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					  VEHICLE SAFETY RATINGS ESTIMATED FROM
 POLICE REPORTED CRASH DATA: 2009 UPDATE
AUSTRALIAN AND NEW ZEALAND CRASHES DURING 1987-2007




                                                  by


                                      Stuart Newstead
                                         Linda Watson
                                      & Max Cameron



                                       Report No. 287
                                         August 2009
                         Project Sponsored By




ii   MONASH UNIVERSITY ACCIDENT RESEARCH CENTRE
                               MONASH UNIVERSITY ACCIDENT RESEARCH CENTRE
                                      REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE

Report No.           Report Date              ISBN              ISSN                           Pages
287                  August 2009              0 7326 2357 X     1835-4815 (On-Line)            82 + Appendices
Title and sub-title:
VEHICLE SAFETY RATINGS ESTIMATED FROM POLICE REPORTED CRASH DATA: 2009 UPDATE
AUSTRALIAN AND NEW ZEALAND CRASHES DURING 1987-2007
Author(s)                                                               Type of Report & Period Covered
Newstead, S.V., Watson, L.M and Cameron, M.H.                           Summary Report, 1982-2007
Sponsoring Organisations - This project was funded as contract research by the following organisations:
Road Traffic Authority of NSW, Royal Automobile Club of Victoria Ltd, NRMA Motoring and Services, VicRoads, Royal
Automobile Club of Western Australia Ltd, Transport Accident Commission, New Zealand Transport Agency, the New
Zealand Automobile Association, Queensland Department of Transport and Main Roads, Royal Automobile Club of
Queensland, Royal Automobile Association of South Australia and by grants from the Australian Government Department
of Transport, Infrastructure, Regional Development and Local Govenrment and the Road Safety Council of Western
Australia
Abstract:
       This study describes the calculation of updated vehicle safety ratings that measure the relative safety of vehicles in
preventing severe injury to people involved in crashes. Three different aspects of secondary safety are examined:
crashworthiness which focuses on drivers of the rated vehicle, aggressivity which focuses on drivers of other vehicles and
unprotected road users such as pedestrians, cyclists and motorcyclists colliding with the rated vehicle and total secondary
safety which examines the combined crashworthiness and aggressivity performance of the rated vehicle. Updated ratings for
1982-2007 model vehicles were estimated based on d ata on crashes in Victoria and New South Wales during 1987-2007, in
Queensland, Western Australia and New Zealand during 1991-2007 and in South Australia during 1995-2007. Each rating
is measured as a combination of injury severity (the risk of death or serious injury given an injury was sustained) and injury
risk (the risk of injury given crash involvement). The ratings were adjusted for the sex and age of the person whose injury
outcome was being measured, speed limit at the crash location, number of vehicles, crash configuration and type or road
user involved where relevant, the jurisdiction in which the crash occurred and the year in which the crash occurred. These
factors were strongly related to injury risk and/or severity. The ratings estimate the risk of being killed or admitted to
hospital when involved in a crash, to a degree of accuracy represented by the confidence limits of the rating in each case.
       A new method of presenting the ratings for consumer information is introduced. The new rating presentation classifies
vehicles according to where their rating lies in relation to a best performance benchmark. Crashworthiness estimates and
their associated confidence limits were obtained for 427 vehicle models classified into 10 market groups with 203 models
of vehicles identified as having ratings of adequate statistical precision to be compared to the crashworthiness benchmark
rating of 1.60%. Aggressivity rating estimates and their associated confidence limits were obtained for 397 vehicle models
with 154 having ratings of sufficient statistical precision to be compared to the aggressivity benchmark rating of 1.93%. The
total secondary safety index estimates and their associated confidence limits were obtained for 484 vehicle models classified
into 10 market groups with 239 being of sufficient statistical precision to be compared to the total safety index benchmark
index of 1.91%.
       The relationship between vehicle crashworthiness and the year of manufacture of Australian passenger and light
commercial vehicles manufactured from 1964 to 2007 was also investigated. Trends were examined by year of manufacture
both for the fleet as a whole and by market group for vehicles manufactured from 1982 to 2007.
       The results of this report are based on a number of assumptions and warrant a number of qualifications that should be
noted.
Key Words: (IRRD except when marked*)
Injury, Vehicle Occupant, Collision, Passenger Car Unit, Passive Safety System, Statistics

Disclaimer:
This Report is produced for the purposes of providing information concerning the safety of vehicles involved in crashes. It is
based upon information provided to the Monash University Accident Research Centre by VicRoads, the Transport Accident
Commission, the New South Wales Roads and Traffic Authority, NRMA Ltd, Queensland Transport, the Western Australian
Department of Main Roads, South Australian Department of Transport, Energy and Infrastructure and Land Transport New
Zealand. Any republication of the findings of the Report whether by way of summary or reproduction of the tables or otherwise
is prohibited unless prior written consent is obtained from the Monash University Accident Research Centre and any conditions
attached to that consent are satisfied. A brochure based on this report is available from the sponsoring organisations and may be
freely quoted.
    Reproduction of this page is authorised               Monash University Accident Research Centre Building 70, Monash University
                                                          Victoria 3800, Australia. Telephone: +61 3 9905 4371, Fax: +61 3 9905 4363




                                                                VEHICLE SAFETY RATINGS : 2009 UPDATE                          iii
                               EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
This report describes the development of further updated vehicle safety ratings for 1982-
2007 model vehicles. The ratings produced cover vehicle crashworthiness, aggressivity and
total secondary safety. Crashworthiness ratings measure the relative safety of vehicles in
preventing severe injury to their own drivers in crashes whilst aggressivity ratings measure
the serious injury risk vehicles pose to other road users with which they collide. The
aggressivity rating measure is based on collisions between the vehicle being rated and both
other vehicles and unprotected road users including pedestrians, bicyclists and
motorcyclists. The total secondary safety index measure integrates into one measure the
combined crashworthiness and aggressivity performance of a vehicle in a way most
representative of the crash population involving the vehicle fleet being rated. It considers
relative injury outcomes in a mix of crashes involving light passenger vehicles including
single and multi vehicle crashes, crashes with heavy vehicle and crashes involving
unprotected road users. It was first developed in Newstead et al (2007a) to represent the
total secondary safety performance of the vehicle across the full range of collision partners
and crash types.

All three measures of vehicle secondary safety performance are estimated from data on real
crashes reported to police. The update is based on crash data from Victoria and New South
Wales during 1987-2007, from Queensland, Western Australia and New Zealand during
1991-2007 and from South Australia during 1995-2007. The rating of vehicle
crashworthiness through analysis of real crash data, as carried out here, and through crash
tests carried out by consumer groups such as the Australasian New Car Assessment Program
is aimed at informing consumers about relative vehicle safety performances as well as
encouraging manufacturers to improve vehicle safety.

A new method of presenting the ratings for consumer information is introduced. The new
rating presentation classifies vehicles according to where their rating lies in relation to a best
performance benchmark.

Crashworthiness ratings were measured by a combination of injury severity (of injured
drivers) and injury risk (of drivers involved in crashes). Crashworthiness injury severity was
based on 348,618 drivers injured in crashes in Victoria during 1987-2007, in New South
Wales during 1987-1998, in South Australia during 1995-2007 and in Queensland, Western
Australia and New Zealand during 1991-2007. Crashworthiness injury risk was based on
1,831,574 drivers involved in crashes in New South Wales during 1987-2007, in South
Australia during 1995-2007 and Western Australia and Queensland during 1991-2007
where a vehicle was towed away or someone was injured. The crashworthiness ratings were
adjusted for the driver sex and age, the speed limit at the crash location, the year in which
the crash occurred, the jurisdiction in which the crash occurred and the number of vehicles
involved in the crash. These factors were found to be strongly associated with injury risk
and injury severity. Adjustments were made with the aim of measuring the effects of vehicle
factors alone, uncontaminated by other non-vehicle related factors available in the data that
affected crash severity and injury susceptibility.

The crashworthiness ratings estimate the risk of a driver of the focus vehicle being killed or
admitted to hospital when involved in a tow-away crash, to a degree of accuracy represented
by the confidence limits of the rating in each case. Crashworthiness ratings and their


iv    MONASH UNIVERSITY ACCIDENT RESEARCH CENTRE
associated confidence limits were calculated for 427 individual vehicle models
manufactured between the years 1982-2007. The estimates and their associated confidence
limits were sufficiently sensitive that they were able to identify 203 models of passenger
cars, four wheel drive vehicles, passenger vans and light commercial vehicles with ratings
equal to or worse than the crashworthiness benchmark rating of 1.60%. Vehicles were
classified into one of 10 market groups for presentation of the ratings with average
crashworthiness of vehicles in each market group estimated.

The measure of aggressivity was calculated for 397 models of Australian and New Zealand
passenger vehicles manufactured between the years 1982-2007. The aggressivity ratings
estimate the risk of a vehicle driver or unprotected road user impacting with the focus
vehicle model being killed or admitted to hospital when involved in a crash. The estimates
and their associated confidence limits were sufficiently sensitive that they were able to
identify 154 models of passenger cars, four wheel drive vehicles, passenger vans and light
commercial vehicles with ratings equal to or worse than the crashworthiness benchmark
rating of 1.93%. Average aggressivity for vehicles in each of the 10 defined market groups
was also estimated. Estimated vehicle aggressivity towards drivers of other vehicles or
unprotected road users was found to have little or no relationship with ratings of vehicle
crashworthiness, demonstrating the independence of the two complementary measures.

Total secondary safety injury severity was based on 585,607 road users injured in crashes in
Victoria during 1987-2007, in New South Wales during 1987-1998 and in Queensland,
Western Australia and New Zealand during 1991-2007. Injury risk was based on 2,736,290
road users involved in crashes in New South Wales during 1987-2007, South Australia
during 1995-2007 and Western Australia and Queensland during 1991-2007 where a vehicle
was towed away.

The total secondary safety index measures the average risk of death or serious injury to light
passenger vehicle drivers and unprotected road users (pedestrians, cyclists and
motorcyclists) when involved in a crash with a light passenger vehicle to a degree of
accuracy represented by the confidence limits of the index in each case. The index was
measured by a combination of injury severity (the risk of death or serious injury given an
injury was sustained) and injury risk (the risk of injury given crash involvement).A far as
possible, the index reflects the total secondary safety performance related to vehicle design
alone by controlling for a range of non-vehicle related factors known to affect injury
outcome.

The index was adjusted for the sex and age of the person whose injury outcome was being
measured, speed limit at the crash location, number of vehicles involved, the jurisdiction in
which the crash occurred and the year in which the crash occurred. These factors were
strongly related to injury risk and/or severity. In addition to the above factors this rating was
also adjusted for the type of crash and road user combination as this factor was strongly
related to injury risk and/or severity. Total secondary safety index estimates and their
associated confidence limits were obtained for 484 vehicle models classified into 10 market
groups. They were sufficiently sensitive that they were able to identify 239 models of
passenger cars, four wheel drive vehicles, passenger vans and light commercial vehicles
with ratings equal to or worse than the crashworthiness benchmark rating of 1.91%.




                                              VEHICLE SAFETY RATINGS : 2009 UPDATE           v
Estimated total secondary safety was found to have a stronger relationship with ratings of
vehicle crashworthiness than with vehicle aggressivity. This reflects that crashworthiness is
relevant to the injury outcome of road users in a wider range of crash types than are covered
by the aggressivity ratings. The index serves as a valuable summary of overall secondary
safety of light passenger vehicles both for consumer information as well as for regulators
and vehicle safety advocates in identifying and promoting vehicle safety characteristics that
optimise overall secondary safety characteristics.

For each type of rating estimated, the expanded data set has been able to produce more up-
to-date and reliable estimates for individual car models than those published previously.

The crashworthiness of passenger vehicles in the Australian vehicle fleet (cars, station
wagons, four wheel drives and vans), has been estimated by year of manufacture for the
years 1964 to 2007. This study further updates the original one by Cameron et al (1994a) for
years of manufacture 1964 to 1992. Updated trends in Australian crashworthiness by year of
manufacture show similar patterns as previously obtained with the greatest gains over the
years 1970 to 1979 in which a number of new Australian Design Rules aimed at occupant
protection took effect. Further significant gains in crashworthiness have also been observed
over the years 1986 to 2007, with notable steady gains from 1985 to 1995 and since 2000.
Trends in crashworthiness by year of vehicle manufacture from 1982 to 2007 for each of the
10 vehicle market groups were also estimated showing differential improvement in
crashworthiness by market group by year of manufacture.

The results and conclusions are based on a number of assumptions and warrant a number of
qualifications that should be noted.




vi    MONASH UNIVERSITY ACCIDENT RESEARCH CENTRE
                                ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

A project as large and complex as this could not have been carried out without the help and
support of a number of people. The authors particularly wish to acknowledge:

      Mr David Attwood of the Transport Accident Commission (TAC) for the provision
       of TAC claims data and Ms Samantha Cockfield of the TAC for her support of the
       project.
      VicRoads Information Services Division for the provision of data from Victorian
       Police crash reports.
      Mr Geoff Murray, Mr Wesley Soet and Ms Shuk Jin of the Department of Main
       Roads Western Australia for the provision of data from Western Australia Police
       crash reports.
      Mr Ken Brandis of the Western Australian Department for Planning and
       Infrastructure for the provision of Western Australia registration data.
      Mr Steve Lippett of the Department for Transport, Energy and Infrastructure of
       South Australia for the provision of data from South Australia Police crash reports
       and Mr Harry McDonald of the Department for Transport, Energy and Infrastructure
       of South Australia for the matching of registration data to South Australia crash data.
      Officers of the Data Analysis Unit of Queensland Transport for the provision of data
       from Queensland Police crash reports and the Queensland vehicle registration
       system.
      Mr Tony Kursius of Queensland Transport for assistance with facilitating the
       provision of data from the Queensland vehicle registration system.
      Mr Dan Leavy of the New South Wales Roads and Traffic Authority (RTA) for his
       support of the project and the release of data from NSW Police crash reports and the
       NSW vehicle register.
      Mr Jack Haley of NRMA Motoring and Services for his support of the project and
       for providing procedures to determine the models of vehicles crashing in NSW,
       Victoria and Queensland.
      Ms Maria Pappas of NRMA who developed and applied the procedures to determine
       the models of vehicles recorded in the police crash reports through decoding of
       Vehicle Identification Numbers.
      Mr John Goldsworthy of the Australian Federal Department of Infrastructure,
       Transport, Regional Development and Local Government for his support of the
       project.
      Mr Mike Upton of the RACWA for his support for the project and assistance with
       facilitating the supply of Western Australian crash data.
      Mr Ross McArthur and Chris Jones of VicRoads for their support of the project.
      Mr Michael Case and Nick Platt of the RACV for their support of the project and for
       advice on substantive changes in designs of specific models over the years.




                                             VEHICLE SAFETY RATINGS : 2009 UPDATE         vii
          Mr Jon Gibson, Mr Iain Cameron, Mr Roger Farley and Ms Teresa Rechichi of the
           Western Australian Office of Road Safety for their support of the project and Ms
           Rechichi for her extensive review of the report manuscript.
          Professor Caroline Finch, Mr Tri Minh Le, Mr Michael Skalova and Ms Chau My
           Le, all formerly of MUARC, for the development of the analysis methods in earlier
           years that formed the basis of the methods used in this report.
          Mr David Taranto and Ms Sujanie Pereris of MUARC for their assistance in
           collecting VIN information and information on vehicle make and model changes for
           the decoding and clustering of vehicle model information.
          Dr Alan Miller, formerly of the CSIRO Division of Mathematics and Statistics for
           suggesting analysis methods used in this report to improve the sensitivity of the
           results and to determine the confidence limits of the estimates.
          Officers of the Victorian, NSW, Western Australian, Queensland, South Australia
           and New Zealand Police Forces and of the Transport Accident Commission who
           diligently recorded the information on crashes and injuries which formed the basis of
           this report.
          Mr Stuart Worden, Dr Barbara Bibby, Mr John White and Ms Anne Logan of Land
           Transport NZ for their enthusiastic support of the project.
          Mr Stuart Badger of Land Transport NZ for supply of the New Zealand crash data
           and advice on its use in the project.
          Mrs Carol Hewitt and Kheang Chrun of Land Transport NZ for supply of the New
           Zealand vehicle registration data and advice on its use in the project.
          Mr Tijs Robinson, a former contractor to the former LTSA, for his advice on
           specifications and sources of information on New Zealand vehicle models.
          Mr Eugene Girardin of Land Transport NZ for advice on the New Zealand used
           import vehicle market and the handling of these vehicles by Land Transport NZ.
           Ms Stella Stocks of AA New Zealand for her support of the project.
          Mr Steve Spalding of the Royal Automobile Club of Queensland for his support of
           the project.
           Mr Mark Borlace of RAA South Australia for his support of the project.
          Henry Schleimer, Anant Bellary and Mike Stapleton of Queensland Transport for
           their support of the project.
          Mr David Taranto and Ms Sujanie Peiris of MUARC for assistance in assembling
           information on Vehicle Identification Numbers and significant vehicle model change
           dates.




viii       MONASH UNIVERSITY ACCIDENT RESEARCH CENTRE
                                                          CONTENTS
                                                                                                                            Page No.
1.         INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................2
     1.1      CRASHWORTHINESS RATINGS ......................................................................................2
     1.2      AGGRESSIVITY RATINGS .............................................................................................3
     1.3      TOTAL SECONDARY SAFETY INDEX .............................................................................4
     1.4      TRENDS IN VEHICLE SAFETY BY YEAR OF MANUFACTURE AND MARKET GROUP .......6
     1.5      PROJECT AIMS .............................................................................................................7
2.         CRASH DATA.............................................................................................................8
     2.1      VICTORIAN C RASHES ..................................................................................................8
     2.2      NEW SOUTH WALES CRASHES ..................................................................................10
     2.3      QUEENSLAND CRASHES ............................................................................................11
     2.4      WESTERN AUSTRALIA C RASHES ...............................................................................12
     2.5      SOUTH AUSTRALIA CRASHES ....................................................................................13
     2.6      CRASH AND REGISTRATION DATA FROM NEW ZEALAND ..........................................14
     2.7      COMBINED DATA FROM THE SIX JURISDICTIONS .......................................................15
3.         MODELS AND MARKET GROUPS OF VEHICLES .........................................16
     3.1      VEHICLE MODEL IDENTIFICATION .............................................................................16
     3.2      POOLED CAR MODELS ...............................................................................................17
     3.3      VEHICLE MARKET GROUPS .......................................................................................18
4.         ANALYSIS .................................................................................................................20
     4.1      OVERVIEW OF ANALYSIS METHODS: CRASHWORTHINESS .........................................20
     4.2      OVERVIEW OF THE ANALYSIS METHODS : AGGRESSIVITY ..........................................21
     4.3      OVERVIEW OF ANALYSIS METHODS: TOTAL SAFETY ................................................22
5.         RESULTS ...................................................................................................................26
     5.1 VEHICLE CRASHWORTHINESS RATINGS .....................................................................26
       5.1.1 Injury Risk..........................................................................................................26
       5.1.2 Injury Severity....................................................................................................27
       5.1.3 Crashworthiness Ratings...................................................................................27
       5.1.4 Comparisons with the Benchmark Rating .........................................................28
     5.2 AGGRESSIVITY ..........................................................................................................36
       5.2.1 Aggressivity towards Other Car Drivers and Unprotected Road Users ...........36
       5.2.2 Comparisons with the Benchmark Rating .........................................................38
       5.2.3 Relationship between Aggressivity and Crashworthiness .................................48
     5.3 VEHICLE TOTAL SECONDARY SAFETY RATING .........................................................49
       5.3.1 Injury Risk..........................................................................................................49
       5.3.2 Injury Severity....................................................................................................50
       5.3.3 Total secondary safety index .............................................................................51
       5.3.4 Comparisons with the Benchmark Rating .........................................................53
       5.3.5 Comparison of Crashworthiness, Aggressivity and the Total Secondary Safety
       index ...........................................................................................................................62
     5.4 PRESENTATION OF TOTAL SECONDARY SAFETY INDEX, CRASHWORTHINESS AND
     AGGRESSIVITY RATINGS FOR CONSUMER INFORMATION .....................................................64




                                                                   VEHICLE SAFETY RATINGS : 2009 UPDATE                              ix
    5.5 C RASHWORTHINESS BY YEAR OF MANUFACTURE OF THE AUSTRALIAN VEHICLE
    FLEET66
      5.5.1 Injury Risk......................................................................................................... 66
      5.5.2 Injury Severity................................................................................................... 67
      5.5.3 Crashworthiness by Year of Manufacture ........................................................ 68
    5.6 C RASHWORTHINESS BY YEAR OF MANUFACTURE AND MARKET GROUP FOR THE
    AUSTRALIAN VEHICLE FLEET ............................................................................................. 70
      5.6.1 Injury Risk......................................................................................................... 70
      5.6.2 Injury Severity................................................................................................... 71
      5.6.3 Crashworthiness by Year of Manufacture and Market Group ......................... 72
7.        CONCLUSIONS ....................................................................................................... 75

8.        ASSUMPTIONS AND QUALIFICATIONS.......................................................... 78
    8.1     ASSUMPTIONS ........................................................................................................... 78
    8.2     QUALIFICATIONS ....................................................................................................... 78
REFERENCES.................................................................................................................... 79


                                                     APPENDICES

APPENDIX 1.               Makes and models of cars involved in Victorian and New South Wales
                          crashes during 1987-2007, South Australia crashes during 1995-2007 and
                          Western Australia, Queensland and New Zealand crashes during 1991-
                          2007
APPENDIX 2.               Logistic regression estimates of crashworthiness injury risk by model and
                          market group
APPENDIX 3.               Logistic regression estimates of crashworthiness injury severity by model
                          and market group
APPENDIX 4.               Crashworthiness ratings of 1982-2007 models of cars involved in crashes
                          during 1987-2007
APPENDIX 5.               Aggressivity injury risk aggressivity injury severity and ratings of vehicle
                          aggressivity (with 95% and 90% confidence limits), towards other vehicle
                          drivers
APPENDIX 6.               Total safety injury risk, total safety injury severity and ratings of vehicle
                          total safety (with 90% confidence limits) of 1982-2007 models of cars
                          involved in crashes during 1987-2007
APPENDIX 7.               Presentation of crashworthiness, aggressivity and total secondary safety
                          ratings for consumer information
APPENDIX 8.               Crashworthiness, injury risk and injury severity estimates by year of
                          vehicle manufacture for the Australian vehicle fleet
APPENDIX 9.               Crashworthiness, injury risk and injury severity estimates by year of
                          vehicle manufacture by market group for the Australian vehicle fleet




x         MONASH UNIVERSITY ACCIDENT RESEARCH CENTRE
 VEHICLE SAFETY RATINGS ESTIMATED FROM
POLICE REPORTED CRASH DATA: 2009 UPDATE


AUSTRALIAN AND NEW ZEALAND CRASHES DURING 1987-2007




                           VEHICLE SAFETY RATINGS : 2009 UPDATE 1
1.      INTRODUCTION
For over 18 years the Monash University Accident Research Centre (MUARC) has been
involved in a program of research examining issues relating to vehicle safety in both Australia
and New Zealand through the analysis of mass data records on crashes reported to police. Data
on which the research to date is based has come from reports compiled by police in various
States across Australia and in New Zealand. In Victoria, the police reported crash data has been
augmented by data on injury compensation claims resulting from transportation crashes
compiled by the Victorian Transport Accident Commission (TAC).

A principal focus of the research program has been to produce vehicle secondary safety ratings
for specific makes and models of vehicles and by market group of vehicle. For many years the
ratings have focused on two aspects of vehicle safety performance: crashworthiness, being the
ability of a vehicle to protect its own occupants in the event of a crash, and aggressivity, the
ability of a vehicle to protect other road users with which it collides. More recently, an overall
secondary safety ratings measure has been developed called the total secondary safety rating. It
measures the combined relative crashworthiness and aggressivity performance of various makes
and models of vehicles based on exposure to the mix of major crash types on Australasian roads
where vehicle crashworthiness and/or aggressivity are important in determining injury outcomes.

The ratings have been published annually by the agencies supporting the research as a source of
consumer information to aid the purchase of safe vehicles. They are marketed as the Used Car
Safety Ratings reflecting the fact that ratings can only be produced some time after a vehicle is
released for sale once sufficient real world crash experience has been accumulated. It also
differentiates these ratings from those derived under the Australasian New Car Assessment
Program based on crash barrier testing results which are targeted largely at new vehicle buyers.

1.1     Crashworthiness Ratings

Crashworthiness ratings rate the relative safety of vehicles in protecting their own occupants by
examining injury outcomes to drivers in real world crashes reported to police. The
crashworthiness rating of a vehicle in the ratings system used in this report is a measure of the
risk of death or serious injury to a driver of that vehicle when it is involved in a crash. This risk
is estimated from large numbers of records of injury to drivers of that vehicle type involved in
real crashes on the road. It is measured in two components:

1.      Rate of injury for drivers involved in crashes where a vehicle is towed away or someone
        is injured (injury risk)
2.      Rate of serious injury (death or hospital admission) for injured drivers (injury severity).

Multiplying these two rates together forms the crashworthiness rating. This is a measure of the
risk of serious injury for drivers involved in crashes where a vehicle is towed away or someone is
injured. Measuring crashworthiness as a product of two components, reflecting risk and severity
of injury respectively, was first developed by Folksam Insurance, which publishes the well-
known Swedish ratings (Gustafsson et al 1989) and were first published in Australia in Cameron
et al (1994a,b) These ratings use an analysis method that was developed to maximise the
reliability and sensitivity of the results from the available data whilst adjusting for the effects on
injury outcome of non-vehicle factors that differ between vehicles. In addition to the speed zone


2     MONASH UNIVERSITY ACCIDENT RESEARCH CENTRE
and driver sex, the method of analysis adjusts for the effects of driver age and the number of
vehicles involved, producing results with all those factors taken into account.

The ratings have been updated at regular intervals (Newstead et al 1996, Newstead et al 1997,
Newstead et al 1998, Newstead et al 1999, Newstead et al 2000, Newstead et al 2003a, Newstead
et al 2004b, Newstead et al 2005b, Newstead et al 2006, Newstead et al 2007a, 2007b, Newstead
et al 2008a, 2008b). The most recent prior update covered vehicles manufactured over the period
1982-2006 and crashing during 1987-2006. Progressive enhancement of the methods of
statistical analysis has been incorporated through the ratings updates. From 1999 the ratings
incorporated police-reported crash data from Queensland whereas previously only crash data
from New South Wales and Victoria had been used. From 2003 the ratings also added police-
reported crash data from Western Australia. From 2004 the ratings included police-reported
crash data from New Zealand after a rigorous program of research establishing the comparability
of vehicles between the Australian and New Zealand vehicle fleets in terms of their specification
and secondary safety performance (Voyce, 2000; Robinson, 2000a,b, Newstead, 2000b,
Newstead, 2002, Newstead et al 2003b). From 2007 the ratings also added police-reported crash
data from South Australia. The crashworthiness ratings covered individual models of sedans,
station wagons, four wheel drives, passenger vans and light commercial vehicles and are given as
estimates of risk of severe injury for each model along with 90% and 95% confidence limits on
each estimate.

1.2    Aggressivity Ratings

The aggressivity measure used in the Australian vehicle safety rating system estimates the risk of
the driver of another car or an unprotected road user (pedestrian, bicyclist or motorcyclist) being
killed or seriously injured when involved in a collision with the subject model vehicle. It is
representative of the total aggressivity performance of the vehicles being rated across all
potential collision partners that are susceptible to injury. Like the crashworthiness measure, it is
calculated as the product of two component measures, one measuring injury risk the other
measuring injury severity.

Because an estimate of the risk of injury cannot be calculated for unprotected road users since
crashes are generally not reported to the police when the unprotected road user is uninjured, the
measure of aggressivity injury risk is based only on the injury risk to the drivers of other vehicles
(ROU). It is defined as:

         Aggressivity Injury Risk = ROU = proportion of other vehicle drivers involved in
                                          crashes who were injured

In contrast, complete records of both other drivers and unprotected road users injured in crashes
are available in police reported crash data and can be used to examine injury severity outcomes
in the aggressivity measure. The aggressivity injury severity measure (SOU) is defined as:

         Aggressivity Injury Severity = SOU = proportion of other vehicle drivers or unprotected
                                              road users who were killed or admitted to
                                              hospital.

The aggressivity measure for each subject car model is then calculated as:

         Aggressivity to other driver or unprotected road user = AOU = ROU x SOU.

                                                      VEHICLE SAFETY RATINGS : 2009 UPDATE 3
Like the crashworthiness ratings, the aggressivity measure was adjusted for the effects of non-
vehicle factors differing between the subject car models which may have affected injury outcome
to the driver of the other vehicle. Non-vehicle factors available in the data included:

       speed limit at the crash location
       subject vehicle driver age (younger drivers may be driving at relatively fast speeds not fully
        represented by the speed limit)
       subject vehicle driver sex (male drivers may be driving at relatively fast speeds or more
        aggressively)
       other car occupant age (older occupants are more susceptible to injury)
       other car occupant sex (female occupants are more susceptible to injury, but males appear
        to be associated with relatively high injury severities)
       collision partner type (vehicle, pedestrian, bicyclist or motorcyclist) (injury severity
        analysis only)


1.3      Total Secondary Safety Index

Past presentations of the crashworthiness and aggressivity ratings for consumer information
simply present the two ratings side by side. This leaves the consumer to decide the relative
importance of each rating in making a decision on vehicle safety priority in their purchasing
decision. From a consumer information perspective, this might seem a good strategy as it allows
the consumer to balance the relative priority they give to their own safety versus the safety of
other road users on an individual basis. However, it may not be ideal from the perspective of
trying to steer the vehicle fleet as a whole in the direction of optimum safety which should be the
overarching priority for safety advocates, regulators and, indeed, the community as a whole. If
consumers generally based their vehicle choices only on crashworthiness performance and
largely ignored aggressivity, sub optimal choices on a community wide safety basis may result.
Similar sub-optimal choices may result if only aggressivity were considered. A desire to optimise
vehicle secondary safety on a whole of community basis highlights the need for an index which
combines the crashworthiness and aggressivity performance of a vehicle into a single index. The
total safety index captures the overall secondary safety of the vehicle in the most meaningful way
for the environment in which it is driven and hence crash circumstances to which it is exposed.

The international vehicle safety literature shows a paucity of effort in developing such an index.
The only group to have given the concept serious consideration are the University of Oulu
transport research group in Finland (Huttula et al, 1997). The Finnish group have measures of
vehicle aggressivity and crashworthiness similar in concept to those developed by MUARC.
From these they have developed a total passive safety index which is essentially the sum of the
crashworthiness and aggressivity measures for each vehicle. Deriving the total passive safety
index in this way implicitly assumes that crashworthiness and aggressivity have equal weighting
in the overall passive safety performance of a vehicle. Whether this is the most appropriate
approach is questionable since the relative balance of importance between crashworthiness and
aggressivity will depend on the mix of crash circumstances the vehicle is exposed to.

A more detailed approach to the issue of estimating total vehicle passive or secondary safety has
been explored in Newstead et al (2004a) and Newstead et al (2004b). This work, based on
analysis of Australian crash data, commenced by identifying the four primary crash types in


4     MONASH UNIVERSITY ACCIDENT RESEARCH CENTRE
which light passenger vehicles were involved and identifying the principal injury outcomes of
interest in the crash. The crash types identified were:

  1.   Crashes between two light passenger vehicles:

  2.   Single light passenger vehicle crashes.

  3.   Crashes between a light passenger vehicle and a heavy vehicle (bus, rigid truck or
       articulated truck).

  4.   Crashes between a light passenger vehicle and unprotected road user (pedestrian, bicyclist
       or motorcyclist).

The total secondary safety index defined by Newstead et al (2004b) was calculated by broad
market group of vehicle and was a weighted average of four individual crashworthiness or
aggressivity based measures. They are:

   1. The crashworthiness of the light passenger vehicle in crashes between two light vehicles
      as a function of its impact partner market group (embodying both the crashworthiness of
      the focus vehicle market group as well as the aggressivity of the impact partner vehicle
      market group) – Crash type 1.
   2. The crashworthiness of the light passenger vehicle in single vehicle crashes – Crash type
      2.
   3. The crashworthiness of the light passenger vehicle in crashes with heavy vehicles as a
      function of the heavy vehicle type – Crash type 3
   4. The aggressivity of the light passenger vehicle towards unprotected road users – Crash
      type 4.
The total secondary safety index was defined as the weighted average of each of the four safety
measures with the weighting factors used being the proportionate representation of each of the
four crash types. As such, it represented the overall secondary safety performance of a vehicle,
classified by market group in this case, in protecting all road users involved in the full range of
crashes reflecting the relative incidence of each major crash type.

It is evident from examining the form of the total secondary safety index that the traditional
measure of overall vehicle crashworthiness performance is embodied in the safety measures
relating to crash types 1, 2, and 3. The traditional aggressivity measure is embodied in the safety
measures relating to crash types 1 and 4. Constructing the total secondary safety index in this
way is similar in basic principle to the approach used by the Oulu researchers. However it differs
in the fact that it gives appropriate weighting to each aspect of a vehicle’s secondary safety
performance by weighting each component according to its relevance in Australian real world
circumstances.

The work of Newstead et al (2004a) and Newstead et al (2004b) was useful in, for the first time,
defining an overall secondary safety index for light passenger vehicles relevant to Australian
circumstances. It was then able to use the index effectively to quantify the broad overall
secondary safety effects of changing the mix of vehicles in the fleet. The index did, however,
have some limitations related to the manual construction of the index from its components. First,
there had to be sufficient data to estimate each of the component safety measures comprising the


                                                    VEHICLE SAFETY RATINGS : 2009 UPDATE 5
index. In the demonstration of the methodology this meant results could only be obtained by
broad market group of vehicle and not for individual makes and models of vehicle. Second,
estimates of statistical confidence on the index could not be estimated due to its complex nature.
Both these difficulties highlighted the need for development of an integrated total secondary
safety index that could be estimated by vehicle make and model with associated estimates of
statistical confidence.

Building on the approach to modelling vehicle total secondary safety demonstrated in Newstead
et al (2004a) and Newstead et al (2004b), the study of Newstead et al (2007c) developed and
applied an integrated single index of total secondary safety for light passenger vehicles in the
Australian and New Zealand vehicle fleets. The index measures the average risk of death or
serious injury to light passenger vehicle drivers and unprotected road users (pedestrians, cyclists
and motorcyclists) when involved in a crash with a light passenger vehicle to a degree of
accuracy represented by the confidence limits of the index in each case. It provides an overall
summary of the combined crashworthiness and aggressivity performance of a vehicle. The index
was measured by a combination of injury severity (the risk of death or serious injury given an
injury was sustained) and injury risk (the risk of injury given crash involvement).As far as
possible, the index reflects the total secondary safety performance related to vehicle design alone
by controlling for a range of non-vehicle related factors known to affect injury outcome. The
index was adjusted for the sex and age of the person whose injury outcome was being measured,
speed limit at the crash location, number of vehicles involved, the jurisdiction in which the crash
occurred and the year in which the crash occurred. These factors were strongly related to injury
risk and/or severity. In addition to the above factors this rating was also adjusted for the type of
crash and road user combination as this factor was strongly related to injury risk and/or severity.

The index serves as a valuable summary of overall secondary safety of light passenger vehicles
both for consumer information as well as for regulators and vehicle safety advocates in
identifying and promoting vehicle safety characteristics that optimise overall secondary safety
characteristics.

1.4     Trends in Vehicle Safety by Year of Manufacture and Market Group

Another focus of the vehicle crashworthiness ratings study has been to track historical
improvements in the average crashworthiness of the Australian vehicle fleet since 1964. In 1994,
the Royal Automobile Club of Victoria (RACV) commissioned a study to investigate the effects
of the year of manufacture of vehicles (vehicle year) on their road safety (Cameron et al 1994c).
This project focused on investigating the relationship between crashworthiness and vehicle year
of manufacture for the years 1964 to 1992. The aim of the original study of Cameron et al
(1994c) was, to the extent possible, to measure the crashworthiness of vehicles of different years
of manufacture. The method employed was designed to eliminate the influence of other key
factors affecting the risk of injury that might also be associated with vehicle year (e.g. driver age
and sex, use on high speed roads, etc.).

The original study of Cameron et al (1994c) showed that the crashworthiness of passenger
vehicles in Australia has improved over the years of manufacture 1964 to 1992 with rapid
improvement over the years from about 1970 to 1979. Drivers of vehicles manufactured during
1970 to 1979 could be expected to have benefited from the implementation of a number of
Australian Design Rules (ADRs) for motor vehicle safety which previous research has shown to
be effective in providing occupant protection. The study has been updated with each vehicle
crashworthiness ratings update. The most recent analysis included vehicles with years of

6     MONASH UNIVERSITY ACCIDENT RESEARCH CENTRE
manufacture from 1964 to 2006 (Newstead et al 2008a, 2008b). Similar analyses have been
undertaken for the New Zealand vehicle fleet by Newstead and Watson (2005a) showing quite
different trends in crashworthiness by year of manufacture to that observed in the Australian fleet
reflecting the different regulatory frameworks across the two countries and the significant used
vehicle import program in operation in New Zealand.

Extending the basic analysis, Newstead and Cameron (2001) examined trends in vehicle
crashworthiness by year of manufacture from 1982 to 1998 within specific vehicle market
groups. Vehicles were grouped into 4 market categories: small cars (<1100kg), medium cars
(1100-1400kg), large cars (>1400kg) and four wheel drive vehicles (Sports Utility Vehicles).
Results of analysis found statistically significant differences in the trends in crashworthiness by
year of manufacture between different market groups in both the injury risk and injury severity
components of the crashworthiness measure. This analysis was most recently updated in
Newstead et al (2008a, 2008b) for vehicles manufactured over the years 1982-2006 and grouped
into 10 market classifications.

Using similar methods to those used for investigating trends in crashworthiness by year of
manufacture, Newstead et al (2004a) has investigated trends in aggressivity by year of vehicle
manufacture for the Australian fleet as a whole as well as by 8 broad market group
classifications. Although differential trends in aggressivity were found between the various
market groups of vehicle analysed, for the Australian vehicle fleet as a whole there has been no
significant trend to improving or worsening aggressivity over the years of manufacture studied
from 1964 to 2000.


1.5    Project Aims

The aim of this project was to update the previously published crashworthiness, aggressivity and
total safety ratings of Newstead et al (2008a, 2008b) including additional crash data from the
year 2007 for Victoria, New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia and
New Zealand. The updated ratings aimed to cover the drivers of light passenger vehicles
including cars, station wagons, four wheel drive vehicles, passenger vans, and light commercial
vehicles manufactured during 1982-2007 and crashing in Victoria or NSW during 1987-2007 or
South Australia during 1995-2007 or Queensland, Western Australia and New Zealand during
1991-2007.

This project also aimed to update the estimates of crashworthiness by vehicle year of
manufacture for the Australian vehicle fleet to include vehicles manufactured over the years
1964 to 2007. For vehicle models from 1982 to 2007 that could be classified into a market
grouping, the project also aimed to further investigate trends in crashworthiness of the Australian
vehicle fleet by year of vehicle manufacture within each specific market group.

The study also aimed to further asses the relationships between vehicle crashworthiness and both
the year of manufacture for all vehicles and the year of first registration for used vehicle imports
in New Zealand. The study focused on light passenger vehicles manufactured from 1964 to 2007
and crashing in New Zealand during 1991 to 2007. The results are published separately in a
supplement to this report.




                                                     VEHICLE SAFETY RATINGS : 2009 UPDATE 7
2.      CRASH DATA
Data from Victoria, New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia and New
Zealand used to produce the crashworthiness ratings of Newstead et al (2008a) covering vehicles
manufactured over the period 1982-2006 and crashing during the years 1987-2006 was again
used here. In addition, data for 2007 from each of the five previously included Australian states
and New Zealand was obtained and integrated bringing the total period of crash data covered to
1987-2007. Subsets of these data were taken in order to estimate the aggressivity measures.
Similarly, data from Victoria, New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia and Western
Australia used to produce the crashworthiness by year of manufacture estimates of Newstead et
al (2008a) covering vehicles manufactured over the period 1964-2006 and crashing during the
years 1987-2006 was again used here. As for the crashworthiness ratings, data from 2007 from
these five Australian states were also integrated for this analysis. The methods of selecting
appropriate cases from each data source will be detailed here.


2.1     Victorian Crashes

Transport Accident Commission (TAC) injury claims from all types of road users who were
involved in crashes in the period 1987 to 1998 had been merged with Police crash reports for the
previous crashworthiness ratings. The Police reports were for all persons involved in crashes
regardless of the Police officer recording the person as injured or uninjured. This procedure was
followed because it was possible for an injury claim to be made in circumstances where injury
was not apparent at the time of the crash. Crashes are reported to the Police in Victoria if a
person is killed or injured, if property is damaged but names and addresses are not exchanged, or
if a possible breach of the Road Traffic Regulations has occurred (Green 1990). The levels of
matching of TAC claims with persons recorded on Police reports for each year during 1987-1998
achieved by Newstead et al (2003a) are shown in Table 1. The methods of matching for the data
are detailed in Cameron et al (1994b).

Due to a breakdown in the matching process from 1999 subsequent updates of the ratings have
used police crash data unmatched with TAC claims, although matched data prior to 1999 was
still used. Any inconsistencies in injury severity coding introduced by changing from matched to
unmatched data were controlled for in the analysis methodology through compensating for year
of crash differences.




8     MONASH UNIVERSITY ACCIDENT RESEARCH CENTRE
Table 1:       TAC claims for injury compensation from crashes during 1987-1998
                    Year        TAC claims        TAC claims         Match rate
                                (all types of    matched with          (%)
                                injured road     Police reports
                                     users)
                    1987           30,892            17,509             56.7
                    1988           28,427            16,672             58.6
                    1989           25,399            17,494             66.3
                    1990           19,633            13,886             70.7
                    1991           19,538            12,774             65.4
                    1992           19,251            13,118             68.1
                    1993           18,590            12,618             67.8
                    1994           19,341            11,927             61.6
                    1995           20,189            12,452             61.7
                    1996           19,954            14,034             70.3
                    1997           18,754            13,036             69.5
                    1998           18,561            12,395             66.8

Changes to the police data collection system in Victoria during 2005 meant that only data to
about September 2005 was available for the update of Newstead et al (2007a). In the most recent
update of Newstead et al (2008a) complete 2005 crash data and 2006 crash data to about the end
of September was available. In this update complete 2006 and 2007 crash data was available.
Unmatched Victorian crash data for 2006 represented 8,775 injured drivers of 1982-2006 model
vehicles involved in a crash in Victoria. Unmatched Victorian crash data for 2007 represented
8,629 injured drivers of 1982-2007 model vehicles involved in a crash in Victoria. These
records were combined with the merged files of TAC claims with Police reports for 1987-1998
and police reported data only from 1999-2005, which represented 114,352 injured drivers of
1982-2005 model vehicles crashing during 1987-2005. The resulting file covered 131,756
injured drivers of 1982-2007 model cars. The information on these drivers was combined with
data on drivers injured in the other four jurisdictions (see Section 2.6) to produce the updated
crashworthiness ratings. For the study of crashworthiness by year of vehicle manufacture the
merged TAC claims for injury during 1987-98 and police crash records during 1999-2007
covered 177,188 injured drivers of cars, station wagons or taxis manufactured over the years
1964-2007.

