Study Guide – Exam II
Bio 115 – Environmental Biology - Fall 2008
This review sheet is only part of a complete study program that would include studying lecture notes and reading the
textbook. The instructor reserves the right to ask questions from material not included on this review sheet.
Demography, overpopulation US Fish & Wildlife Service
Crude birth & death rates National Marine Fisheries Service
Replacement-level fertility Old-growth forests, second-growth
Total fertility rate Wise use philosophy, preservationists
Infant mortality rate Clearcutting
Population crash Silvaculture
Carrying capacity Selective cutting, Shelter-wood cutting
Seed-tree cutting, Whole-tree harvesting
Endangered & threatened species
Accelerated extinction Marasmus & kwasiorkor
Taste aversion Subsistence & industrialized agriculture
Biocentric ethic, Ecocentric ethic Nomadic herding
Anthropocentric ethic Leaching, weathering
Lacey Act (1900)
• Diagram the growth of a population and explain exponential growth, carrying capacity,
& population crashes. How does environmental resistance affect population growth?
Diagram & describe 3 different types of population age structures – give examples.
• Explain the main assumptions of the philosophy of conservation biology. List and
describe at least 4 reasons why we should be concerned about species extinctions.
• Explain how coyotes are targeted with Compound 1080. Why might we say that
ranchers have anthropocentric views about wildlife?
• Discuss the major causes (at least 6) of accelerated species extinctions. Explain why
poaching is a serious problem for African rhinos and elephants.
• Discuss how old-growth forests are different from second growth forests. How are the
philosophies and actions of Earth First! Different from The Nature Conservancy?
• What are the most important food resources for humans on Earth? Explain how
industrialized agriculture is different from subsistence agriculture.
• Diagram & describe a typical soil profile. Describe the contents of the different layers
and explain how they are different.
• Describe the 3 functions of humus. How is it different from detritus? What problems
do plants experience in clay & sandy soils?