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Study Guide – Exam II Bio 115 – Environmental Biology - Fall 2008 This review sheet is only part of a complete study program that would include studying lecture notes and reading the textbook. The instructor reserves the right to ask questions from material not included on this review sheet. Demography, overpopulation US Fish & Wildlife Service Crude birth & death rates National Marine Fisheries Service Replacement-level fertility Old-growth forests, second-growth Total fertility rate Wise use philosophy, preservationists Infant mortality rate Clearcutting Population crash Silvaculture Carrying capacity Selective cutting, Shelter-wood cutting Seed-tree cutting, Whole-tree harvesting Endangered & threatened species Accelerated extinction Marasmus & kwasiorkor Taste aversion Subsistence & industrialized agriculture Biocentric ethic, Ecocentric ethic Nomadic herding Anthropocentric ethic Leaching, weathering Lacey Act (1900) Discussion: • Diagram the growth of a population and explain exponential growth, carrying capacity, & population crashes. How does environmental resistance affect population growth? Diagram & describe 3 different types of population age structures – give examples. • Explain the main assumptions of the philosophy of conservation biology. List and describe at least 4 reasons why we should be concerned about species extinctions. • Explain how coyotes are targeted with Compound 1080. Why might we say that ranchers have anthropocentric views about wildlife? • Discuss the major causes (at least 6) of accelerated species extinctions. Explain why poaching is a serious problem for African rhinos and elephants. • Discuss how old-growth forests are different from second growth forests. How are the philosophies and actions of Earth First! Different from The Nature Conservancy? • What are the most important food resources for humans on Earth? Explain how industrialized agriculture is different from subsistence agriculture. • Diagram & describe a typical soil profile. Describe the contents of the different layers and explain how they are different. • Describe the 3 functions of humus. How is it different from detritus? What problems do plants experience in clay & sandy soils?
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