Calculation of aggressivity ratings required selecting vehicles involved in two car crashes
followed by matching of the vehicle and occupant injury details for the two cars involved in the
crash. For those vehicles manufactured over the period 1982 to 2007 injury details for the driver
of the other vehicle in the crash were matched by returning to the full Victorian Police reported
crash data files for 1987-2007. The data matching process identified 71,829 vehicles
manufactured between 1982 and 2007 that had been involved in a crash with one other vehicle
where the other vehicle had no restriction on its year of manufacture. Of the drivers of these
other vehicles, 39,614 were injured and 32,215 were uninjured. It was not possible to use the
uninjured records from the Victorian data, as they are incomplete due to the fact that only crashes
involving injury are reliably reported in Victoria. Hence only the 39,614 records of other driver
injury were used for calculation of the injury severity component of the vehicle aggressivity
ratings. Of the 39,614 injured drivers, 8,836 were severely injured.



                                                    VEHICLE SAFETY RATINGS : 2009 UPDATE 9
Collisions between a single vehicle and an unprotected road user where the vehicles were
restricted to those manufactured between 1982 and 2007 were also identified for calculation of
the aggressivity ratings using a variable identifying accident type from records for the years 1987
to 2007. Vehicles were matched with the unprotected road user casualty records to obtain the
unprotected road user injury level. For the period 1987 to 2007, 17,601 unprotected road users
were matched with vehicle records with an identified make and model and manufactured
between 1982 and 2007. Of these 17,601 unprotected road users, 17,425 were injured, 7,225
seriously.


2.2    New South Wales Crashes

The Roads and Traffic Authority (RTA) in New South Wales supplied files covering 1,267,971
light passenger vehicles manufactured from 1982 to 2007 involved in Police reported crashes
during 1987-2007 that resulted in death or injury or a vehicle being towed away. Model and year
of manufacture have been added to each vehicle after matching with the NSW vehicle register
via registration number and vehicle make. This was achieved using a procedure developed by the
NRMA. The total crash files covered four wheel drive vehicles, passenger vans, and light
commercial vehicles as well as cars and station wagons of all years of manufacture crashing in
1987 to 2007. The method of assembly of this data is given in Cameron et al (1994b).

NSW crash data files from 1987 to 1998 had injury severity of people involved in crashes coded
using a four level scale. Levels used were: fatality, hospital admission, other injury and not
injured. From 1998 onwards, the RTA identified inaccuracies by the Police in reporting injury
severity that could not be rectified. In response, the RTA changed the injury severity coding in
the NSW crash data to give only three levels: fatality; injury; and not injured. For the purpose of
computing crashworthiness ratings, this meant the NSW data for 1999-2007 could not be used to
estimate the injury severity measure in the same manner as previous rating updates.

Preparation of the NSW data for final analysis involved merging the files with vehicle
information, including driver age and gender, with files supplied by NSW RTA covering details
of the person casualties (killed and injured persons) and the reported crashes for the same years.
Each vehicle/driver matched uniquely with the corresponding crash information, but only injured
drivers could match with persons in the casualty files. A driver who did not match was
considered to be uninjured. Of the 1,267,971 drivers involved in tow-away crashes, 214,452
were injured. Of the injured drivers, 72,678 were injured in crashes from 1987 to 1998 and had a
valid injury severity level coded (serious or other injury).

Of the 1,267,971 1982-2007 model year vehicles involved in crashes in NSW, 794,380 were
coded as being involved in crashes with one other traffic unit (i.e. the crash involved a total of
two traffic units). In order to compare occupant injury levels in crashes involving two vehicles, it
was necessary to match the crash and occupant injury information for each of the two vehicles
involved in the crash.

The data used for calculation of the crashworthiness ratings covered only vehicles manufactured
from 1982 to 2007. Consequently, initial matching of only the crashworthiness data to determine
pairs of vehicles involved in a crash identified both the vehicles in the crash when both vehicles
were manufactured from 1982 to 2007. A second matching stage was then required to identify
the details of drivers of vehicles manufactured before 1982 that had collided with the unmatched
1982-2007 model year vehicles in the crashworthiness file. This required retrieval of the

10    MONASH UNIVERSITY ACCIDENT RESEARCH CENTRE
remaining crash records in the 1987-2007 NSW crash files not used for crashworthiness ratings
in order to match vehicles manufactured prior to 1982. The two-stage data matching process
identified 356,968 matched records of vehicles manufactured between 1982 and 2007 that had
been involved in a crash with one other vehicle where the other vehicle had no restriction on its
year of manufacture. Of the drivers of these other vehicles, 50,965 were injured. Of the injured
drivers, 19,922 were injured in crashes from 1987 to 1998 and had a valid injury severity level
coded (serious or other injury).

Calculation of the aggressivity rating also required the identification of crashes between a single
light vehicle and an unprotected road user where the vehicles were restricted to those
manufactured between 1982 and 2007. The required crashes were identified using a variable
identifying accident type. Casualty records for the crash years 1987 to 2007 were used to
identify unprotected road users injured in a collision with one vehicle. The vehicles were then
matched with the unprotected road user casualty records to obtain the pedestrian, bicyclist or
motorcyclist injury level. For the period 1987 to 2007, 52,251 unprotected road users were
matched with vehicle records. Of these 52,251 unprotected road users, 26,869 were injured in
crashes from 1987 to 1998 and had a valid injury severity level coded. Of these, 8,486 were
seriously injured.

For the study of crashworthiness by vehicle year of manufacture, the NSW data represented
1,533,359 drivers of cars, station wagons or taxis manufactured from 1964 to 2007 who were
involved in tow-away crashes. Of these drivers, 255,492 were injured, 119,503 of these during
1987-1998 and with a valid injury severity code.

The presence of uninjured drivers in the merged data file meant that it was suitable for
measuring the risk of driver injury (in cars sufficiently damaged to require towing). This
contrasted with the Victorian and New Zealand data files, which could not be used to measure
injury risk directly because not all uninjured drivers were included.


2.3    Queensland Crashes

Queensland Transport supplied files covering 386,198 light passenger vehicles involved in
Police reported crashes during 1991-June 2007 that resulted in death or injury or a vehicle being
towed away. The files supplied covered years of vehicle manufacture from 1982-June 2007
including models of four wheel drive vehicles, passenger vans, and light commercial vehicles as
well as cars and station wagons for which a model could be identified.

The vehicle files, which also contained links to separate files with driver age and sex, were
merged with files supplied by Queensland Transport covering details of the person casualties
(killed and injured persons) and the reported crashes for the same years. Each vehicle/driver
matched uniquely with the corresponding crash information, but only injured drivers could
match with persons in the casualty files. As for NSW, a driver who did not match was considered
to be uninjured. Out of the 386,198 drivers involved in tow-away crashes, 102,216 were injured.

Of the 386,198 vehicles reported as crashed in Queensland and used in estimation of
crashworthiness ratings, 256,521 were coded as being involved in crashes with one other traffic
unit (i.e. the crash involved a total of two traffic units). In order to compare occupant injury
levels between two vehicles involved in a crash, it was necessary to match the crash and
occupant injury information for each of the two vehicles involved in the crash in the same

                                                   VEHICLE SAFETY RATINGS : 2009 UPDATE 11
manner as for NSW. Using the same two stage data matching process as used for NSW and
described above, the process identified 132,491 vehicles manufactured between 1982 and 2007
that had been involved in a crash with one other vehicle where the other vehicle had no
restriction on its year of manufacture. Of the drivers of these other vehicles, 35,901 were injured,
8,062 seriously. These records were used for calculation of vehicle aggressivity ratings toward
drivers of other vehicles.

Records on unprotected road users involved in a crash with one light vehicle unit were retrieved
and identified using variables classifying unit type and number of units in the crash. Single
vehicle collisions were identified using a variable identifying unit type and number of vehicles in
the crash. These vehicles were then matched with the unprotected road user casualty records to
obtain the injury level. A total of 20,523 unprotected road users were matched with records on
1982-2007 year passenger vehicles with model details identified. Of these 20,523 unprotected
road users, 20,060 were injured, 8,602 seriously.

For the study of crashworthiness by vehicle year of manufacture, the Queensland data
represented 342,879 drivers of cars, station wagons or taxis manufactured from 1964 to 2007
who were involved in tow-away crashes. Of these drivers, 91,836 were injured. The number of
vehicles crashing in Queensland and available for the year of manufacture analysis was less than
expected. This is because a large proportion of the vehicles in the Queensland data from 1997
and 1998 had year of manufacture missing due to difficulties in accessing the vehicle register to
determine vehicle details at the time of assembling the data from these two years. Some of the
vehicles with missing year of manufacture could, however, be assigned an accurate model code
though the VIN decoding process described below despite the missing field.

As with the data from NSW, the presence of uninjured drivers in the data file meant that it was
also suitable for measuring the risk of driver injury (in cars sufficiently damaged to require
towing).


2.4    Western Australia Crashes

The Western Australian Department of Main Roads maintains a database of all crashes in
Western Australia reported to the police. Crashes in Western Australia must be reported to police
if anyone involved is killed or injured or the crash results in property damage greater than $3,000
(Road Safety Council of Western Australia, 2001). This means that, like New South Wales,
South Australia and Queensland, both injury and non-injury crashes are reported making the data
suitable for inclusion in estimating both the injury risk and injury severity components of the
vehicle safety ratings. Although the Western Australia crash data is held as a relational database,
Western Australia Department of Main Roads supplied the data in a single flat file with a record
for each person involved in a reported crash. Data covered the period 1991 to 2007. The data
was re-issued in 2005 for the period 1991 to 2003 due to a change in database structure and
variable definitions in 1995 that may have caused some inconsistency in the data over the entire
time period. In 2006 the data was re-issued for the period 1991 to 2005 to include registration
plates of crashed vehicles. This registration plate detail was used for matching to Western
Australian registration data to obtain VIN data for vehicle decoding as described in Section 3.1.
In the most recent update (Newstead et al 2008a) 2006 crash data was supplied with registration
plates of crashed vehicles. In addition matched registration data was provided. The 2007 crash
data for this update was supplied with registration plates of crashed vehicles. This registration


12    MONASH UNIVERSITY ACCIDENT RESEARCH CENTRE
plate detail was used for matching to Western Australian registration data to obtain VIN data for
vehicle decoding as described in Section 3.1.

The files supplied covered 944,714 light passenger vehicles manufactured between 1982 and
2007 involved in Police reported crashes during 1991-2007 that resulted in death or injury or a
vehicle being towed away. The files supplied covered models of four wheel drive vehicles,
passenger vans, and light commercial vehicles as well as cars and station wagons. Out of the
944,714 drivers involved in tow-away crashes, 133,172 were injured.

Of the 944,714 vehicles reported as crashed in WA and used in estimation of crashworthiness
ratings, 710,312 were involved in crashes with one other traffic unit. Of the drivers of the
matched vehicles, 69,711 were injured. These records were used for calculation of vehicle
aggressivity ratings toward drivers of other vehicles.

Records on unprotected road users involved in a crash with one vehicle unit for the period 1991
to 2007 were retrieved and identified using variables classifying unit type and number of units in
the crash. 32,748 unprotected road users in the Western Australia crash records were identified
as colliding with a 1982-2007 year of manufacture passenger vehicle with model details
identified. Of the 22,501 unprotected road users who were injured, 13,866 were severely injured.

For the study of crashworthiness by vehicle year of manufacture, the Western Australia data
represented 845,904 drivers of cars, station wagons or taxis manufactured from 1964 to 2007
who were involved in tow-away crashes. Of these drivers, 115,219 were injured.


2.5    South Australia Crashes

The Road Crash Information Unit of the Department of Transport, Energy and Infrastructure
maintains a database of all crashes in South Australia reported to the South Australian Police via
vehicle crash reports. Crashes included involved at least one person being killed or injured, or a
vehicle towed away, or total property damage of $3,000 or greater. Prior to 01 July 2003 the
Department processed 'property damage only' crashes with an aggregated damage value of $1000
or greater. This change in property damage value occurred as data processing costs and budget
reductions had reached an unsustainable level. The decision was made to process all casualty
crashes, property damage only greater than $3000, and tow-away crashes regardless of value.
Crash data was provided for the years 1995 to 2005 with three files provided for each year. The
three files provided contain detail on the crash, traffic unit and casualties. In addition, data files
have been provided with road and Local Government Area details. Like NSW, Queensland and
Western Australia, both injury and non-injury crashes are reported making the data suitable for
inclusion in estimating both the injury risk and injury severity components of the vehicle safety
ratings.

The files supplied covered 611,140 light passenger vehicles manufactured between 1982 and
2007 involved in Police reported crashes during 1995-2007 that resulted in death or injury or a
vehicle being towed away. The files supplied covered models of four wheel drive vehicles,
passenger vans, and light commercial vehicles as well as cars and station wagons. Out of the
611,140 drivers involved in tow-away crashes, 52,802 were recorded as injured.

Of the 611,140 vehicles reported as crashed in South Australia and used in estimation of
crashworthiness ratings, 466,263 were involved in crashes with one other traffic unit. Of the

                                                     VEHICLE SAFETY RATINGS : 2009 UPDATE 13
drivers of the matched vehicles, 26,965 were injured. These records were used for calculation of
vehicle aggressivity ratings toward drivers of other vehicles.

Records on unprotected road users involved in a crash with one vehicle unit for the period 1995
to 2007 were retrieved and identified using variables classifying unit type and number of units in
the crash. 18,763 unprotected road users in the South Australia crash records were identified as
colliding with a 1982-2007 year of manufacture passenger vehicle with model details identified.
Of the 12,454 unprotected road users who were injured, 3,115 were severely injured.

For the study of crashworthiness by vehicle year of manufacture, the SA data represented
701,253 drivers of cars, station wagons or taxis manufactured from 1964 to 2007 who were
involved in tow-away crashes. Of these drivers, 62,335 were injured.


2.6    Crash and Registration Data from New Zealand

Two sources of data from New Zealand were used in the calculation of vehicle crashworthiness
and aggressivity ratings. The first data source provided was a crash file showing the registration,
vehicle, driver and various crash characteristics for all police reported crashes in New Zealand
for the years 1991 to 2007. The second data source was registration data giving details of all
crash involved vehicles on the NZ register in each year from 1991 to 2007. Extracts from both
data sources supplied for estimation of vehicle safety ratings are described below. The method of
assembly of this data is given in Cameron et al (1994b) and in the most recent used car safety
ratings of Newstead et al (2007).

After assembling the data, 210,674 light passenger vehicles manufactured between 1982 and
2007 were used in the crashworthiness analysis. Of the drivers of these vehicles 100,330 were
not injured or had unknown injury status, whilst the remaining 110,344 were injured to some
degree. The injury details of the 110,344 injured drivers were used for estimation of the
crashworthiness injury severity measure in conjunction with the Australian data. Records on the
uninjured drivers in the New Zealand injury crash data could not be used in the calculation of the
injury risk component of the crashworthiness ratings. This was because non-injury crashes in
New Zealand, and hence uninjured drivers involved in these crashes, were not suitable for use in
the analysis and therefore records on all uninjured drivers in all crashes in New Zealand were
incomplete.

A subset of the New Zealand data described above and used for estimation of crashworthiness
injury severity formed the basis of the data used in the calculation of the aggressivity ratings.
For calculation of aggressivity ratings, vehicles involved in two vehicle crashes were identified.
Of the drivers of vehicles colliding with the vehicles identified, 35,194 were injured whilst
28,215 were uninjured. Information on the injury level of the 35,194 injured drivers, 5,594 of
whom were seriously injured, was used in conjunction with the Australian data to estimate the
injury severity component of the aggressivity ratings.

Records on unprotected road users involved in a crash with one light vehicle unit for the period
1991 to 2007 were retrieved and identified using variables classifying unit type and number of
units in the crash. 22,743 unprotected road users were identified as impacting with a 1982-2007
year of manufacture passenger vehicle with model details identified. Of the 22,743 unprotected
road users who were injured, 6,488 were severely injured.


14    MONASH UNIVERSITY ACCIDENT RESEARCH CENTRE
2.7    Combined Data from the Six Jurisdictions

When the data on the injured drivers was combined for analysis, it covered 744,742 drivers of
1982-2007 model vehicles who were injured in crashes in Victoria or New South Wales during
1987-2007 or in South Australia during 1995-2007 or in Western Australia, Queensland or New
Zealand during 1991-2007. Of these 602,968 had a valid injury severity code, with 141,774
drivers injured in crashes in NSW during 1999-2007 excluded because of missing injury
severity. Information on the 602,968 injured drivers was used to assess the injury severity of the
injured drivers of the different makes and models when computing crashworthiness ratings. The
information on the 3,654,892 drivers involved in tow-away crashes in NSW during 1987-2007 or
South Australia during 1995-2007 or Western Australia and Queensland during 1991-2007 was
used to assess the injury rate of drivers of the different makes and models for computing
crashworthiness ratings.

The combined data on drivers injured in crashes between two light vehicles used for estimation
of vehicle aggressivity ratings covered 258,350 drivers of vehicles colliding with 1964-2007
model vehicles. These drivers were injured in two car crashes in Victoria during 1987-2007 or
NSW during 1987-1998 or in South Australia during 1995-2007 or in Western Australia,
Queensland and New Zealand during 1991-2007. Excluding the 31,025 injured drivers from
NSW during 1999-2007 without a valid injury severity code left 227,325 cases for analysis. This
information was used to assess the injury severity of the injured drivers colliding with the
different makes and models when computing aggressivity ratings. The aggressivity injury risk
component was estimated from data including information on the 1,477,523 drivers involved in
two-car tow-away crashes in NSW during 1987-2007, in South Australia during 1995-2007 or
Western Australia and Queensland during 1991-2007.

The combined data on unprotected road users used for estimation of aggressivity covered
124,285 injured unprotected road users, of whom 42,482 with valid injury severity codes were
seriously injured. These unprotected road users were involved in a collision with a 1982-2007
model vehicle in Victoria or NSW during 1987-2007, or in South Australia during 1995-2007 or
in Western Australia or Queensland or New Zealand during 1991-2007.

For the study of crashworthiness by year of vehicle manufacture, the combined data covered
566,081 drivers of vehicles manufactured between 1964 and 2007 who were injured in crashes,
119,252 severely, in Victoria during 1987-2007, NSW during 1987-1998, in South Australia
during 1995-2007 and Western Australia and Queensland during 1991-2007. For the assessment
of injury risk by year of vehicle manufacture, the combined data covered 3,423,395 drivers
involved in tow-away crashes in NSW during 1987-2007 or in South Australia during 1995-2007
or Western Australia and Queensland during 1991-2007.




                                                   VEHICLE SAFETY RATINGS : 2009 UPDATE 15
3.     MODELS AND MARKET GROUPS OF VEHICLES

3.1    Vehicle Model Identification

A procedure initially developed by the NRMA based on decoding Vehicle Identification
Numbers (VIN) or chassis numbers was extended and used as the primary means to determine
the models of light passenger vehicles. The decoding identified some light truck and unusual
commercial models that were not considered further. Of the light passenger vehicles
manufactured during 1982-2005 around 95% had their model identified by the VIN decoder.
Further details of the VIN decoding process are given by Pappas (1993). The VIN decoding
procedure was used to identify all vehicle models in the New South Wales and Queensland data
and 1989 year of manufacture vehicles onwards in the Victorian data from 1994. For the first
time VINs were obtained from the Western Australian vehicle register, managed by the WA
Department of Transport. This meant the VIN decoding system used on data from the other four
states to identify vehicle model details was used for some of the Western Australia crash data.
Because only a recent snapshot of the registration file was obtained registration details of expired
registrations was not available. The VIN decoding system was also used to identify make and
model details for vehicles sold new in New Zealand with a valid ISO VIN recorded.

For those vehicles in Western Australia without a VIN available, the previous decoding method
based on make, model and year of manufacture codes held in the vehicle register and described
in Newstead et al (2006) was used. A similar system was used to classify new vehicles in the
New Zealand crash data without a valid ISO VIN and for used imported vehicles from Japan. For
Victorian vehicles in the pre 1994 data without a VIN, a system of decoding based on vehicle
mass and power was used. This is also described in Newstead et al (2006).

South Australia registration data was matched to crash data by the Driver and Vehicle Licensing
section of the Department of Transport, Energy and Infrastructure using an extract comprising of
the crash date and six character plate detail of the crashed vehicle from the crash data provided to
MUARC by the Transport Services Division of the same Department. The vehicles were selected
on the basis that the plate was registered as being on the vehicle as at the crash date and the
vehicle was registered by the client as at the crash date and was described by the extracted
vehicle details. Plate detail in the provided crash data was only six characters whilst the plate
numbers on the South Australia register can be longer than six characters, so the numbers were
used "as they are" to extract the data. Plates are identified on the South Australia register using
plate type and plate number. This resulted in some plate/crash date combinations being extracted
more than once. These were excluded from the analysis. Where no match has been possible, the
original plate and crash date remain with no extract details populated. Other vehicle details
including make, year of manufacture and model which is a free format field on the register and
as such, doesn't contain codified or verified data were supplied. This meant the VIN decoding
system used on data from the other four states to identify vehicle model details was able to be
used for the South Australia crash data.

RACV, NRMA, the Australian Transport Safety Bureau (ATSB, formerly FORS) and VicRoads
provided advice on the particular models that had experienced substantial changes in design (and
hence potential crashworthiness) and in which years the design was relatively constant. This
resulted in certain models being split into ranges of years of manufacture. Where the new model
was introduced near the beginning or end of a year (up to two months either way), this process

16    MONASH UNIVERSITY ACCIDENT RESEARCH CENTRE
was relatively straightforward (accepting a small mis-classification in some circumstances).
However, when the model changed near the middle of the year, the model for that year was kept
separate and potentially treated as a "mixed" model (e.g. the Daihatsu Charade 1987 models).
Where exact model decoding was possible from the VIN, without using year of vehicle
manufacture, this was used. They also provided advice on vehicle models that could be
combined with each other (sometimes only for specific years) because they were essentially the
same design or construction but registered as having different manufacturers.

As in previous crashworthiness ratings, models were excluded with fewer than 20 injured drivers
and/or fewer than 100 involved drivers appearing in the crash data. The same selection criteria
were also used for aggressivity ratings except exclusion was based on the number of road users
colliding with the focus vehicle model. These selection criteria were used to ensure stability in
fitting the logistic regression models along with suitably small confidence limits on the estimated
crashworthiness ratings.

3.2    Pooled Car Models

Vehicle model sharing amongst manufacturers retailing in the Australian market has been
relatively common. Because shared models are generally identical, particularly with respect to
safety performance, it is possible to pool such models for safety rating, allowing a more precise
estimate of the safety of models for which data is pooled rather than considering each separately.
Pooled models are indicated in Table 2.

Table 2:       Pooled Models of Cars

Ford Laser 82-89                            with     Mazda 323 / Familia 82-88
Ford Laser 99-03                            with     Mazda 323 99-03
Ford Telstar 83-87                          with     Mazda 626 / MX6 / Capella 83-86
Ford Telstar 88-91                          with     Mazda 626 / MX6 / Capella 88-91
Ford Telstar 92-97                          with     Mazda 626 / MX6 / Capella / Cronos 92-97
Ford Corsair 89-92                          with     Nissan Pintara / Bluebird 89-92
Holden Commodore VR/VS                      with     Toyota Lexcen 93-97
Holden Commodore VN-VP                      with     Toyota Lexcen 89-93
Holden Nova 89-92                           with     Toyota Corolla 88-92
Holden Nova 93-96                           with     Toyota Corolla 93-97
Holden Astra 84-86                          with     Nissan Pulsar / Langley 83-86
Holden Astra 88-90                          with     Nissan Pulsar / Sentra 87-91
Holden Barina 85-88                         with     Suzuki Swift / Cultus 86-88
Holden Barina 89-93                         with     Suzuki Swift / Cultus 89-00
Holden Apollo JK/JL 89-92                   with     Toyota Camry / Vista 90-93
Holden Apollo JM/JP 93-97                   with     Toyota Camry / Sceptor 94-97
Ford Maverick 88-97                         with     Nissan Patrol 88-97
Suzuki Scurry 85-87                         with     Holden Carry 85-90
Suzuki Samurai / SJ410 / SJ413 82-00        with     Holden Drover 85-87
Nissan XFN Utility                          with     Ford Falcon Utility 82-95
Ford Festiva WA 91-93                       with     Mazda 121 87-90
Ford Courier 98-02                          with     Mazda B-Series 98-02
Ford Courier 03-06                          with     Mazda Bravo 03-06
Ford Escape 01-06                           with     Mazda Tribute 01-06
Ford Escape 06-07                           with     Mazda Tribute 06-07

                                                   VEHICLE SAFETY RATINGS : 2009 UPDATE 17
It should be noted that some of the vehicle models identified in the Victorian, New South Wales,
South Australia, Western Australia, Queensland and New Zealand crash data have optional
safety equipment, such as air bags, which could significantly alter the crashworthiness rating of
the vehicle model when fitted. It is, however, generally not possible to identify which particular
vehicles of a model series do and do not have such optional safety equipment installed using the
model decoding procedures described above. Consequently, for those vehicle models with
optional safety equipment, the estimated crashworthiness rating represents an average of the
safety performance for vehicles with and without the optional safety equipment weighted by the
number of each in the crash data.

As the ratings only measure the outcome of drivers involved in a crash, the effect of fitment of
active or crash avoidance safety features such as anti-lock braking or electronic stability control
systems on crash avoidance was not measured by these ratings. As only drivers were considered,
optional or standard safety features for the front or rear seat passengers, such as passenger frontal
airbag systems, would also not have affected the ratings.

3.3    Vehicle Market Groups

Previous updates of the vehicle safety ratings have classified vehicle models, for the purpose of
publication, into one of a number of market groups. The market groups defined are based heavily
on those used by the Federal Chamber of Automotive Industries (FCAI) for reporting Australian
vehicle sales as part of their VFACTS publication (see www.fcai.com.au for further details). In
the vehicle safety ratings update of Newstead et al (2006) rated vehicles were classified into one
of 12 market group classifications, comprising 7 classes of regular passenger car, 3 classes of
four wheel drive (4WD) vehicle (also known as Sport Utility Vehicles) and 2 classes of light
commercial vehicle. In the update of Newstead et al 2007a,b of the vehicle safety ratings the
previously defined luxury and sports market groups were distributed across the remaining 5
classes of regular passenger cars, reducing the number of market groups to 10. This classification
into 10 market groups was again used in the most recent update (Newstead et al 2008a,b) and in
this update. The 10 market groups were defined as follows.

Passenger Cars

       Light              Passenger car, hatch, sedan, coupe or convertible 3 or 4 cylinder engine,
                          up to1, 500 cc.
       Small              Passenger car, hatch, sedan, wagon, coupe or convertible 4 cylinder
                          engine, 1,501 cc - 1,900 cc.
       Medium             Passenger car, hatch, sedan, wagon, coupe or convertible 4 cylinder
                          engine, 1,901 cc upward.
       Large              Passenger car, hatch, sedan, wagon, coupe or convertible 6 or 8 cylinder
                          engine.
       People Movers      Passenger usage seating capacity > 5 people.

Four Wheel Drive Vehicles (high ground clearance, off road wagon)

       4WD Compact            Index rating < 550 (typically less than 1700kg tare mass)
       4WD Medium             Index rating 550 - 700 (typically between 1700kg and 2000kg tare
                               mass)
       4WD Large              Index rating > 700 (typically greater than 2000kg tare mass)

18    MONASH UNIVERSITY ACCIDENT RESEARCH CENTRE
Light Commercial Vehicles

       Van        Blind & window vans.
       Utility    Two and four wheel drive, normal control (bonnet), utility, cab chassis and
                  crew-cabs.

The classification of 4WD vehicles is based on an index developed by VFACTS that considers
gross vehicle mass, maximum engine torque and the availability of a dual range transmission.
The index typically classifies the vehicles roughly by tare mass as indicated on the classifications
above. Some departures from the VFACTS classification have been made in presenting the
ratings in this study. VFACTS defines a luxury 4WD category based on vehicle price as well as
classifying sports cars priced above the luxury car tax threshold as luxury vehicles. Here, the
luxury 4WDs have been distributed amongst the 3 defined 4WD categories based on tare mass,
as the information for computing the classification index used by VFACTS was not available at
the time of the study.

There have also been some departures from the classification principles defined above for certain
vehicle models that have a range of engine sizes and hence fall across two different defined
categories. These are typically passenger vehicles and include, for example, cars like some
models of the Toyota Camry that come fitted with a large 4 cylinder engine in some variants and
a 6 cylinder engine in other variants. In these cases, a value judgement has been made for each
vehicle model individually based on the other vehicle models with which each typically
competes in the market place.




                                                    VEHICLE SAFETY RATINGS : 2009 UPDATE 19
4.        ANALYSIS

4.1       Overview of Analysis Methods: Crashworthiness

The crashworthiness rating (C) is a measure of the risk of serious injury (hospitalisation or death)
to a driver of a car when it is involved in a crash. It is defined to be the product of two
probabilities (Cameron et al, 1992):

i)        the probability that a driver involved in a crash is injured (injury risk), denoted by R; and
ii)       the probability that an injured driver is hospitalised or killed (injury severity), denoted by
          S.

That is
                                               C R  .
                                                     S

Folksam Insurance, who publishes the well-known Swedish ratings, first measured
crashworthiness in this way (Gustafsson et al, 1989).

In the present report, each of the two components of the crashworthiness rating was obtained by
logistic regression modelling techniques (Hosmer & Lemeshow, 1989). Such techniques are able
to simultaneously adjust for the effect of a number of factors (such as driver age and sex, number
of vehicles involved, etc.) on probabilities such as the injury risk and injury severity whilst
estimating the role of vehicle model, market group or year of manufacture in the injury outcome.
This method, described fully in Newstead et al (2006), has previously been used to produce the
Australian and New Zealand vehicle fleet crashworthiness ratings. For estimation of the
crashworthiness ratings, factors in the logistic model included the available non-vehicle factors
influencing injury outcome as well as the variable indicating vehicle model, market group or year
of manufacture. Newstead et al (2006) details how confidence limits on the regression estimates
of injury risk and severity are calculated with these techniques also being used here.

A stepwise procedure was used to identify which non-vehicle factors and their interactions had
an important influence on driver injury outcome. Logistic models were obtained separately for
injury risk and injury severity because it was likely that the various factors would have different
levels of influence on these two probabilities. The non-vehicle factors considered in the analysis
for both injury risk and injury severity were

         sex:           driver sex (male, female)
         age:           driver age ( years; 26-59 years;  years)
                                       25                      60
         speedzone:     speed limit at the crash location ( km/h;  km/h)
                                                             75       80
         nveh:          the number of vehicles involved (one vehicle; >1 vehicle)
         state:         jurisdiction of crash (Victoria, NSW, SA, QLD, WA, NZ)
         year:          year of crash (1987, 1988, … , 2007)

These variables were chosen for consideration because they were part of the Victorian,
Queensland, New South Wales, South Australia, Western Australia and New Zealand databases.
Other variables were only available from one source and their inclusion would have drastically
reduced the number of cases that could have been included in the analysis. All data were
analysed using the Logistic Regression procedure of the SAS statistical package (SAS, 1989).

20    MONASH UNIVERSITY ACCIDENT RESEARCH CENTRE
Some model exclusions were made from the analysis by make and model of vehicle for vehicle
model classifications that had no practical interpretation or where there were too few cases for
inclusion. This included models in a particular year where there was a change from one series to
the next and year of manufacture was necessary to determine the series break (such as Mitsubishi
Pajero 1991). It also included some groups of highly aggregated models that would be of no
intrinsic interest to consumers using the ratings (such as Jeep Others or Mazda Commercials).
After exclusion, the regression analyses were performed on 427 individual car models (or pooled
similar models). A list of all vehicle models considered, with those with sufficient data for
analysis indicated, is given in Appendix 1.

These techniques were applied to produce estimates of injury risk, injury severity and
crashworthiness by vehicle make and model, market group or year of manufacture.

4.2       Overview of the Analysis Methods: Aggressivity

The aggressivity rating estimates the risk of death or admission to hospital to both the drivers of
the other cars and to unprotected road users when involved in a collision with the subject model
car. Unprotected road users include pedestrians, bicyclists and motorcyclists. Because an
estimate of the risk of injury cannot be calculated for unprotected road users as explained above
the measure of aggressivity injury risk used was based only on the injury risk to the other driver
(ROU). It is defined as:

           Aggressivity Injury Risk = ROU = proportion of other vehicle drivers involved in
                                            crashes who were injured

In contrast, complete records of both other drivers and unprotected road users injured in crashes
are available and can be used to examine injury severity outcomes in the aggressivity measure.
The aggressivity injury severity measure (SOU) is defined as:

           Aggressivity Injury Severity = SOU = proportion of other vehicle drivers or unprotected
                                                road users who were killed or admitted to
                                                hospital.

Based on the definition of ROU and SOU above, an aggressivity measure for each subject car
model was then calculated as before:

           Aggressivity to other driver or unprotected road user = AOU = ROU x SOU.

Consideration was given to taking into account likely differences between the crash
circumstances of the subject car models, which may result in a distorted view of its aggressivity
only partly related to the characteristics of the subject cars. Factors available in the data to
consider such differences were as follows.

       agefcd:                 age of driver of subject car (<=25 years, 26-59 years, >=60 years)
       sexfcd:                 sex of driver of subject car
       ageoo:                  other car driver age (<=25 years, 26-59 years, >=60 years)
       sexoo:                  other car driver sex (male, female)
       speedzone:              speed limit at the crash location ( km/h;  km/h)
                                                                    75        80
       state:                  jurisdiction of crash (Victoria, NSW, SA, QLD, WA, NZ)


                                                     VEHICLE SAFETY RATINGS : 2009 UPDATE 21
         year:                  year of crash (1987, 1988, … ,2007)
         crash type:            collision partner type (vehicle,        pedestrian,   bicyclist   or
          motorcyclist) (injury severity only)

Estimation of the aggressivity measure has utilised logistic regression techniques to adjust ROU
and SOU separately for any major differences that emerge between models of the subject cars
regarding these factors. The adjusted ROU and SOU have been multiplied together for each
subject car model to provide the final measure of aggressivity, AOU. Full details of the analysis
techniques are given in Newstead et al (2006). Analyses by make and model of vehicle were
performed on 397 individual car models for calculation of the aggressivity rating. Estimates were
also obtained by market group.


4.3       Overview of Analysis Methods: Total Safety

The concept of the total secondary safety index developed in Newstead et al (2004b) forms the
basis of the integrated single measure of total secondary safety developed in Newstead et al
(2007c) and used here and has some inherent similarities to the crashworthiness and aggressivity
metrics developed by MUARC as will become evident. Like the initial index of Newstead et al
(2004b), the integrated total secondary safety index is formulated by considering the four major
crash types involving light passenger vehicles and the most relevant injury outcomes in those
crashes. Table 3 summarises the key elements necessary to calculate the total secondary safety
index. The table is categorised by each of the four major crash types considered giving the focus
crash participants whose injury outcomes are considered in the index and representations of the
key injury counts by injury severity level. The final column of Table 3 gives the proportion of the
total crash population represented by each crash type for the crash population being considered.

Table 3:           Light passenger vehicle crash types, injury outcome counts and percentage
                   representation components for formulating the total secondary safety index.
                                                                  Number Killed   Proportion of
                          Focus Crash        Number     Number
      Crash Type                                                   or Seriously    Total Crash
                          Participant        Involved   Injured
                                                                     Injured       Population
1.   Passenger         Focus light vehicle
                                                 E1f      I1f          S1f
     Vehicle to        driver
                                                                                        p1
     Passenger         Other light vehicle
                                                 E1o      I 1o         S1o
     Vehicle           driver
 2. Single Passenger
                       Light vehicle driver      E2        I2           S2              p2
     Vehicle
 3. Passenger
     Vehicle to        Light vehicle driver      E3        I3           S3              p3
     Heavy Vehicle
 4. Passenger
     Vehicle to        Unprotected road
                                                 N/A       I4           S4              p4
     Unprotected       user
     Road User
N/A – Not fully reported in police crash records

As noted in Newstead et al (2004a), heavy vehicle drivers are typically not injured in crashes
with light passenger vehicles and are hence not considered in the total secondary safety index.
Similarly, drivers of the light passenger vehicle are not injured in crashes with unprotected road
users and have not been included in formulating the index. Vehicle occupants other than drivers


22     MONASH UNIVERSITY ACCIDENT RESEARCH CENTRE
have not been considered as they are often not recorded by police in their crash reports unless
injured. Similarly, crashes involving uninjured unprotected road users are generally not reported
to police and hence the total number of unprotected road users involved in crashes is unknown.
The ‘focus’ light vehicle driver in Table 3 refers to the driver of the vehicle being rated whilst
the ‘other’ vehicle is the collision partner.

Like the crashworthiness and aggressivity measure, the total secondary safety index is defined as
the product of an injury risk component and an injury severity component. The need to define a
two component measure is necessary to be able to make best use of the police reported crash
databases in New Zealand and Victoria that record only crashes involving injury. It is not
possible to determine the total number of crash involved people in these jurisdictions since
records on crashes where no one is injured are not available. Hence these two data sets are only
useful for measuring relative injury severity and not injury risk.

The measure of total secondary safety injury risk, RT , is defined as follows:

                                           I 1 f I1o           I2     I
                                RT  1 (
                                    p                   ) p2      p3 3
                                           E1 f E1 o           E2    E3

It measures the average risk of injury across all key participants in a crash involving a light
passenger vehicle weighted by the relative exposure of each participant type across the entire
crash population. Since unprotected road users are generally injured crashes reported to police,
they are not included in the injury risk measure. The corresponding total secondary safety injury
severity measure, ST, is defined as follows:

                                       S1 f  1 o
                                             S              S2    S      S
                            ST  1 (
                                p                   ) p2      p3 3 p 4 4
                                       I 1 f  1o
                                              I             I2    I3     I4

It measures the average risk of death or serious injury given some injury was sustained across all
key participants in a crash weighted again by the relative exposure of each participant type across
the entire crash population. The integrated total secondary safety index, T, is defined to be the
product of the injury risk and injury severity components:

                                               T RT  T .
                                                      S

It measures the average risk of death or serious injury in crash involving a light passenger vehicle
across all key participants in a crash weighted again by the relative exposure of each participant
type across the entire crash population. It can be estimated for individual vehicle models, by
vehicle market groups or for the fleet as a whole as desired with a table of the form of Table 3
being derived for each entity at the level of disaggregation desired.

The description of the total secondary safety index has defined 5 key focus crash participants
whose injury outcome forms the basis of the index. Depending on the available data, it is
possible to define a more detailed index that further breaks down the categories of key
participants. Further breakdowns considered in developing the index were:




                                                            VEHICLE SAFETY RATINGS : 2009 UPDATE 23
Unprotected road user into                    Bicyclist
                                              Pedestrian
                                              Cyclist

Heavy vehicle collision partner into          Rigid Truck
                                              Articulated Truck
                                              Bus

This made a total of 9 key participant categories considered in the total secondary safety index.
The final number of categories that were able to be sustained in practical application of the index
depended on the amount of crash data available from each category and the level of vehicle
aggregation at which the index was being calculated (e.g. make and model of vehicle vs market
group).

Like the crashworthiness and aggressivity indices developed by MUARC, the aim for the
integrated total secondary safety index was that it reflect only the influence of the vehicle on
injury outcome and not factors external to the vehicle such as key participant or crash
characteristics. Consequently, there was a need to compensate for differences in these key non
vehicle related factors that existed form vehicle model to vehicle model or by market group.
Logistic regression analysis was utilised to produce total secondary safety ratings appropriately
adjusted for the influence on non-vehicle related factors on injury outcome. For estimation of the
total secondary safety ratings, factors in the logistic model included the available non-vehicle
factors influencing injury outcome, such as driver or unprotected road user age and gender, year
and jurisdiction of crash and crash configuration, as well as the variable indicating vehicle model
or market group.

Since the analysis potentially included 2 drivers from the same crash in a light vehicle to light
vehicle crash, an assumption implicit in the logistic modelling process was that, given the level
of impact severity of the crash represented by non-vehicle factors in the logistic model, it was
assumed that the injury outcome of the two drivers was independent. This assumption was
considered reasonable since the estimated crashworthiness and aggressivity of vehicles rated by
Newstead et al (2007a and 2008a) appear to be essentially independent and each of these
measure focuses heavily on the injury outcome of each driver in a two vehicle crash.

In the present report, as with the crashworthiness and aggressivity ratings each of the two
components of the total secondary safety index was obtained by logistic regression modelling
techniques (Hosmer & Lemeshow, 1989). Such techniques are able to simultaneously adjust for
the effect of a number of factors on probabilities such as the injury risk and injury severity whilst
estimating the role of vehicle model, market group or year of manufacture in the injury outcome.
Only the average total secondary safety across a standardised set of crash circumstances and
occupant characteristics was of interest. This method is described fully in Newstead et al (2007c)
along with details on how confidence limits on the regression estimates of injury risk and
severity are calculated.

