and tissue cells are involved in a type I hypersensitivity?
   6. What is the primary chemical responsible for a type I response?
   7. What is anaphylactic shock?
   8. How does a type II hypersensitivity express it’s self?
   9. What is the nature of type III hypersensitivity?
   10. What is the nature of type IV hypersensitivity?
   11. What mediates a type IV hypersensitivity?
   12. Define autoimmunity?
   13. List and discuss the two classes of autoimmune disorders.
   14. What tissues may be the target of a single tissue disorder?
   15. What are the most common examples of a systemic autoimmune disorder?
   16. List and discuss the two most common examples of a systemic autoimmune disorders.