Study Guide for Heredity Name:________________________________ Period:___________ Date:_____________________ This exam will take place on Thursday November 29th. The test will consist of an objective portion and an application portion. Below are a list of the chapters and sections you should study in preparation for the test. Chapter 3 section 1 - 3 Chapter 4 sections 1 & 2 Vocabulary: heredity, trait, genetics, fertilization, purebred, gene, alleles, dominate allele, recessive allele, hybrid, probability, Punnette Square, phenotype, genotype, homozygous, heterozygous, codominance, multiple alleles, sex chromosomes, autosomes, sex-linked gene, carrier, genetic disorder, sex-linked disorders, autosomal disorders, pedigree, karyotype, cystic fibrosis, sickle-cell disease, hemophilia, down syndrome, colorblindness. Key Concepts: Explain the significance of Gregor Mendel’s experiments and his contribution to modern day genetics. Explain the relationship between punnett squares and gamete cells. Explain the Law of Independent Assortment. Given the parents’ genotype, create a Punnette square and explain the probability of the genotypes and phenotypes of the offspring. Given the offspring’s genotype determine the parents genotype. Explain the probability with which an event may occur. Describe the function of sex chromosomes. Explain how single genes can have multiple alleles and give an example. Explain the difference between sex-linked genes and autosomal traits. Explain the relationship between genes and the environment. Identify two major causes of genetic disorders in humans. Explain how geneticists trace the inheritance of traits. Analyze a pedigree. Given specific information, create a pedigree. Describe how genetic disorders are diagnosed and treated. Interpret a karyotye.