The factors considered during this stage of the analysis for both injury risk and injury severity
were

      sex:            driver or unprotected road user sex (male, female)
      age:            driver or unprotected road user age ( years; 26-59 years;  years)
                                                             25                    60


24    MONASH UNIVERSITY ACCIDENT RESEARCH CENTRE
    speedzone:        speed limit at the crash location ( km/h;  km/h)
                                                           75       80
    nveh:             the number of vehicles involved (one vehicle; >1 vehicle)
    state:            jurisdiction of crash (Victoria, NSW, QLD, WA, NZ)
    year:             year of crash (1987, 1988, … ,2007)

A further critical factor that is likely to vary between vehicle models is the mix of collisions
between light passenger vehicles and both other vehicles of various types and unprotected road
users. The injury severity (ST) and injury risk (RT ) components of the new total secondary safety
measure (T) is an average of injury severity or injury risk outcomes respectively across the mix
of crash types involving the focus vehicle. Since injury outcomes will vary considerably across
the mix of crash types it is necessary to adjust the new total secondary safety injury severity
measure and injury risk measure to account for differences in the proportion of crash type
combinations between vehicle models. To adjust for potential differences a further factor was
included in the logistic regression models for both total secondary safety injury risk and injury
severity. The factor used was:

       crashtyp       crash combination type,

For the injury risk analysis the crash combination types consisted of:

       two vehicle – focus vehicle driver
       two vehicle – other vehicle driver
       single vehicle
       heavy vehicle collisions (including collisions with articulated trucks, rigid trucks or
        buses)

For the injury severity analysis an additional collision combination type was included being
collisions between a light passenger vehicle and unprotected road users (pedestrians, bicyclists or
motorcyclists). This additional collision combination type was excluded from the injury risk
analysis because in general crashes involving pedestrians, bicyclists and motorcyclists are
seldom reported to the Police unless someone is killed or injured which is usually the
unprotected road user. This means that an estimate of the risk of injury cannot be calculated for
the unprotected road user.

Although heavy collisions could be further categorised into rigid truck, articulated truck or bus
collisions and unprotected road users could be further categorised into pedestrians, bicyclists and
motorcyclists it was important to ensure that the logistic model adequately described the data and
did not yield coefficients that were imprecise or unstable. For this reason, for both heavy vehicle
collisions and unprotected road user collisions, the sub type classifications were pooled to ensure
sufficient data for precise and stable results.




                                                   VEHICLE SAFETY RATINGS : 2009 UPDATE 25
5.       RESULTS

5.1      Vehicle Crashworthiness Ratings


5.1.1    Injury Risk

Injury risk was estimated from the data on 3,654,892 drivers involved in tow-away crashes in
New South Wales, South Australia, Queensland and Western Australia during 1987-2007. This
data set is referred to as the "involved drivers". Because of missing values in one or more of the
covariates driver sex and age, speed zone and number of vehicles involved in the crash amongst
the 3,654,892 involved drivers and vehicle models of interest, the final file used for analysis
consisted of the 1,831,574 drivers for which all the covariate data was complete. Of these drivers
308,509 were injured. The following non-vehicle related factors and their interactions were
significantly associated with injury risk and were included in the logistic model:

              Base effect terms   First order             Second order
                                  interactions            interactions
              Sex                 Speedzone*Nveh          Age*Speedzone*Nveh
              Speedzone           Sex*Nveh                Sex*Speedzone*Nveh
              Age                 Sex*Age                 Speedzone*Year*Nveh
              Nveh                Age*Nveh                Sex*State*Nveh
              State               Speedzone*Age           Speedzone*Nveh*State
              Year                State*Year              State*Year*Nveh
                                  Nveh*State              Age*State*Nveh
                                  Year*Nveh               Age*Speedzone*State
                                  Age*State               Age*Sex*Speedzone
                                  Age*Year                Speedzone*State*Year
                                  Speedzone*Year
                                  Speedzone*State
                                  Sex*Speedzone
                                  Sex*State

The overall (average) injury risk for involved drivers in tow-away crashes in NSW, South
Australia, Western Australia and Queensland was 16.84 injuries per 100 involved drivers.
Appendix 2 gives the estimates of injury risk derived by logistic regression for the 427 individual
car models that were rated. Injury risk ranged from 8.33% for the 1996-2004 Peugeot 406 to
42.58% for the 1982-1990 Daihatsu Hi Jet. An estimate of the variability in the injury risk
estimates was calculated from the width of the corresponding 95% confidence intervals.
Individual confidence interval widths ranged from 0.68% for both the 1989-1993 and 1993-1997
Holden Commodore VN/VP, Toyota Lexcen to 16.45% for the 1982-1991 Porsche 944. The
small variability for the Holden Commodore and Toyota Lexcen series sedan is not surprising
due to the large number of cars of this model in the data set and precision is known to improve
with increasing sample size.

The estimated injury risk for each market group is also given in Appendix 2. The large four
wheel drive vehicles had the lowest injury risk (12.54%) and the light car market group had the
highest (22.52%).

26      MONASH UNIVERSITY ACCIDENT RESEARCH CENTRE
5.1.2   Injury Severity

The data on "injured drivers" covered 744,742 drivers of 1982-2007 model vehicles who were
injured in crashes in Victoria, New South Wales, South Australia, Western Australia,
Queensland or New Zealand during 1987-2007. Because of missing values in one or more of the
covariates or invalid injury severity codes amongst the 744,742 injured drivers, the final file used
for analysis consisted of the 348,618 drivers for which all the covariate data was complete. Of
these drivers 72,391 were seriously injured. The following non-vehicle related factors and their
interactions were significantly associated with injury severity and were included in the logistic
model:

Base effect     First order           Second order                 Third order interactions
terms           interactions          interactions
Sex             Sex*State             Speedzone*Nveh*State         Speedzone*State*Year*Nveh
Speedzone       Speedzone*Nveh        Speedzone*State*Year
Age             Age*Sex               Age*State*Nveh
Nveh            Nveh*State            Age*State*Year
State           Speedzone*Age         State*Year*Nveh
Year            Age*State             Speedzone*Year*Nveh
                Age*Nveh              Age*Speedzone*State
                State*Year
                Speedzone*Year
                Age*Year
                Year*Nveh
                Speedzone*State
                Speedzone*Sex

The average injury severity for injured drivers in the data analysed was 20.77 deaths or serious
injuries per 100 injured drivers. Appendix 3 gives the estimates of injury severity derived by
logistic regression for 427 individual car models, or sets of combined models. Of the cars
analysed, injury severity ranged from 4.36% for the 2003-2006 Holden Adventra to 47.94% for
the 1982-1984 Alfa Romeo GTV. An estimate of the variability in the estimates of injury
severity was calculated from the width of the corresponding 95% confidence intervals.
Individual confidence interval widths ranged from 1.83% for the 1982-88 Ford Laser and Mazda
323 / Familia to 42.62% for the 1982-1991 Porsche 944.

The estimated injury severity for each market group is also given in Appendix 3. Compact four
wheel drive vehicles performed best with respect to injury severity, having the lowest average
injury severity of 19.48%. The light car market group had the highest average injury severity of
22.23%.

5.1.3   Crashworthiness Ratings

The crashworthiness ratings for each car model and market group were obtained by multiplying
the individual injury risk and injury severity estimates. Because each of the two components had
been adjusted for the confounding factors, the resultant crashworthiness rating was also adjusted
for the influence of these factors.




                                                    VEHICLE SAFETY RATINGS : 2009 UPDATE 27
 Crashworthiness ratings were obtained for each individual model and market group after
 adjusting for the confounding factors. Appendix 4 gives the crashworthiness ratings and the
 associated 95% confidence intervals for each of the 427 car models included in the analyses.
 Appendix 4 also gives the crashworthiness ratings with 90% confidence limits for each of the
 427 vehicle models. Each rating is expressed as a percentage, representing the number of drivers
 killed or admitted to hospital per 100 drivers involved in a tow-away crash. Overall ratings for
 the market groups are also given.

 Each crashworthiness rating is an estimate of the true risk of a driver being killed or admitted to
 hospital in a tow-away crash and, as such, each estimate has a level of uncertainty about it. This
 uncertainty is indicated by the confidence limits in Appendix 4. There is 95% probability that
 the confidence interval will cover the true risk of serious injury (death or hospital admission) to
 the driver of the particular model of vehicle. Unlike in previous updates no ratings have been
 excluded at this stage as it was considered useful for consumer information to present them.

 Table 4 gives a summary of the estimated ratings for each of the 10 defined vehicle market
 groups. It shows the estimated injury risk and severity components, and the resulting
 crashworthiness rating with upper and lower 95% confidence limits, and the width of the 95%
 confidence limit. The relative ranking of the crashworthiness rating on each market group is also
 given in Table 4 although this should be interpreted with care as there is not necessarily a
 statistically significant difference between the average crashworthiness of vehicle market groups
 with different rankings. Statistical significance in average crashworthiness between market
 groups at the 5% level is only achieved when the 95% confidence limits do not overlap. Similar
 comments apply to interpreting results in Appendix 4.

 Table 4:           Estimated Vehicle Crashworthiness by Market Grouping

          Market Group                Injury       Injury    Crashworthiness Overall   Lower 95%    Upper 95% Width of
                                       Risk       Severity       Rating*      rank     Confidence   Confidence Confidence
                                       (%)          (%)                       order      limit         limit    interval

Overall Average                        16.84       20.77          3.50
COMPACT FOUR WHEEL DRIVE              17.87        19.48          3.48         5         3.30          3.68       0.38
MEDIUM FOUR WHEEL DRIVE               13.03        19.99          2.60         1         2.42          2.80       0.38
LARGE FOUR WHEEL DRIVE                12.54        21.26          2.67         2         2.54          2.80       0.26
COMMERCIAL - VAN                      17.74        20.75          3.68         7         3.49          3.89       0.40
COMMERCIAL - UTE                      15.52        21.47          3.33         4         3.23          3.44       0.21
LARGE                                 15.93        20.39          3.25         3         3.19          3.31       0.12
MEDIUM                                17.28        20.38          3.52         6         3.44          3.60       0.16
PEOPLE MOVERS                         18.25        21.05          3.84         8         3.63          4.07       0.44
LIGHT                                 22.52        22.23          5.01         10        4.87          5.15       0.27
SMALL                                 19.64        20.74          4.07         9         3.99          4.16       0.16
 * Serious injury rate per 100 drivers involved

 5.1.4    Comparisons with the Benchmark Rating

 In previous updates, ratings for individual vehicles were compared to an un-weighted numerical
 average of the vehicles for which a crashworthiness rating was calculated. For this update, a new
 comparison was used which classifies vehicles according to where their rating lies in relation to a
 ‘best performance’ benchmark. The benchmark rating in this update was defined as the rating
 above which 5% of the rating point estimates were better (see Section 5.4). The point against


 28      MONASH UNIVERSITY ACCIDENT RESEARCH CENTRE
which ratings for individual vehicles are compared is arbitrary, whether it is the average used in
previous updates or the benchmark rating described above or some other point.

Classification categories are defined by distances away from this benchmark. The five categories
were defined as follows.

                                    Equal to the benchmark.
                                    Worse than the benchmark.
                                    At least 50% worse than the benchmark.
                                    At least 100% worse than the benchmark.
                                    At least 150% worse than the benchmark.

Again this choice is arbitrary but should aim to spread the vehicles across the performance
categories. Vehicles are classified into each category according to the band in which the lower
confidence limit on the rating lies. Using only the lower confidence limit defines a true one-sided
statistical test which is equal for each rating.

Figures 1 to 10 display for each of the market groups the crashworthiness ratings of vehicles
together with their 90% confidence limits. Also displayed on each graph is a line representing
the benchmark crashworthiness safety rating of 1.60% and three lines at 2.40%, 3.20% and
4.00% representing 50% worse than the benchmark, 100% worse than the benchmark and 150%
worse than the benchmark respectively.

Figure 1:                                      Crashworthiness Ratings for Compact Four Wheel Drive vehicles (with 90%
                                               confidence limits)
                                                                                             Compact 4WD

                             9.00%
                                                                           Crashworthiness
                             8.00%                                         Benchmark
                                                                           Worse than benchmark + 1 increment
                             7.00%                                         Worse than benchmark + 2 increments
 C ras hworthine ss Rating




                                                                           Worse than benchmark + 3 increments
                             6.00%


                             5.00%


                             4.00%


                             3.00%


                             2.00%


                             1.00%


                             0.00%
                                      1    2     3    4     5     6    7      8      9       10     11     12        13   14    15   16    17    18    19    20    21    22    23

                                                                                                  M ake and M odel

                               1     Daihatsu Feroza / Rocky 89 -97                                             13    Honda HR-V 99-02
                               2     Daihatsu Rocky / Rugger 85-98                                              14    Land Rover Freelander 98-06
                               3     Daihatsu Terios 97 -05                                                     15    Subaru Forester 97-02
                               4     Holden Cruze 02-06                                                         16    Subaru Forester 02-07
                               5     Mitsubishi Outlander 03-06                                                 17    Suzuki Vitara / Escudo 88-98
                               6     Kia Sportage 98-03                                                         18    Suzuki Grand Vitara 99-05
                               7     Kia Sorento 03-07                                                          19    Holden / Suzuki Drover / Sierra / Samurai / SJ410 / SJ413 82-99
                               8     Ford / Mazda Escape / Tribute 01-06                                        20    Suzuki Jimny 98-07
                               9     Nissan X-Trail 01-07                                                       21    Toyota RAV4 94-00
                              10     Lada Niva 84-99                                                            22    Toyota RAV4 01-06
                              11     Honda CR-V 97-01                                                           23    Toyota RAV4 06-07
                              12     Honda CR-V 02-07




                                                                                                           VEHICLE SAFETY RATINGS : 2009 UPDATE 29
Figure 2:                                                Crashworthiness Ratings for Medium Four Wheel Drive vehicles (with 90%
                                                         confidence limits)
                                                                                                                 Medium 4WD
                                7.00%
                                                         Crashworthiness
                                                         Benchmark
                                6.00%                    Worse than benchmark + 1 increment
                                                         Worse than benchmark + 2 increments
                                                         Worse than benchmark + 3 increments
C rashworthiness R ating




                                5.00%



                                4.00%



                                3.00%




                                2.00%



                                1.00%




                                0.00%
                                        1            2        3      4     5       6        7   8       9        10      11    12       13        14   15   16        17          18   19       20        21

                                                                                                            Make and Model

                                                 1       Daewoo / Ss angong Musso 98-02                                         12       Mitsubishi Challenger 98-06
                                                 2       Ford Territory SX/SY 04-07                                             13       Jeep Cherokee XJ 96-00
                                                 3       Holden / Isuzu Jackaroo / Bighorn 82-91                                14       Jeep Wrangler 96-04
                                                 4       Holden / Isuzu Jackaroo / Bighorn 92-97                                15       Jeep Cherokee KJ 01-07
                                                 5       Holden / Isuzu Jackaroo / Bighorn 98-02                                16       Land Rover Defender 92-07
                                                 6       Holden Frontera / Mu 95-03                                             17       Nissan Pathfinder / Terrano 88-94
                                                 7       Holden Adventra 03 -06                                                 18       Nissan Pathfinder / Terrano / Regulus 95-05
                                                 8       Hyundai Santa Fe 00-06                                                 19       Toyota Kluger 03-07
                                                 9       Mitsubishi Pajero 82-90                                                20       Toyota Landcruiser Prado 96-03
                                                10       Mitsubishi Pajero 92-99                                                21       Toyota Landcruiser Prado 03-07
                                                11       Mitsubishi Pajero NM / NP / NS 00-07




Figure 3:      Crashworthiness Ratings for Large Four Wheel Drive vehicles (with 90%
confidence limits)
                                                                                                                 Large 4WD
                               10.00%
                                                                                                                                                                           Crashworthiness
                               9.00%                                                                                                                                       Benchmark
                                                                                                                                                                           Worse than benchmark + 1 increment
                               8.00%                                                                                                                                       Worse than benchmark + 2 increments
                                                                                                                                                                           Worse than benchmark + 3 increments
    Cra shworthine ss Rating




                               7.00%


                               6.00%


                               5.00%

                               4.00%


                               3.00%


                               2.00%


                               1.00%


                               0.00%
                                            1             2          3         4        5           6        7          8           9        10        11        12          13         14           15          16

                                                                                                                      Make and Model

                                                 1       BMW X5 01-07                                                            9       Nissan Patrol / Safari 82-87
                                                 2       Ford Bronco 82-87                                                      10       Nissan / Ford Patrol / Maverick / Safari 88-97
                                                 3       Ford Explorer 00-01                                                    11       Nissan Patrol / Safari 98-07
                                                 4       Ford Explorer 01-05                                                    12       Land Rover Range Rover 82-94
                                                 5       Jeep Grand Cherokee ZG 96 -99                                          13       Land Rover Range Rover 95-02
                                                 6       Jeep Grand Cherokee WJ/WG 99-05                                        14       Toyota Landcruiser 82-89
                                                 7       Land Rover Discovery 91-02                                             15       Toyota Landcruiser 90-97
                                                 8       Mercedes Benz M-Class W163 98-05                                       16       Toyota Landcruiser 98-07




30                                 MONASH UNIVERSITY ACCIDENT RESEARCH CENTRE
Figure 4:                                                                   Crashworthiness Ratings for Commercial Vans (with 90% confidence limits)
                                                                                                                                         Commercial - Vans
                                20.00%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Crashworthiness
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Benchmark
                                18.00%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Worse than benchmark + 1 increment
                                16.00%                                                                                                                                                                            Worse than benchmark + 2 increments
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Worse than benchmark + 3 increments
C rashworthines s R ating




                                14.00%


                                12.00%


                                10.00%


                                               8.00%


                                               6.00%


                                               4.00%


                                               2.00%


                                               0.00%
                                                           1       2          3        4       5        6        7         8        9          10        11    12        13       14        15    16        17      18        19     20        21       22

                                                                                                                                         Make and Model

                                                                1          Daihatsu Handivan 82-90                                                                  12        Mercedes Benz Sprinter 98-04
                                                                2          Daihatsu Hi-Jet 82-90                                                                    13        Honda Acty 83 -86
                                                                3          Daihatsu Handivan / Cuore 99-03                                                          14        Holden / Suzuki Scurry / Carry 82-00
                                                                4          Ford Falcon Panel Van 82-95                                                              15        Suzuki Carry 99-05
                                                                5          Ford Falcon Panel Van 96-99                                                              16        Toyota Hiace/Liteace 82-86
                                                                6          Ford Transit 95-00                                                                       17        Toyota Hiace/Liteace 87-89
                                                                7          Ford Transit 01-07                                                                       18        Toyota Hiace/Liteace 90-95
                                                                8          Holden Shuttle / WFR Van 82-87                                                           19        Toyota Hiace/Liteace 96-04
                                                                9          Kia Pregio 02-06                                                                         20        Toyoa Hiace 05-07
                                                               10          Mercedes Benz MB100 / MB140 99-04                                                        21        Volkswagen Caravelle / Transporter 88-94
                                                               11          Mercedes Benz Vito / Viano 99-07                                                         22        Volkswagen Caravelle / Transporter 95-04




Figure 5:                                                                   Crashworthiness Ratings for Commercial Utes (with 90% confidence limits)
                                               14.00%

                                                                           Crashworthiness
                                                                                                                                         Commercial - Utes
                                                                           Benchmark
                                               12.00%
                                                                           Worse than benchmark + 1 increment
                                                                           Worse than benchmark + 2 increments
                                                                           Worse than benchmark + 3 increments
                                               10.00%
                       Cr ashwor thiness Ra ting




                                                   8.00%




                                                   6.00%




                                                   4.00%




                                                   2.00%




                                                   0.00%
                                                           1   2       3      4    5       6   7    8       9    10   11       12   13    14        15   16   17    18   19      20    21   22   23    24    25   26     27    28   29    30    31      32   33


                                                                                                                                               Make and Model

                                                                1          Ford / Nissan Falcon Ute / XFN Ute 82-95                                                 18        Kia Ceres 92-00
                                                                2          Ford Falcon Ute 96-99                                                                    19        Ford / Mazda Courier / B-Series / Bounty 98-02
                                                                3          Ford Falcon Ute AU 00-02                                                                 20        Ford / Mazda Courier / Bravo / Bounty 03-06
                                                                4          Ford Falcon Ute BA/BF 03-07                                                              21        Nissan 720 Ute 82-85
                                                                5          Ford Ford F-Series 82-92                                                                 22        Nissan Navara 86-91
                                                                6          Holden Commodore Ute VG/VP 90-93                                                         23        Nissan Navara 92-96
                                                                7          Holden / Isuzu Rodeo / Pickup 82-85                                                      24        Nissan Navara 97-05
                                                                8          Holden / Isuzu Rodeo / Pickup 86-88                                                      25        Nissan Navara 05-07
                                                                9          Holden / Isuzu Rodeo / Pickup 89-95                                                      26        Subaru Brumby 82-92
                                                               10          Holden Rodeo 96-98                                                                       27        Suzuki Mighty Boy 85 -88
                                                               11          Holden Rodeo 99-02                                                                       28        Toyota 4Runner/Hilux 82-85
                                                               12          Holden WB Series 82-85                                                                   29        Toyota 4Runner/Hilux 86-88
                                                               13          Holden Commodore Ute VR/VS 94-00                                                         30        Toyota 4Runner/Hilux 89-97
                                                               14          Holden Commodore VU Ute 00-02                                                            31        Toyota Hilux 98-02
                                                               15          Holden Commodore VY/VZ Ute 02-07                                                         32        Toyota Hilux 03-04
                                                               16          Holden Rodeo 03-07                                                                       33        Toyota Hilux 05-07
                                                               17          Mitsubishi Triton MK 96-06




                                                                                                                                                              VEHICLE SAFETY RATINGS : 2009 UPDATE 31
Figure 6:                                                Crashworthiness Ratings for Large cars (with 90% confidence limits)
                                                                                                                                                                                       Large
                   12.00%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Crashw orthiness
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Benchmark
                   10.00%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Worse than benchmark + 1 increment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Worse than benchmark + 2 increments
 Crashworthiness R ati ng




                            8.00%                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Worse than benchmark + 3 increments



                            6.00%




                            4.00%




                            2.00%




                            0.00%
                                    1        2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18   19   20   21   22   23    24   25   26   27   28   29   30   31   32   33   34   35   36   37   38   39   40   41   42   43   44   45   46   47    48   49    50     51   52   53   54   55   56   57   58   59   60   61   62   63   64

                                                                                                                                                                                   Make and Model

                                         1       BMW 7 Series E23 82-88                                                                            23     Holden Commodore VY/VZ 02-07                                                                                      44         Nissan 300ZX / Fairlady Z 90 -95
                                         2       BMW 7 Series E32 89-94                                                                            24     Holden Monaro 01-05                                                                                               45         Nissan Maxima 90-94
                                         3       BMW 7 Series E38 95-01                                                                            25     Holden Statesman/Caprice WK/WL 03-06                                                                              46         Nissan Maxima / Cefiro 95 -99
                                         4       Ford Falcon XE/XF 82-88                                                                           26     Holden Commodore VB-VL 82-88                                                                                      47         Nissan Maxima 00-02
                                         5       Ford Fairlane Z & LTD F 82-87                                                                     27     Holden Commodore VE 06-07                                                                                         48         Nissan Maxima 06-07
                                         6       Ford Falcon EA / Falcon EB Series I 88-Mar 92                                                     28     Hyundai Sonata 89-97                                                                                              49         Honda Legend 86-95
                                         7       Ford Falcon EB Series II / Falcon ED Apr 92-94                                                    29     Hyundai Grandeaur / XG 99-00                                                                                      50         Rover 3500 82-87
                                         8       Ford Fairlane N & LTD D 88-94                                                                     30     Mitsubishi Magna TM/TN/TP / Sigma / V3000 85-90                                                                   51         Saab 9-5 98-05
                                         9       Ford Fairlane N & LTD D 95-98                                                                     31     Mitsubishi Magna TE/TF/TH /TJ / Verada KE/KF/KH/KJ / Diamante 96-03                                               52         Toyota Camry 98-02
                                        10       Ford Fairlane & LTD AU 99-02                                                                      32     Mitsubishi Magna TR/TS / Verada KR/KS / V3000 / Diamante 91-96                                                    53         Toyota Crown / Cressida / Mark II 82 -85
                                        11       Ford Fairlane & LTD BA/BF 03-07                                                                   33     Mitsubishi Magna TL/TW / Verada KL/KW 03-05                                                                       54         Toyota Crown / Cressida / Mark II 86 -88
                                        12       Ford Falcon EF/EL 94-98                                                                           34     Mitsubishi 380 05-07                                                                                              55         Toyota Cressida / Mark II 89-93
                                        13       Ford Falcon AU 98 -02                                                                             35     Jaguar XJ6 82-86                                                                                                  56         Toyota Supra 82-90
                                        14       Ford Ta urus 96-98                                                                                36     Jaguar XJ6 87-94                                                                                                  57         Lexus ES300 / Windom 92-01
                                        15       Ford Falcon BA/BF 02-07                                                                           37     Mazda 929 / Luce 82 -90                                                                                           58         Lexus LS400 / Celsior 90-00
                                        16       Holden / Toyota Commodore VN/VP / Lexcen 89-93                                                    38     Mazda 929 / Sentia / Efini MS-9 92-96                                                                             59         Toyota Avalon 00-05
                                        17       Holden Statesman/Caprice WB 82 -85                                                                39     Mercedes Benz E-Class W123 82-85                                                                                  60         Toyota Camry 02-06
                                        18       Holden Stateman/Caprice VQ 90-93                                                                  40     Mercedes Benz E-Class W124 86-94                                                                                  61         Toyota Camry 06-07
                                        19       Holden Stateman/Caprice VR/VS 94-98                                                               41     Mercedes Benz E-Class W210 96-02                                                                                  62         Volvo 850/S70/V70/C70 92-05
                                        20       Holden / Toyota Commodore VR/VS / Lexcen 93-97                                                    42     Mercedes Benz S-Class W126 82-92                                                                                  63         Volvo 700/900 Series 84-92
                                        21       Holden Commodore VT/VX 97-02                                                                      43     Nissan Skyline 83-88                                                                                              64         Volvo 960/S90/V90 90-98
                                        22       Holden Statesman/Caprice WH 99-03




32                                  MONASH UNIVERSITY ACCIDENT RESEARCH CENTRE
Figure 7:                                                Crashworthiness Ratings for Medium cars (with 90% confidence limits)
                                                                                                                                                                 Medium
                            14.00%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Crashw orthiness
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Benchmark
                            12.00%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Worse than benchmark + 1 increment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Worse than benchmark + 2 increments
 Crashworthi ness Rati ng




                            10.00%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Worse than benchmark + 3 increments


                            8.00%


                            6.00%


                            4.00%


                            2.00%



                            0.00%
                                     1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83

                                                                                                                                                                   Make and Model
 1                             Alfa Romeo 156 99-06                                            22     Hyundai Sonata 98-01                                                    43     Nissan Bluebird 82-86                           64     Saab 900 Series 82-92
 2                             Audi A4 95-01                                                   23     Hyundai Sonata EF 02-05                                                 44     Nissan 280ZX 82-84                              65     Saab 900/9-3 94-02
 3                             Audi A4 01-07                                                   24     Mitsubishi Sigma / Galant / Sapporo / Lambda 82-84                      45     Nissan Bluebird 93-97                           66     Saab 9000 86-97
 4                             BMW Z3 E36 97-03                                                25     Mitsubishi Starion 82-87                                                46     Nissan 200SX / Silvia 94-02                     67     Subaru 1800 / Leone / Omega / 4WD Wagon 82-93
 5                             BMW 3 Series E90 05-07                                          26     Mitsubishi Galant 95-96                                                 47     Nissan 350Z 03-07                               68     Subaru Liberty / Legacy 89-93
 6                             BMW 3 Series E30 82-91                                          27     Ford / Mazda Telstar / 626 / MX6 / Capella 83-86                        48     Honda Accord Euro 03-07                         69     Subaru Liberty / Legacy / Outback 94-98
 7                             BMW 3 Series E36 92-98                                          28     Ford / Mazda Telstar / 626 / MX6 / Capella 88-91                        49     Honda Accord 03-07                              70     Subaru Liberty / Legacy / Outback 99-03
 8                             BMW 3 Series E46 99-06                                          29     Ford / Mazda Telstar / 626 / MX6 / Capella / Cronos 92-97               50     Honda Accord 82-85                              71     Subaru Liberty / Legacy / Outback 03-07
 9                             BMW 5 Series E28 82-88                                          30     Mazda 626 98-02                                                         51     Honda Accord 86-90                              72     Toyota Corona 82-88
10                             BMW 5 Series E34 89-95                                          31     Mazda RX7 82-85                                                         52     Honda Accord 91-93                              73     Toyota Camry 83-86
11                             BMW 5 Series E39 96-03                                          32     Mazda RX7 86-91                                                         53     Honda Accord 94-98                              74     Holden / Toyota Apollo JK/JL / Camry / Vista 88-92
12                             Chrysler PT Cruiser 00-07                                       33     Mazda Eunos 500 93-99                                                   54     Honda Accord 99-02                              75     Holden / Toyota Apollo JM/JP / Camry / Sceptor 93-97
13                             Daewoo Espero 95-97                                             34     Mazda Eunos 800 94-00                                                   55     Honda Prelude 82-82                             76     Toyota Celica 81-85
14                             Daewoo Leganza 97-02                                            35     Mazda 6 02-07                                                           56     Honda Prelude 83-91                             77     Toyota Celica 86-89
15                             Ford Mondeo 95-01                                               36     Mercedes Benz C-Class W201 87-93                                        57     Honda Prelude 92-96                             78     Toyota Celica 90-93
16                             Ford Probe 94-98                                                37     Mercedes Benz C-Class W202 95-00                                        58     Honda Prelude 97-02                             79     Toyota Celica 94-99
17                             Ford Cougar 99-03                                               38     Mercedes Benz CLK C208 97-03                                            59     Peugeot 405 89-97                               80     Toyota Celica 00-05
18                             Holden Calibra 94-97                                            39     Mercedes Benz SLK R170 97-04                                            60     Peugeot 505 82-93                               81     Lexus IS200 / IS300 99-04
19                             Holden Camira 82-89                                             40     Mercedes Benz C-Class W203 00-07                                        61     Peugeot 406 96-04                               82     Volvo 200 Series 82-93
20                             Holden Vectra 97-03                                             41     Nissan Pintara 86-88                                                    62     Porsche 944 82-91                               83     Volkswagen Passat 98-06
21                             Holden Vectra ZC 03-05                                          42     Nissan / Ford Pintara / Corsair / Bluebird 89-92                        63     Renault Feugo 82-87




                                                                                                                                                                                                                     VEHICLE SAFETY RATINGS: 2009 UPDATE 33
                      Figure 8:                   Crashworthiness Ratings for Small cars (with 90% confidence limits)
                                                                                                                                          Small
                      14.00%                                                                                                                                                                          Crashworthiness
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Benchmark
                      12.00%
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Worse than benchmark + 1 increm ent
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Worse than benchmark + 2 increm ents
     worthiness Rati ng




                      10.00%
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Worse than benchmark + 3 increm ents

                          8.00%


                          6.00%
Crash




                          4.00%


                          2.00%


                          0.00%
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                                                                                                                                     Make and Model

1                            Alfa Romeo 33 83-92                            28        Hyundai Excel 86-90                                          55   Mercedes Benz A-Class W168 98-04                                 82      Renault 19 91-96
2                            Alfa Romeo 75 86-92                            29        Hyundai Excel 90-94                                          56   Holden / Nissan Astra / Pulsar / Langley 84-86                   83      Renault Scenic 01-04
3                            Alfa Romeo GTV 82-84                           30        Hyundai Excel / Accent 95-00                                 57   Holden / Nissan Astra / Pulsar / Vector / Sentra 88-90           84      Rover Quintet 82-86
4                            Alfa Romeo Sprint 82-88                        31        Hyundai Elantra 00-07                                        58   Nissan Pulsar / Vector / Sentra 92-95                            85      MG MGF / MG TF 99-05
5                            Alfa Romeo Alfasud 82-84                       32        Hyundai S Coupe 90-96                                        59   Nissan Pulsar / Vector / Sentra 96-99                            86      Subaru Impreza 93-00
6                            Audi A3/S3 97-04                               33        Hyundai Lantra 91-95                                         60   Nissan Stanza 82-83                                              87      Subaru Impreza 01-07
7                            Mini Mini Cooper 02-07                         34        Hyundai Lantra 96-00                                         61   Nissan Gazelle / Silvia 84-86                                    88      Suzuki Baleno / Cultus Crescent 95-02
8                            Chrysler Neon 96-99                            35        Hyundai Coupe 96-00                                          62   Nissan Exa 83-86                                                 89      Suzuki Liana 01-07
9                            Chrysler Neon 00-02                            36        Hyundai Accent 00-06                                         63   Nissan Exa 87-91                                                 90      Toyota Corolla 82-84
10                           Daihatsu Applause 89-99                        37        Mitsubishi Lancer / Mirage CA 89-90                          64   Nissan NX/NX-R 91-96                                             91      Toyota Corolla 86-88
11                           Daewoo 1.5i 94-95                              38        Mitsubishi Lancer / Mirage CB 91-92                          65   Nissan Pulsar 00-05                                              92      Toyota / Holden Corolla / Nova 89-93
12                           Daewoo Cielo 95-97                             39        Mitsubishi Lancer / Mirage CC 93-95                          66   Honda Civic 82-83                                                93      Toyota / Holden Corolla / Nova 94-97
13                           Daewoo Nubira 97-03                            40        Mitsubishi Lancer / Mirage CE 96-03                          67   Honda Civic / Ballade / Shuttle 84-87                            94      Toyota Corolla / Allex 98-01
14                           Daewoo Lanos 97-03                             41        Mitsubishi Cordia 83-87                                      68   Honda Civic / Shuttle 88-91                                      95      Toyota Corolla 02-07
15                           Daewoo Lacetti 03-04                           42        Mitsubishi Lancer CH / CJ 03-07                              69   Honda Civic 92-95                                                96      Toyota Tercel 83-88
16                           Ford Laser 91-94                               43        Kia Rio 00-05                                                70   Honda Civic 96-00                                                97      Toyota MR2 87-90
17                           Ford Laser 95-97                               44        Kia Spectra 01-04                                            71   Honda CRX 87-91                                                  98      Toyota MR2 91-00
18                           Ford Capri 89-94                               45        Kia Cerato 04-07                                             72   Honda CRX 92-98                                                  99      Toyota Paseo / Cynos 91-99
19                           Ford Focus LR 02-05                            46        Kia Rio JB 05-07                                             73   Honda Civic 01-05                                               100      Toyota Corolla 4WD Wagon 92-96
20                           Ford Focus LS / LT 05-07                       47        Ford / Mazda Laser / 323 / Familia 82-88                     74   Honda Integra 86 -88                                            101      Volvo 300 Series 84-88
21                           Fiat Regata 84-88                              48        Mazda 323 / Familia / Lantis 90-93                           75   Honda Integra 90-92                                             102      Volvo S40/V40 97-04
22                           Holden Gemini 82-84                            49        Mazda 323 / Familia / Lantis 95-98                           76   Honda Integra 93-01                                             103      Volkswagen Golf 82-94
23                           Holden Gemini RB 86-87                         50        Ford / Mazda Laser / 323 99-03                               77   Honda Integra 02-06                                             104      Volkswagen Golf 95-98
24                           Holden Astra TR 96-98                          51        Mazda MX5 / Eunos Roadster 89-97                             78   Honda Concerto 89-93                                            105      Volkswagen Golf / Bora 99-04
25                           Holden Astra TS 98-06                          52        Mazda MX5 / Eunos Roadster 98-05                             79   Peugeot 306 94-01                                               106      Volkswagen New Beetle 00-07
26                           Holden Astra AH 04-07                          53        Mazda Eunos 30X / Presso / MX-3 / Autozam AZ-3 90-97         80   Peugeot 307 01-07                                               107      Volkswagen Golf / Jetta 04-07
27                           Holden Viva JF 05-07                           54        Mazda 3 / Axela 03-07                                        81   Proton Wira 95-96




                      34              MONASH UNIVERSITY ACCIDENT RESEARCH CENTRE
Figure 9:                                 Crashworthiness Ratings for Light cars (with 90% confidence limits)

                                                                                                                                    Light
                     14.00%
                                                                           Crashw orthiness
                                                                           Benchmark
                     12.00%
                                                                           Worse than benchmark + 1 increment
                                                                           Worse than benchmark + 2 increments
 Crashworthiness Rating




                     10.00%                                                Worse than benchmark + 3 increments


                          8.00%



                          6.00%


                          4.00%


                          2.00%


                          0.00%
                                  1   2    3    4   5    6    7    8   9      10   11    12   13   14        15     16   17    18   19   20   21   22   23   24   25   26   27   28   29   30   31   32   33   34   35    36   37   38    39    40

                                                                                                                              Make and Model
                              1   Daihatsu Charade 82-86                                                15        Mitsubishi Mirage / Colt 82-88                                           28   Subaru Sherpa / Fiori / 700 / Rex 89-92
                              2   Daihatsu Charade 88-92                                                16        Mitsubishi Colt 04-07                                                    29   Suzuki Swift 82-85
                              3   Daihatsu Charade 93-00                                                17        Ford / Mazda Festiva WA / 121 87-90                                      30   Holden / Suzuki Barina / Swift / Cultus 86-88
                              4   Daihatsu Pyzar 97-01                                                  18        Mazda 121 / Autozam Review 94 -96                                        31   Holden / Suzuki Barina / Swift / Cultus 89-99
                              5   Daihatsu Sirion / Storia 98-04                                        19        Mazda 121 Metro / Demio 97-02                                            32   Suzuki Hatch / Alto 82-84
                              6   Daihatsu Mira 90 -96                                                  20        Mazda 2 02-07                                                            33   Suzuki Alto 85-00
                              7   Daewoo Matiz 99 -04                                                   21        Nissan Micra 95-97                                                       34   Suzuki Ignis 00-02
                              8   Daewoo Kalos 03 -04                                                   22        Honda Jazz / Fit 02-07                                                   35   Suzuki Swift 05-07
                              9   Ford Festiva WD/WH/WF 94-01                                           23        Honda City 83-86                                                         36   Toyota Starlet 96-99
                             10   Ford Ka 99 -02                                                        24        Peugeot 205 87-94                                                        37   Toyota Echo 99-05
                             11   Holden Barina XC 01-06                                                25        Peugeot 206 99-07                                                        38   Toyota Yaris 05 -07
                             12   Holden Barina SB 95-00                                                26        Proton Satria 97-05                                                      39   Volkswagen Polo 96-00
                             13   Holden Barina TK 05-07                                                27        Renault Clio 02-07                                                       40   Volkswagen Polo 02-07
                             14   Hyundai Getz / TB 02-07




                                                                                                                                                                                 VEHICLE SAFETY RATINGS: 2009 UPDATE 35
Figure 10:                                  Crashworthiness Ratings for People Movers (with 90% confidence limits)
                                                                                         People Mover
                     9.00%
                                                                                                                                             Crashworthiness
                                                                                                                                             Benchmark
                     8.00%
                                                                                                                                             Worse than benchmark + 1 increment
                                                                                                                                             Worse than benchmark + 2 increments
                     7.00%
                                                                                                                                             Worse than benchmark + 3 increments
 Cra shw orth in ess Ratin g




                     6.00%



                     5.00%



                     4.00%



                     3.00%



                     2.00%



                     1.00%


                     0.00%
                                1       2      3       4       5      6      7       8        9      10        11     12      13      14     15        16        17       18
                                                                                          Make and Model

                                       1    Chrysler Voyager 97-01                                        10   Kia Carnival 99-06
                                       2    Holden Zafira TT 01-05                                        11   Mazda MPV 94-99
                                       3    Mitsubishi Nimbus / Chariot / Spacewagon 85-91                12   Nissan Prairie 84-86
                                       4    Mitsubishi Nimbus / Chariot 92-98                             13   Nissan Serena 92-95
                                       5    Mitsubishi Nimbus 99-03                                       14   Honda Odyssey 95-00
                                       6    Mitsubishi Starwagon / L300 83-86                             15   Toyota Tarago 83-89
                                       7    Mitsubishi Starwagon / Delica Starwagon 87 -93                16   Toyota Tarago / Previa / Estima 91-99
                                       8    Mitsubishi Starwagon / Delica Spacegear 95-98                 17   Toyota Tarago / Previa / Estima 00-06
                                       9    Mitsubishi Starwagon / Delica Spacegear 98-03                 18   Toyota Spacia 93-00




5.2                                 Aggressivity


5.2.1                               Aggressivity towards Other Car Drivers and Unprotected Road Users

Using the methods described in Section 4.2, logistic regression models of the injury risk and
injury severity of the focus road user were built separately as functions of both vehicle model and
market group of the focus vehicle colliding with the other road user whose injury outcome is
being modelled. Variations in the other factors listed in Section 4.2, including other road user
type, were adjusted in the model by including them as predictors in the logistic regression
models along with the focus vehicle model or market group. The aggressivity injury risk measure
is based only on the injury outcome to drivers of other vehicles.

The logistic regression models of aggressivity injury risk showed the following non-vehicle
factors and their interactions to be statistically significant predictors of injury risk (factors age
and sex refer to focus driver whose injury outcome is being modelled). The average aggressivity
injury risk in the data was 15.16%.




36                             MONASH UNIVERSITY ACCIDENT RESEARCH CENTRE
       Base effect terms      First order interactions         Second order interaction
       Sex                    Sex*Year                         Sex*State*Year
       Speedzone              Age*Speedzone                    Age*Sex*State
       Age                    Age*Sex
       State                  Age*Year
       Year                   Speedzone*Year
                              Speedzone*State
                              Age*State
                              State*Year
                              Sex*State
                              Sex*Speedzone

The logistic regression models of aggressivity injury severity users showed the following non-
vehicle factors and their interactions to be statistically significant predictors of injury severity.
These factors were included in the logistic model (factors age and sex refer to the age and sex of
the other driver or unprotected road user). The average aggressivity injury severity in the data
was 22.48%.

        Base effect terms       First order interactions        Second order interaction
       Sex                    Sex*State                        Age*Sex*State
       Speedzone              Sex*Crashtype                    Speedzone*State*Crashtype
       Age                    Age*Sex                          Speedzone*State*Year
       State                  Age*Crashtype                    Age*State*Crashtype
       Year                   Year*Crashtype                   Speedzone*Year*Crashtype
       Crashtype              Speedzone*State                  State*Year*Crashtype
                              Age*State                        Sex*State*Crashtype
                              State*Crashtype
                              State*Year
                              Speedzone*Year
                              Speedzone*Crashtype
                              Sex*Year

Final estimates of vehicle aggressivity towards other road users were obtained by multiplying the
estimated injury risk and injury severity components for each vehicle. Confidence limits on each
of the estimated aggressivity ratings were calculated. The average aggressivity rating in the data,
used for comparisons against aggressivity of individual vehicle models was 3.56%.

Aggressivity ratings were obtained for 397 different vehicle models that satisfied the inclusion
criteria for analysis. The estimated aggressivity ratings and their injury risk and injury severity
components for individual vehicle models are given in Appendix 5 along with (95% confidence
limits on the estimated aggressivity ratings.

Table 5 summarises the estimated injury risk, injury severity and aggressivity ratings by the 10
broad market groups along with the estimated 95% confidence limits on the aggressivity ratings.
The estimated aggressivity rating is the expected number of road users killed or seriously injured
per 100 involved in two-car tow-away collisions where their vehicle impacts with one of the
designated models or market groups. Table 5 shows large four wheel drive vehicles to be the
most aggressive towards drivers of other vehicles, with an average of 5.01 unprotected road users


                                                    VEHICLE SAFETY RATINGS : 2009 UPDATE 37
 or drivers being killed or seriously injured for every 100 tow-away crashes with a large four
 wheel drive. Similarly, Table 5 shows light cars to be the least aggressive towards unprotected
 road users or drivers of other vehicles, with an average aggressivity rating of 2.20.

 Table 5:             Estimated Vehicle Aggressivity towards Other Drivers and Unprotected Road
                      Users by Market Grouping
          Market Group                 Other      Other       Aggressivity     Overall     Lower 95%      Upper 95% Width of
                                       Driver     Driver       Rating *         rank       Confidence     Confidence Confidence
                                       Injury     Injury                        order        limit           limit    interval
                                        Risk     Severity
                                        (%)        (%)
Overall Average                        15.16       22.48           3.41
COMPACT FOUR WHEEL DRIVE               13.93      21.84            3.04            4          2.84            3.26          0.41
MEDIUM FOUR WHEEL DRIVE                17.37      23.45            4.07            8          3.81            4.36          0.55
LARGE FOUR WHEEL DRIVE                 18.83      26.62            5.01           10          4.80            5.23          0.43
COMMERCIAL - VAN                       18.34      23.80            4.36            9          4.14            4.60          0.47
COMMERCIAL - UTE                       16.58      24.28            4.03            7          3.89            4.16          0.27
LARGE                                  14.89      21.80            3.25            5          3.18            3.32          0.14
MEDIUM                                 13.65      21.00            2.87            3          2.79            2.94          0.15
PEOPLE MOVERS                          16.40      22.49            3.69            6          3.47            3.92          0.45
LIGHT                                  11.18      19.70            2.20            1          2.12            2.29          0.18
SMALL                                  12.12      20.44            2.48            2          2.42            2.54          0.12
 * Serious injury rate per 100 drivers of other vehicles and unprotected road users involved in collisions with vehicles from the
 given market group

 5.2.2     Comparisons with the Benchmark Rating

 Appendix 5 shows the estimated aggressivity ratings towards drivers of other vehicles and
 unprotected road users for the 397 individual vehicle models rated. Ratings ranged from a
 minimum of 0.51 serious injuries per 100 crashes for the 1998-2005 Mazda MX5 / Eunos
 Roadster to a maximum of 7.75 serious injuries per 100 crashes for the 1982-1985 Holden
 Statesman/Caprice WB.

 Figures 11 to 20 display for each of the market groups the aggressivity ratings of vehicles
 together with their 90% confidence limits. Also displayed on each graph is a line representing
 the benchmark aggressivity safety rating of 1.91% (based on the 5th percentile performance of all
 vehicles) and three lines at 2.90%, 3.86% and 4.83% representing 50% worse than the
 benchmark, 100% worse than the benchmark and 150% worse than the benchmark respectively.




 38      MONASH UNIVERSITY ACCIDENT RESEARCH CENTRE
Figure 11:                             Aggressivity Ratings for Compact Four Wheel Drive vehicles (with 90%
                                       confidence limits)

                                                                                 Compact 4WD
                         10.00%
                                                                                                  Aggressivity
                         9.00%                                                                    Benchmark
                                                                                                  Worse than benchmark + 1 increment
                         8.00%
                                                                                                  Worse than benchmark + 2 increments
                                                                                                  Worse than benchmark + 3 increments
  Agg ressivity Rating




                         7.00%


                         6.00%

                         5.00%

                         4.00%

                         3.00%


                         2.00%

                         1.00%

                         0.00%
                                   1     2      3     4     5     6      7   8     9    10        11       12    13     14    15    16     17     18    19     20

                                                                                   Make and Model


                                   1   Daihatsu Feroza / Rocky 89-97                         11        Honda CR-V 02-07
                                   2   Daihatsu Rocky / Rugger 85-98                         12        Honda HR-V 99-02
                                   3   Daihatsu Terios 97-05                                 13        Subaru Forester 97-02
                                   4   Holden Cruze 02-06                                    14        Subaru Forester 02-07
                                   5   Mitsubishi Outlander 03-06                            15        Suzuki Vitara / Escudo 88-98
                                   6   Kia Sportage 98-03                                    16        Suzuki Grand Vitara 99-05
                                   7   Ford / Mazda Escape / Tribute 01-06                   17        Holden / Suzuki Drover / Sierra / Samurai / SJ410 / SJ413 82-99
                                   8   Nissan X-Trail 01-07                                  18        Suzuki Jimny 98-07
                                   9   Lada Niva 84-99                                       19        Toyota RAV4 94-00
                                  10   Honda CR-V 97-01                                      20        Toyota RAV4 01-06




                                                                                         VEHICLE SAFETY RATINGS : 2009 UPDATE 39
Figure 12:                                      Aggressivity Ratings for Medium Four Wheel Drive vehicles (with 90%
                                                confidence limits)
                                                                                               Medium 4WD
                               9.00%


                               8.00%


                               7.00%


                               6.00%
     Ag gressi vi ty Rating




                               5.00%


                               4.00%


                               3.00%


                               2.00%
                                                              Aggressivity
                                                              Benchmark
                               1.00%                          Worse than benchmark + 1 increment
                                                              Worse than benchmark + 2 increments
                                                              Worse than benchmark + 3 increments
                               0.00%
                                            1       2     3     4     5     6     7       8     9    10   11    12   13     14    15    16    17    18    19   20

                                                                                              Make and Model

                                        1       Daewoo / Ssangong Musso 98-02                              11    Mitsubishi Challenger 98-06
                                        2       Ford Territory SX/SY 04-07                                 12    Jeep Cherokee XJ 96-00
                                        3       Holden / Isuzu Jackaroo / Bighorn 82-91                    13    Jeep Wrangler 96-04
                                        4       Holden / Isuzu Jackaroo / Bighorn 92-97                    14    Jeep Cherokee KJ 01-07
                                        5       Holden / Isuzu Jackaroo / Bighorn 98-02                    15    Land Rover Defender 92-07
                                        6       Holden Frontera / Mu 95-03                                 16    Nissan Pathfinder / Terrano 88-94
                                        7       Hyundai Santa Fe 00-06                                     17    Nissan Pathfinder / Terrano / Regulus 95-05
                                        8       Mitsubishi Pajero 82-90                                    18    Toyota Kluger 03-07
                                        9       Mitsubishi Pajero 92-99                                    19    Toyota Landcruiser Prado 96-03
                                       10       Mitsubishi Pajero NM / NP / NS 00-07                       20    Toyota Landcruiser Prado 03-07




40                            MONASH UNIVERSITY ACCIDENT RESEARCH CENTRE
Figure 13:                                 Aggressivity Ratings for Large Four Wheel Drive vehicles (with 90% confidence
                                           limits)
                                                                                  Large 4WD
                          12.00%
                                                                                                   Aggress ivity
                                                                                                   Benchmark

                          10.00%                                                                   Worse than benchmark + 1 increment
                                                                                                   Worse than benchmark + 2 increments
                                                                                                   Worse than benchmark + 3 increments

                          8.00%
  Ag gressivity Rati ng




                          6.00%




                          4.00%




                          2.00%




                          0.00%
                                       1        2      3       4       5      6     7     8            9           10   11      12       13       14   15

                                                                                    Make and Model


                                   1       BMW X5 01-07                                        9     Nissan / Ford Patrol / Maverick / Safari 88-97
                                   2       Ford Bronco 82-87                                  10     Nissan Patrol / Safari 98-07
                                   3       Ford Explorer 00-01                                11     Land Rover Range Rover 82-94
                                   4       Jeep Grand Cherokee ZG 96-99                       12     Land Rover Range Rover 95-02
                                   5       Jeep Grand Cherokee WJ/WG 99-05                    13     Toyota Landcruiser 82-89
                                   6       Land Rover Discovery 91-02                         14     Toyota Landcruiser 90-97
                                   7       Mercedes Benz M-Class W163 98-05                   15     Toyota Landcruiser 98-07
                                   8       Nissan Patrol / Safari 82-87




                                                                                         VEHICLE SAFETY RATINGS : 2009 UPDATE 41
Figure 14:                          Aggressivity Ratings for Commercial Vans (with 90% confidence limits)
                                                                                  Commercial - Vans
                       9.00%
                                    Aggressivity
                                    Benchmark
                       8.00%
                                    Worse than benchmark + 1 increment
                                    Worse than benchmark + 2 increments
                       7.00%
                                    Worse than benchmark + 3 increments

                       6.00%
 Aggressivity Rating




                       5.00%


                       4.00%


                       3.00%


                       2.00%


                       1.00%


                       0.00%
                               1    2       3      4      5       6       7   8        9     10        11      12     13     14     15    16     17    18   19
                                                                              Make and Model

                                1   Daihatsu Handivan 82-90                                       11        Honda Acty 83-86
                                2   Ford Falcon Panel Van 82-95                                   12        Holden / Suzuki Scurry / Carry 82-00
                                3   Ford Falcon Panel Van 96-99                                   13        Toyota Hiace/Liteace 82-86
                                4   Ford Transit 95-00                                            14        Toyota Hiace/Liteace 87-89
                                5   Ford Transit 01-07                                            15        Toyota Hiace/Liteace 90-95
                                6   Holden Shuttle / WFR Van 82-87                                16        Toyota Hiace/Liteace 96-04
                                7   Kia Pregio 02-06                                              17        Toyoa Hiace 05-07
                                8   Mercedes Benz MB100 / MB140 99-04                             18        Volkswagen Caravelle / Transporter 88-94
                                9   Mercedes Benz Vito / Viano 99-07                              19        Volkswagen Caravelle / Transporter 95-04
                               10   Mercedes Benz Sprinter 98-04




42                        MONASH UNIVERSITY ACCIDENT RESEARCH CENTRE
Figure 15:                               Aggressivity Ratings for Commercial Utes (with 90% confidence limits)
                   12.00%
                                                                                      Commercial - Utes                                Aggressivity
                                                                                                                                       Benchmark
                                                                                                                                       Worse than benchmark + 1 increment
                   10.00%
                                                                                                                                       Worse than benchmark + 2 increments
                                                                                                                                       Worse than benchmark + 3 increments

                        8.00%
  Aggressivity Rating




                        6.00%




                        4.00%




                        2.00%




                        0.00%
                                1    2    3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18   19   20   21   22    23   24   25   26   27   28   29   30   31   32   33


                                                                                          Make and Model


                                 1       Ford / Nissan Falcon Ute / XFN Ute 82-95                             18   Mitsubishi Triton MK 96-06
                                 2       Ford Falcon Ute 96-99                                                19   Kia Ceres 92-00
                                 3       Ford Falcon Ute AU 00-02                                             20   Ford / Mazda Courier / B-Series / Bounty 98-02
                                 4       Ford Falcon Ute BA/BF 03-07                                          21   Ford / Mazda Courier / Bravo / Bounty 03-06
                                 5       Ford Ford F-Series 82-92                                             22   Nissan 720 Ute 82-85
                                 6       Ford F-Series 01-06                                                  23   Nissan Navara 86-91
                                 7       Holden Commodore Ute VG/VP 90-93                                     24   Nissan Navara 92-96
                                 8       Holden / Isuzu Rodeo / Pickup 82-85                                  25   Nissan Navara 97-05
                                 9       Holden / Isuzu Rodeo / Pickup 86-88                                  26   Subaru Brumby 82-92
                                10       Holden / Isuzu Rodeo / Pickup 89-95                                  27   Suzuki Mighty Boy 85 -88
                                11       Holden Rodeo 96-98                                                   28   Toyota 4Runner/Hilux 82-85
                                12       Holden Rodeo 99-02                                                   29   Toyota 4Runner/Hilux 86-88
                                13       Holden WB Series 82-85                                               30   Toyota 4Runner/Hilux 89-97
                                14       Holden Commodore Ute VR/VS 94-00                                     31   Toyota Hilux 98-02
                                15       Holden Commodore VU Ute 00-02                                        32   Toyota Hilux 03-04
                                16       Holden Commodore VY/VZ Ute 02-07                                     33   Toyota Hilux 05-07
                                17       Holden Rodeo 03-07




                                                                                                         VEHICLE SAFETY RATINGS : 2009 UPDATE 43
Figure 16:                                   Aggressivity Ratings for Large cars (with 90% confidence limits)
                                                                                                                                    Large
                       16.00%

                                                                                                                                                                            Aggressivity
                       14.00%                                                                                                                                               Benchmark
                                                                                                                                                                            Worse than benchmark + 1 increment

                       12.00%                                                                                                                                               Worse than benchmark + 2 increments
                                                                                                                                                                            Worse than benchmark + 3 increments
     Aggress ivity Rating




                       10.00%


                            8.00%


                            6.00%


                            4.00%


                            2.00%


                            0.00%
                                     1   2 3 4 5       6 7 8     9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63
                                                                                                                                   Make and Model

 1                          BMW 7 Series E23 82-88                            17   Holden Statesman/Caprice WB 82-85                                    33   Mitsubishi Magna TL/TW / Verada KL/KW 03-05   49   Nissan Maxima 00 -02
 2                          BMW 7 Series E32 89-94                            18   Holden Stateman/Caprice VQ 90 -93                                    34   Mitsubishi 380 05-07                          50   Honda Legend 86-95
 3                          BMW 7 Series E38 95-01                            19   Holden Stateman/Caprice VR/VS 94-98                                  35   Jaguar XJ6 82-86                              51   Saab 9-5 98-05
 4                          Ford Falcon XE/XF 82-88                           20   Holden / Toyota Commodore VR/VS / Lexcen 93-97                       36   Jaguar XJ6 87-94                              52   Toyota Camry 98-02
 5                          Ford Fairlane Z & LTD F 82-87                     21   Holden Commodore VT/VX 97-02                                         37   Mazda 929 / Luce 82-90                        53   Toyota Crown / Cressida / Mark II 82-85
 6                          Ford Falcon EA / Falcon EB Series I 88- Mar 92    22   Holden Statesman/Caprice WH 99 -03                                   38   Mazda 929 / Sentia / Efini MS- 9 92-96        54   Toyota Crown / Cressida / Mark II 86-88
 7                          Ford Falcon EB Series II / Falcon ED Apr 92-94    23   Holden Commodore VY/VZ 02-07                                         39   Mercedes Benz E-Class W123 82 -85             55   Toyota Cressida / Mark II 89-93
 8                          Ford Fairlane N & LTD D 88-94                     24   Holden Monaro 01-05                                                  40   Mercedes Benz E-Class W124 86 -94             56   Toyota Supra 82-90
 9                          Ford Fairlane N & LTD D 95-98                     25   Holden Statesman/Caprice WK/WL 03-06                                 41   Mercedes Benz E-Class W210 96 -02             57   Lexus ES300 / Windom 92 -01
10                          Ford Fairlane & LTD AU 99-02                      26   Holden Commodore VB-VL 82-88                                         42   Mercedes Benz S-Class W126 82 -92             58   Lexus LS400 / Celsior 90-00
11                          Ford Fairlane & LTD BA/BF 03-07                   27   Holden Commodore VE 06-07                                            43   Mercedes Benz S-Class C140 93-98              59   Toyota Avalon 00-05
12                          Ford Falcon EF/EL 94-98                           28   Hyundai Sonata 89-97                                                 44   Mercedes Benz E-Class W211 02 -07             60   Toyota Camry 02-06
13                          Ford Falcon AU 98-02                              29   Hyundai Grandeaur / XG 99-00                                         45   Nissan Skyline 83-88                          61   Toyota Camry 06-07
14                          Ford Taurus 96-98                                 30   Mitsubishi Magna TM/TN/TP / Sigma / V3000 85- 90                     46   Nissan 300ZX / Fairlady Z 90-95               62   Volvo 850/S70/V70/C70 92-05
15                          Ford Falcon BA/BF 02-07                           31   Mitsubishi Magna TE/TF/TH/TJ / Verada KE/KF/KH/KJ / Diamante 96-03   47   Nissan Maxima 90-94                           63   Volvo 700/900 Series 84-92
16                          Holden / Toyota Commodore VN/VP / Lexcen 89- 93   32   Mitsubishi Magna TR/TS / Verada KR/KS / V3000 / Diamante 91-96       48   Nissan Maxima / Cefiro 95-99




44                            MONASH UNIVERSITY ACCIDENT RESEARCH CENTRE
Figure 17:                                Aggressivity Ratings for Medium cars (with 90% confidence limits)
                                                                                                                                    Medium
                        10.00%
                                                                                                                                                                                                     Aggressivity
                        9.00%
                                                                                                                                                                                                     Benchmark
                        8.00%                                                                                                                                                                        Worse than benchmark + 1 increment
                                                                                                                                                                                                     Worse than benchmark + 2 increments
                        7.00%
  Aggressivity Rating




                                                                                                                                                                                                     Worse than benchmark + 3 increments
                        6.00%

                        5.00%

                        4.00%

                        3.00%

                        2.00%

                        1.00%

                        0.00%
                                 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76

                                                                                                                                     Make and Model

 1                       Alfa Romeo 156 99-06                            20    Holden Vectra ZC 03-05                                            39    Nissan Bluebird 82-86                       58    Saab 900/9-3 94-02
 2                       Audi A4 95-01                                   21    Hyundai Sonata 98-01                                              40    Nissan Bluebird 93-97                       59    Saab 9000 86-97
 3                       Audi A4 01-07                                   22    Hyundai Sonata EF 02-05                                           41    Nissan 200SX / Silvia 94-02                 60    Subaru 1800 / Leone / Omega / 4WD Wagon 82-93
 4                       BMW Z3 E36 97-03                                23    Mitsubishi Sigma / Galant / Sapporo / Lambda 82-84                42    Honda Accord Euro 03-07                     61    Subaru Liberty / Legacy 89-93
 5                       BMW 3 Series E30 82-91                          24    Mitsubishi Galant 95-96                                           43    Honda Accord 03-07                          62    Subaru Liberty / Legacy / Outback 94-98
 6                       BMW 3 Series E36 92-98                          25    Ford / Mazda Telstar / 626 / MX6 / Capella 83-86                  44    Honda Accord 82-85                          63    Subaru Liberty / Legacy / Outback 99-03
 7                       BMW 3 Series E46 99-06                          26    Ford / Mazda Telstar / 626 / MX6 / Capella 88-91                  45    Honda Accord 86-90                          64    Subaru Liberty / Legacy / Outback 03-07
 8                       BMW 5 Series E28 82-88                          27    Ford / Mazda Telstar / 626 / MX6 / Capella / Cronos 92-97         46    Honda Accord 91-93                          65    Toyota Corona 82-88
 9                       BMW 5 Series E34 89-95                          28    Mazda 626 98-02                                                   47    Honda Accord 94-98                          66    Toyota Camry 83-86
10                       BMW 5 Series E39 96-03                          29    Mazda RX7 82-85                                                   48    Honda Accord 99-02                          67    Holden / Toyota Apollo JK/JL / Camry / Vista 88-92
                                                                                                                                                                                                         Holden / Toyota Apollo JM/JP / Camry / Sceptor 93-
 11                      Daewoo Espero 95-97                             30    Mazda RX7 86-91                                                   49    Honda Prelude 82-82                         68    97
 12                      Daewoo Leganza 97-02                            31    Mazda Eunos 500 93-99                                             50    Honda Prelude 83-91                         69    Toyota Celica 81-85
 13                      Ford Cortina 82-82                              32    Mazda 6 02-07                                                     51    Honda Prelude 92-96                         70    Toyota Celica 86-89
 14                      Ford Mondeo 95-01                               33    Mercedes Benz C-Class W201 87-93                                  52    Honda Prelude 97-02                         71    Toyota Celica 90-93
15                       Ford Probe 94-98                                34    Mercedes Benz C-Class W202 95-00                                  53    Peugeot 405 89-97                           72    Toyota Celica 94-99
16                       Ford Cougar 99-03                               35    Mercedes Benz CLK C208 97-03                                      54    Peugeot 505 82-93                           73    Toyota Celica 00-05
17                       Holden Calibra 94-97                            36    Mercedes Benz C-Class W203 00-07                                  55    Peugeot 406 96-04                           74    Lexus IS200 / IS300 99-04
18                       Holden Camira 82-89                             37    Nissan Pintara 86-88                                              56    Renault Feugo 82-87                         75    Volvo 200 Series 82-93
19                       Holden Vectra 97-03                             38    Nissan / Ford Pintara / Corsair / Bluebird 89-92                  57    Saab 900 Series 82-92                       76    Volkswagen Passat 98-06




                                                                                                                                                                                     VEHICLE SAFETY RATINGS: 2009 UPDATE 45
Figure 18:                                   Aggressivity Ratings for Small cars (with 90% confidence limits)
                                                                                                                                                                        Small
                         10.00%
                                                                   Aggressivity
                         9.00%                                     Benchmark
                                                                   Worse than benchmark + 1 increment
                         8.00%                                     Worse than benchmark + 2 increments
                                                                   Worse than benchmark + 3 increments
 Ag gressivit y Rating




                         7.00%
                         6.00%

                         5.00%
                         4.00%
                         3.00%

                         2.00%
                         1.00%

                         0.00%
                                  1 2   3   4 5   6   7 8   9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97

                                                                                                                                                                  Make and Model


 1                       Alfa Romeo 33 83-92                                             26      Hyundai Elantra 00-07                                                                  51      Nissan Pulsar / Vector / Sentra 92-95                      75      Renault 19 91-96
 2                       Alfa Romeo 75 86-92                                             27      Hyundai S Coupe 90-96                                                                  52      Nissan Pulsar / Vector / Sentra 96-99                      76      Rover Quintet 82-86
 3                       Audi A3/S3 97-04                                                28      Hyundai Lantra 91-95                                                                   53      Nissan Stanza 82-83                                        77      MG MGF / MG TF 99-05
 4                       Chrysler Neon 96-99                                             29      Hyundai Lantra 96-00                                                                   54      Nissan Gazelle / Silvia 84-86                              78      Subaru Impreza 93-00
 5                       Daihatsu Applause 89-99                                         30      Hyundai Coupe 96-00                                                                    55      Nissan Exa 83-86                                           79      Subaru Impreza 01-07
 6                       Daewoo 1.5i 94-95                                               31      Hyundai Accent 00 -06                                                                  56      Nissan Exa 87-91                                           80      Suzuki Baleno / Cultus Crescent 95-02
 7                       Daewoo Cielo 95-97                                              32      Mitsubishi Lancer / Mirage CA 89-90                                                    57      Nissan NX/NX-R 91-96                                       81      Suzuki Liana 01-07
 8                       Daewoo Nubira 97-03                                             33      Mitsubishi Lancer / Mirage CB 91-92                                                    58      Nissan Pulsar 00-05                                        82      Toyota Corolla 82-84
 9                       Daewoo Lanos 97- 03                                             34      Mitsubishi Lancer / Mirage CC 93- 95                                                   59      Honda Civic 82-83                                          83      Toyota Corolla 86-88
10                       Ford Laser 91-94                                                35      Mitsubishi Lancer / Mirage CE 96-03                                                    60      Honda Civic / Ballade / Shuttle 84-87                      84      Toyota / Holden Corolla / Nova 89-93
11                       Ford Laser 95-97                                                36      Mitsubishi Cordia 83-87                                                                61      Honda Civic / Shuttle 88-91                                85      Toyota / Holden Corolla / Nova 94-97
12                       Ford Escort 82-82                                               37      Mitsubishi Lancer CH / CJ 03-07                                                        62      Honda Civic 92-95                                          86      Toyota Corolla / Allex 98-01
13                       Ford Capri 89-94                                                38      Kia Rio 00-05                                                                          63      Honda Civic 96-00                                          87      Toyota Corolla 02-07
14                       Ford Focus LR 02-05                                             39      Kia Spectra 01-04                                                                      64      Honda CRX 87-91                                            88      Toyota Tercel 83-88
15                       Ford Focus LS / LT 05-07                                        40      Ford / Mazda Laser / 323 / Familia 82-88                                               65      Honda CRX 92-98                                            89      Toyota MR2 87-90
16                       Fiat Regata 84-88                                               41      Mazda 323 / Familia / Lantis 90-93                                                     66      Honda Civic 01-05                                          90      Toyota Paseo / Cynos 91-99
17                       Holden Gemini 82-84                                             42      Mazda 323 / Familia / Lantis 95-98                                                     67      Honda Integra 86-88                                        91      Toyota Corolla 4WD Wagon 92-96
18                       Holden Gemini RB 86-87                                          43      Ford / Mazda Laser / 323 99-03                                                         68      Honda Integra 90-92                                        92      Volvo S40/V40 97-04
19                       Holden Astra TR 96-98                                           44      Mazda MX5 / Eunos Roadster 89-97                                                       69      Honda Integra 93-01                                        93      Volkswagen Golf 82-94
20                       Holden Astra TS 98-06                                           45      Mazda MX5 / Eunos Roadster 98-05                                                       70      Honda Integra 02-06                                        94      Volkswagen Golf 95-98
21                       Holden Astra AH 04-07                                           46      Mazda Eunos 30X / Presso / MX-3 / Autozam AZ-3 90-97                                   71      Honda Concerto 89-93                                       95      Volkswagen Golf / Bora 99-04
22                       Holden Viva JF 05-07                                            47      Mazda 3 / Axela 03-07                                                                  72      Peugeot 306 94-01                                          96      Volkswagen New Beetle 00-07
23                       Hyundai Excel 86-90                                             48      Mercedes Benz A- Class W168 98-04                                                      73      Peugeot 307 01-07                                          97      Volkswagen Golf / Jetta 04-07
24                       Hyundai Excel 90-94                                             49      Holden / Nissan Astra / Pulsar / Langley 84-86                                         74      Proton Wira 95-96
25                       Hyundai Excel / Accent 95-00                                    50      Holden / Nissan Astra / Pulsar / Vector / Sentra 88-90




46                         MONASH UNIVERSITY ACCIDENT RESEARCH CENTRE
Figure 19:                           Aggressivity Ratings for Light cars (with 90% confidence limits)
                                                                                                                    Light
                   8.00%
                                                                                                                           Aggressivity

                   7.00%                                                                                                   Benchmark
                                                                                                                           Worse than benchmark + 1 increment
                                                                                                                           Worse than benchmark + 2 increments
                   6.00%
                                                                                                                           Worse than benchmark + 3 increments
 Aggressi vity Rating




                   5.00%



                   4.00%



                   3.00%



                   2.00%



                   1.00%



                   0.00%
                             1   2     3    4    5    6       7   8   9   10   11   12   13   14   15    16    17     18      19    20    21   22   23   24     25   26   27   28   29    30    31    32    33    34    35     36

                                                                                                         Make and Model

                         1   Daihatsu Charade 82-86                                      14   Hyundai Getz / TB 02-07                                                     26   Suzuki Swift 82-85
                         2   Daihatsu Charade 88-92                                      15   Mitsubishi Mirage / Colt 82-88                                              27   Holden / Suzuki Barina / Swift / Cultus 86-88
                         3   Daihatsu Charade 93-00                                      16   Ford / Mazda Festiva WA / 121 87-90                                         28   Holden / Suzuki Barina / Swift / Cultus 89-99
                         4   Daihatsu Pyzar 97-01                                        17   Mazda 121 / Autozam Review 94-96                                            29   Suzuki Hatch / Alto 82-84
                         5   Daihatsu Sirion / Storia 98-04                              18   Mazda 121 Metro / Demio 97-02                                               30   Suzuki Alto 85-00
                         6   Daihatsu Mira 90 -96                                        19   Mazda 2 02-07                                                               31   Suzuki Ignis 00-02
                         7   Daewoo Matiz 99 -04                                         20   Nissan Micra 95-97                                                          32   Suzuki Swift 05-07
                         8   Daewoo Kalos 03 -04                                         21   Honda Jazz / Fit 02-07                                                      33   Toyota Starlet 96-99
                         9   Ford Festiva WD/WH/WF 94-01                                 22   Honda City 83-86                                                            34   Toyota Echo 99-05
                        10   Ford Ka 99 -02                                              23   Peugeot 205 87-94                                                           35   Toyota Yaris 05 -07
                        11   Holden Barina XC 01-06                                      24   Peugeot 206 99-07                                                           36   Volkswagen Polo 96-00
                        12   Holden Barina SB 95-00                                      25   Subaru Sherpa / Fiori / 700 / Rex 89-92
                        13   Holden Bari na TK 05-07




                                                                                                                                                                 VEHICLE SAFETY RATINGS: 2009 UPDATE 47
Figure 20:                             Aggressivity Ratings for People Movers (with 90% confidence limits)
                                                                                    People Mover
                       10.00%
                                                          Aggressivity
                        9.00%                             Benchmark
                                                          Worse than benchmark + 1 increment
                        8.00%                             Worse than benchmark + 2 increments
                                                          Worse than benchmark + 3 increments
                        7.00%
 Aggressivity Rating




                        6.00%


                        5.00%


                        4.00%


                        3.00%


                        2.00%


                        1.00%


                        0.00%
                                  1     2      3      4        5         6   7       8        9    10          11   12      13     14     15     16     17   18
                                                                                         Make and Model

                                  1   Chrysler Voyager 97-01                                              10    Kia Carnival 99-06
                                  2   Holden Zafira TT 01-05                                              11    Mazda MPV 94-99
                                  3   Mitsubishi Nimbus / Chariot / Spacewagon 85-91                      12    Nissan Prairie 84-86
                                  4   Mitsubishi Nimbus / Chariot 92-98                                   13    Nissan Serena 92 -95
                                  5   Mitsubishi Nimbus 99-03                                             14    Honda Odyssey 95-00
                                  6   Mitsubishi Starwagon / L300 83-86                                   15    Honda Odyssey 00-02
                                  7   Mitsubishi Starwagon / Delica Starwagon 87-93                       16    Toyota Tarago 83-89
                                  8   Mitsubishi Starwagon / Delica Spacegear 95-98                       17    Toyota Tarago / Previa / Estima 91-99
                                  9   Mitsubishi Starwagon / Delica Spacegear 98-03                       18    Toyota Tarago / Previa / Estima 00-06




5.2.3                           Relationship between Aggressivity and Crashworthiness

In assessing the British vehicle safety indices, Broughton (1996) found a strong inverse
relationship between the indices for crashworthiness and aggressivity. Figure 21 shows the
aggressivity measure plotted against crashworthiness for those vehicle models with both ratings.
As Figure 21 shows, the inverse relationship between the two measures is not particularly strong.
The dotted lines in Figure 21 represent the average aggressivity and crashworthiness of the
vehicles assessed. Points in the lower left quadrant defined by the dotted lines represent vehicles
with relatively low aggressivity as well as good (low) estimated crashworthiness. This area is
populated by a number of small and medium vehicle models as well as some compact 4WDs. In
contrast, vehicle models in the upper right quadrant of Figure 21 defined by the dotted lines
show relatively poor crashworthiness and high aggressivity. There are a number of commercial
vans and utilities in this quadrant along with some small vehicle models, people movers and
compact 4WDs. The remaining two quadrants are populated with vehicles that only perform well
on either crashworthiness or aggressivity measures. Light cars tend to have low aggressivity but
also poor crashworthiness whilst large and medium 4WDs tend to exhibit converse traits.

Absence of a strong relationship between the measures of aggressivity and crashworthiness
confirms that the two quantities considered here are measuring two different aspects of a
vehicle’s safety performance. Whilst one would expect some relationship between the two
measures given their common but opposite relationships with mass (Broughton, 1996; Cameron
et al 1998), the lack of a strong relationship suggests vehicle mass is only playing a small part in
aggressivity rating relative to vehicle total safety design. The independence of these two

48                        MONASH UNIVERSITY ACCIDENT RESEARCH CENTRE
measures does not seem to have been achieved to the same degree under other systems
(Broughton, 1996).

Figure 21:                          Estimated Vehicle Aggressivity towards Other Drivers and Unprotected Road
                                    Users vs. Crashworthiness Rating

                                     9.00%

                                     8.00%

                                     7.00%
             A ggressivity Rating




                                     6.00%

                                     5.00%

                                     4.00%

                                     3.00%

                                     2.00%

                                     1.00%

                                     0.00%
                                         0.00%      2.00%       4.00%    6.00%     8.00%        10.00%      12.00%
                                                                 Crashworthiness Rating


                  4WD - Compact                  4WD - Medium      4WD - Large       Commercial - Van    Commercial - Ute
                  Large                          Medium            People Mover      Light               Small




5.3     Vehicle Total Secondary Safety Rating


5.3.1   Injury Risk

Total secondary safety injury risk was estimated from the data on 4,726,829 road users involved
in tow-away crashes in New South Wales, Queensland and Western Australia during 1987-2007
(as described in Section 2). This data set is referred to as the "involved road users". Because of
missing values in one or more of the covariates road user sex and age, speed zone and number of
vehicles involved in the crash amongst the 4,726,829 involved road users and vehicle models of
interest, the final file used for analysis consisted of the 2,736,290 road users for which all the
covariate data was complete. Of these road users 445,613 were injured. The "covariate" model
for injury risk was determined from the variables described in Section 4.3.

The following terms were significantly associated with injury risk and were included in the
logistic model:




                                                                                 VEHICLE SAFETY RATINGS : 2009 UPDATE 49
          Base effect terms   First order interactions      Second order interactions
          Sex                 Speedzone*Crashtyp          Age*Speedzone*Nveh
          Speedzone           Sex*Age                     Sex*Year*Nveh
          Age                 State*Year                  Speedzone*State*Crashtyp
          Nveh                Year*Nveh                   Age*State*Crashtyp
          State               Age*State                   Sex*State*Year
          Year (of crash)     Age*Crashtyp                Sex*State*Crashtyp
          Crashtyp            Speedzone*State             State*Year*Nveh
                              Sex*Crashtyp                Speedzone*State*Year
                              State*Crashtyp              Speedzone*Year*Nveh
                              Age*Speedzone               Age*Speedzone*State
                              Sex*State                   Age*Speedzone*Year
                              Age*Year                    Sex*Speedzone*Year
                              Sex*Year                    Sex*Speedzone*Nveh
                              Speedzone*Year              Age*Sex*Year
                              State*Nveh
                              Speedzone*Nveh
                              Age*Nveh
                              Sex*Nveh
                              Sex*Speedzone

No other term significantly improved the fit of the logistic model.

The overall (average) injury risk for light vehicle drivers or unprotected road users involved in
tow-away crashes in NSW, Western Australia and Queensland was 16.29 per 100 involved. In
other words, the average probability that a light vehicle driver or unprotected road user was
injured in a tow-away crash involving a light passenger vehicle in NSW, Western Australia or
Queensland was 16.29%.

Appendix 6 gives the estimates of total secondary safety injury risk derived by logistic regression
for 484 individual car models. Injury risk ranged from 6.10% for the 1986-1994 Citroen BX to
32.72% for the 1982-1990 Daihatsu Hi Jet.

An estimate of the variability in the injury risk estimates was calculated from the width of the
corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Individual confidence interval widths ranged from
0.58% for the 1989-1993 Holden Commodore VN/VP and Toyota Lexcen and 1993-1997
Holden Commodore VR/VS and Toyota Lexcen to 16.97% for the 1985-1989 Subaru Vortex.
The small variability for the Commodore/Toyota VN/VP/Lexcen and Commodore/Toyota
VR/VS/Lexcen sedans is not surprising since there were more cars of these models than any
others in the data set and precision is known to improve with increasing sample size.

The estimated injury risk for each market group is also given in Appendix 6. The medium four
wheel drive market group had the lowest injury risk (14.56%) and the light car market group had
the highest (18.39%).

5.3.2    Injury Severity

The data on "injured road users" covered 816,644 road users of 1982-2007 model vehicles who
were injured in crashes in Victoria, NSW, Western Australia, Queensland or New Zealand

50      MONASH UNIVERSITY ACCIDENT RESEARCH CENTRE
during 1987-2007 (as described in Section 2). Because of missing values in one or more of the
covariates amongst the 816,644 injured road users, the final file used for analysis consisted of the
585,607 road users for which all the covariate data was complete. Of these road users 125,342
were seriously injured. The "covariate" model for injury severity was determined from the
variables described in Section 4.3.

The following terms were significantly associated with injury severity and were included in the
logistic model:

         Base effect terms      First order interactions        Second order interaction
        Sex                   Age*Sex                          Speedzone*State*Year
        Speedzone             Age*Crashtype                    State*Year*Crashtype
        Age                   State*Nveh                       Age*State*Year
        State                 Speedzone*State                  Age*State*Nveh
        Year                  Age*State                        Speedzone*State*Crashtype
        Crashtype             Age*Nveh
        Nveh                  State*Year
                              Speedzone*Year
                              Speedzone*Crashtype
                              Sex*State
                              Sex*Nveh
                              Age*Year
                              Year*Crashtype
                              State*Crashtype
                              Sex*Crashtype

No other term significantly improved the fit of the logistic model.

The overall (average) injury severity for injured light vehicle drivers or unprotected road users in
the data analysed was 21.40 per 100 involved. In other words, the probability that a road user
injured in a crash was severely injured was 21.40%. Appendix 6 gives the estimates of injury
severity derived by logistic regression for 484 individual car models, or sets of combined
models. Of the cars analysed, injury severity ranged from 2.92% for the 2005-2007 Nissan
Pathfinder to 47.13% for the 1982-1984 Alfa Romeo GTV.

An estimate of the variability in the estimates of injury severity was calculated from the width of
the corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Individual confidence interval widths ranged from
1.44% for the 1982-88 Ford Laser and Mazda 323 / Familia to 43.70% for the 1985-1988 Alpha
Romeo 90.

The estimated injury severity for each market group is also given in Appendix 6. Compact four
wheel drive vehicles performed best with respect to injury severity, having the lowest average
injury severity of 20.27%. The large four wheel drive car market group had the highest average
injury severity of 23.91%.

5.3.3   Total secondary safety index

The total secondary safety index for each car model and market group was obtained by
multiplying the individual injury risk and injury severity estimates. Because each of the two


                                                    VEHICLE SAFETY RATINGS : 2009 UPDATE 51
components had been adjusted for the confounding factors, the resultant total secondary safety
index was also adjusted for the influence of these factors.

Total secondary safety indices were obtained for each individual model and market group after
adjusting for the confounding factors.

Appendix 6 gives the total secondary safety secondary index and the associated 90% confidence
intervals for each of the 484 car models included in the analyses. Each rating is expressed as a
percentage, representing the number of road users killed or admitted to hospital per 100 light
vehicle drivers or unprotected road users involved in a tow-away focus crash. Overall ratings for
the market groups are also given.

Each total secondary safety rating is an estimate of the true risk of a light vehicle driver or
unprotected road user being killed or admitted to hospital in a tow-away crash and, as such, each
estimate has a level of uncertainty about it. This uncertainty is indicated by the confidence limits
in Appendix 6. There is 95% probability that the confidence interval will cover the true risk of
serious injury (death or hospital admission) to the light vehicle driver or unprotected road user
involved in a crash with the particular model of vehicle.

Table 6 gives a summary of the estimated ratings for each of the 10 defined vehicle market
groups. It shows the estimated injury risk and severity components, and the resulting total
secondary safety index with upper and lower 95% confidence limits, and the width of the 95%
confidence limit. The relative ranking of the total secondary safety index on each market group is
also given in Table 6 although this should be interpreted with care as there is not necessarily a
statistically significant difference between the average total secondary safety of vehicle market
groups with different rankings. Statistical significance in average total secondary safety between
market groups at the 5% level is only achieved when the 95% confidence limits do not overlap.
Similar comments apply to interpreting results in Appendix 6.

Table 6:           Estimated Vehicle Total Secondary Safety by Market Grouping
           Market Group               Injury     Injury        Total       Overall   Lower 95%    Upper 95% Width of
                                       risk     severity    Secondary       rank     Confidence   Confidence Confidence
                                       (%)        (%)      Safety Index*   order        limit       limit     interval

Overall Average                       16.29      21.40         3.49
COMPACT FOUR WHEEL DRIVE              16.33      20.27         3.31           4         3.17        3.45        0.28
MEDIUM FOUR WHEEL DRIVE               14.56      21.59         3.14           1         2.99        3.30        0.31
LARGE FOUR WHEEL DRIVE                15.01      23.91         3.59           7         3.47        3.71        0.23
COMMERCIAL - VAN                      17.49      21.72         3.80           9         3.65        3.95        0.29
COMMERCIAL - UTE                      15.68      22.57         3.54           6         3.46        3.62        0.16
LARGE                                 15.64      20.88         3.27           2         3.22        3.31        0.09
MEDIUM                                16.03      20.54         3.29           3         3.24        3.35        0.11
PEOPLE MOVERS                         17.15      21.12         3.62           8         3.47        3.78        0.30
LIGHT                                 18.39      21.19         3.90          10         3.81        3.98        0.17
SMALL                                 16.88      20.44         3.45           5         3.40        3.50        0.11
      Serious injury rate per 100 road users involved

Table 6 shows medium four wheel drives to have the highest total secondary safety with an
average of 3.14 light vehicle drivers or unprotected road users being killed or seriously injured
for every 100 tow-away crashes. Similarly, light cars have the lowest total secondary safety with
an average total secondary safety index of 3.90.


52     MONASH UNIVERSITY ACCIDENT RESEARCH CENTRE
5.3.4                          Comparisons with the Benchmark Rating

As for the crashworthiness and aggressivity rating, the new rating presentation was used which
classifies vehicles according to where their rating lies in relation to a best performance
benchmark was also used for the total secondary safety index. The benchmark rating in this
update was defined as the rating above which 5% of the rating point estimates were better (see
Section 5.4). The point against which ratings for individual vehicles are compared is arbitrary,
whether it is the average used in previous updates or the benchmark rating described above or
some other point.

Figures 22 to 31 display for each of the market groups the total safety ratings of vehicles together
with their 90% confidence limits. Also displayed on each graph is a line representing the
benchmark total secondary safety rating of 1.91% and three lines at 2.87%, 3.82% and 4.78%
representing at least 50% worse than the benchmark, at least 100% worse than the benchmark
and at least 150% worse than the benchmark respectively.

Figure 22:                               Total Secondary Safety for Compact Four Wheel Drive vehicles (with 90%
                                         confidence limits)
                                                                                        Compact 4WD


                           12.00%
                                                                                                                            Total Secondary Safety
                                                                                                                            Benchmark
                           10.00%                                                                                           Worse than benchmark + 1 increment
                                                                                                                            Worse than benchmark + 2 increments
  Total Secondary Safety




                                                                                                                            Worse than benchmark + 3 increments
                           8.00%




                           6.00%




                           4.00%




                           2.00%




                           0.00%
                                    1    2   3    4     5    6    7    8       9   10    11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18    19    20   21      22   23   24   25


                                                                                         Make and Model

                                     1   Daihatsu Feroza / Rocky 89-97                             14   Honda CR-V 02-07
                                     2   Daihatsu Rocky / Rugger 85-98                             15   Honda HR-V 99-02
                                     3   Daihatsu Terios 97-05                                     16   Land Rover Freelander 98-06
                                     4   Holden Cruze 02-06                                        17   Subaru Forester 97-02
                                     5   Hyundai Tucson 04-07                                      18   Subaru Forester 02-07
                                     6   Mitsubishi Pajero iO 99-03                                19   Suzuki Vitara / Escudo 88-98
                                     7   Mitsubishi Outlander 03-06                                20   Suzuki Grand Vitara 99-05
                                     8   Kia Sportage 98-03                                        21   Holden / Suzuki Drover / Sierra / Samurai / SJ410 / SJ413 82-99
                                     9   Kia Sorento 03-07                                         22   Suzuki Jimny 98-07
                                    10   Ford / Mazda Escape / Tribute 01-06                       23   Toyota RAV4 94-00
                                    11   Nissan X-Trail 01-07                                      24   Toyota RAV4 01-06
                                    12   Lada Niva 84-99                                           25   Toyota RAV4 06-07
                                    13   Honda CR-V 97-01




                                                                                                   VEHICLE SAFETY RATINGS : 2009 UPDATE 53
Figure 23:                                  Total Secondary Safety for Medium Four Wheel Drive vehicles (with 90%
                                            confidence limits)
                                                                                           Medium 4WD


                           9.00%
                                                                                                                                 Total Secondary Safety
                           8.00%                                                                                                 Benchmark
                                                                                                                                 Wors e than benchmark + 1 increment
                           7.00%
 Tota l Secondary Safety




                                                                                                                                 Wors e than benchmark + 2 increments
                           6.00%                                                                                                 Wors e than benchmark + 3 increments

                           5.00%

                           4.00%

                           3.00%

                           2.00%

                           1.00%

                           0.00%
                                   1    2       3    4    5    6     7    8    9      10   11      12   13   14   15   16   17     18     19    20        21   22   23   24   25

                                                                                                Make and Model


                                    1       Daewoo / Ssangong Musso 98-02                                    14   Jeep Cherokee XJ 96-00
                                    2       Ford Territory SX/SY 04-07                                       15   Jeep Wrangler 96-04
                                    3       Holden / Isuzu Jackaroo / Bighorn 82-91                          16   Jeep Cherokee KJ 01-07
                                    4       Holden / Isuzu Jackaroo / Bighorn 92-97                          17   Land Rover Defender 92-07
                                    5       Holden / Isuzu Jackaroo / Bighorn 98-02                          18   Nissan Pathfinder / Terrano 88 -94
                                    6       Holden Frontera / Mu 95-03                                       19   Nissan Pathfinder / Terrano / Regulus 95-05
                                    7       Holden Adventra 03-06                                            20   Nissan Pathfinder 05 -07
                                    8       Hyundai Santa Fe 00-06                                           21   Toyota Kluger 03-07
                                    9       Hyundai Terracan 01-07                                           22   Toyota Landcruiser Prado 96-03
                                   10       Mitsubishi Pajero 82-90                                          23   Toyota Landcruiser Prado 03-07
                                   11       Mitsubishi Pajero 92-99                                          24   Lexus RX330 03-05
                                   12       Mitsubishi Pajero NM / NP / NS 00-07                             25   Volvo XC 90 03-07
                                   13       Mitsubishi Challenger 98-06




54                          MONASH UNIVERSITY ACCIDENT RESEARCH CENTRE
Figure 24:     Total Secondary Safety for Large Four Wheel Drive vehicles (with 90%
confidence limits)
                                                                                Large 4WD


                             9.00%
                                                                                                 Total Secondary Safety
                             8.00%
                                                                                                 Benchmark
                             7.00%                                                               Worse than benchmark + 1 increment
  To tal S econdary Safety




                                                                                                 Worse than benchmark + 2 increments
                             6.00%                                                               Worse than benchmark + 3 increments
                             5.00%

                             4.00%

                             3.00%

                             2.00%

                             1.00%

                             0.00%
                                     1      2     3      4      5      6    7     8     9        10      11       12      13      14      15        16   17

                                                                                Make and Model

                                     1   BMW X5 01-07                                       10    Nissan Patrol / Safari 82-87
                                     2   Ford Bronco 82-87                                  11    Nissan / Ford Patrol / Maverick / Safari 88 -97
                                     3   Ford Explorer 00-01                                12    Nissan Patrol / Safari 98-07
                                     4   Ford Explorer 01-05                                13    Land Rover Range Rover 82-94
                                     5   Jeep Grand Cherokee ZG 96-99                       14    Land Rover Range Rover 95-02
                                     6   Jeep Grand Cherokee WJ/WG 99-05                    15    Toyota Landcruiser 82-89
                                     7   Land Rover Discovery 91-02                         16    Toyota Landcruiser 90-97
                                     8   Land Rover Discovery 02-04                         17    Toyota Landcruiser 98-07
                                     9   Mercedes Benz M-Class W163 98-05




                                                                                       VEHICLE SAFETY RATINGS : 2009 UPDATE 55
Figure 25:                                 Total Secondary Safety for Commercial Vans (with 90% confidence limits)
                                                                                   Commercial- Vans


                             14.00%
                                                                                                                               Total Secondary Safety
                                                                                                                               Benchmark
                             12.00%
                                                                                                                               Worse than benchmark + 1 increment
                                                                                                                               Worse than benchmark + 2 increments
  Total Secondary Sa fe ty




                             10.00%                                                                                            Worse than benchmark + 3 increments


                              8.00%


                              6.00%


                              4.00%


                              2.00%


                              0.00%
                                       1    2     3    4    5    6    7        8   9   10    11    12    13    14   15    16      17     18     19      20   21      22

                                                                                       Make and Model


                                       1   Daihatsu Handivan 82-90                                12    Mercedes Benz Sprinter 98-04
                                       2   Daihatsu Hi-Jet 82-90                                  13    Honda Acty 83-86
                                       3   Daihatsu Handivan / Cuore 99-03                        14    Holden / Suzuki Scurry / Carry 82-00
                                       4   Ford Falcon Panel Van 82-95                            15    Suzuki Carry 99-05
                                       5   Ford Falcon Panel Van 96-99                            16    Toyota Hiace/Liteace 82-86
                                       6   Ford Transit 95-00                                     17    Toyota Hiace/Liteace 87-89
                                       7   Ford Transit 01-07                                     18    Toyota Hiace/Liteace 90-95
                                       8   Holden Shuttle / WFR Van 82-87                         19    Toyota Hiace/Liteace 96-04
                                       9   Kia Pregio 02-06                                       20    Toyoa Hiace 05-07
                                      10   Mercedes Benz MB100 / MB140 99-04                      21    Volkswagen Caravelle / Transporter 88-94
                                      11   Mercedes Benz Vito / Viano 99-07                       22    Volkswagen Caravelle / Transporter 95-04




56                            MONASH UNIVERSITY ACCIDENT RESEARCH CENTRE
Figure 26:                                      Total Secondary Safety for Commercial Utes (with 90% confidence limits)
                                                                                                      Commercial- Utes


                           9.00%
                                                Total Secondary Safety
                           8.00%                Benchmark
                                                Worse than benchmark + 1 increment
                           7.00%
 Total Seconda ry Safety




                                                Worse than benchmark + 2 increments
                                                Worse than benchmark + 3 increments
                           6.00%

                           5.00%

                           4.00%

                           3.00%

                           2.00%

                           1.00%

                           0.00%
                                   1    2   3    4    5    6   7    8    9   10   11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18   19   20   21   22   23   24   25   26   27   28   29   30   31   32   33   34   35   36

                                                                                                           Make and Model

                                        1   Ford / Nissan Falcon Ute / XFN Ute 82-95                                       19       Kia K2700 02-07
                                        2   Ford Falcon Ute 96-99                                                          20       Ford / Mazda Courier / B-Series / Bounty 98-02
                                        3   Ford Falcon Ute AU 00-02                                                       21       Ford / Mazda Courier / Bravo / Bounty 03-06
                                        4   Ford Falcon Ute BA/BF 03-07                                                    22       Nissan 720 Ute 82-85
                                        5   Ford Ford F-Series 82-92                                                       23       Nissan Navara 86-91
                                        6   Ford F-Series 01-06                                                            24       Nissan Navara 92-96
                                        7   Holden Commodore Ute VG/VP 90-93                                               25       Nissan Navara 97-05
                                        8   Holden / Isuzu Rodeo / Pickup 82-85                                            26       Nissan Navara 05-07
                                        9   Holden / Isuzu Rodeo / Pickup 86-88                                            27       Proton Jumbuck 03-07
                                       10   Holden / Isuzu Rodeo / Pickup 89-95                                            28       Subaru Brumby 82-92
                                       11   Holden Rodeo 96-98                                                             29       Suzuki Mighty Boy 85 -88
                                       12   Holden Rodeo 99-02                                                             30       Toyota 4Runner/Hilux 82-85
                                       13   Holden WB Series 82-85                                                         31       Toyota 4Runner/Hilux 86-88
                                       14   Holden Commodore Ute VR/VS 94-00                                               32       Toyota 4Runner/Hilux 89-97
                                       15   Holden Commodore VU Ute 00-02                                                  33       Toyota Hilux 98-02
                                       16   Holden Commodore VY/VZ Ute 02-07                                               34       Toyota Hilux 03-04
                                       17   Holden Rodeo 03-07                                                             35       Toyota Hilux 05-07
                                       18   Mitsubishi Triton MK 96-06                                                     36       Kia K2700 02-07




                                                                                                                      VEHICLE SAFETY RATINGS : 2009 UPDATE 57
Figure 27:                                 Total Secondary Safety for Large cars (with 90% confidence limits)

                                                                                                                                               Large Cars

                                12.00%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Total Seco ndary Safety
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Benchmark

                                10.00%                                                                                                                                                                                              Wo rse than benchmark +1increment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Wo rse than benchmark +2 increments
     Total Sec ondary Sa fety




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Wo rse than benchmark +3 increments
                                 8.00%


                                 6.00%


                                 4.00%


                                 2.00%


                                 0.00%
                                         1 2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76

                                                                                                                                                Make and Model



 1           BMW 7 Series E23 82- 88                                                  20    Holden / Toyota Commodore VR/VS / Lexcen 93-97                             39     Jaguar S-Type 99-07                            58     Honda Legend 96-98
 2           BMW 7 Series E32 89- 94                                                  21    Holden Commodore VT/VX 97-02                                               40     Mazda 929 / Luce 82-90                         59     Rover 3500 82-87
 3           BMW 7 Series E38 95- 01                                                  22    Holden Statesman/Caprice WH 99 -03                                         41     Mazda 929 / Sentia / Efini MS-9 92-96          60     Saab 9-5 98-05
 4           Ford Falcon XE/XF 82-88                                                  23    Holden Commodore VY/VZ 02-07                                               42     Mercedes Benz E-Class W123 82 -85              61     Toyota Camry 98-02
 5           Ford Fairlane Z & LTD F 82-87                                            24    Holden Monaro 01-05                                                        43     Mercedes Benz E-Class W124 86 -94              62     Toyota Crown / Cressida / Mark II 82-85
 6           Ford Falcon EA / Falcon EB Series I 88-Mar 92                            25    Holden Statesman/Caprice WK/WL 03-06                                       44     Mercedes Benz E-Class W210 96 -02              63     Toyota Crown / Cressida / Mark II 86-88
 7           Ford Falcon EB Series II / Falcon ED Apr 92-94                           26    Holden Commodore VB-VL 82-88                                               45     Mercedes Benz S-Class W126 82 -92              64     Toyota Cressida / Mark II 89-93
 8           Ford Fairlane N & LTD D 88-94                                            27    Holden Commodore VE 06-07                                                  46     Mercedes Benz S-Class R129 93-02               65     Toyota Supra 82-90
 9           Ford Fairlane N & LTD D 95-98                                            28    Hyundai Sonata 89 -97                                                      47     Mercedes Benz S-Class C140 93-98               66     Lexus ES300 / Windom 92-01
10           Ford Fairlane & LTD AU 99-02                                             29    Hyundai Grandeaur / XG 99-00                                               48     Mercedes Benz S-Class W220 99 -06              67     Lexus LS400 / Celsior 90-00
11           Ford Fairlane & LTD BA/BF 03-07                                          30    Mitsubishi Magna TM/TN/TP / Sigma / V3000 85-90                            49     Mercedes Benz E-Class W211 02 -07              68     Lexus GS300 97-04
12           Ford Falcon EF/EL 94-98                                                  31    Mitsubishi Magna TE/TF/TH/TJ / Verada KE/KF/KH/KJ / Diamante 96-03         50     Nissan Skyline 83-88                           69     Toyota Avalon 00-05
13           Ford Falcon AU 98-02                                                     32    Mitsubishi Magna TR/TS / Verada KR/KS / V3000 / Diamante 91-96             51     Nissan 300ZX / Fairlady Z 90-95                70     Toyota Camry 02-06
14           Ford Taurus 96-98                                                        33    Mitsubishi Magna TL/TW / Verada KL/KW 03-05                                52     Nissan Maxima 90-94                            71     Toyota Aurion 06-07
15           Ford Falcon BA/BF 02-07                                                  34    Mitsubishi 380 05-07                                                       53     Nissan Maxima / Cefiro 95-99                   72     Toyota Camry 06-07
16           Holden / Toyota Commodore VN/VP / Lexcen 89-93                           35    Jaguar XJ6 82-86                                                           54     Nissan Maxima 00-02                            73     Volvo 850/S70/V70/C70 92-05
17           Holden Statesman/Caprice WB 82-85                                        36    Jaguar XJ6 87-94                                                           55     Nissan 300C / Laurel 85-87                     74     Volvo 700/900 Series 84-92
18           Holden Stateman/Caprice VQ 90-93                                         37    Jaguar XJ6 95-97                                                           56     Nissan Maxima 06-07                            75     Volvo 960/S90/V90 90-98
19           Holden Stateman/Caprice VR/VS 94-98                                      38    Jaguar XJS 82-96                                                           57     Honda Legend 86-95                             76     Volvo S80 98-06




58                              MONASH UNIVERSITY ACCIDENT RESEARCH CENTRE
Figure 28:                                        Total Secondary Safety for Medium cars (with 90% confidence limits)

                                                                                                                                                                                      Medium Cars

                                 12.00%                                                                                                                                                                                              To tal Seco ndary Safety
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     B enchmark
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Wo rse than benchmark +1increment
                                 10.00%                                                                                                                                                                                              Wo rse than benchmark +2 increments
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Wo rse than benchmark +3 increments
     T ot al Secon dary Safety




                                 8.00%



                                 6.00%


                                 4.00%



                                 2.00%



                                 0.00%
                                          1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9    10 11 12 13 14   15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28   29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84   85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98

                                                                                                                                                                                         Make and Model


1                           Alfa Romeo 164 89-92                          21        Ford Cortina 82-82                                                    41      Mazda RX7 86-91                                       61          Honda Accord 03-07                                 81          Subaru 1800 / Leone / Omega / 4WD Wagon 82-93
2                           Alfa Romeo 156 99-06                          22        Ford Mondeo 95-01                                                     42      Mazda RX7 92-98                                       62          Honda Accord 82-85                                 82          Subaru Liberty / Legacy 89-93
3                           Alfa Romeo 147 01-07                          23        Ford Probe 94- 98                                                     43      Mazda Eunos 500 93-99                                 63          Honda Accord 86-90                                 83          Subaru Liberty / Legacy / Outback 94-98
4                           Audi A4 95-01                                 24        Ford Cougar 99-03                                                     44      Mazda Eunos 800 94-00                                 64          Honda Accord 91-93                                 84          Subaru Liberty / Legacy / Outback 99-03
5                           Audi TT 99-06                                 25        Holden Calibra 94-97                                                  45      Mazda 6 02-07                                         65          Honda Accord 94-98                                 85          Subaru Liberty / Legacy / Outback 03-07
6                           Audi A4 01-07                                 26        Holden Camira 82-89                                                   46      Mazda RX8 03-07                                       66          Honda Accord 99-02                                 86          Toyota Corona 82 -88
7                           BMW Z3 E36 97 -03                             27        Holden Vectra 97-03                                                   47      Mercedes Benz C-Class W201 87-93                      67          Honda Prelude 82-8 2                               87          Toyota Camry 83-86
8                           BMW 5 Series E60 03-07                        28        Holden Vectra ZC 03-05                                                48      Mercedes Benz C-Class W202 95-00                      68          Honda Prelude 83-91                                88          Holden / Toyota Apollo JK/JL / Camry / Vista 88-92
9                           BMW 3 Series E90 05-07                        29        Hyundai Sonata 98-01                                                  49      Mercedes Benz CLK C208 97-03                          69          Honda Prelude 92-96                                89          Holden / Toyota Apollo JM/JP / Camry / Sceptor 93 -97
10                          BMW 3 Series E30 82-91                        30        Hyundai Sonata EF 02-05                                               50      Mercedes Benz SLK R170 97-04                          70          Honda Prelude 97-02                                90          Toyota Celica 81-85
11                          BMW 3 Series E36 92-98                        31        Mitsubishi Sigma / Galant / Sapporo / Lambda 82-84                    51      Mercedes Benz C-Class W203 00-07                      71          Peugeot 405 89-97                                  91          Toyota Celica 86-89
12                          BMW 3 Series E46 99-06                        32        Mitsubishi Starion 82-87                                              52      Mercedes Benz CLK C209 03-07                          72          Peugeot 505 82-93                                  92          Toyota Celica 90-93
13                          BMW 5 Series E28 82-88                        33        Mitsubishi Galant 95- 96                                              53      Nissan Pintara 86-88                                  73          Peugeot 406 96-04                                  93          Toyota Celica 94-99
14                          BMW 5 Series E34 89-95                        34        Jaguar X-Type 02-07                                                   54      Nissan / Ford Pintara / Corsair / Bluebird            74          Porsche 944 82-91                                  94          Toyota Celica 00-05
                                                                                                                                                                  89-92
15                          BMW 5 Series E39 96-03                        35        Kia Credos 98-01                                                      55      Nissan Bluebird 82-86                                 75          Renault Feugo 82-87                                95          Lexus IS200 / IS300 99-04
16                          Chrysler PT Cruiser 00-07                     36        Ford / Mazda Telstar / 626 / MX6 / Capella 83-86                      56      Nissan 280ZX 82-84                                    76          Rover 75 01-05                                     96          Volvo 200 Series 82-93
17                          Citroen Xantia 94-00                          37        Ford / Mazda Telstar / 626 / MX6 / Capella 88-91                      57      Nissan Bluebird 93-97                                 77          Saab 900 Series 82-92                              97          Volvo S60 01-07
18                          Daewoo Espero 95-97                           38        Ford / Mazda Telstar / 626 / MX6 / Capella / Cronos                   58      Nissan 200SX / Silvia 94-02                           78          Saab 900/9-3 94-02                                 98          Volkswagen Passat 98-06
                                                                                    92-97
19                          Daewoo Leganza 97 -02                         39        Mazda 626 98-02                                                       59      Nissan 350Z 03-07                                     79          Saab 9000 86-97
20                          Daewoo Tacuma 00-04                           40        Mazda RX7 82-85                                                       60      Honda Accord Euro 03-07                               80          Saab 9-3 03-07




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   VEHICLE SAFETY RATINGS: 2009 UPDATE 59
Figure 29:                                       Total Secondary Safety for Small cars (with 90% confidence limits)

                                                                                                                                                                   Small Cars
                              14.00%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   To tal Seco ndary Safety
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Benchmark
                              12.00%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Wo rse than benchmark +1increment
     Total Secondary Safety




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Wo rse than benchmark +2 increments
                              10.00%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Wo rse than benchmark +3 increments


                              8.00%


                              6.00%


                              4.00%


                              2.00%


                              0.00%
                                                                                                                                  38      42                                                                                                                                 96 98     101 103 1 106 108       112
                                       1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 1920 2122 2324 25 2627 2829 3031 323334 3536 37 3940 41 4344 4546 47484950 5152 5354 5556 5758 5960 616263 64 6566 676869 70 717273 7475 7677 787980 8182 8384 85 868788 8990 9192 9394 95 97 99100 102 10405 107 109110111 113114115116117118

                                                                                                                                                                  Make and Model

1                                Alfa Romeo 33 83-92                   31            Holden Astra AH 04 -07                                                  61              Mercedes Benz A-Class W168 98-04                                       90          Proton Wira 95 -96
2                                Alfa Romeo 75 86-92                   32            Holden Viva JF 05-07                                                    62              Holden / Nissan Astra / Pulsar / Langley 84-86                         91          Renault 19 91-96
3                                Alfa Romeo 90 85-88                   33            Hyundai Excel 86-90                                                     63              Holden / Nissan Astra / Pulsar / Vector / Sentra 88-90                 92          Renault Scenic 01-04
4                                Alfa Romeo GTV 82-84                  34            Hyundai Excel 90-94                                                     64              Nissan Pulsar / Vector / Sentra 92- 95                                 93          Rover Quintet 82-86
5                                Alfa Romeo Sprint 82-88               35            Hyundai Excel / Accent 95 -00                                           65              Nissan Pulsar / Vector / Sentra 96- 99                                 94          MG MGF / MG TF 99-05
6                                Alfa Romeo Alfasud 82-84              36            Hyundai Elantra 00-07                                                   66              Nissan Stanza 82- 83                                                   95          Subaru Vortex 85-89
7                                Audi A3/S3 97-04                      37            Hyundai S Coupe 90-96                                                   67              Nissan Gazelle / Silvia 84-86                                          96          Subaru Impreza 93-00
8                                Mini Mini Cooper 02-07                38            Hyundai Lantra 91-95                                                    68              Nissan Exa 83-86                                                       97          Subaru Impreza 01-07
9                                Chrysler Neon 96-99                   39            Hyundai Lantra 96 -00                                                   69              Nissan Exa 87-91                                                       98          Suzuki Baleno / Cultus Crescent 95-02
10                               Chrysler Neon 00-02                   40            Hyundai Coupe 96-00                                                     70              Nissan NX/NX-R 91-96                                                   99          Suzuki Liana 01-07
11                               Citroen BX 86-94                      41            Hyundai Accent 00-06                                                    71              Nissan Pulsar 00-05                                                    100         Toyota Corolla 82-84
12                               Citroen Xsara 00-05                   42            Mitsubishi Lancer / Mirage CA 89-90                                     72              Nissan Tiida 06-07                                                     101         Toyota Corolla 86-88
13                               Daihatsu Applause 89-99               43            Mitsubishi Lancer / Mirage CB 91-92                                     73              Honda Civic 82-83                                                      102         Toyota / Holden Corolla / Nova 89-93
14                               Daewoo 1.5i 94-95                     44            Mitsubishi Lancer / Mirage CC 93 -95                                    74              Honda Civic / Ballade / Shuttle 84-87                                  103         Toyota / Holden Corolla / Nova 94-97
15                               Daewoo Cielo 95 -97                   45            Mitsubishi Lancer / Mirage CE 96-03                                     75              Honda Civic / Shuttle 88-91                                            104         Toyota Corolla / Allex 98-01
16                               Daewoo Nubira 97-03                   46            Mitsubishi Cordia 83-87                                                 76              Honda Civic 92-95                                                      105         Toyota Corolla 02-07
17                               Daewoo Lanos 97-03                    47            Mitsubishi Lancer CE / CG / Cedia 02 -03                                77              Honda Civic 96-00                                                      106         Toyota Tercel 83-88
18                               Daewoo Lacetti 03-04                  48            Mitsubishi Lancer CH / CJ 03 -07                                        78              Honda CRX 87-91                                                        107         Toyota MR2 87-90
19                               Ford Laser 91-94                      49            Kia Rio 00-05                                                           79              Honda CRX 92-98                                                        108         Toyota MR2 91-00
20                               Ford Laser 95-97                      50            Kia Spectra 01-04                                                       80              Honda S2000 99-07                                                      109         Toyota Paseo / Cynos 91-99
21                               Ford Escort 82-82                     51            Kia Cerato 04-07                                                        81              Honda Civic 01-05                                                      110         Toyota Corolla 4WD Wagon 92-96
22                               Ford Capri 89-94                      52            Kia Rio JB 05-07                                                        82              Honda Civic 06-07                                                      111         Toyota Prius 03-07
23                               Ford Focus LR 02-05                   53            Ford / Mazda Laser / 323 / Familia 82-88                                83              Honda Integra 86-88                                                    112         Volvo 300 Series 84-88
24                               Ford Focus LS / LT 05-07              54            Mazda 323 / Familia / Lantis 90-93                                      84              Honda Integra 90-92                                                    113         Volvo S40/V40 97-04
25                               Fiat Regata 84- 88                    55            Mazda 323 / Familia / Lantis 95-98                                      85              Honda Integra 93-01                                                    114         Volkswagen Golf 82-94
26                               Holden / Isuzu Piazza 86-88           56            Ford / Mazda Laser / 323 99-03                                          86              Honda Integra 02-06                                                    115         Volkswagen Golf 95-98
27                               Holden Gemini 82-84                   57            Mazda MX5 / Eunos Roadster 89-97                                        87              Honda Concerto 89-93                                                   116         Volkswagen Golf / Bora 99-04
28                               Holden Gemini RB 86-87                58            Mazda MX5 / Eunos Roadster 98-05                                        88              Peugeot 306 94-01                                                      117         Volkswagen New Beetle 00-07
29                               Holden Astra TR 96-98                 59            Mazda Eunos 30X / Presso / MX-3 / Autozam AZ- 3 90-97                   89              Peugeot 307 01-07                                                      118         Volkswagen Golf / Jetta 04-07
30                               Holden Astra TS 98-06                 60            Mazda 3 / Axela 03-07




60                             MONASH UNIVERSITY ACCIDENT RESEARCH CENTRE
Figure 30:                           Total Secondary Safety for Light cars (with 90% confidence limits)
                                                                                                                                 Light Cars


                                 14.00%
                                                          To tal Seco ndary Safety
                                                          Benchmark
                                 12.00%                   Wo rse than benchmark +1increment
                                                          Wo rse than benchmark +2 increments
        Total Secondary Safety




                                                          Wo rse than benchmark +3 increments
                                 10.00%


                                  8.00%


                                  6.00%


                                  4.00%


                                  2.00%


                                  0.00%
                                          1   2   3   4    5   6    7     8   9    10   11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18   19    20   21   22    23   24   25   26   27   28   29   30   31   32   33   34        35   36   37   38   39   40   41   42   43   44


                                                                                                                                     Make and Model

1    Daihatsu Charade 82-86                                    12       Ford Fiesta WP/WQ 04-07                                                      23     Nissan Micra 95-97                                    34        Holden / Suzuki Barina / Swift / Cultus 89-99
2    Daihatsu Charade 88-92                                    13       Holden Barina XC 01-06                                                       24     Honda Jazz / Fit 02- 07                               35        Suzuki Hatch / Alto 82-84
3    Daihatsu Charade 93-00                                    14       Holden Barina SB 95-00                                                       25     Honda City 83-86                                      36        Suzuki Alto 85-00
4    Daihatsu Pyzar 97-01                                      15       Holden Barina TK 05-07                                                       26     Peugeot 205 87-94                                     37        Suzuki Ignis 00-02
5    Daihatsu Move 97-99                                       16       Hyundai Getz / TB 02-07                                                      27     Peugeot 206 99-07                                     38        Suzuki Swift 05-07
6    Daihatsu Sirion / Storia 98-04                            17       Mitsubishi Mirage / Colt 82-88                                               28     Proton Satria 97-05                                   39        Toyota Starlet 96-99
7    Daihatsu Mira 90-96                                       18       Mitsubishi Colt 04-07                                                        29     Renault Clio 02-07                                    40        Toyota Echo 99-05
8    Daewoo Matiz 99-04                                        19       Ford / Mazda Festiva WA / 121 87-90                                          30     Lada Samara 88-90                                     41        Toyota Yaris 05-07
9    Daewoo Kalos 03-04                                        20       Mazda 121 / Autozam Review 94-96                                             31     Subaru Sherpa / Fiori / 700 / Rex 89-92               42        Volkswagen Polo 96-00
10   Ford Festiva WD/WH/WF 94-01                               21       Mazda 121 Metro / Demio 97-02                                                32     Suzuki Swift 82-85                                    43        Volkswagen Polo 01-02
11   Ford Ka 99-02                                             22       Mazda 2 02-07                                                                33     Holden / Suzuki Barina / Swift / Cultus 86-88         44        Volkswagen Polo 02-07




                                                                                                                                                                                              VEHICLE SAFETY RATINGS: 2009 UPDATE 61
Figure 31:                                      Total Secondary Safety for People Movers (with 90% confidence limits)

                                                                                            People Movers
                          9.00%
                                                                                                                                             Total Secondary Safety
                                                                                                                                             Benchmark
                          8.00%
                                                                                                                                             Worse than benchmark + 1 increment

                          7.00%                                                                                                              Worse than benchmark + 2 increments
 Total Secondary Safety




                                                                                                                                             Worse than benchmark + 3 increments

                          6.00%


                          5.00%


                          4.00%


                          3.00%


                          2.00%


                          1.00%


                          0.00%
                                   1        2       3     4     5     6    7     8     9    10      11   12   13        14      15    16    17     18      19         20   21      22   23

                                                                                                 Make and Model

                                        1       Chrysler Voyager 97-01                                             13        Mazda MPV 00-06
                                        2       Ford Spectron 86-90                                                14        Nissan Prairie 84-86
                                        3       Holden Zafira TT 01-05                                             15        Nissan Serena 92-95
                                        4       Mitsubishi Nimbus / Chariot / Spacewagon 85-91                     16        Honda Odyssey 95-00
                                        5       Mitsubishi Nimbus / Chariot 92-98                                  17        Honda Odyssey 00-02
                                        6       Mitsubishi Nimbus 99-03                                            18        Honda Odyssey 04-07
                                        7       Mitsubishi Starwagon / L300 83-86                                  19        Toyota Tarago 83-89
                                        8       Mitsubishi Starwagon / Delica Starwagon 87-93                      20        Toyota Tarago / Previa / Estima 91-99
                                        9       Mitsubishi Starwagon / Delica Spacegear 95-98                      21        Toyota Tarago / Previa / Estima 00-06
                                       10       Mitsubishi Starwagon / Delica Spacegear 98-03                      22        Toyota Spacia 93-00
                                       11       Kia Carnival 99-06                                                 23        Toyota Avensis Verso 01-07
                                       12       Mazda MPV 94-99




5.3.5                             Comparison of Crashworthiness, Aggressivity and the Total Secondary Safety index

Figure 32 plots vehicle models crashworthiness ratings against their total secondary safety index.
The solid lines on the chart are the average value for each index. Figure 32 shows a strong
relationship exists between crashworthiness and total secondary safety reflecting that
crashworthiness is relevant to injury outcome in all types of crashes involving light vehicles
excluding those with unprotected road users.




62                          MONASH UNIVERSITY ACCIDENT RESEARCH C ENTRE
Figure 32:                           Crashworthiness vs. Total Secondary Safety

                                     14.00%



                                     12.00%
          C rashworthiness Ra ting



                                     10.00%



                                      8.00%



                                      6.00%



                                      4.00%



                                      2.00%



                                      0.00%
                                         0.00%   1.00%    2.00%    3.00%     4.00%   5.00%   6.00%    7.00%   8.00%   9.00%   10.00%   11.00%   12.00%   13.00%    14.00%    15.00%


                                                                                                     Total Safety
                                                 4WD - Compact              4WD - Medium              4WD - Large             Commercial - Van           Commercial - Ute

                                                 Large                      Medium                    People Mover            Light                      Small



In contrast, Figure 33 shows a much weaker relationship between aggressivity and total secondary
safety reflecting that aggressivity is only relevant to injury outcome in crashes between 2 light
vehicles and involving unprotected road users.

Figure 33:                           Aggressivity vs. Total Secondary Safety

                                     9.00%


                                     8.00%


                                     7.00%


                                     6.00%
          Agg ressivity Rating




                                     5.00%


                                     4.00%


                                     3.00%


                                     2.00%


                                     1.00%


                                     0.00%
                                        0.00%         1.00%       2.00%         3.00%        4.00%       5.00%        6.00%       7.00%         8.00%       9.00%           10.00%


                                                                                                     Total Safety

                                              4WD - Compact                4WD - Medium              4WD - Large              Commercial - Van             Commercial - Ute
                                              Large                        Medium                    People Mover             Light                        Small




Comparison by Market Groups

Tables 4, 5 and 6 show that essentially the rank order of the market groups within the total
secondary safety index are consistent with the rankings within the crashworthiness measure but with
a moderation effect on the total secondary safety index dependent on the aggressivity of the vehicle.
In other words vehicles with high aggressivity display a shift in ranking for total secondary safety
towards higher or worse total secondary safety. For example, large four-wheel drives have shifted
                                                      VEHICLE SAFETY RATINGS : 2009 UPDATE 63
notably in their ranking from a 2 in the crashworthiness market group rankings to a ranking of 7
across the market groups for total secondary safety.


5.4       Presentation of Total Secondary Safety Index, Crashworthiness and
          Aggressivity Ratings for Consumer Information

Discussion in the previous work of Cameron et al (1998) noted the need for simplicity of
presentation and interpretation in providing consumer safety advice through employing methods
that summarised the complex statistical information contined in the ratings into an easily understood
summary. Since the ratings of Newstead et al (2000), a method of presentation of the estimated
crashworthiness ratings for Australian vehicles was devised that is similar in philosophy to the
presentation method devised by Folksam Insurance for presentation of Swedish ratings. The method
took into account both the rating point estimate and confidence limits, but removed the emphasis
from the point estimate. The same method of presentation was also used for the aggressivity and
total secondary safety ratings.

As a first step in providing clear consumer information, the ratings presented have been filtered to
ensure a minimum level of statistical accuracy and hence a high degree of confidence in the
information presented. In previous updates the total secondary safety, crashworthiness and
aggressivity ratings presented for consumer information excluded those models where:

         the vehicle was manufactured prior to 1986 (related to the introduction of unleaded petrol
          and key regulatory changes in New Zealand), or

         the width of the 90% two-sided confidence interval was greater than 3 and the comparison
          average crashworthiness rating was within the 90% confidence interval (see section 5.1.4 for
          the definition of the comparison average crashworthiness), or

         the ratio of the confidence interval width to the rating score (coefficient of variation)
          exceeded 1.6 and the comparison average crashworthiness rating was within the 90%
          confidence interval.

The criteria above were used in the update of Newstead et al (2007a, b) and Newstead et al (2007c).
For the most recent previous update of Newstead et al (2008a, b) the criteria were altered to avoid
publishing ratings for vehicles based on relatively limited quantities of data. Vehicles were also
included that had a rating significantly different to the average crashworthiness rating although the
confidence interval width exceeded 3% or the coefficient of variation exceeded 1.6. These vehicles
whose confidence limit did not overlap the average could be classified statistically as either better or
worse than average which was considered useful for consumer information. The criteria then
excluded only those vehicles that were not statistically significantly different from average due to
excessive variation in the estimated rating or the vehicle was manufactured prior to 1986.

For this update the total secondary safety, crashworthiness and aggressivity ratings presented for
consumer information the presentation criteria have been tightened further to ensure even greater
accuracy. Ratings presented in the consumer information derived from this report exclude those
models where:

         the vehicle was manufactured prior to 1992, or

         the width of the 90% two-sided confidence interval was greater than 2.00%, or


64    MONASH UNIVERSITY ACCIDENT RESEARCH C ENTRE
      the ratio of the confidence interval width to the rating score (coefficient of variation)
       exceeded 1.6.

In previous updates, rated vehicles were classified into five categories based on the range in which
the confidence limits on the estimated ratings lay relative to the average safety performance of the
vehicle fleet. The five categories were defined as follows.

    At least 15% safer than average: if the upper confidence limit on the estimated rating is less
     than 0.85 times the average crashworthiness rating for the vehicle fleet.
    At least safer than average: if the upper confidence limit on the estimated rating is less than
     the average crashworthiness rating for the vehicle fleet.
    Average: if the confidence interval on the estimated rating overlaps the average
     crashworthiness rating for the vehicle fleet.
    At least less safe than average: if the lower confidence limit on the estimated rating is
     greater than the average crashworthiness rating for the vehicle fleet.
    At least 15% less safe than average: if the lower confidence limit on the estimated rating is
     greater than 1.15 times the average crashworthiness rating for the vehicle fleet.

For this update, a new rating presentation classifies vehicles according to where their rating lies in
relation to a ‘best current performance’ benchmark. The benchmark is set by choosing a pecentile
of the best (lowest) rating vehicles in the sample. The choice of percentle is arbitrary but should
ideally be less than 15% - i.e. 15% of vehicles have a rating better than that value. The benchmark
rating used in deriving the consumer presentation from this update was defined as the value below
which 5% of the rated vehicles’ rating point estimates lay (noting that a numerical lower rating
indicates better safety performance). Classification categories are then defined by distance bands in
which the lower confidence limit on each individual vehicle rating lie away from this benchmark.
The five categories were defined as follows.

      Equal to the benchmark.
      Worse than the benchmark.
      At least 50% worse than the benchmark.
      At least 100% worse than the benchmark.
      At least 150% worse than the benchmark.

Again the separation gradients between categories are arbitrary but aimed to spread the vehicles
across the performance categories. Vehicles are classified into each category according to the band
in which the lower confidence limit on the rating lies. Using only the lower confidence limit defines
a true one-sided statistical test which is applied equally for each vehicle’s rating.

Presentation of the estimated crashworthiness ratings in this way is shown in Appendix 7. The
benchmark crashworthiness rating above which 5% of the crashworthiness rating estimates were
better is 1.60%. Colour coding of the categories has been used with green depicting that the rating is
equivalent to the benchmark, blue depicting that the rating is worse than the benchmark through
orange and brown to red depicting at least 50%, 100% and 150% worse than the benchmark
respectively.

A single column at the right of the table in Appendix 7 summarises the aggressivity ratings for each
vehicle. The benchmark aggressivity rating above which 5% of the aggressivity rating estimates
were better is 1.93%. In a manner similar to the classification of crashworthiness ratings, the
estimated aggressivity ratings have been classified into five categories with each represented by a
symbol in the final column of the table. These are:

                                                      VEHICLE SAFETY RATINGS : 2009 UPDATE 65
         xx:   At least 150% worse than the benchmark.
         x:    At least 100% worse than the benchmark.
         o:    At least 50% worse than the benchmark.
         +:    Worse than the benchmark.
         ++:   Equal to the benchmark.

Presentation of the estimated total secondary safety index in this way is also shown in Appendix 7.
The benchmark total secondary safety rating above which 5% of the total secondary safety rating
estimates were better is 1.91%.

This presentation style has the advantage that it combines information about both the rating point
estimate and confidence limit to classify the safety performance of the vehicle. Like the previous
presentation format, this method of presentation takes the potential emphasis of the consumer off
comparison of only the point estimate ratings, an emphasis that can be potentially misleading from
the point of view of statistical confidence. Rather, the presentation method categorises vehicles
according to the statistical significance of the difference of their estimated safety rating from
defined points. Colour coding of the categories would typically be used with green depicting the
safest category through blue, orange and brown to red depicting the least safe category. 90% two-
sided confidence limits have been used to categorise the crashworthiness ratings in Appendix 7.
These are equivalent to a 95% one-sided confidence limit for the directional hypothesis testing how
much greater than a defined point the ratings is, as employed in the new rating presentation.

Some vehicle models in Appendix 7 have no symbol in the aggressivity rating column. These
vehicles have been involved in an insufficient number of crashes to have an aggressivity rating
estimated for them.


5.5       Crashworthiness by Year of Manufacture of the Australian Vehicle Fleet


5.5.1     Injury Risk

Injury risk was estimated from the data on 3,423,395 drivers involved in tow-away crashes in New
South Wales, South Australia, Western Australia and Queensland during 1987 to 2007. This data set
is referred to as the "involved drivers". Because of missing values of some of the factors to be
included in the logistic regression, and the exclusion of pre-1964 vehicles and unknown years,
analysis was performed on data relating to 2,900,507 involved drivers, 492,722 of whom were
injured. The following non-vehicle factors and their interactions were statistically significantly
associated with injury risk and were included in the logistic regression model.




66      MONASH UNIVERSITY ACCIDENT RESEARCH C ENTRE
    Base effect        First order           Second order            Third order interactions
       terms          interactions            interactions
  Sex               Sex*Speedzone        Sex*Speedzone*Nveh        Age*Speedzone*Nveh*State
  Nveh              Speedzone*Nveh       Sex*State*Year            Speedzone*Nveh*State*Year
  Speedzone         Sex*Nveh             Age*Speedzone*Nveh        Age*Sex*Nveh*State
  Age               Speedzone*Age        Age*Sex*Speedzone         Sex*Speedzone*Nveh*State
  State             Age*Sex              Age*Nveh*State            Age*Sex*State*Year
  Year (of crash)   Year*State           Nveh*State*Year           Age*Nveh*State*Year
                    Age*Nveh             Speedzone*Nveh*State
                    Nveh*State           Speedzone*State*Year
                    Nveh*Year            Age*State*Year
                    Age*State            Speedzone*Nveh*Year
                    Age*Year             Age*Sex*State
                    Speedzone*State      Sex*Speedzone*State
                    Sex*Year             Age*Speedzone*State
                    Speedzone*Year       Age*Sex*Nveh
                    Sex*State            Age*Nveh*Year
                                         Sex*Nveh*Year
                                         Sex*Nveh*State
                                         Age*Sex*Year
                                         Age*Speedzone*Year

The overall (average) injury risk for involved drivers in tow-away crashes in NSW, Western
Australia and Queensland was 16.99%. Appendix 7 gives the estimates of injury risk derived by
logistic regression for the individual years of manufacture. The variability in the injury risk
estimates relative to the year of manufacture can be seen from the width of the corresponding 95%
confidence intervals.

5.5.2   Injury Severity

The data on "injured drivers" covered 566,081 drivers who were injured in crashes in Victoria or
New South Wales during 1987-2007 or South Australia during 1995-2007 or Queensland and
Western Australia during 1991-2007. Because of missing values of some of the associated crash
factors and the exclusion of pre-1964 vehicles and unknown years, logistic regression was
performed on data relating to 540,481 injured drivers, 124,712 of whom were severely injured
(killed or admitted to hospital). The analysis identified a number of statistically significant non-
vehicle factor and their interactions associated with injury severity. These were:




                                                     VEHICLE SAFETY RATINGS : 2009 UPDATE 67
   Base effect        First order          Second order              Third order interactions
      terms          interactions           interactions
 Sex               Sex*Speedzone       Speedzone*Nveh*Year        Speedzone*Nveh*State*Year
 Nveh              Speedzone*Nveh      Age*Speedzone*Nveh         Age*Nveh*State*Year
 Speedzone         Speedzone*State     Age*Sex*Year
 Age               Speedzone*Age       Age*State*Year
 State             Age*Sex             Speedzone*Nveh*State
 Year (of crash)   Year*State          Speedzone*State*Year
                   Age*Nveh            Sex*State*Year
                   Nveh*State          Nveh*State*Year
                   Speedzone*Year      Sex*Nveh*State
                   Age*State           Age*Sex*Nveh
                   Age*Year            Age*Speedzone*State
                   Sex*State           Sex*Speedzone*Nveh
                   Sex*Year            Age*Nveh*Year
                   Nveh*Year           Age*Nveh*State
                   Sex*Nveh

The overall (average) injury severity for injured drivers was 23.07%. Appendix 7 gives the
estimates of injury severity derived by logistic regression for the individual years of manufacture.
The variability in the estimates of injury severity relative to year of manufacture can be seen from
the width of the corresponding 95% confidence intervals.

5.5.3    Crashworthiness by Year of Manufacture

The crashworthiness estimates for each year of manufacture were obtained by multiplying the
individual injury risk and injury severity estimates. Because each of the two components has been
adjusted for the confounding factors, the resultant crashworthiness estimate is also adjusted for the
influence of them. Appendix 8 gives the crashworthiness estimates and the associated 95%
confidence intervals for each of the 44 years of manufacture included in the analysis. Each estimate
is expressed as a percentage, representing the number of drivers killed or admitted to hospital per
100 drivers involved in a tow-away crash. 95% confidence limits on the estimates are also given.

The crashworthiness estimates and their confidence limits are plotted for each year of manufacture
in Figure 34. The relatively wide confidence intervals observed on the estimates of crashworthiness
for years of manufacture 1964 to 1969 and 2007 are a reflection of the smaller numbers of crashes
involving vehicles manufactured in these years appearing in the data. Introduction of key safety
related Australian Design Rules as well as consumer information programs likely to have influenced
levels of vehicle safety are also shown on Figure 34. Full details of these initiatives are given in
Newstead et al (2006).




68      MONASH UNIVERSITY ACCIDENT RESEARCH C ENTRE
                                                                                             Injury Risk                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Crashw orthiness Rat ing




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           0.0%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             1.0%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         2.0%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  3.0%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4.0%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  5.0%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         6.0%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                7.0%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       8.0%




                                                                       0.0%
                                                                              5.0%
                                                                                     10.0%
                                                                                                 15.0%
                                                                                                                             20.0%
                                                                                                                                     25.0%
                                                                                                                                             30.0%
                                                                1963
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   1963




                                                                                                                                                     Figure 35:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Figure 34:


                                                                1964
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   1964
                                                                1965
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   19 65

                                                                1966
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   1966
                                                                1967                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               1967
                                                                1968
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   1968

                                                                1969
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   1969           ADR s 4 , 5 A

                                                                1970                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               1970
                                                                1971
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   1971            ADRs 2, 3, 8, 1 0A

                                                                1972                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               1972            ADR s 1 1, 14 , 2 2

                                                                1973                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               1973            AD Rs 1 0B , 2 1
                                                                1974                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               1974
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  A DR 4 A
                                                                1975                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               1975
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   AD Rs 4 B, 5B, 22 A
                                                                1976                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               1976
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   ADR 4C
                                                                1977                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               1977
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   ADR 29
                                                                1978                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               1978
                                                                1979                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               1979
                                                                1980                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               1980
                                                                1981                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               1981
                                                                1982                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               1982
                                                                1983                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               1983
                                                                1984                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               1 984
                                                                1985                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               1985
                                                                1986                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               1986
                                                                1987                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               19 87
                                                                1988                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               1988
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Year of Manufacture




                                          Year of Manufacture
                                                                1989                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               1989
                                                                1990                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               1990
                                                                1991                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               1991
                                                                1992                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               1992            C RASHW OR TH INESS
                                                                1993                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               1993                 RATIN GS

                                                                1994                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               1994             NCA P

                                                                1995                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               1995
                                                                1996                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               1996            ADR 69
                                                                1997                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               1997
                                                                                                                                                     Injury risk by year of manufacture (with 95% confidence limits)


                                                                1998                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               1998
                                                                1999                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               1999
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Average = 3.9%




                                                                2000                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               2000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Crashworthiness by year of manufacture (with 95% confidence limits)




                                                                2001                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               2001
                                                                2002                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               2002
                                                                2003                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               2003
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   ADR 72
                                                                2004                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               2004            ADR 73
                                                                2005                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               2005
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       is plotted in Figure 35. In a similar way, the injury severity component is plotted in Figure 36.




                                                                2006                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               2006
                                                                                                           Average = 17.0%


                                                                2007                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               2007




VEHICLE SAFETY RATINGS : 2009 UPDATE 69
                                                                2008                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       The injury risk component of the crashworthiness estimate, together with its 95% confidence limits,
                               Figure 36:                                              Injury severity by year of manufacture (with 95% confidence limits)
                       35.0%




                       30.0%




                       25.0%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Average = 23.1%
     Injury Severity




                       20.0%




                       15.0%




                       10.0%




                       5.0%




                       0.0%
                               1963
                                      1964
                                             1965
                                                    1966
                                                           1967
                                                                  1968
                                                                         1969
                                                                                1970
                                                                                       1971
                                                                                              1972
                                                                                                     1973
                                                                                                            1974
                                                                                                                   1975
                                                                                                                          1976
                                                                                                                                 1977
                                                                                                                                        1978
                                                                                                                                               1979
                                                                                                                                                      1980
                                                                                                                                                             1981
                                                                                                                                                                    1982
                                                                                                                                                                           1983
                                                                                                                                                                                  1984
                                                                                                                                                                                         1985
                                                                                                                                                                                                1986
                                                                                                                                                                                                       1987
                                                                                                                                                                                                              1988
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     1989
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1990
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   1991
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1992
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 1993
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1994
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               1995
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1996
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             1997
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1998
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           1999
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         2001
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2002
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       2003
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2004
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     2005
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2006
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   2007
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2008
                                                                                                                                                                       Year of Manufacture




5.6                       Crashworthiness by Year of Manufacture and Market Group for the Australian
                          Vehicle Fleet

Using the methods of Newstead and Cameron (2001), trends in vehicle crashworthiness by year of
manufacture have been estimated separately for each of the 10 defined vehicle market groups.
Because vehicle model information was required to assign a market grouping, analysis of trends by
year of manufacture within market group could only be carried out for vehicles manufactured from
1982 to 2007. In contrast to estimation of crashworthiness ratings by vehicle model, there was no
minimum data requirement for a particular model to be included in the analysis. Hence all vehicle
models for which a market group could be assigned were included. However, despite aggregation
over vehicle models, it was not possible to estimate crashworthiness estimates for particular years of
manufacture in certain market groups due to insufficient data quantities.

5.6.1                     Injury Risk

Injury risk was estimated from the data on 1,825,862 drivers of 1982 to 2007 vehicles with
identified model, market group and covariate details involved in tow-away crashes in New South
Wales, South Australia, Western Australia and Queensland during 1987 to 2007. The following
non-vehicle factors and their interactions were statistically significantly associated with injury risk
and were included in the logistic regression model.




70                      MONASH UNIVERSITY ACCIDENT RESEARCH C ENTRE
    Base effect                          First order                           Second order                                      Third order interactions
       terms                            interactions                            interactions
  Sex                                 Sex*Speedzone                        Sex*Speedzone*Nveh                                 Speedzone*Nveh*State*Year
  Nveh                                Speedzone*Nveh                       Age*Speedzone*Nveh                                 Age*Speedzone*Nveh*State
  Speedzone                           Sex*Nveh                             Age*Nveh*State
  Age                                 Speedzone*Age                        Nveh*State*Year
  State                               Age*Sex                              Speedzone*Nveh*State
  Year (of crash)                     Year*State                           Age*Speedzone*State
                                      Age*Nveh                             Age*Speedzone*Year
                                      Nveh*State                           Speedzone*Nveh*Year
                                      Nveh*Year                            Speedzone*State*Year
                                      Age*State                            Age*Sex*Speedzone
                                      Age*Year                             Age*Sex*Year
                                      Speedzone*State                      Age*State*Year
                                      Speedzone*Year
                                      Sex*Year

Figure 37 shows the estimates of injury risk by year of vehicle manufacture for each of the 10
market groups considered. Estimates have been smoothed using a linear smoothing function over a
window of three years (the central year and a year either side). Smoothing of the estimates was
carried out to better identify the trends in the data. Smoothing in this way also compensates for
known error in the recording of the year of vehicle manufacture, an error typically up to one year
from the true date of manufacture.

Figure 37:                   Estimated injury risk by year of vehicle manufacture and market group


                35.00%



                30.00%



                25.00%



                20.00%
  Injury Risk




                15.00%



                10.00%



                 5.00%



                 0.00%
                      1981   1983      1985        1987      1989         1991     1993        1995            1997       1999         2001   2003      2005   2007
                                                                                   Year of Manufacture

                              Four Wheel Drive Compact    Four Wheel Drive Large     Four Wheel Drive Medium          Commercial-Ute          Commercial-Van
                              Large                       Medium                     People Mover                     Small                   Light




5.6.2               Injury Severity

The data for computation of injury severity covered 294,283 drivers of 1982-2007 vehicles with
identified model, market group and covariate details who were injured in crashes in Victoria or New
South Wales during 1987-2007, South Australia during 1995-2007 or Queensland or Western

                                                                                                    VEHICLE SAFETY RATINGS : 2009 UPDATE 71
Australia during 1991-2007. The following non-vehicle factors and their interactions were
significantly associated with injury severity:

    Base effect                            First order                            Second order                                   Third order interactions
       terms                              interactions                             interactions
  Sex                                   Speedzone*Nveh                        Speedzone*Nveh*State                            Speedzone*Nveh*State*Year
  Nveh                                  Sex*State                             Speedzone*State*Year
  Speedzone                             Age*Sex                               Age*Nveh*State
  Age                                   Nveh*State                            Age*State*Year
  State                                 Speedzone*State                       Nveh*State*Year
  Year (of crash)                       Year*State                            Speedzone*Nveh*Year
                                        Age*Nveh                              Sex*Nveh*State
                                        Age*State
                                        Age*Year
                                        Speedzone*Year
                                        Nveh*Year
                                        Sex*Nveh

Figure 38 shows the estimates of injury severity by year of vehicle manufacture for each of the 10
market groups considered. Estimates have again been smoothed to better identify the trends in the
data.

Figure 38:                       Estimated injury severity by year of vehicle manufacture and market group


                    40.00%



                    35.00%



                    30.00%



                    25.00%
  Injury Severity




                    20.00%



                    15.00%



                    10.00%



                     5.00%



                     0.00%
                          1981   1983     1985         1987        1989       1991            1993      1995      1997        1999       2001    2003           2005     2007
                                                                                              Year of Manufacture
                                        Four Wheel Drive Compact     Four Wheel Drive Large         Four Wheel Drive Medium    Com mercial-Ute          Commercial-Van
                                        Large                        Medium                         People Mover               Small                    Light




5.6.3                   Crashworthiness by Year of Manufacture and Market Group

The crashworthiness estimates for each year of manufacture were obtained by multiplying the
individual injury risk and injury severity estimates. Appendix 9 gives the crashworthiness estimates
and the associated 95% confidence intervals for each of the years of manufacture from 1982 to 2007
by each of the 10 vehicle market groups considered. Each estimate is expressed as a percentage,
72                   MONASH UNIVERSITY ACCIDENT RESEARCH C ENTRE
representing the number of drivers killed or admitted to hospital per 100 drivers involved in a tow-
away crash. The crashworthiness estimates are plotted for each year of manufacture and vehicle
market group in Figure 39. Again, the values in Figure 39 have been smoothed for reasons given
above.

Figure 39:                                     Estimated crashworthiness by year of vehicle manufacture and market group


                                   9.00%




                                   8.00%




                                   7.00%




                                   6.00%
     Crashw ort hi ne ss Rat ing




                                   5.00%




                                   4.00%




                                   3.00%




                                   2.00%




                                   1.00%




                                   0.00%
                                        1981   1983   1985          1987           1989            1991            1993         1995           1997     1999          2001   2003           2005     2007

                                                                                                                     Year of Manufacture

                                                        Four Wheel Drive Compact          Four Wheel Drive Large              Four Wheel Drive Medium     Commercial-Ute            Commercial-Van
                                                        Large                             Medium                              People Mover                Small                     Light




Figure 39 clearly shows differential performance in crashworthiness between vehicle market groups,
reflecting the same differences seen in average crashworthiness by market groups found in the make
and model specific ratings presented above (see Appendix 4). It is, however, difficult from Figure
39 to gauge differential improvements in crashworthiness over time. This is due to the complexity
of the figure with 10 market groups as well as the relatively high variance in some of the year to
year estimates despite smoothing. To try and better measure differential time based safety
improvements by market group, Figure 40 presents average crashworthiness by five year time
blocks of manufacture for the periods 1982-1986, 1987-1991, 1992-1996 and 1997-2001 and a six
year time block for 2002-2007. In addition, estimates have been scaled to be relative to the first time
block (1982-1986) for each market groups. Whilst Figure 40 no longer reflects average differences
in crashworthiness between market groups, it more clearly demonstrates differential performance
between market groups in improving crashworthiness over time.




                                                                                                                              VEHICLE SAFETY RATINGS : 2009 UPDATE 73
Figure 40:           Average crashworthiness by year of manufacture and market group by year range
                     relative to the 1982-1986 average
 1.2




     1




 0.8




 0.6




 0.4




 0.2




     0
             1982-1986                  1987-1991                      1992-1996                  1997-2001           2002-2006

             Four Wheel Drive Compact         Four Wheel Drive Large               Four Wheel Drive Medium    Commercial-Ute
             Commercial-Van                   Large                                Medium                     People Mover
             Small                            Light




Figure 40 shows that certain vehicle market groups have experienced greater relative improvements
in crashworthiness over the study period than others. The medium 4WD and people mover market
groups have shown the greatest improvement in crashworthiness over the study period of between
62 and 67 percent. The compact 4WD market group had the next greatest improvement in
crashworthiness of 59%. The large 4WD, commercial van, large and medium car market groups
have shown the next greatest improvement in crashworthiness over the study period of between 53
and 56 percent. Gains were consistent across time in all these market groups. The commercial ute,
small and light market groups have shown the most modest gains over the study period of between
44 and 50 percent. Gains were consistent across time in all these market groups.




74       MONASH UNIVERSITY ACCIDENT RESEARCH C ENTRE
7.     CONCLUSIONS
Additional crash data has enabled the crashworthiness ratings to be obtained for a larger range of car
models than in previous studies with the ratings now covering 427 different vehicle models
manufactured from 1982-2007. The new data set has been able to produce more up-to-date and
reliable estimates of the crashworthiness of individual car models than those published previously.

The rating scores estimate the risk of a driver being killed or seriously injured when involved in a
tow-away crash, to a degree of accuracy represented by the confidence limits of the rating in each
case. The estimates and their associated confidence limits were sufficiently sensitive that they were
able to identify 203 models of passenger cars, four wheel drive vehicles, passenger vans and light
commercial vehicles with ratings equal to or worse than the crashworthiness benchmark rating of
1.60%. Ratings are presented for individual vehicle models in the Australian and New Zealand
passenger fleets classified into one of 10 market groups.

This update of the ratings also revised the vehicle aggressivity ratings. The aggressivity measure
considers the injury outcome to both drivers of other vehicles and unprotected road users including
pedestrians, bicyclists and motorcyclists. The aggressivity rating measured the risk of death or
serious injury a vehicle poses to drivers of other cars or unprotected road users with which it
impacts in a crash. The mix of other drivers and unprotected road users on which the rating for each
vehicle was based was standardised along with various other non-vehicle related factors using
logistic regression techniques.

The aggressivity measure was calculated for 397 models of Australian and New Zealand passenger
vehicles (passenger cars, four wheel drive vehicles, passenger vans and light commercial vehicles)
manufactured between the years 1982-2007. The degree of accuracy of the aggressivity ratings is
represented by the confidence limits of the rating in each case. The estimates and their associated
confidence limits were sufficiently sensitive that they were able to identify 154 models of passenger
cars, four wheel drive vehicles, passenger vans and light commercial vehicles with ratings equal to
or worse than the crashworthiness benchmark rating of 1.93%. Estimated vehicle aggressivity
towards drivers of other vehicles or unprotected road users was found to have a proportional
relationship with vehicle mass. It was also found to have little or no relationship with ratings of
vehicle crashworthiness, demonstrating the independence of the two complementary measures. For
this update, 427 or 100% of the vehicle models rated for crashworthiness were also able to be rated
for aggressivity.

The crashworthiness of passenger vehicles in the Australian vehicle fleet (cars, station wagons, four
wheel drives, vans and taxis), measured by the risk of the driver being killed or admitted to hospital
as the result of involvement in a tow-away crash, has been estimated for the years of manufacture
from 1964 to 2007. This study further updates the original one by Cameron et al (1994a) for years of
manufacture 1964 to 1992. It shows similar patterns of improvements in crashworthiness with the
greatest gains over the years 1970 to 1979 during which time a number of new Australian Design
Rules aimed at occupant protection took effect. Further significant gains in crashworthiness have
also been observed over the years 1986 to 2007, with notable steady gains from 1985 to 1995 and
since 2000. Trends in crashworthiness by year of vehicle manufacture from 1982 to 2007 for each of
the 10 vehicle market groups were also estimated showing differential improvement in
crashworthiness by market group by year of manufacture.

The total secondary safety index developed in Newstead et al (2007c) was updated to include
records of light vehicle crashes reported to the police in four Australian states and New Zealand
from 1987 to 2007. The index was adjusted for the sex and age of the person whose injury outcome
was being measured, speed limit at the crash location, number of vehicles involved, the jurisdiction
                                                      VEHICLE SAFETY RATINGS : 2009 UPDATE 75
in which the crash occurred and the year in which the crash occurred. These factors were strongly
related to injury risk and/or severity. In addition to the above factors this rating was also adjusted for
the type of crash and road user combination as this factor was strongly related to injury risk and/or
severity. Total secondary safety index estimates and their associated confidence limits were
obtained for 484 vehicle models classified into 10 market groups. They were sufficiently sensitive
that they were able to identify 239 models of passenger cars, four wheel drive vehicles, passenger
vans and light commercial vehicles with ratings equal to or worse than the crashworthiness
benchmark rating of 1.91%.

The total secondary safety index summarises the combined crashworthiness and aggressivity
measures in a way that best reflects the relative importance of each component in real world crash
circumstances. By constructing the total secondary safety index as a weighted average of injury
outcome probabilities in a range of relevant major crash types involving light passenger vehicles
and weighting each component by the relative incidence of that crash type, the index developed
represents the most objective and relevant summary possible.

By having a single index estimated in a single integrated analysis, it has allowed total secondary
safety to be considered on a vehicle by vehicle basis with statistical confidence limits placed in the
estimates. One key advantage of the integrated total secondary safety measure is that it makes
maximum use of the available crash data to assess vehicle secondary safety performance. Applied to
the available police reported crash data it was possible to estimate statistically reliable ratings for
484 distinct makes and models of vehicles. This compares to the separate crashworthiness and
aggressivity measures calculated from the same data where only 427 and 397 vehicles respectively
were rated.

Comparison of the total secondary safety index with the crashworthiness and aggressivity estimates
gives insight into the relative importance of the two separate measures in determining overall
vehicle secondary safety performance. Comparison of Figures 32 with 33 shows the total vehicle
secondary safety index is much more strongly associated with the crashworthiness measure than the
aggressivity measure. This is as expected given that a vehicle’s crashworthiness performance is
relevant in a wider range of crash types than is its aggressivity. Specifically, crashworthiness is
relevant in all crashes except crashes involving unprotected road users. In comparison, aggressivity
is only relevant in crashes involving other light passenger vehicle or unprotected road users. This
comparison highlights how the total safety index weights the crashworthiness and aggressivity
performance in a way most appropriate to the crash types represented in the total crash population.
However, this means the total secondary safety index will to a large degree be dependent on the
distribution of crash types in the jurisdiction where the rated vehicle set is exposed. Consequently,
the total safety index most relevant to one country might not be the most relevant to another if their
crash type distributions are fundamentally different. For example, aggressivity might weight more
highly in the total secondary safety index in the UK where they have more multi-vehicle and
unprotected road user crashes compared to Australia and New Zealand where single vehicle crashes
and hence crashworthiness weight more highly.

When considering market group based results, Table 6 shows large cars and medium four wheel
drives to have the best (lowest) total safety index of the 10 market groups considered. In contrast,
light vehicles and commercial vans have the poorest overall secondary safety performance (highest
index). It is interesting to note that the difference in between the best and worst market groups for
total secondary safety differ by only a factor of 1.24. In contrast, the crashworthiness and
aggressivity rating differ between best and worst market groups by a factor of 1.93 and 2.28
respectively. Both the crashworthiness and aggressivity indexes are dependent on vehicle mass
which tends to heighten the spread of ratings between market groups. Since the mass relationship is
opposite between the crashworthiness and aggressivity ratings, combining them in the total

76   MONASH UNIVERSITY ACCIDENT RESEARCH C ENTRE
secondary safety index will to at least some degree cancel out the mass effect explaining the lower
range of total secondary safety values estimated.

For vehicle regulators and safety advocates, the total secondary safety index possibly represents the
most relevant measure of vehicle secondary safety performance as it encapsulates the total
performance of the vehicle in preventing serious injury outcome. The total secondary safety index is
the most relevant to developing policy to optimise the safety of the light vehicle fleet. Advocating
use of the total secondary safety index as the primary consumer focus is much more likely to lead to
better vehicle safety choices for society as a whole. Optimising on crashworthiness or aggressivity
alone will not necessarily produce the safest vehicle fleet. However, the crashworthiness and
aggressivity components are still important separately to identify those characteristics of a vehicle
leading to good performance in each dimension. Furthermore, the results of this study identify that
optimising crashworthiness performance in the Australasian setting will lead to faster and wider
spread gains than optimising aggressivity.




                                                      VEHICLE SAFETY RATINGS : 2009 UPDATE 77
8.        ASSUMPTIONS AND QUALIFICATIONS
The results and conclusions presented in this report are based on a number of assumptions and
warrant a number of qualifications that the reader should note. These are listed in the following
sections.

8.1       Assumptions

It has been assumed that:

         TAC claims records and, Victorian, New South Wales, South Australian, Western
          Australian, Queensland and New Zealand Police crash reports accurately recorded driver
          injury, hospitalisation and death.

         There was no bias in the merging of TAC claims and Victorian Police crash reports related
          to the model of car and factors affecting the severity of the crash.

         Crashed vehicle registration numbers were recorded accurately on Police crash reports and
          that they correctly identified the crashed vehicles in the Victorian, New South Wales, South
          Australian, Queensland, Western Australian and New Zealand vehicle registers.

         The adjustments for driver sex, age, speed zone, the number of vehicles involved and the
          state and year in which the crash occurred removed the influences of the other main factors
          available in the data that affected crash severity and injury susceptibility.

         The form of the logistic models used to relate injury risk and injury severity with the
          available factors influencing these outcomes (including the car model, market group or year
          of manufacture) was correct.

         Information contained in the Police crash records allowed accurate matching of both
          vehicles involved in crashes between two passenger cars and vehicles impacting unprotected
          road users for the purpose of calculating aggressivity ratings.


8.2       Qualifications

The results and conclusions warrant at least the following qualifications:

         Only driver crash involvements and injuries have been considered. Passengers occupying
          the same model cars may have had different injury outcomes.

         Some models with the same name through the 1982-2007 years of manufacture may have
          varied substantially in their construction, specification and mass. Although there should be
          few such models in these updated results, the rating score calculated for these models may
          give a misleading impression and should be interpreted with caution.

         Other factors not collected in the data (e.g. crash impact severity) may differ between the
          models and may affect the results. However, earlier analysis has suggested that the different
          rating scores are predominantly due to vehicle factors alone (Cameron et al 1992).




78    MONASH UNIVERSITY ACCIDENT RESEARCH C ENTRE
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                                                    VEHICLE SAFETY RATINGS : 2009 UPDATE 79
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Melbourne, Australia.

Newstead, S. (2000b). Review of the New Zealand Land Transport Safety Authority feasibility study
into producing crashworthiness ratings for New Zealand vehicles. Report to the New Zealand Land
Transport Safety Authority, Monash University Accident Research Centre, Melbourne, Australia.

Newstead, S. & Cameron, M. (2001), ‘Trends in Australian vehicle crashworthiness by year of
vehicle manufacture within vehicle market groups’, Proceedings of the 2001 IRCOBI Conference,
Isle of Man, UK.

Newstead, S., Cameron, M., Watson, L. and Delaney, A. (2003a) Vehicle Crashworthiness Ratings
and Crashworthiness by Year of Manufacture: Victoria and NSW Crashes During 1987-2000
Queensland and Western Australian Crashes During 1991-2000, Report No. 196, Monash
University Accident Research Centre, Melbourne, Australia.

Newstead, S., Delaney, A. and Watson, L. (2003b) Vehicle safety ratings estimated from combined
Australian and New Zealand real crash data: Pilot Study, Report No. 203, Monash University
Accident Research Centre, Melbourne, Australia.

Newstead, S., Watson, L. and. Cameron, M. (2004a) Trends in aggressivity of the Australian light
vehicle fleet by year of manufacture and market group: 1964 to 2000, Report No. 214, Monash
University Accident Research Centre, Melbourne, Australia.

Newstead, S., Cameron, M., and Watson, L. (2004b) Vehicle Crashworthiness Ratings and
Crashworthiness by Year of Manufacture: Victoria and NSW Crashes During 1987-2002


80   MONASH UNIVERSITY ACCIDENT RESEARCH C ENTRE
Queensland, Western Australian and New Zealand Crashes During 1991-2002, Report No. 222,
Monash University Accident Research Centre, Melbourne, Australia.

Newstead, S., Watson, L., Delaney, A. and. Cameron, M. (2004c) Crashworthiness and aggressivity
of the Australian light vehicle fleet by major crash type, Report No. 227, Monash University
Accident Research Centre, Melbourne, Australia.

Newstead, S. and Watson, L. (2005a) Trends in crashworthiness of the New Zealand vehicle fleet by
year of manufacture: 1964 to 2002, Report No. 238, Monash University Accident Research Centre,
Melbourne, Australia.

Newstead, S., Cameron, M., and Watson, L. (2005b) Vehicle safety ratings estimated from police
reported crash data: 2005 update Australian and New Zealand crashes during 1987-2003, Report
No. 241, Monash University Accident Research Centre, Melbourne, Australia.

Newstead, S., Cameron, M., and Watson, L. (2006) Vehicle safety ratings estimated from police
reported crash data: 2006 update Australian and New Zealand crashes during 1987-2004, Report
No. 248, Monash University Accident Research Centre, Melbourne, Australia.

Newstead, S., Watson, L., and Cameron, M. (2007a) Vehicle safety ratings estimated from police
reported crash data: 2007 update Australian and New Zealand crashes during 1987-2005, Report
No. 266, Monash University Accident Research Centre, Melbourne, Australia.

Newstead, S., Watson, L., and Cameron, M. (2007b) Trends in crashworthiness of the New Zealand
vehicle fleet by year of manufacture: 1964 to 2005: Supplementary to report 266 vehicle safety
ratings estimated from police reported crash data: 2007 update Australian and New Zealand
crashes during 1987-2005, Report No. 266 Supplement, Monash University Accident Research
Centre, Melbourne, Australia.

Newstead, S., Watson, L., and Cameron, M. (2007c) An index for total secondary safety of light
passenger vehicles estimated from police reported crash data, Report No. 273, Monash University
Accident Research Centre, Melbourne, Australia.

Newstead, S., Watson, L., and Cameron, M. (2008a) Vehicle safety ratings estimated from police
reported crash data: 2008 update Australian and New Zealand crashes during 1987-2006, Report
No. 280, Monash University Accident Research Centre, Melbourne, Australia.

Newstead, S., Watson, L., and Cameron, M. (2008b) Trends in crashworthiness of the New Zealand
vehicle fleet by year of manufacture: 1964 to 2006: Supplementary to report 280 vehicle safety
ratings estimated from police reported crash data: 2008 update Australian and New Zealand
crashes during 1987-2006, Report No. 280 Supplement, Monash University Accident Research
Centre, Melbourne, Australia.

Pappas, M. (1993) NSW Vehicle Occupant Protection Ratings Documentation, Report to NRMA
Ltd. and Road Safety Bureau, Roads and Traffic Authority, Sydney, NSW.

Road Safety Council of Western Australia (2001) Reported road crashes in Western Australia,
2000, Road Safety Council of Western Australia, Office of Road Safety, Perth, Australia.

Robinson, T. (2000a) Vehicle crashworthiness feasibility study. Clustering guide and methodology
Land Transport Safety Authority, Wellington, New Zealand.


                                                    VEHICLE SAFETY RATINGS : 2009 UPDATE 81
Robinson, T. (2000b) Assessment of the fit between the New Zealand fleet and MUARC classes
Land Transport Safety Authority, Wellington, New Zealand.

SAS Inc. (1989) SAS STAT Users Guide, Version 6, Fourth Edition, Volume 2. Carey, NC: SAS
Institute.

Social Development Committee (1990) Inquiry into Vehicle Occupant Protection, Parliament of
Victoria, Melbourne, Australia.

Voyce, T. (2000) Crashworthiness study - data entry Land Transport Safety Authority, Wellington,
New Zealand.




82   MONASH UNIVERSITY ACCIDENT RESEARCH C ENTRE
                                              APPENDIX 1




   MAKES AND MODELS OF CARS INVOLVED IN
VICTORIAN AND NSW CRASHES DURING 1987-2007,
 SOUTH AUSTRALIA CRASHES DURING 1995-2007
                   AND
      WESTERN AUSTRALIA, QUEENSLAND
 AND NEW ZEALAND CRASHES DURING 1991-2007
                                 FREQUENCY FOR EACH MODEL FOR ALL TYPES OF CRASHES (NSW/VIC/SA/QLD/WA/NZ)
                                 Note: Only those models with a Market Group displayed were used in the crashworthiness analysis

                     MAKE/MODEL                         MODEL          No. of           No. of         No. of          No. of        No. of       No. of      ANALYSIS      MARKET
                                                        CODE         uninjured         injured        involved        injured       severely     injured     INCLUSION       GROUP
                                                                     drivers in       drivers in     drivers in       (but not      injured     drivers in    CRITERIA
                                                                   NSW (87-2007)    NSW (87-200 7) NSW (87-2007)     severely)     drivers in     NSW,         INV=100
                                                                        and              and            and         drivers in     NSW and       Victoria       INJ=20
                                                                     QLD, WA          QLD, WA        QLD, WA        NSW and         Victoria    (87-2007)
                                                                     (91-2007)        (91-2007 )     (91-200 7)       Victoria     (87-2007)       and
                                                                        and              and            and          (87-2007 )       and     QLD, WA, NZ
                                                                    SA (95 -2007)    SA (95-200 7) SA (95-2007)         and      QLD, WA, NZ    (91-2007)
                                                                                                                   QLD, WA, NZ     (91-2007)       and
                                                                                                                     (91-2007 )       and     SA (95-2007)
                                                                                                                        and      SA (95-2007)
                                                                                                                   SA (95-200 7)

Alfa Romeo   164                            89-92     AL01Z             113              12            125             12             6           18             0
Alfa Romeo   33                             83-92     AL02Z             688              110           798             115           30           145            1       Small
Alfa Romeo   75                             86-92     AL03Z             213              29            242             26             4           30             1       Small
Alfa Romeo   90                             85-88     AL04Z             82               11            93               9             5           14             0
Alfa Romeo   GTV                            82-84     AL05Z             161              18            179             13            10           23             1       Small
Alfa Romeo   Sprint                         82-88     AL06Z             131              24            155             30             6           36             1       Small
Alfa Romeo   Alfasud                        82-84     AL07Z             114              22            136             18             6           24             1       Small
Alfa Romeo   Alfetta                        82-88     AL08Z             57               12            69               4             6           10             0
Alfa Romeo   Guilietta                      82-86     AL09Z             65                8            73               7             2            9             0
ALFA         Quattro                                  AL10Z              1                0             1               1             0            1             0
Alfa Romeo   156                            99-06     AL13Z             344              60            404             37             6           43             1       Medium
Alfa Romeo   166                            99-07     AL14Z             30                3            33               1             1            2             0
Alfa Romeo   GTV / Spider                   98-04     AL15Z             115              13            128              5             1            6             0
Alfa Romeo   147                            01-07     AL16Z             143              19            162             10             2           12             0
Alfa Romeo   159 / Brera                    06-07     AL17Z              4                0             4               1             0            1             0
Alfa         Others                                   AL99Z             516              65            581             153           40           193            0
Audi         A4 / S4 Cabriolet              02-07     AU10Z             18                4            22               8             0            8             0
Audi         A3                             04-07     AU11Z             17                3            20               1             1            2             0
Audi         Q7                             06-07     AU12Z              2                1             3               1             0            1             0
Audi         TT                             06-07     AU13Z              1                0             1               .             .            .             0
Audi         A6/S6/AllRoad                  95-04     AUD1A             45                6            51              10             1           11             0
Audi         A6/S6/AllRoad                  05-07     AUD1B              1                0             1               .             .            .             0
                                                      AUD1Z              2                0             2               1             0            1             0
              MAKE/MODEL            MODEL       No. of           No. of         No. of          No. of        No. of       No. of      ANALYSIS      MARKET
                                    CODE      uninjured         injured        involved        injured       severely     injured     INCLUSION       GROUP
                                              drivers in       drivers in     drivers in       (but not      injured     drivers in    CRITERIA
                                            NSW (87-2007)    NSW (87-200 7) NSW (87-2007)     severely)     drivers in     NSW,         INV=100
                                                 and              and            and         drivers in     NSW and       Victoria       INJ=20
                                              QLD, WA          QLD, WA        QLD, WA        NSW and         Victoria    (87-2007)
                                              (91-2007)        (91-2007 )     (91-200 7)       Victoria     (87-2007)       and
                                                 and              and            and          (87-2007 )       and     QLD, WA, NZ
                                             SA (95 -2007)    SA (95-200 7) SA (95-2007)         and      QLD, WA, NZ    (91-2007)
                                                                                            QLD, WA, NZ     (91-2007)       and
                                                                                              (91-2007 )       and     SA (95-2007)
                                                                                                 and      SA (95-2007)
                                                                                            SA (95-200 7)

Audi   A8                  95-03   AUD2Z         8                 4            12               3             0            3             0
Audi   A4                  95-01   AUD3Z        780               104          884              99            24           123            1       Medium
AUDI   A8/S8/A6                    AUD4Z        100                7           107              18             1           19             0
Audi   A3/S3               97-04   AUD5Z        341               59           400              46             5           51             1       Small
Audi   TT                  99-06   AUD6Z         97                9           106               8             0            8             0
Audi   A4                  01-07   AUD7Z        460               68           528              41             6           47             1       Medium
Audi   A8                  03-07   AUD9Z         3                 0            3                .             .            .             0
AUDI   Others                      AUDIZ        1420              242          1662             232           63           295            0
BMW    Z3 E36              97-03   BM10Z        198               29           227              26            10           36             1       Medium
Mini   Mini Cooper         02-07   BM11Z        134               32           166              41             6           47             1       Small
BMW    Z4                  03-07   BM12Z         34                6            40               4             1            5             0
BMW    5 Series E60        03-07   BM13Z         81               21           102              13             2           15             0
BMW    X5                  01-07   BM14Z        282               38           320              18             3           21             1       4WD - Large
BMW    6 Series E63        04-07   BM15Z         1                 1            2                .             .            .             0
BMW    1 Series E87        04-07   BM17Z         72               12            84               3             1            4             0
BMW    3 Series E90        05-07   BM18Z        117               32           149              19             1           20             1       Medium
BMW    3 Series E30        82-91   BM3 A        3638              588          4226             638           139          777            1       Medium
BMW    3 Series E36        92-98   BM3 B        4793              842          5635             797           148          945            1       Medium
BMW    3 Series E46        99-06   BM3 C        2122              422          2544             314           56           370            1       Medium
BMW    3 OTHERS                    BM3 Z        111               48           159              48            12           60             0
BMW    5 Series E28        82-88   BM5 A        975               123          1098             113           27           140            1       Medium
BMW    5 Series E34        89-95   BM5 B        828               125          953              142           31           173            1       Medium
BMW    5 Series E39        96-03   BM5 C        717               84           801              95            21           116            1       Medium
BMW    5 Others                    BM5 Z         27               11            38              10             3           13             0
BMW    6 Series E24        86-89   BM6 Z         6                 0            6                1             0            1             0
BMW    7 Series E23        82-88   BM7 A        289               32           321              38             9           47             1       Large
BMW    7 Series E32        89-94   BM7 B        213               28           241              37            10           47             1       Large
BMW    7 Series E38        95-01   BM7 C        183               20           203              26             4           30             1       Large
BMW    7 Series E65        02-07   BM7 D         36                6            42               2             1            3             0
                     MAKE/MODEL            MODEL       No. of           No. of         No. of          No. of        No. of       No. of      ANALYSIS      MARKET
                                           CODE      uninjured         injured        involved        injured       severely     injured     INCLUSION       GROUP
                                                     drivers in       drivers in     drivers in       (but not      injured     drivers in    CRITERIA
                                                   NSW (87-2007)    NSW (87-200 7) NSW (87-2007)     severely)     drivers in     NSW,         INV=100
                                                        and              and            and         drivers in     NSW and       Victoria       INJ=20
                                                     QLD, WA          QLD, WA        QLD, WA        NSW and         Victoria    (87-2007)
                                                     (91-2007)        (91-2007 )     (91-200 7)       Victoria     (87-2007)       and
                                                        and              and            and          (87-2007 )       and     QLD, WA, NZ
                                                    SA (95 -2007)    SA (95-200 7) SA (95-2007)         and      QLD, WA, NZ    (91-2007)
                                                                                                   QLD, WA, NZ     (91-2007)       and
                                                                                                     (91-2007 )       and     SA (95-2007)
                                                                                                        and      SA (95-2007)
                                                                                                   SA (95-200 7)

BMW        7 Others                       BM7 Z         13                3            16               2             1            3             0
BMW        8 Series E31           90-99   BM8 Z         22                1            23               1             0            1             0
BMW        Others                         BM99Z        1208              202          1410             252           63           315            0
Chrysler   Voyager                97-01   CHR1Z        439               65           504              52             8           60             1       People Mover
Chrysler   Neon                   96-99   CHR2Z        451               93           544              78            15           93             1       Small
Chrysler   Neon                   00-02   CHR3Z         95               17           112              18             4           22             1       Small
Chrysler   PT Cruiser             00-07   CHR4Z        119               28           147              26             5           31             1       Medium
Chrysler   Crossfire              03-07   CHR6Z         7                 1            8                1             0            1             0
Chrysler   300C                   06-07   CHR7Z         22                6            28               6             0            6             0
Chrysler   Sebring                07-07   CHR8Z         2                 0            2                .             .            .             0
Chrysler   Grand Voyager          01-07   CHR9Z         32                9            41               6             0            6             0
Chrysler   Others                         CHRYZ         16                1            17               9             0            9             0
Citroen    BX                     86-94   CI1 Z         89                4            93              30             6           36             0
Citroen    C3 Pluriel             04-07   CI10Z         6                 1            7                1             0            1             0
Citroen    C4                     05-07   CI11Z         24                7            31               4             1            5             0
Citroen    C2                     04-07   CI12Z         9                 2            11               .             .            .             0
Citroen    Berlingo               03-07   CI13Z         11                3            14               1             3            4             0
Citroen    AX                     91-93   CI3 Z         5                 1            6               13             4           17             0
Citroen    Xantia                 94-00   CI4 Z         53               14            67              16             4           20             0
Citroen    Berlingo               99-03   CI5 Z         93               11           104               4             3            7             0
Citroen    Xsara                  00-05   CI6 Z         70               19            89              16             2           18             0
Citroen    XM                     91-00   CI7 Z         7                 1            8                1             1            2             0
Citroen    C5                     01-07   CI8 Z         64               10            74               4             1            5             0
Citroen    C3                     02-07   CI9 Z         54               15            69               8             1            9             0
Citroen    Others                         CI99Z         59                3            62               3             1            4             0
                                          COM Z         7                 1            8                1             0            1             0
                                          COMUZ         4                 0            4                .             .            .             0
Daihatsu   Charade                82-86   D1 A         1922              587          2509             670           197          867            1       Light
Charade                           87      D1 B         329               101          430              153           28           181            0
                         MAKE/MODEL             MODEL       No. of           No. of         No. of          No. of        No. of       No. of      ANALYSIS      MARKET
                                                CODE      uninjured         injured        involved        injured       severely     injured     INCLUSION       GROUP
                                                          drivers in       drivers in     drivers in       (but not      injured     drivers in    CRITERIA
                                                        NSW (87-2007)    NSW (87-200 7) NSW (87-2007)     severely)     drivers in     NSW,         INV=100
                                                             and              and            and         drivers in     NSW and       Victoria       INJ=20
                                                          QLD, WA          QLD, WA        QLD, WA        NSW and         Victoria    (87-2007)
                                                          (91-2007)        (91-2007 )     (91-200 7)       Victoria     (87-2007)       and
                                                             and              and            and          (87-2007 )       and     QLD, WA, NZ
                                                         SA (95 -2007)    SA (95-200 7) SA (95-2007)         and      QLD, WA, NZ    (91-2007)
                                                                                                        QLD, WA, NZ     (91-2007)       and
                                                                                                          (91-2007 )       and     SA (95-2007)
                                                                                                             and      SA (95-2007)
                                                                                                        SA (95-200 7)

Daihatsu          Charade              88-92   D1 C         7009             1985          8994             1420          369         1789            1       Light
Daihatsu          Charade              93-00   D1 D         6604             1725          8329             1075          272         1347            1       Light
Charade           Others                       D1 Z         260               164          424              117           38          155             0
Daihatsu          Feroza / Rocky       89-97   D11 Z        1046              227          1273             181           56          237             1       4WD - Compact
Daihatsu          Handivan             82-90   D12 Z        689               292          981              235           60          295             1       Commercial - Van
Daihatsu          Hi-Jet               82-90   D13 Z        135               74           209               66           22           88             1       Commercial - Van
Daihatsu          Rocky / Rugger       85-98   D14 Z        524               145          669               96           49          145             1       4WD - Compact
Daihatsu          Pyzar                97-01   D15 Z        314               85           399               57           15           72             1       Light
Daihatsu          Move                 97-99   D16 Z         70               24            94               24            7           31             0
Daihatsu          Sirion / Storia      98-04   D17 Z        1214              386          1600             291           59          350             1       Light
Daihatsu          Terios               97-05   D18 Z        617               236          853              182           46          228             1       4WD - Compact
Daihatsu          Handivan / Cuore     99-03   D19 Z        181               72           253               50           10           60             1       Commercial - Van
Daihatsu          Applause             89-99   D2 Z         3162              769          3931             547           128         675             1       Small
Daihatsu          YRV                  01-04   D20 Z         5                 6            11               6             1           7              0
Daihatsu          Charade              03-05   D21 Z         39               16            55               13            1           14             0
Daihatsu          Copen                03-06   D22 Z         7                 5            12               4             2           6              0
Daihatsu          Sirion / Storia      05-05   D23 Z         16                3            19               6             2           8              0
Daihatsu          Mira                 90-96   D3 Z         696               308          1004             278           88          366             1       Light
Daihatsu          Delta                        D4 Z         1487              222          1709             122           43          165             0
Daihatsu          F20/25/50/55/60/65           D5 Z          78               32           110               18           10           28             0
Daihatsu          Others                       D99 Z        1145              354          1499             365           111         476             0
Daewoo            1.5i                 94-95   DA01Z        200               64           264               56            8           64             1       Small
Daewoo            Cielo                95-97   DA03Z        3568             1083          4651             816           182         998             1       Small
Daewoo            Espero               95-97   DA05Z        749               222          971              164           44          208             1       Medium
Daewoo            Nubira               97-03   DA06Z        2548              612          3160             486           106         592             1       Small
Daewoo            Lanos                97-03   DA07Z        4047             1193          5240             901           228         1129            1       Small
Daewoo            Leganza              97-02   DA08Z        644               132          776              107           25          132             1       Medium
Daewoo / Ssango   Musso                98-02   DA09Z        265               32           297               30           12           42             1       4WD - Medium
Daewoo            Matiz                99-04   DA10Z        586               293          879              239           44          283             1       Light
                    MAKE/MODEL                             MODEL       No. of           No. of         No. of          No. of        No. of       No. of      ANALYSIS      MARKET
                                                           CODE      uninjured         injured        involved        injured       severely     injured     INCLUSION       GROUP
                                                                     drivers in       drivers in     drivers in       (but not      injured     drivers in    CRITERIA
                                                                   NSW (87-2007)    NSW (87-200 7) NSW (87-2007)     severely)     drivers in     NSW,         INV=100
                                                                        and              and            and         drivers in     NSW and       Victoria       INJ=20
                                                                     QLD, WA          QLD, WA        QLD, WA        NSW and         Victoria    (87-2007)
                                                                     (91-2007)        (91-2007 )     (91-200 7)       Victoria     (87-2007)       and
                                                                        and              and            and          (87-2007 )       and     QLD, WA, NZ
                                                                    SA (95 -2007)    SA (95-200 7) SA (95-2007)         and      QLD, WA, NZ    (91-2007)
                                                                                                                   QLD, WA, NZ     (91-2007)       and
                                                                                                                     (91-2007 )       and     SA (95-2007)
                                                                                                                        and      SA (95-2007)
                                                                                                                   SA (95-200 7)

Daewoo      Tacuma                            00-04       DA11Z         76               23            99               12            7           19             0
Daewoo      Lacetti                           03-04       DA12Z         95               27            122              18            7           25             1       Small
Daewoo      Kalos                             03-04       DA13Z         234              83            317              58           18           76             1       Light
Ssangyong   Rexton                            03-07       DA14Z         22                2            24               4             0            4             0
Ssangyong   Korando                           04-06       DA15Z          5                1             6               2             0            2             0
Ssangyong   Chairman                          05-07       DA16Z          1                0             1               1             0            1             0
Ssangyong   Stavic                            05-07       DA17Z          5                2             7               2             0            2             0
Ssangyong   Kyron                             06-07       DA18Z          4                2             6               1             1            2             0
Daewoo      Others                                        DA99Z         50               18            68               16            2           18             0
Ford        Laser/Met                         90          F01 B        6544             1501          8045             1524         338          1862            0
Ford        Laser                             91-94       F01 C        14866            3423          18289            3202         740          3942            1       Small
Ford        Laser                             95-97       F01 D        4285              997          5282             843          213          1056            1       Small
Ford        Laser/Met Others                              F01 Z         853              469          1322             359           94           453            0
Ford        Cortina                           82-82       F02 Z         29               11            40              307           81           388            0
Ford        Telstar Others                                F04 Z         266              123           389              93           25           118            0
Ford        Escort                            82-82       F05 Z         30                3            33               3             1            4             0
Ford        Falcon XE/XF                      82-88       F06 Z        59506            10046         69552            9072         2830         11902           1       Large
Ford        Fairlane Z & LTD F                82-87       F07 Z        6234             1020          7254             954          282          1236            1       Large
Ford        Falcon EA / Falcon EB Series I    88-Mar 92   F08 C        47185            7832          55017            6841         1954         8795            1       Large
Ford        Falcon EB Series II / Falcon ED   Apr 92-94   F08 D        20416            3284          23700            2831         836          3667            1       Large
Ford        Falcon Others                                 F08 Z         645              170           815             252           65           317            0
Ford        Fairlane N & LTD D                88-94       F09 A        4912              728          5640             680          204           884            1       Large
Ford        Fairlane N & LTD D                95-98       F09 B        1777              287          2064             254           80           334            1       Large
Ford        Fairlane & LTD AU                 99-02       F09 C         999              162          1161             105           24           129            1       Large
Ford        Fairlane & LTD BA/BF              03-07       F09 D         289              40            329              15            9           24             1       Large
Fairlane    N&LTD D Others                                F09 Z         13                2            15               2             0            2             0
Ford        Mondeo                            95-01       F10 Z        2171              368          2539             497           84           581            1       Medium
Ford        Ranger                            06-07       F100Z         14                1            15               2             0            2             0
Ford        C-04i                             89-94       F43 Z        1656              440          2096             386           80           466            1       Small
                       MAKE/MODEL                  MODEL       No. of           No. of         No. of          No. of        No. of       No. of      ANALYSIS      MARKET
                                                   CODE      uninjured         injured        involved        injured       severely     injured     INCLUSION       GROUP
                                                             drivers in       drivers in     drivers in       (but not      injured     drivers in    CRITERIA
                                                           NSW (87-2007)    NSW (87-200 7) NSW (87-2007)     severely)     drivers in     NSW,         INV=100
                                                                and              and            and         drivers in     NSW and       Victoria       INJ=20
                                                             QLD, WA          QLD, WA        QLD, WA        NSW and         Victoria    (87-2007)
                                                             (91-2007)        (91-2007 )     (91-200 7)       Victoria     (87-2007)       and
                                                                and              and            and          (87-2007 )       and     QLD, WA, NZ
                                                            SA (95 -2007)    SA (95-200 7) SA (95-2007)         and      QLD, WA, NZ    (91-2007)
                                                                                                           QLD, WA, NZ     (91-2007)       and
                                                                                                             (91-2007 )       and     SA (95-2007)
                                                                                                                and      SA (95-2007)
                                                                                                           SA (95-200 7)

Ford            Festiva WD/WH/WF          94-01   F44 B        12801            4140          16941            3051         768          3819            1       Light
                                                  F44AZ         29               16            45               10            5           15             0
Ford            Falcon Panel Van          82-95   F45 A        4330             539           4869             453          107          560             1       Commercial - Van
Ford            Falcon Panel Van          96-99   F45 B         562              61            623              67           13           80             1       Commercial - Van
Ford            Falcon Panel Van Others           F45 Z          5               0              5               2             0           2              0
Ford / Nissan   Falcon Ute / XFN Ute      82-95   F46 A        11260            1679          12939            1194         421          1615            1       Commercial - Ute
Ford            Falcon Ute                96-99   F46 B        2380             384           2764             294           92          386             1       Commercial - Ute
Ford            Falcon Ute                99      F46 C         711             115            826             100           28          128             0
Ford            Falcon Ute AU             00-02   F46 D        2288             332           2620             293           86          379             1       Commercial - Ute
Ford            Falcon Ute BA/BF          03-07   F46 E        1483             217           1700             195           50          245             1       Commercial - Ute
Ford            Falcon Ute Others                 F46 Z         13               1             14                .            .            .             0
Ford            Ford F-Series             82-92   F47 Z        1018             130           1148             104           26          130             1       Commercial - Ute
Ford            Spectron                  86-90   F52 Z         48               15            63               25            4           29             0
Ford            Trader                            F53 Z         895              82            977              63           17           80             0
Ford            Commercials                       F54 Z        12577            2286          14863            1726         490          2216            0
Ford            Sierra                            F55 Z          3               1              4               1             0           1              0
Ford            Bronco                    82-87   F56 Z         192              25            217              14           10           24             1       4WD - Large
Ford            Probe                     94-98   F61 Z         245              49            294              57           11           68             1       Medium
Ford            Falcon EF/EL              94-98   F62 Z        43771            7522          51293            6153         1649         7802            1       Large
Ford            Transit                   95-00   F64 A        1109             139           1248             112           31          143             1       Commercial - Van
Ford            Transit                   01-07   F64 B         471              49            520              74           11           85             1       Commercial - Van
                                                  F64 Z         34               5             39               28            6           34             0
Ford            Explorer                  00-01   F65 Z         341              87            428              77           29          106             1       4WD - Large
Ford            Falcon AU                 98-02   F66 Z        20499            3877          24376            2983         742          3725            1       Large
Ford            Taurus                    96-98   F67 Z         444              92            536              78           23          101             1       Large
Ford            Ka                        99-02   F68 Z         364             116            480             107           23          130             1       Light
Ford            Cougar                    99-03   F69 Z         290              57            347              49           12           61             1       Medium
                                                  F70 Z         416              67            483              48           24           72             0
Ford            Mustang                   01-03   F71 Z         11               1             12               1             1           2              0
                          MAKE/MODEL                   MODEL       No. of           No. of         No. of          No. of        No. of       No. of      ANALYSIS      MARKET
                                                       CODE      uninjured         injured        involved        injured       severely     injured     INCLUSION       GROUP
                                                                 drivers in       drivers in     drivers in       (but not      injured     drivers in    CRITERIA
                                                               NSW (87-2007)    NSW (87-200 7) NSW (87-2007)     severely)     drivers in     NSW,         INV=100
                                                                    and              and            and         drivers in     NSW and       Victoria       INJ=20
                                                                 QLD, WA          QLD, WA        QLD, WA        NSW and         Victoria    (87-2007)
                                                                 (91-2007)        (91-2007 )     (91-200 7)       Victoria     (87-2007)       and
                                                                    and              and            and          (87-2007 )       and     QLD, WA, NZ
                                                                SA (95 -2007)    SA (95-200 7) SA (95-2007)         and      QLD, WA, NZ    (91-2007)
                                                                                                               QLD, WA, NZ     (91-2007)       and
                                                                                                                 (91-2007 )       and     SA (95-2007)
                                                                                                                    and      SA (95-2007)
                                                                                                               SA (95-200 7)

Ford               Explorer                   01-05   F72 Z         189              29            218             36             6           42             1       4WD - Large
Ford               Falcon BA/BF               02-07   F73 Z        8383             1545          9928            1163          291          1454            1       Large
Ford               Focus LR                   02-05   F75 Z         889              241          1130             225           45           270            1       Small
Ford               F-Series                   01-06   F76 Z         180              18            198              8             8           16             0
Ford               Territory SX/SY            04-07   F77 Z         520              66            586             56            21           77             1       4WD - Medium
Ford               Fiesta WP/WQ               04-07   F78 Z         52               16            68              17             0           17             0
Ford               Focus LS / LT              05-07   F79 Z         395              84            479             75            11           86             1       Small
Ford               Others                             F99 Z        46129            7210          53339           11743         3791         15534           0
                                                      FAL Z          3                0             3               .             .            .             0
Ferrari                                               FERAZ         11                0            11               1             0            1             0
Fiat               Argenta                    83-85   FI01Z         13                4            17               3             1            4             0
Fiat               Croma                      88-89   FI02Z         22                5            27               9             1           10             0
Fiat               Regata                     84-88   FI03Z         244              34            278             27             8           35             1       Small
Fiat               Superbrava                 82-85   FI04Z         48               15            63               9             6           15             0
Fiat               X-1/9                              FI05Z          6                3             9               2             1            3             0
Fiat               X-1/9                      82-85   FI11Z          5                1             6               1             0            1             0
Fiat               Ducato                     02-07   FI12Z         28                3            31              12             3           15             0
Fiat               Punto                      06-07   FI13Z          7                2             9               1             0            1             0
Fiat               Others                             FI99Z         151              17            168             49            10           59             0
FSM                                                   FSM Z         13                2            15               6             1            7             0
Holden / Toyota    Commodore VN/VP / Lexcen   89-93   H1 Z         60913            11188         72101           9288          3085         12373           1       Large
Holden             Calibra                    94-97   H12 Z         457              58            515             90            15           105            1       Medium
Holden             Statesman/C-04ice WB       82-85   H14 A         139              23            162             32            18           50             1       Large
Holden             Stateman/C-04ice VQ        90-93   H14 B         714              106           820             98            42           140            1       Large
Holden             Stateman/C-04ice VR/VS     94-98   H14 C        4113              665          4778             556          164           720            1       Large
Statesman/C-04 i   Others                             H14 Z         140              21            161             18             3           21             0
Holden             Nova Others                        H15 Z         121              33            154             33             7           40             0
Holden             Commodore Ute VG/VP        90-93   H18 Z        1934              332          2266             213           95           308            1       Commercial - Ute
Holden             Camira                     82-89   H2 Z         15798            3625          19423           3737          948          4685            1       Medium
                         MAKE/MODEL                    MODEL       No. of           No. of         No. of          No. of        No. of       No. of      ANALYSIS      MARKET
                                                       CODE      uninjured         injured        involved        injured       severely     injured     INCLUSION       GROUP
                                                                 drivers in       drivers in     drivers in       (but not      injured     drivers in    CRITERIA
                                                               NSW (87-2007)    NSW (87-200 7) NSW (87-2007)     severely)     drivers in     NSW,         INV=100
                                                                    and              and            and         drivers in     NSW and       Victoria       INJ=20
                                                                 QLD, WA          QLD, WA        QLD, WA        NSW and         Victoria    (87-2007)
                                                                 (91-2007)        (91-2007 )     (91-200 7)       Victoria     (87-2007)       and
                                                                    and              and            and          (87-2007 )       and     QLD, WA, NZ
                                                                SA (95 -2007)    SA (95-200 7) SA (95-2007)         and      QLD, WA, NZ    (91-2007)
                                                                                                               QLD, WA, NZ     (91-2007)       and
                                                                                                                 (91-2007 )       and     SA (95-2007)
                                                                                                                    and      SA (95-2007)
                                                                                                               SA (95-200 7)

Holden / Isuzu    Jackaroo / Bighorn         82-91   H21 A          893             192           1085             231           44           275            1       4WD - Medium
Holden / Isuzu    Jackaroo / Bighorn         92-97   H21 B          755             126            881             143           40           183            1       4WD - Medium
Holden / Isuzu    Jackaroo / Bighorn         98-02   H21 C          715             140            855              98           32           130            1       4WD - Medium
Holden            Jackaroo                           H21 Z          47               9              56              49           14           63             0
Holden            Kingswood                          H22 Z          32               6              38              4             6           10             0
Holden / Isuzu    Piazza                     86-88   H23 Z          56               9              65              17            2           19             0
Holden / Isuzu    Rodeo / Pickup             82-85   H24 A          803             138            941             118           35           153            1       Commercial - Ute
Holden / Isuzu    Rodeo / Pickup             86-88   H24 B          449              74            523              64            9           73             1       Commercial - Ute
Holden / Isuzu    Rodeo / Pickup             89-95   H24 C         6973             1197          8170             822          298          1120            1       Commercial - Ute
Holden            Rodeo                      96-98   H24 D         2820             545           3365             385          122           507            1       Commercial - Ute
Holden            Rodeo                      99-02   H24 E         2788             529           3317             348          121           469            1       Commercial - Ute
                                                     H24 F          58               14             72              13            1           14             0
Holden            Rodeo Others                       H24 Z          190              48            238              42           10           52             0
Holden            Shuttle / WFR Van          82-87   H26 Z          525             105            630              76           28           104            1       Commercial - Van
Holden            WB Series                  82-85   H27 Z         1887             283           2170             173           93           266            1       Commercial - Ute
Holden            Torana/Sunbird                     H28 Z          10               0              10              1             0            1             0
Holden            Gemini                     82-84   H3 A          6220             1465          7685             1518         376          1894            1       Small
Holden            Gemini                     85      H3 B          1253             319           1572             318           76           394            0
Holden            Gemini RB                  86-87   H3 C          1033             315           1348             305           66           371            1       Small
Holden            Gemini Others                      H3 Z            1               0              1                .            .            .             0
Holden            Commodore Others                   H31 Z          35               1              36              14            1           15             0
Holden / Toyota   Commodore VR/VS / Lexcen   93-97   H33 Z         54923            9496          64419            7636         2127         9763            1       Large
Holden            Commodore Ute VR/VS        94-00   H34 Z         7817             1385          9202             909          380          1289            1       Commercial - Ute
Holden            Frontera / Mu              95-03   H35 Z          353              63            416              54           14           68             1       4WD - Medium
Holden            Vectra                     97-03   H36 Z         3018             642           3660             597          107           704            1       Medium
Holden            Commodore VT/VX            97-02   H37 Z         37965            7279          45244            5686         1362         7048            1       Large
Holden            Suburban                   98-00   H38 Z          37               6              43              6             0            6             0
Holden            Statesman/C-04ice WH       99-03   H39 Z         1138             178           1316             136           25           161            1       Large
Holden            Astra Jap                  87      H4 B           943             180           1123             176           53           229            0
                MAKE/MODEL                   MODEL       No. of           No. of         No. of          No. of        No. of       No. of      ANALYSIS      MARKET
                                             CODE      uninjured         injured        involved        injured       severely     injured     INCLUSION       GROUP
                                                       drivers in       drivers in     drivers in       (but not      injured     drivers in    CRITERIA
                                                     NSW (87-2007)    NSW (87-200 7) NSW (87-2007)     severely)     drivers in     NSW,         INV=100
                                                          and              and            and         drivers in     NSW and       Victoria       INJ=20
                                                       QLD, WA          QLD, WA        QLD, WA        NSW and         Victoria    (87-2007)
                                                       (91-2007)        (91-2007 )     (91-200 7)       Victoria     (87-2007)       and
                                                          and              and            and          (87-2007 )       and     QLD, WA, NZ
                                                      SA (95 -2007)    SA (95-200 7) SA (95-2007)         and      QLD, WA, NZ    (91-2007)
                                                                                                     QLD, WA, NZ     (91-2007)       and
                                                                                                       (91-2007 )       and     SA (95-2007)
                                                                                                          and      SA (95-2007)
                                                                                                     SA (95-200 7)

Holden    Astra TR                  96-98   H4 D         1188             226           1414             249           44           293            1       Small
Holden    Astra TS                  98-06   H4 E         7220             1789          9009             1357         249          1606            1       Small
Holden    Astra Others                      H4 Z          63               26            89               32            8           40             0
Holden    Commodore VU Ute          00-02   H41 Z        1824             296           2120             221           85           306            1       Commercial - Ute
Holden    Commodore VY/VZ           02-07   H42 Z        9259             1817          11076            1473         300          1773            1       Large
Holden    Commodore VY/VZ Ute       02-07   H43 Z        2751             483           3234             357          117           474            1       Commercial - Ute
Holden    Monaro                    01-05   H44 Z         526             102            628              78           26           104            1       Large
Holden    Cruze                     02-06   H45 Z         361             154            515             117           41           158            1       4WD - Compact
Holden    Barina XC                 01-06   H46 Z        1790             496           2286             384           87           471            1       Light
Holden    Zafira TT                 01-05   H47 Z         202              43            245              29            7           36             1       People Mover
Holden    Statesman/C-04ice WK/WL   03-06   H48 Z         374              71            445              43           12           55             1       Large
Holden    Adventra                  03-06   H49 Z         130              21            151              26            1           27             1       4WD - Medium
Holden    Barina SB                 95-00   H5 D         6412             1902          8314             1344         279          1623            1       Light
Holden    Barina Others                     H5 Z          257             109            366             141           25           166            0
Holden    Rodeo                     03-07   H50 Z        2096             367           2463             222           83           305            1       Commercial - Ute
Holden    Vectra ZC                 03-05   H51 Z         227              41            268              52           10           62             1       Medium
Holden    Astra AH                  04-07   H55 Z         683             156            839              96           22           118            1       Small
Holden    Barina TK                 05-07   H56 Z         258              84            342              65           20           85             1       Light
Holden    Viva JF                   05-07   H57 Z         191              58            249              56           12           68             1       Small
Holden    Tigra                     05-06   H58 Z         11               6             17               4             2            6             0
Holden    Captiva                   06-07   H59 Z         48               8             56               3             2            5             0
Holden    Commodore VB-VL           82-88   H6 Z         53623            9789          63412            8874         2839         11713           1       Large
Holden    Commodore VE              06-07   H60 Z         825             156            981             127           31           158            1       Large
Holden    Statesman/C-04ice WM      06-07   H61 Z         18               1             19               3             0            3             0
Holden    Commodore VE Ute          07-07   H62 Z          1               0              1                .            .            .             0
Holden    Epica                     07-07   H63 Z          6               3              9               3             1            4             0
Holden    Others                            H99 Z        34817            4892          39709            9824         3507         13331           0
Hyundai   Excel                     86-90   HY1 A        2958             859           3817             934          238          1172            1       Small
Hyundai   Excel                     90-94   HY1 B        9426             2683          12109            2175         534          2709            1       Small
                     MAKE/MODEL                           MODEL       No. of           No. of         No. of          No. of        No. of       No. of      ANALYSIS      MARKET
                                                          CODE      uninjured         injured        involved        injured       severely     injured     INCLUSION       GROUP
                                                                    drivers in       drivers in     drivers in       (but not      injured     drivers in    CRITERIA
                                                                  NSW (87-2007)    NSW (87-200 7) NSW (87-2007)     severely)     drivers in     NSW,         INV=100
                                                                       and              and            and         drivers in     NSW and       Victoria       INJ=20
                                                                    QLD, WA          QLD, WA        QLD, WA        NSW and         Victoria    (87-2007)
                                                                    (91-2007)        (91-2007 )     (91-200 7)       Victoria     (87-2007)       and
                                                                       and              and            and          (87-2007 )       and     QLD, WA, NZ
                                                                   SA (95 -2007)    SA (95-200 7) SA (95-2007)         and      QLD, WA, NZ    (91-2007)
                                                                                                                  QLD, WA, NZ     (91-2007)       and
                                                                                                                    (91-2007 )       and     SA (95-2007)
                                                                                                                       and      SA (95-2007)
                                                                                                                  SA (95-200 7)

Hyundai      Excel / Accent                      95-00   HY1 C        23810            7021          30831            5094         1089         6183            1       Small
Hyundai      Excel Others                                HY1 Z         344             149            493             123           35          158             0
Hyundai      Trajet                              00-07   HY10Z         28               5             33               7             1           8              0
Hyundai      Elantra                             00-07   HY11Z        1776             416           2192             273           54          327             1       Small
Hyundai      Santa Fe                            00-06   HY12Z         300              65            365              48           10           58             1       4WD - Medium
Hyundai      Getz / TB                           02-07   HY13Z        1679             445           2124             305           84          389             1       Light
Hyundai      Sonata                              98-01   HY15A         846             179           1025             119           32          151             1       Medium
Hyundai      Sonata EF                           02-05   HY15B         168              41            209              22            2           24             1       Medium
                                                         HY15Z          3               2              5               3             1           4              0
Hyundai      Tiburon                             02-07   HY16Z         51               13            64               8             2           10             0
Hyundai      Terracan                            01-07   HY17Z         149              24            173              15            3           18             0
Hyundai      Elantra Lavita                      01-03   HY18Z         49               5             54               21            1           22             0
Hyundai      Tucson                              04-07   HY19Z         94               13            107              12            4           16             0
Hyundai      Sonata                              89-97   HY2 Z        3524             730           4254             642          132          774             1       Large
Hyundai      Sonata NF                           05-07   HY20Z         52               15            67               12            0           12             0
Hyundai      Grandeur TG                         06-07   HY21Z          9               0              9                .            .            .             0
Hyundai      Accent                              06-07   HY22Z         53               11            64               10            0           10             0
Hyundai      Santa Fe                            06-07   HY23Z          1               0              1               1             0           1              0
Hyundai      Tucson                              07-07   HY24Z          5               1              6               1             0           1              0
Hyundai      S Coupe                             90-96   HY4 Z        1338             349           1687             284           61          345             1       Small
Hyundai      Lantra                              91-95   HY5 A        2283             543           2826             394          105          499             1       Small
Hyundai      Lantra                              96-00   HY5 B        4142             941           5083             752          157          909             1       Small
Hyundai      Lantra Others                               HY5 Z         49               13            62               17            2           19             0
Hyundai      Coupe                               96-00   HY7 Z         854             186           1040             145           38          183             1       Small
Hyundai      Grandeaur / XG                      99-00   HY8 Z         300              47            347              29            2           31             1       Large
Hyundai      Accent                              00-06   HY9 Z        3883             1049          4932             720          173          893             1       Small
Hyundai      Others                                      HY99Z        1140             299           1439             710          274          984             0
Mitsubishi   Mirage / Colt                       82-88   I01 Z        12009            3242          15251            3240         780          4020            1       Light
Mitsubishi   Sigma / Galant / Sapporo / Lambda   82-84   I02 Z        12698            2239          14937            2811         696          3507            1       Medium
                    MAKE/MODEL                          MODEL       No. of           No. of         No. of          No. of        No. of       No. of      ANALYSIS      MARKET
                                                        CODE      uninjured         injured        involved        injured       severely     injured     INCLUSION       GROUP
                                                                  drivers in       drivers in     drivers in       (but not      injured     drivers in    CRITERIA
                                                                NSW (87-2007)    NSW (87-200 7) NSW (87-2007)     severely)     drivers in     NSW,         INV=100
                                                                     and              and            and         drivers in     NSW and       Victoria       INJ=20
                                                                  QLD, WA          QLD, WA        QLD, WA        NSW and         Victoria    (87-2007)
                                                                  (91-2007)        (91-2007 )     (91-200 7)       Victoria     (87-2007)       and
                                                                     and              and            and          (87-2007 )       and     QLD, WA, NZ
                                                                 SA (95 -2007)    SA (95-200 7) SA (95-2007)         and      QLD, WA, NZ    (91-2007)
                                                                                                                QLD, WA, NZ     (91-2007)       and
                                                                                                                  (91-2007 )       and     SA (95-2007)
                                                                                                                     and      SA (95-2007)
                                                                                                                SA (95-200 7)

Mitsubishi   Magna TM/TN/TP / Sigma / V3000   85-90   I04 Z         29677            5123          34800            4807         1310         6117            1       Large
Mitsubishi   Charger/Valiant                          I05 Z          32               3             35               2             1           3              0
Mitsubishi   Magna TE/TF/TH/TJ / Verada       96-03   I06 A         18071            3033          21104            2445         539          2984            1       Large
             KE/KF/KH/KJ / Diamante
                                                      I06 Z           1               2              3               2             0           2              0
Mitsubishi   Starion                          82-87   I07 Z          177              34            211              46           23           69             1       Medium
Mitsubishi   Lancer / Mirage CA               89-90   I09 A         5481             1083          6564             1254          288         1542            1       Small
Mitsubishi   Lancer / Mirage CB               91-92   I09 B          917             216           1133             354           66          420             1       Small
Mitsubishi   Lancer / Mirage CC               93-95   I09 C         7471             1568          9039             1502          342         1844            1       Small
Mitsubishi   Lancer / Mirage CE               96-03   I09 D         17019            4227          21246            3169          626         3795            1       Small
Mitsubishi   Lancer Others                            I09 Z           3               0              3              458           100         558             0
Mitsubishi   Nimbus / Chariot / Spacewagon    85-91   I10 A          499             100            599             212           41          253             1       People Mover
Mitsubishi   Nimbus / Chariot                 92-98   I10 B          836             170           1006             207           36          243             1       People Mover
Mitsubishi   Nimbus                           99-03   I10 C          277              38            315              27            5           32             1       People Mover
Mitsubishi   Cordia                           83-87   I12 Z         1750             346           2096             564           148         712             1       Small
Mitsubishi   Magna TR/TS / Verada KR/KS /     91-96   I15 Z         28017            4468          32485            4222          909         5131            1       Large
             V3000 / Diamante
Mitsubishi   Galant                           89-93   I16 A          14               1             15              506           105         611             0
Mitsubishi   Galant                           95-96   I16 B         1626             300           1926             410           88          498             1       Medium
Mitsubishi   Galant Others                            I16 Z          9                11            20              364           81          445             0
Mitsubishi   Canter                                   I21 Z         1374             142           1516             156           47          203             0
Mitsubishi   Starwagon / L300                 83-86   I23 A         3181             718           3899             593           201         794             1       People Mover
Mitsubishi   Starwagon / Delica Starwagon     87-93   I23 B         6285             1107          7392             928           263         1191            1       People Mover
Mitsubishi   Starwagon / Delica Spacegear     95-98   I23 C         1842             276           2118             236           48          284             1       People Mover
Mitsubishi   Starwagon / Delica Spacegear     98-03   I23 D         1098             183           1281             136           40          176             1       People Mover
Mitsubishi   Starwagon Others                         I23 Z         152               67            219             173           45          218             0
Mitsubishi   Commercials                              I24 Z         5131             901           6032             666           202         868             0
Mitsubishi   Pajero                           82-90   I25 A         2093             371           2464             399           128         527             1       4WD - Medium
Mitsubishi   Pajero                           91      I25 B         521               61            582             92            29          121             0
Mitsubishi   Pajero                           92-99   I25 C         3912             498           4410             439           118         557             1       4WD - Medium
                   MAKE/MODEL                       MODEL       No. of           No. of         No. of          No. of        No. of       No. of      ANALYSIS      MARKET
                                                    CODE      uninjured         injured        involved        injured       severely     injured     INCLUSION       GROUP
                                                              drivers in       drivers in     drivers in       (but not      injured     drivers in    CRITERIA
                                                            NSW (87-2007)    NSW (87-200 7) NSW (87-2007)     severely)     drivers in     NSW,         INV=100
                                                                 and              and            and         drivers in     NSW and       Victoria       INJ=20
                                                              QLD, WA          QLD, WA        QLD, WA        NSW and         Victoria    (87-2007)
                                                              (91-2007)        (91-2007 )     (91-200 7)       Victoria     (87-2007)       and
                                                                 and              and            and          (87-2007 )       and     QLD, WA, NZ
                                                             SA (95 -2007)    SA (95-200 7) SA (95-2007)         and      QLD, WA, NZ    (91-2007)
                                                                                                            QLD, WA, NZ     (91-2007)       and
                                                                                                              (91-2007 )       and     SA (95-2007)
                                                                                                                 and      SA (95-2007)
                                                                                                            SA (95-200 7)

Mitsubishi   Pajero NM / NP / NS          00-07   I25 D         1106             113           1219              91           23          114             1       4WD - Medium
Mitsubishi   Pajero Others                        I25 Z          114              43            157              30           11           41             0
Mitsubishi   3000GT                       92-97   I26 Z           3               2              5               3             1           4              0
Mitsubishi   Challenger                   98-06   I30 Z          474              69            543              66           19           85             1       4WD - Medium
Mitsubishi   Pajero iO                    99-03   I34 Z          76               13            89               9             4           13             0
Mitsubishi   Lancer CE / CG / Cedia       02-03   I37 Z          58               37            95               30            8           38             0
Mitsubishi   Magna TL/TW / Verada KL/KW   03-05   I38 Z         1039             187           1226             151           21          172             1       Large
Mitsubishi   Outlander                    03-06   I39 Z          249              55            304              33            7           40             1       4WD - Compact
Mitsubishi   Lancer CH / CJ               03-07   I40 Z         1227             318           1545             219           54          273             1       Small
Mitsubishi   Grandis                      04-07   I42 Z          31               4             35               4             1           5              0
Mitsubishi   Colt                         04-07   I43 Z          118              20            138              28           12           40             1       Light
Mitsubishi   380                          05-07   I44 Z          221              40            261              34            4           38             1       Large
Mitsubishi   Triton MK                    96-06   I45 Z         1313             144           1457             112           29          141             1       Commercial - Ute
Mitsubishi   Triton ML                    06-07   I46 Z          52               6             58               4             3           7              0
Mitsubishi   Outlander                    06-07   I47 Z          34               5             39               3             1           4              0
Mitsubishi   Others                               I99 Z         30914            5783          36697            7436         2237         9673            0
Isuzu        Nkr Series                           IS01Z          882             113            995              78           17           95             0
Isuzu        NPR Series                           IS02Z         1937             151           2088              95           27          122             0
Isuzu        Others                               IS99Z         2777             214           2991             225           99          324             0
Jaguar       XJ6                          82-86   J01 A          351              53            404              41           13           54             1       Large
Jaguar       XJ6                          87-94   J01 B          487              61            548              60           11           71             1       Large
Jaguar       XJ6                          95-97   J01 C          109              13            122              7             5           12             0
Jaguar       XJ8                          98-03   J01 D          11               1             12               1             0           1              0
Jaguar       XJ6 Others                           J01 Z          25               3             28               5             0           5              0
Jaguar       V12 Saloon                           J02 Z          11               2             13               2             0           2              0
Jaguar       XJS                          82-96   J04 Z          68               11            79               10            1           11             0
Jaguar       XJR                          95-03   J05 Z           4               0              4               1             0           1              0
Jaguar       XK8 / XKR                    96-05   J07 Z          31               3             34               3             1           4              0
Jaguar       S-Type                       99-07   J08 Z          138              15            153              15            1           16             0
                  MAKE/MODEL               MODEL       No. of           No. of         No. of          No. of        No. of       No. of      ANALYSIS      MARKET
                                           CODE      uninjured         injured        involved        injured       severely     injured     INCLUSION       GROUP
                                                     drivers in       drivers in     drivers in       (but not      injured     drivers in    CRITERIA
                                                   NSW (87-2007)    NSW (87-200 7) NSW (87-2007)     severely)     drivers in     NSW,         INV=100
                                                        and              and            and         drivers in     NSW and       Victoria       INJ=20
                                                     QLD, WA          QLD, WA        QLD, WA        NSW and         Victoria    (87-2007)
                                                     (91-2007)        (91-2007 )     (91-200 7)       Victoria     (87-2007)       and
                                                        and              and            and          (87-2007 )       and     QLD, WA, NZ
                                                    SA (95 -2007)    SA (95-200 7) SA (95-2007)         and      QLD, WA, NZ    (91-2007)
                                                                                                   QLD, WA, NZ     (91-2007)       and
                                                                                                     (91-2007 )       and     SA (95-2007)
                                                                                                        and      SA (95-2007)
                                                                                                   SA (95-200 7)

Jaguar   X-Type                 02-07    J09 Z          88               11            99              12             2           14             0
Jaguar   XJ                     03-07    J10 Z          26                5            31               3             1            4             0
Jaguar   XK                     06-07    J11 Z          1                 1            2                .             .            .             0
Jaguar   Others                          J99 Z         378               46           424              63            20           83             0
Jaguar                                   JAG Z          4                 1            5                2             1            3             0
Jeep     Cherokee XJ            96-00    JE01Z         1189              172          1361             188           49           237            1       4WD - Medium
Jeep     Grand Cherokee ZG      96-99    JE02Z         271               28           299              43            11           54             1       4WD - Large
Jeep     Wrangler               96-04    JE03Z         266               41           307              48            16           64             1       4WD - Medium
Jeep     Grand Cherokee WJ/WG   99-05    JE04Z         199               26           225              45             8           53             1       4WD - Large
Jeep     Cherokee KJ            01-07    JE05Z         153               25           178              28             6           34             1       4WD - Medium
Jeep     Grand Cherokee WH      05-07    JE06Z          28                2            30               2             2            4             0
Jeep     Commander              06-07    JE07Z          4                 1            5                1             0            1             0
Jeep     Wrangler               05-07    JE08Z          29                4            33               8             1            9             0
Jeep     Others                          JEEPZ         149               23           172              31             7           38             0
Kia      Sportage               98-03    K01 Z         599               126          725              117           20           137            1       4WD - Compact
Kia      Ceres                  92-00    K02 Z         860               240          1100             200           58           258            1       Commercial - Ute
Kia      Mentor                 97-00    K03 Z          15                3            18               2             1            3             0
Kia      Credos                 98-01    K04 Z          49               21            70              15             3           18             0
Kia      Rio                    00-05    K05 Z         1511              502          2013             338           100          438            1       Small
Kia      Carens                 00-02    K06 Z          41               17            58               9             3           12             0
Kia      Carnival               99-06    K07 Z         718               115          833              94            13           107            1       People Mover
Kia      Spectra                01--04   K08 Z         199               61           260              43            10           53             1       Small
Kia      Optima                 01-06    K09 Z          45               12            57               8             0            8             0
Kia      K2700                  02-07    K10 Z          60                7            67              11             4           15             0
Kia      Pregio                 02-06    K11 Z         406               76           482              61            14           75             1       Commercial - Van
Kia      Sorento                03-07    K12 Z         115               21           136              17             7           24             1       4WD - Compact
Kia      Cerato                 04-07    K13 Z         196               59           255              47            10           57             1       Small
Kia      Rio JB                 05-07    K14 Z         143               44           187              32             8           40             1       Small
Kia      Sportage KM            05-07    K15 Z          23                7            30               3             2            5             0
                       MAKE/MODEL                                 MODEL       No. of           No. of         No. of          No. of        No. of       No. of      ANALYSIS      MARKET
                                                                  CODE      uninjured         injured        involved        injured       severely     injured     INCLUSION       GROUP
                                                                            drivers in       drivers in     drivers in       (but not      injured     drivers in    CRITERIA
                                                                          NSW (87-2007)    NSW (87-200 7) NSW (87-2007)     severely)     drivers in     NSW,         INV=100
                                                                               and              and            and         drivers in     NSW and       Victoria       INJ=20
                                                                            QLD, WA          QLD, WA        QLD, WA        NSW and         Victoria    (87-2007)
                                                                            (91-2007)        (91-2007 )     (91-200 7)       Victoria     (87-2007)       and
                                                                               and              and            and          (87-2007 )       and     QLD, WA, NZ
                                                                           SA (95 -2007)    SA (95-200 7) SA (95-2007)         and      QLD, WA, NZ    (91-2007)
                                                                                                                          QLD, WA, NZ     (91-2007)       and
                                                                                                                            (91-2007 )       and     SA (95-2007)
                                                                                                                               and      SA (95-2007)
                                                                                                                          SA (95-200 7)

Kia            Magentis                                 06-07    K16 Z          6                1             7               .             .            .             0
Kia            Carnival                                 06-07    K17 Z         52                4            56               5             0            5             0
Lada                                                             LADAZ         222              88            310             114           32           146            0
Lancia                                                           LANCZ         33                3            36               2             2            4             0
Leyland                                                          LEY Z         101              11            112             10             5           15             0
Land Rover     Defender                                 92-07    LRO1Z         288              58            346             38            23           61             1       4WD - Medium
Land Rover     Discovery                                91-02    LRO2A         958              160          1118             142           36           178            1       4WD - Large
Land Rover     Discovery                                02--04   LRO2B         64               13            77               9             3           12             0
                                                                 LRO2Z         360              64            424             59            18           77             0
Land           Rover Others                                      LROVZ         294              41            335             53            14           67             0
Ford / Mazda   Laser / 323 / Familia                    82-88    M01 A        42672            11145         53817           12807         3095         15902           1       Small
Mazda          323                                      89       M01 B         504              134           638             736          158           894            0
Mazda          323 / Familia / Lantis                   90-93    M01 C        3923              814          4737            1478          307          1785            1       Small
Mazda          323 94                                            M01 D        1203              260          1463             203           46           249            0
Mazda          323 / Familia / Lantis                   95-98    M01 E        4591             1039          5630             919          190          1109            1       Small
Ford / Mazda   Laser / 323                              99-03    M01 F        4967             1253          6220             941          190          1131            1       Small
Mazda          323 Others                                        M01 Z         349              178           527             216           56           272            0
Mazda          626/MX6 / Telstar                        82       M02 A        11844            2541          14385           2646          756          3402            0
Ford / Mazda   Telstar / 626 / MX6 / Capella            83-86    M02 B        9455             1923          11378           2631          650          3281            1       Medium
Mazda          626/MX6 / Telstar                        87       M02 C        3025              441          3466             365           92           457            0
Ford / Mazda   Telstar / 626 / MX6 / Capella            88-91    M02 D        5546             1138          6684            1656          382          2038            1       Medium
Ford / Mazda   Telstar / 626 / MX6 / Capella / Cronos   92-97    M02 E        5985              960          6945            1226          299          1525            1       Medium
Mazda          626                                      98-02    M02 F        1661              353          2014             334           68           402            1       Medium
Mazda          626/MX6 / Telstar Others                          M02 Z         267              111           378             72            34           106            0
Mazda          929 / Luce                               82-90    M03 A        3298              611          3909             651          178           829            1       Large
Mazda          929                                      91       M03 B         209              32            241             40             9           49             0
Mazda          929 / Sentia / Efini MS-9                92-96    M03 C         236              43            279             41            10           51             1       Large
MAZDA          929 OTHERS                                        M03 Z         86               41            127             30            11           41             0
Ford / Mazda   Festiva WA / 121                         87-90    M09 A        6557             1985          8542            1577          410          1987            1       Light
                      MAKE/MODEL                              MODEL       No. of           No. of         No. of          No. of        No. of       No. of      ANALYSIS      MARKET
                                                              CODE      uninjured         injured        involved        injured       severely     injured     INCLUSION       GROUP
                                                                        drivers in       drivers in     drivers in       (but not      injured     drivers in    CRITERIA
                                                                      NSW (87-2007)    NSW (87-200 7) NSW (87-2007)     severely)     drivers in     NSW,         INV=100
                                                                           and              and            and         drivers in     NSW and       Victoria       INJ=20
                                                                        QLD, WA          QLD, WA        QLD, WA        NSW and         Victoria    (87-2007)
                                                                        (91-2007)        (91-2007 )     (91-200 7)       Victoria     (87-2007)       and
                                                                           and              and            and          (87-2007 )       and     QLD, WA, NZ
                                                                       SA (95 -2007)    SA (95-200 7) SA (95-2007)         and      QLD, WA, NZ    (91-2007)
                                                                                                                      QLD, WA, NZ     (91-2007)       and
                                                                                                                        (91-2007 )       and     SA (95-2007)
                                                                                                                           and      SA (95-2007)
                                                                                                                      SA (95-200 7)

Mazda          121 / Autozam Review                  94-96   M09 B        3307             1010          4317             721           160         881             1       Light
Mazda          121 Metro / Demio                     97-02   M09 C        2321             632           2953             520           111         631             1       Light
Mazda          121 / Ford Festiva WA Others                  M09 Z        175               99           274               98           29          127             0
Mazda          RX7                                   82-85   M10 A        640              125           765              124           38          162             1       Medium
Mazda          RX7                                   86-91   M10 B        372               56           428               93           27          120             1       Medium
Mazda          RX7                                   92-98   M10 C         76               13            89               21            8           29             0
Mazda          RX7 Others                                    M10 Z         10               0             10               7             5           12             0
Mazda          MX5 / Eunos Roadster                  89-97   M11 A        449              102           551               91           19          110             1       Small
Mazda          MX5 / Eunos Roadster                  98-05   M11 B        350               79           429               52            9           61             1       Small
Mazda          MX5 Others                                    M11 Z         7                9             16               10            2           12             0
Mazda          Commercials                                   M14 Z        7989             1343          9332             1074          337         1411            0
Mazda          MPV                                   94-99   M15 A        322               42           364               27            2           29             1       People Mover
Mazda          MPV                                   00-06   M15 B        163               19           182               11            2           13             0
Mazda          MPV Others                                    M15 Z         5                1             6                1             0           1              0
Mazda          Eunos 30X / Presso / MX-3 / Autozam   90-97   M16 Z        486              109           595               86           15          101             1       Small
               AZ-3
Mazda          Eunos 500                             93-99   M17 Z        289               71           360              66            11           77             1       Medium
Mazda          Eunos 800                             94-00   M18 Z        111               15           126              17             3           20             1       Medium
Ford / Mazda   Escape / Tribute                      01-06   M21 Z        1005              189          1194             155           40           195            1       4WD - Compact
Ford / Mazda   Courier / B -Series / Bounty          98-02   M22 A        1709              289          1998             245           85           330            1       Commercial - Ute
Ford / Mazda   Courier / Bravo / Bounty              03-06   M22 B        752               185          937              150           51           201            1       Commercial - Ute
Mazda          Bravo / Ford Courier Others                   M22 Z        188               24           212              67            16           83             0
Mazda          Premacy                               01-03   M23 Z         2                 0            2                2             1            3             0
Mazda          2                                     02-07   M24 Z        462               127          589              94            27           121            1       Light
Mazda          6                                     02-07   M25 Z        731               162          893              171           27           198            1       Medium
Mazda          RX8                                   03-07   M26 Z        133               14           147              13             3           16             0
Mazda          3 / Axela                             03-07   M27 Z        1754              436          2190             332           57           389            1       Small
Mazda          MX5                                   05-07   M28 Z         23                3            26               3             0            3             0
Mazda          CX-7                                  06-07   M29 Z         27                4            31               3             0            3             0
                        MAKE/MODEL            MODEL       No. of           No. of         No. of          No. of        No. of       No. of      ANALYSIS      MARKET
                                              CODE      uninjured         injured        involved        injured       severely     injured     INCLUSION       GROUP
                                                        drivers in       drivers in     drivers in       (but not      injured     drivers in    CRITERIA
                                                      NSW (87-2007)    NSW (87-200 7) NSW (87-2007)     severely)     drivers in     NSW,         INV=100
                                                           and              and            and         drivers in     NSW and       Victoria       INJ=20
                                                        QLD, WA          QLD, WA        QLD, WA        NSW and         Victoria    (87-2007)
                                                        (91-2007)        (91-2007 )     (91-200 7)       Victoria     (87-2007)       and
                                                           and              and            and          (87-2007 )       and     QLD, WA, NZ
                                                       SA (95 -2007)    SA (95-200 7) SA (95-2007)         and      QLD, WA, NZ    (91-2007)
                                                                                                      QLD, WA, NZ     (91-2007)       and
                                                                                                        (91-2007 )       and     SA (95-2007)
                                                                                                           and      SA (95-2007)
                                                                                                      SA (95-200 7)

Mazda           BT-50                06-07   M30 Z          1                0             1                .            .            .             0
Ford / Mazda    Escape / Tribute     06-07   M31 Z         28                2            30               1             0           1              0
Mazda           2                    07-07   M33 Z          6                1             7                .            .            .             0
Mazda           Others                       M99 Z        11627            1968          13595            3222          913         4135            0
Maserati                                     MASRZ          6                0             6               1             0           1              0
Mercedes        100 Series                   ME1 Z         204              29            233              33            8           41             0
Mercedes        C180                         ME10Z         48               11            59               10            2           12             0
Mercedes Benz   C-Class W201         87-93   ME11Z         776             136            912             136           30          166             1       Medium
Mercedes Benz   C-Class W202         95-00   ME12Z        1342             193           1535             169           33          202             1       Medium
Mercedes Benz   CLK C208             97-03   ME13Z         185              31            216              21            7           28             1       Medium
Mercedes Benz   E-Class W123         82-85   ME14Z         428              65            493              44           11           55             1       Large
Mercedes Benz   E-Class W124         86-94   ME15Z        1213             187           1400             162           34          196             1       Large
Mercedes Benz   E-Class W210         96-02   ME16Z         718              90            808              75           21           96             1       Large
Mercedes        S-CLASS W107                 ME17Z         37                7            44               8             0           8              0
Mercedes Benz   S-Class W126         82-92   ME18Z         961             121           1082             105           25          130             1       Large
Mercedes Benz   S-Class R129         93-02   ME19Z         80                8            88               9             1           10             0
Mercedes        200 Series                   ME2 Z         349              27            376              40           17           57             0
Mercedes Benz   S-Class C140         93-98   ME20Z         208              12            220              10            1           11             0
Mercedes Benz   SLK R170             97-04   ME21Z         166              29            195              19            2           21             1       Medium
Mercedes Benz   A-Class W168         98-04   ME22Z         289              63            352              38            6           44             1       Small
Mercedes Benz   MB100 / MB140        99-04   ME24Z         329              30            359              22            8           30             1       Commercial - Van
Mercedes Benz   S-Class W220         99-06   ME25Z         118              10            128              5             3           8              0
Mercedes Benz   Vito / Viano         99-07   ME26Z         492              40            532              36           12           48             1       Commercial - Van
Mercedes Benz   M-Class W163         98-05   ME27Z         391              42            433              36            6           42             1       4WD - Large
Mercedes Benz   CL500/600 C215       98-00   ME28Z          9                0             9               1             0           1              0
Mercedes Benz   C-Class W203         00-07   ME29Z         622              99            721              60           15           75             1       Medium
Mercedes        300 Series                   ME3 Z         452              37            489              41           11           52             0
Mercedes Benz   Sprinter             98-04   ME30Z         411              57            468              64           14           78             1       Commercial - Van
Mercedes Benz   G-Class              83-88   ME31Z          3                0             3               1             0           1              0
                          MAKE/MODEL                          MODEL       No. of           No. of         No. of          No. of        No. of       No. of      ANALYSIS      MARKET
                                                              CODE      uninjured         injured        involved        injured       severely     injured     INCLUSION       GROUP
                                                                        drivers in       drivers in     drivers in       (but not      injured     drivers in    CRITERIA
                                                                      NSW (87-2007)    NSW (87-200 7) NSW (87-2007)     severely)     drivers in     NSW,         INV=100
                                                                           and              and            and         drivers in     NSW and       Victoria       INJ=20
                                                                        QLD, WA          QLD, WA        QLD, WA        NSW and         Victoria    (87-2007)
                                                                        (91-2007)        (91-2007 )     (91-200 7)       Victoria     (87-2007)       and
                                                                           and              and            and          (87-2007 )       and     QLD, WA, NZ
                                                                       SA (95 -2007)    SA (95-200 7) SA (95-2007)         and      QLD, WA, NZ    (91-2007)
                                                                                                                      QLD, WA, NZ     (91-2007)       and
                                                                                                                        (91-2007 )       and     SA (95-2007)
                                                                                                                           and      SA (95-2007)
                                                                                                                      SA (95-200 7)

Mercedes Benz     CLK C209                           03-07   ME32Z         128              17            145              9             1           10             0
Mercedes Benz     E-Class W211                       02-07   ME33Z         186              22            208              12            0           12             0
Mercedes Benz     S-Class R230                       02-07   ME34Z         19               3             22               3             0           3              0
Mercedes Benz     SLK R171                           04-07   ME35Z         19               5             24                .            .            .             0
Mercedes Benz     M-Class W164                       05-07   ME36Z         31               0             31                .            .            .             0
Mercedes Benz     A-Class W169                       05-07   ME37Z         16               3             19               2             1           3              0
Mercedes Benz     CLS W219                           05-07   ME38Z          8               2             10               1             0           1              0
Mercedes Benz     B-Class W245                       05-07   ME39Z         12               1             13                .            .            .             0
Mercedes          400 SERIES                                 ME4 Z         175              31            206              24            7           31             0
Mercedes Benz     S-Class W221                       06-07   ME40Z          6               2              8                .            .            .             0
Mercedes Benz     R-Class W251                       06-07   ME41Z          1               0              1                .            .            .             0
Mercedes Benz     C-Class W204                       07-07   ME42Z          3               0              3                .            .            .             0
Mercedes          500 Series                                 ME5 Z         38               5             43               4             1           5              0
Mercedes          Others                                     ME99Z        2009             195           2204             322           100         422             0
                                                             MEE Z          1               0              1                .            .            .             0
Holden / Nissan   Astra / Pulsar / Langley           84-86   N01 A        9609             2406          12015            2647          675         3322            1       Small
Nissan            Pulsar/Vector                      87      N01 B        1524             330           1854             670           118         788             0
Holden / Nissan   Astra / Pulsar / Vector / Sentra   88-90   N01 C        13645            3064          16709            2885          723         3608            1       Small
Nissan            Pulsar/Vector                      91      N01 D        3544             770           4314             614           156         770             0
Nissan            Pulsar / Vector / Sentra           92-95   N01 E        7064             1392          8456             1566          340         1906            1       Small
Nissan            Pulsar / Vector / Sentra           96-99   N01 F        7909             2067          9976             1636          376         2012            1       Small
Nissan            Pulsar Others                              N01 Z         421             202            623             143           52          195             0
Nissan            Pintara                            86-88   N02 A        5665             1064          6729             918           259         1177            1       Medium
Nissan / Ford     Pintara / Corsair / Bluebird       89-92   N02 B        9209             1919          11128            1977          532         2509            1       Medium
Nissan            Pintara Others                             N02 Z          1               0              1               96           24          120             0
Nissan            Bluebird                           82-86   N03 Z        12177            2519          14696            2528          767         3295            1       Medium
Nissan            Skyline                            83-88   N04 Z        5286             954           6240             1274          366         1640            1       Large
Nissan            180B/200B                                  N05 Z         56               7             63               6             1           7              0
Nissan            300ZX / Fairlady Z                 90-95   N09 Z         576              93            669             116           30          146             1       Large
                       MAKE/MODEL                           MODEL       No. of           No. of         No. of          No. of        No. of       No. of      ANALYSIS      MARKET
                                                            CODE      uninjured         injured        involved        injured       severely     injured     INCLUSION       GROUP
                                                                      drivers in       drivers in     drivers in       (but not      injured     drivers in    CRITERIA
                                                                    NSW (87-2007)    NSW (87-200 7) NSW (87-2007)     severely)     drivers in     NSW,         INV=100
                                                                         and              and            and         drivers in     NSW and       Victoria       INJ=20
                                                                      QLD, WA          QLD, WA        QLD, WA        NSW and         Victoria    (87-2007)
                                                                      (91-2007)        (91-2007 )     (91-200 7)       Victoria     (87-2007)       and
                                                                         and              and            and          (87-2007 )       and     QLD, WA, NZ
                                                                     SA (95 -2007)    SA (95-200 7) SA (95-2007)         and      QLD, WA, NZ    (91-2007)
                                                                                                                    QLD, WA, NZ     (91-2007)       and
                                                                                                                      (91-2007 )       and     SA (95-2007)
                                                                                                                         and      SA (95-2007)
                                                                                                                    SA (95-200 7)

Nissan          Stanza                            82-83   N10 Z         510               105          615              92            21          113             1       Small
Nissan          280C / Laurel                     82-84   N11 Z          59                9            68               9             3           12             0
Nissan          Gazelle / Silvia                  84-86   N12 Z         419               82           501              405           135         540             1       Small
Nissan          280ZX                             82-84   N13 Z         111               18           129              19             8           27             1       Medium
Nissan          Prairie                           84-86   N14 Z         381               85           466              138           27          165             1       People Mover
Nissan          Maxima                            90-94   N15 A         886               149          1035             282           63          345             1       Large
Nissan          Maxima / Cefiro                   95-99   N15 B         1037              206          1243             268           57          325             1       Large
Nissan          Maxima                            00-02   N15 C         343               70           413              78            20           98             1       Large
Nissan          Maxima Others                             N15 Z          44               15            59              242           63          305             0
Nissan          Exa                               83-86   N16 A         475               126          601              122           35          157             1       Small
Nissan          Exa                               87-91   N16 B         246               46           292              61            16           77             1       Small
Nissan          Exa Others                                N16 Z          9                 2            11               8             2           10             0
Nissan          NX/NX-R                           91-96   N17 Z         870               184          1054             152           48          200             1       Small
Nissan          300C / Laurel                     85-87   N20 Z          94               19           113              12             5           17             0
Nissan          720 Ute                           82-85   N21 Z         1638              311          1949             236           81          317             1       Commercial - Ute
NISSAN          B120                                      N22 Z         122               28           150              19             9           28             0
NISSAN          H40                                       N23 Z          16                3            19               2             1           3              0
Nissan          Navara                            86-91   N24 A         3911              618          4529             576           191         767             1       Commercial - Ute
Nissan          Navara                            92-96   N24 B         1861              287          2148             267           79          346             1       Commercial - Ute
Nissan          Navara                            97-05   N24 C         1844              253          2097             203           79          282             1       Commercial - Ute
Nissan          Navara Others                             N24 Z         304               80           384              105           23          128             0
Nissan          Vans(Nomad/Urvan/C22/E24/Vanette)         N25 Z         3581              830          4411             650           205         855             0
Nissan          Patrol / Safari                   82-87   N26 A         1506              200          1706             185           58          243             1       4WD - Large
Nissan / Ford   Patrol / Maverick / Safari        88-97   N26 B         7877              953          8830             854           263         1117            1       4WD - Large
Nissan          Patrol / Safari                   98-07   N26 C         3120              416          3536             352           115         467             1       4WD - Large
Nissan          Patrol                                    N26 Z         212               39           251              33            17           50             0
Nissan          Pathfinder / Terrano              88-94   N27 Z         615               82           697              236           63          299             1       4WD - Medium
Nissan          Sunny /120Y                               N28 Z          24                7            31              14             2           16             0
Nissan          Serena                            92-95   N30 Z         137               24           161              96            14          110             1       People Mover
                 MAKE/MODEL                        MODEL       No. of           No. of         No. of          No. of        No. of       No. of      ANALYSIS      MARKET
                                                   CODE      uninjured         injured        involved        injured       severely     injured     INCLUSION       GROUP
                                                             drivers in       drivers in     drivers in       (but not      injured     drivers in    CRITERIA
                                                           NSW (87-2007)    NSW (87-200 7) NSW (87-2007)     severely)     drivers in     NSW,         INV=100
                                                                and              and            and         drivers in     NSW and       Victoria       INJ=20
                                                             QLD, WA          QLD, WA        QLD, WA        NSW and         Victoria    (87-2007)
                                                             (91-2007)        (91-2007 )     (91-200 7)       Victoria     (87-2007)       and
                                                                and              and            and          (87-2007 )       and     QLD, WA, NZ
                                                            SA (95 -2007)    SA (95-200 7) SA (95-2007)         and      QLD, WA, NZ    (91-2007)
                                                                                                           QLD, WA, NZ     (91-2007)       and
                                                                                                             (91-2007 )       and     SA (95-2007)
                                                                                                                and      SA (95-2007)
                                                                                                           SA (95-200 7)

Nissan   Infiniti                         93-97   N31 Z          3               0              3                .            .            .             0
Nissan   Bluebird                         93-97   N32 Z        1622             258           1880             599          121          720             1       Medium
Nissan   200SX / Silvia                   94-02   N33 Z        1285             193           1478             141           49          190             1       Medium
Nissan   Micra                            95-97   N34 Z         818             239           1057             168           54          222             1       Light
Nissan   Pathfinder / Terrano / Regulus   95-05   N36 Z         876             123            999             138           29          167             1       4WD - Medium
Nissan   Terrano II                       97-00   N38 Z         29               5             34               5             0           5              0
Nissan   Pulsar                           00-05   N39 Z        4695             1329          6024             885          237          1122            1       Small
Nissan   X-Trail                          01-07   N40 Z        1172             295           1467             218           57          275             1       4WD - Compact
Nissan   350Z                             03-07   N41 Z         89               29            118              22            7           29             1       Medium
Nissan   Maxima                           06-07   N42 Z         181              32            213              33            7           40             1       Large
Nissan   Murano                           05-07   N43 Z         39               4             43               1             0           1              0
Nissan   Pathfinder                       05-07   N44 Z         65               10            75               12            1           13             0
Nissan   Navara                           05-07   N45 Z         128              19            147              15            5           20             1       Commercial - Ute
Nissan   Tiida                            06-07   N46 Z         91               22            113              15            4           19             0
Nissan   Others                                   N99 Z        21338            3228          24566            5716         1782         7498            0
FSM                                               NIKIZ         15               12            27               12            6           18             0
Lada     Niva                             84-99   NIVAZ         338              72            410              76           20           96             1       4WD - Compact
Honda    Civic                            82-83   O1 A          685             159            844             447          110          557             1       Small
Honda    Civic / Ballade / Shuttle        84-87   O1 B         2610             595           3205             1138         284          1422            1       Small
Honda    Civic / Shuttle                  88-91   O1 C         4217             952           5169             1383         326          1709            1       Small
Honda    Civic                            92-95   O1 D         4871             991           5862             1139         235          1374            1       Small
Honda    Civic                            96-00   O1 E         4608             993           5601             789          158          947             1       Small
Honda    Civic Others                             O1 Z          223              84            307             537          121          658             0
Honda    CRX                              87-91   O10 A         377              81            458             263           84          347             1       Small
Honda    CRX                              92-98   O10 B         219              38            257              58           19           77             1       Small
Honda    CRX Others                               O10 Z         10               4             14               35           11           46             0
Honda    Odyssey                          95-00   O17 A         480              80            560             129           16          145             1       People Mover
Honda    Odyssey                          00-02   O17 B         184              25            209              15            4           19             0
                                                  O17 Z         11               1             12               4             1           5              0
               MAKE/MODEL              MODEL       No. of           No. of         No. of          No. of        No. of       No. of      ANALYSIS      MARKET
                                       CODE      uninjured         injured        involved        injured       severely     injured     INCLUSION       GROUP
                                                 drivers in       drivers in     drivers in       (but not      injured     drivers in    CRITERIA
                                               NSW (87-2007)    NSW (87-200 7) NSW (87-2007)     severely)     drivers in     NSW,         INV=100
                                                    and              and            and         drivers in     NSW and       Victoria       INJ=20
                                                 QLD, WA          QLD, WA        QLD, WA        NSW and         Victoria    (87-2007)
                                                 (91-2007)        (91-2007 )     (91-200 7)       Victoria     (87-2007)       and
                                                    and              and            and          (87-2007 )       and     QLD, WA, NZ
                                                SA (95 -2007)    SA (95-200 7) SA (95-2007)         and      QLD, WA, NZ    (91-2007)
                                                                                               QLD, WA, NZ     (91-2007)       and
                                                                                                 (91-2007 )       and     SA (95-2007)
                                                                                                    and      SA (95-2007)
                                                                                               SA (95-200 7)

Honda   CR-V                97-01    O18 A         2085              374          2459             348           55          403             1       4WD - Compact
Honda   CR-V                02-07    O18 B         1263              239          1502             187           26          213             1       4WD - Compact
                                     O18 Z          15                5            20               49           12           61             0
Honda   HR-V                99-02    O19 Z         387               81           468               60           16           76             1       4WD - Compact
Honda   Legend              86-95    O2 B          870               106          976              149           35          184             1       Large
Honda   Legend              96-98    O2 C           80                8            88               6             0           6              0
Honda   Legend              99-04    O2 D           42                5            47               7             1           8              0
Honda   Legend Others                O2 Z           12                8            20               52           12           64             0
Honda   S2000               99-07    O20 Z         180               19           199               14            2           16             0
Honda   Civic               01-05    O21 Z         1064              213          1277             189           47          236             1       Small
Honda   Jazz / Fit          02-07    O22 Z         679               186          865              184           38          222             1       Light
Honda   Insight             01--04   O23 Z          1                 0            1                 .            .            .             0
Honda   MDX                 03-06    O24 Z          58                2            60               2             1           3              0
Honda   Accord Euro         03-07    O25 Z         659               128          787              108           18          126             1       Medium
Honda   Accord              03-07    O26 Z         322               64           386               51           14           65             1       Medium
Honda   Odyssey             04-07    O27 Z         161               24           185               17            0           17             0
Honda   Civic               06-07    O28 Z          72               14            86               15            2           17             0
Honda   Legend              06-07    O29 Z          1                 0            1                1             0           1              0
Honda   Accord              82-85    O3 A          1987              437          2424             1000          246         1246            1       Medium
Honda   Accord              86-90    O3 B          2220              367          2587             905           179         1084            1       Medium
Honda   Accord              91-93    O3 C          1543              208          1751             320           85          405             1       Medium
Honda   Accord              94-98    O3 D          3028              478          3506             538           130         668             1       Medium
Honda   Accord              99-02    O3 E          541               102          643              116           16          132             1       Medium
Honda   Accord Others                O3 Z          127               47           174              321           73          394             0
Honda   CR-V                07-07    O30 Z          38               12            50               7             1           8              0
Honda   Prelude             82-82    O4 A          213               38           251               32            6           38             1       Medium
Honda   Prelude             83-91    O4 B          3470              573          4043             1248          308         1556            1       Medium
Honda   Prelude             92-96    O4 C          1562              244          1806             300           79          379             1       Medium
Honda   Prelude             97-02    O4 D          615               104          719               92           18          110             1       Medium
                 MAKE/MODEL             MODEL       No. of           No. of         No. of          No. of        No. of       No. of      ANALYSIS      MARKET
                                        CODE      uninjured         injured        involved        injured       severely     injured     INCLUSION       GROUP
                                                  drivers in       drivers in     drivers in       (but not      injured     drivers in    CRITERIA
                                                NSW (87-2007)    NSW (87-200 7) NSW (87-2007)     severely)     drivers in     NSW,         INV=100
                                                     and              and            and         drivers in     NSW and       Victoria       INJ=20
                                                  QLD, WA          QLD, WA        QLD, WA        NSW and         Victoria    (87-2007)
                                                  (91-2007)        (91-2007 )     (91-200 7)       Victoria     (87-2007)       and
                                                     and              and            and          (87-2007 )       and     QLD, WA, NZ
                                                 SA (95 -2007)    SA (95-200 7) SA (95-2007)         and      QLD, WA, NZ    (91-2007)
                                                                                                QLD, WA, NZ     (91-2007)       and
                                                                                                  (91-2007 )       and     SA (95-2007)
                                                                                                     and      SA (95-2007)
                                                                                                SA (95-200 7)

Honda     Prelude Others              O4 Z           58               25            83              158           32          190             0
Honda     Integra             86-88   O5 A          646               125          771              351           84          435             1       Small
Honda     Integra             89      O5 B          420               85           505              280           70          350             0
Honda     Integra             90-92   O5 C          717               132          849              248           53          301             1       Small
Honda     Integra             93      O5 D          214               34           248               30            7           37             0
Honda     Integra             93-01   O5 E          987               178          1165             246           49          295             1       Small
Honda     Integra             02-06   O5 F          166               44           210               31            8           39             1       Small
Honda     Integra Others              O5 Z           39               20            59               62           14           76             0
Honda     Concerto            89-93   O6 Z          529               108          637              198           50          248             1       Small
Honda     NSX                 91-02   O7 Z           15                2            17               3             1           4              0
Honda     Acty                83-86   O8 Z          275               60           335               44           16           60             1       Commercial - Van
Honda     City                83-86   O9 Z          344               130          474              609           127         736             1       Light
Honda     Others                      O99 Z         4050              702          4752             1417          463         1880            0
Peugeot   205                 87-94   PE1 Z         293               44           337               58           18           76             1       Light
Peugeot   607                 01-07   PE10Z          8                 0            8                1             0           1              0
Peugeot   407                 04-07   PE11Z          21                4            25               8             2           10             0
Peugeot   207                 07-07   PE12Z          8                 1            9                 .            .            .             0
Peugeot   405                 89-97   PE2 Z         585               94           679              138           35          173             1       Medium
Peugeot   505                 82-93   PE3 Z         698               84           782               93           29          122             1       Medium
Peugeot   306                 94-01   PE4 Z         1156              216          1372             235           39          274             1       Small
Peugeot   605                 94-96   PE5 Z          35                4            39               7             2           9              0
Peugeot   406                 96-04   PE7 Z         245               21           266               37            7           44             1       Medium
Peugeot   206                 99-07   PE8 Z         541               107          648               73           26           99             1       Light
Peugeot   307                 01-07   PE9 Z         359               62           421               60           12           72             1       Small
Peugeot   Others                      PE99Z         387               46           433              124           32          156             0
Porsche   944                 82-91   PO1 Z          99               11           110               14            6           20             1       Medium
Porsche   911                 82-07   PO2 Z          24                1            25               8             3           11             0
Porsche   968                 92-95   PO4 Z          1                 0            1                 .            .            .             0
Porsche   Boxter / Cayman     97-07   PO5 Z          2                 0            2                2             1           3              0
                 MAKE/MODEL               MODEL       No. of           No. of         No. of          No. of        No. of       No. of      ANALYSIS      MARKET
                                          CODE      uninjured         injured        involved        injured       severely     injured     INCLUSION       GROUP
                                                    drivers in       drivers in     drivers in       (but not      injured     drivers in    CRITERIA
                                                  NSW (87-2007)    NSW (87-200 7) NSW (87-2007)     severely)     drivers in     NSW,         INV=100
                                                       and              and            and         drivers in     NSW and       Victoria       INJ=20
                                                    QLD, WA          QLD, WA        QLD, WA        NSW and         Victoria    (87-2007)
                                                    (91-2007)        (91-2007 )     (91-200 7)       Victoria     (87-2007)       and
                                                       and              and            and          (87-2007 )       and     QLD, WA, NZ
                                                   SA (95 -2007)    SA (95-200 7) SA (95-2007)         and      QLD, WA, NZ    (91-2007)
                                                                                                  QLD, WA, NZ     (91-2007)       and
                                                                                                    (91-2007 )       and     SA (95-2007)
                                                                                                       and      SA (95-2007)
                                                                                                  SA (95-200 7)

Porsche   Cayenne               03-07    PO6 Z         18                1            19               1             0            1             0
Porsche   Others                         PO99Z        769               77           846              73            35           108            0
Proton    Wira                  95-96    PRO1Z        1064              330          1394             208           66           274            1       Small
Proton    Satria                97-05    PRO2Z        149               41           190              20             5           25             1       Light
Proton    Waja                  01-05    PRO3Z         13                6            19               2             2            4             0
Proton    Jumbuck               03-07    PRO4Z         66               12            78               8             5           13             0
Proton    Gen 2                 04-07    PRO5Z         26               13            39              12             0           12             0
Proton    Satria                07-07    PRO6Z         1                 0            1                .             .            .             0
Proton    Savvy                 06-07    PRO7Z         11                2            13               2             1            3             0
                                         PROTZ         41               11            52               9             4           13             0
Renault   20                    82-83    RE1 Z         17                4            21               7             4           11             0
Renault   Megane Cabriolet      01-03    RE10Z         44                6            50               9             1           10             0
Renault   Clio                  02-07    RE11Z        150               36           186              32             7           39             1       Light
Renault   Megane II             03-07    RE12Z         45               16            61              13             3           16             0
Renault   Trafic                04-07    RE13Z         7                 0            7                .             .            .             0
Renault   Master                04-07    RE14Z         4                 0            4                .             .            .             0
Renault   Kangoo                04-07    RE15Z         15                3            18               1             0            1             0
Renault   Megane II Cabriolet   04-07    RE16Z         10                4            14               1             0            1             0
Renault   Scenic II             05-07    RE17Z         6                 0            6                .             .            .             0
Renault   Grand Scenic          07-07    RE18Z         1                 0            1                1             0            1             0
Renault   Feugo                 82-87    RE2 Z        334               48           382              63            15           78             1       Medium
Renault   21                    87-91    RE3 Z         23                4            27               6             2            8             0
Renault   25                    85-91    RE4 Z         47                9            56              17             4           21             0
Renault   19                    91-96    RE5 Z        282               56           338              51             9           60             1       Small
Renault   Laguna                95-96    RE7 Z         38               10            48              11             4           15             0
Renault   Laguna                02-07    RE8 Z         26                6            32               8             0            8             0
Renault   Scenic                01--04   RE9 Z        159               32           191              28             1           29             1       Small
Renault   Others                         RE99Z        350               48           398              64            11           75             0
Rover     3500                  82-87    RO Z         176               29           205              36             4           40             1       Large
                    MAKE/MODEL              MODEL       No. of           No. of         No. of          No. of        No. of       No. of      ANALYSIS      MARKET
                                            CODE      uninjured         injured        involved        injured       severely     injured     INCLUSION       GROUP
                                                      drivers in       drivers in     drivers in       (but not      injured     drivers in    CRITERIA
                                                    NSW (87-2007)    NSW (87-200 7) NSW (87-2007)     severely)     drivers in     NSW,         INV=100
                                                         and              and            and         drivers in     NSW and       Victoria       INJ=20
                                                      QLD, WA          QLD, WA        QLD, WA        NSW and         Victoria    (87-2007)
                                                      (91-2007)        (91-2007 )     (91-200 7)       Victoria     (87-2007)       and
                                                         and              and            and          (87-2007 )       and     QLD, WA, NZ
                                                     SA (95 -2007)    SA (95-200 7) SA (95-2007)         and      QLD, WA, NZ    (91-2007)
                                                                                                    QLD, WA, NZ     (91-2007)       and
                                                                                                      (91-2007 )       and     SA (95-2007)
                                                                                                         and      SA (95-2007)
                                                                                                    SA (95-200 7)

Rover        416i/827                      RO1 Z        362               69           431              51            11           62             0
Rover        Quintet               82-86   RO2 Z        237               61           298              68            18           86             1       Small
Rover        825                   87-88   RO3 Z         34                5            39              14             2           16             0
MG           MGF / MG TF           99-05   RO4 Z        209               31           240              32             6           38             1       Small
Land Rover   Freelander            98-06   RO5 Z        185               30           215              27            11           38             1       4WD - Compact
MG           ZT                    02-05   RO6 Z         16                2            18               1             0            1             0
Rover        75                    01-05   RO7 Z         66               12            78               9             3           12             0
MG           ZR                    05-05   RO9 Z         1                 0            1               16             1           17             0
Rover        Others                        RO99Z        641               92           733              198           58           256            0
Rolls        Royce                         ROLLZ         33                6            39               4             2            6             0
Land Rover   Range Rover           82-94   RROV1        923               120          1043             142           46           188            1       4WD - Large
Land Rover   Range Rover           95-02   RROV2        169               20           189              31             5           36             1       4WD - Large
Land Rover   Range Rover           02-05   RROV3         37                1            38               1             0            1             0
Land Rover   Range Rover           05-07   RROV4         11                1            12               1             0            1             0
Range        Rover Others                  RROVZ         12                8            20               9             3           12             0
Saab         Others                        SA00Z        1051              137          1188             184           50           234            0
Saab         900 Series            82-92   SA1 A        1031              171          1202             169           43           212            1       Medium
Saab         900/9-3               94-02   SA1 B        1223              180          1403             146           25           171            1       Medium
Saab         900 Others                    SA1 Z         1                 3            4                1             0            1             0
Saab         9000                  86-97   SA2 Z        986               152          1138             143           17           160            1       Medium
Saab         9-5                   98-05   SA3 Z        200               41           241              38             3           41             1       Large
Saab         9-3                   03-07   SA4 Z         71               17            88              12             3           15             0
Saab         9-5                   06-07   SA5 Z         13                4            17               4             0            4             0
Saab         900/9000                      SA99Z        122               19           141              17             4           21             0
Lada         Samara                88-90   SAMAZ         51               10            61              10             4           14             0
Seat         Ibiza                 95-99   SE01Z         5                 2            7                4             1            5             0
Seat         Cordoba               95-99   SE02Z         4                 3            7                3             1            4             0
Seat         Other                         SEATZ        399               69           468              36            12           48             0
Smart        City-Coupe / ForTwo   03-07   SM01Z         12                1            13               5             0            5             0
                          MAKE/MODEL                          MODEL       No. of           No. of         No. of          No. of        No. of       No. of      ANALYSIS      MARKET
                                                              CODE      uninjured         injured        involved        injured       severely     injured     INCLUSION       GROUP
                                                                        drivers in       drivers in     drivers in       (but not      injured     drivers in    CRITERIA
                                                                      NSW (87-2007)    NSW (87-200 7) NSW (87-2007)     severely)     drivers in     NSW,         INV=100
                                                                           and              and            and         drivers in     NSW and       Victoria       INJ=20
                                                                        QLD, WA          QLD, WA        QLD, WA        NSW and         Victoria    (87-2007)
                                                                        (91-2007)        (91-2007 )     (91-200 7)       Victoria     (87-2007)       and
                                                                           and              and            and          (87-2007 )       and     QLD, WA, NZ
                                                                       SA (95 -2007)    SA (95-200 7) SA (95-2007)         and      QLD, WA, NZ    (91-2007)
                                                                                                                      QLD, WA, NZ     (91-2007)       and
                                                                                                                        (91-2007 )       and     SA (95-2007)
                                                                                                                           and      SA (95-2007)
                                                                                                                      SA (95-200 7)

Smart             Roadster                           03-06   SM02Z          7               0              7                .            .            .             0
Subaru            1800 / Leone / Omega / 4WD Wagon   82-93   SU1 Z        6355             1535          7890             1312          420         1732            1       Medium
Subaru            Tribeca                            06-07   SU10Z          6               1              7               1             0           1              0
Subaru            Liberty / Legacy                   89-93   SU2 A        5191             952           6143             1279          318         1597            1       Medium
Subaru            Liberty / Legacy / Outback         94-98   SU2 B        2400             439           2839             610           143         753             1       Medium
Subaru            Liberty / Legacy / Outback         99-03   SU2 C        2497             437           2934             317           70          387             1       Medium
Subaru            Liberty / Legacy / Outback         03-07   SU2 D         614              90            704              66           22           88             1       Medium
Subaru            Liberty Others                             SU2 Z         104              36            140             358           95          453             0
Subaru            Vortex                             85-89   SU3 Z         67               17            84               40            7           47             0
Subaru            Sherpa / Fiori / 700 / Rex         89-92   SU4 Z         654             317            971             303           78          381             1       Light
Subaru            SVX / Alcyone                      92-95   SU5 Z         24               4             28               1             3           4              0
Subaru            Brumby                             82-92   SU6 Z        1582             463           2045             285           153         438             1       Commercial - Ute
Subaru            Impreza                            93-00   SU7 A        4158             912           5070             848           236         1084            1       Small
Subaru            Impreza                            01-07   SU7 B        1634             296           1930             201           41          242             1       Small
                                                             SU7 Z         22               8             30               34            6           40             0
Subaru            Forester                           97-02   SU8 Z        1500             286           1786             254           55          309             1       4WD - Compact
Subaru            Forester                           02-07   SU9 Z         974             214           1188             141           29          170             1       4WD - Compact
Subaru            Others                                     SU99Z        3445             720           4165             984           320         1304            0
Suzuki            Swift                              82-85   SZ01A         202              68            270              52           20           72             1       Light
Holden / Suzuki   Barina / Swift / Cultus            86-88   SZ01B        3666             1225          4891             1228          323         1551            1       Light
Holden / Suzuki   Barina / Swift / Cultus            89-99   SZ01C        16991            4748          21739            3613          850         4463            1       Light
Suzuki            Swift Others                               SZ01Z         156              59            215              79           28          107             0
Suzuki            Vitara / Escudo                    88-98   SZ02A        3604             836           4440             728           178         906             1       4WD - Compact
Suzuki            Grand Vitara                       99-05   SZ02B         587             144            731             116           31          147             1       4WD - Compact
Suzuki            Vitara Others                              SZ02Z         59               25            84               59           20           79             0
Suzuki            Hatch / Alto                       82-84   SZ03Z         795             372           1167             268           85          353             1       Light
Holden / Suzuki   Scurry / Carry                     82-00   SZ04Z         412             172            584             142           49          191             1       Commercial - Van
Suzuki            Alto                               85-00   SZ05Z         212              93            305             183           52          235             1       Light
Suzuki            Mighty Boy                         85-88   SZ06Z         429             193            622             138           41          179             1       Commercial - Ute
                          MAKE/MODEL                              MODEL       No. of           No. of         No. of          No. of        No. of       No. of      ANALYSIS      MARKET
                                                                  CODE      uninjured         injured        involved        injured       severely     injured     INCLUSION       GROUP
                                                                            drivers in       drivers in     drivers in       (but not      injured     drivers in    CRITERIA
                                                                          NSW (87-2007)    NSW (87-200 7) NSW (87-2007)     severely)     drivers in     NSW,         INV=100
                                                                               and              and            and         drivers in     NSW and       Victoria       INJ=20
                                                                            QLD, WA          QLD, WA        QLD, WA        NSW and         Victoria    (87-2007)
                                                                            (91-2007)        (91-2007 )     (91-200 7)       Victoria     (87-2007)       and
                                                                               and              and            and          (87-2007 )       and     QLD, WA, NZ
                                                                           SA (95 -2007)    SA (95-200 7) SA (95-2007)         and      QLD, WA, NZ    (91-2007)
                                                                                                                          QLD, WA, NZ     (91-2007)       and
                                                                                                                            (91-2007 )       and     SA (95-2007)
                                                                                                                               and      SA (95-2007)
                                                                                                                          SA (95-200 7)

Holden / Suzuki   Drover / Sierra / Samurai / SJ410 /   82-99   SZ07Z         4008             1211          5219             891           250         1141            1       4WD - Compact
                  SJ413
Suzuki            Baleno / Cultus Crescent              95-02   SZ08Z         1626             404           2030             290           60          350             1       Small
Suzuki            Carry                                 99-05   SZ09Z          85               20            105              21            4           25             1       Commercial - Van
Suzuki            Ignis                                 00-02   SZ10Z          329             115            444             107           31          138             1       Light
Suzuki            Jimny                                 98-07   SZ11Z          230              87            317              71           16           87             1       4WD - Compact
Suzuki            Liana                                 01-07   SZ12Z          242              62            304              52           11           63             1       Small
Suzuki            Grand Vitara                          05-07   SZ13Z          55               12            67               10            3           13             0
Suzuki            Swift                                 05-07   SZ14Z          327             130            457              98           21          119             1       Light
Suzuki            APV                                   05-07   SZ15Z           4               2              6               3             0           3              0
Suzuki            SX4                                   07-07   SZ16Z           7               0              7               1             0           1              0
Suzuki            Others                                        SZ99Z         2411             716           3127             830          300          1130            0
Toyota            Corolla                               82-84   T01 A         9571             2373          11944            2798         654          3452            1       Small
Toyota            Corolla                               85      T01 B         2964             728           3692             1121         267          1388            0
Toyota            Corolla                               86-88   T01 C         16599            4101          20700            3661         928          4589            1       Small
Toyota            Corolla                               89      T01 D         2086             436           2522             395          113          508             0
Toyota / Holden   Corolla / Nova                        89-93   T01 E         27249            6344          33593            5480         1365         6845            1       Small
Toyota / Holden   Corolla / Nova                        94-97   T01 F         17371            3972          21343            3148         740          3888            1       Small
Toyota            Corolla / Allex                       98-01   T01 G         5487             1386          6873             1082         199          1281            1       Small
Toyota            Corolla                               02-07   T01 H         6154             1551          7705             1117         278          1395            1       Small
Toyota            Corolla                               07-07   T01 I           9               6             15               4             1           5              0
Toyota            Corolla Others                                T01 Z           2               0              2               12            6           18             0
                                                                T01I            1               0              1                .            .            .             0
Toyota            Corona                                82-88   T03 Z         17552            3696          21248            3269         865          4134            1       Medium
Toyota            Camry                                 83-86   T04 Z         3832             733           4565             612          162          774             1       Medium
Holden / Toyota   Apollo JK/JL / Camry / Vista          88-92   T05 A         32586            6105          38691            4767         1257         6024            1       Medium
Holden / Toyota   Apollo JM/JP / Camry / Sceptor        93-97   T05 B         25989            5167          31156            3663         984          4647            1       Medium
Toyota            Camry                                 98-02   T05 C         14240            2822          17062            1941         421          2362            1       Large
Toyota            Celica                                81-85   T06 A         2510             475           2985             548          119          667             1       Medium
                 MAKE/MODEL                      MODEL       No. of           No. of         No. of          No. of        No. of       No. of      ANALYSIS      MARKET
                                                 CODE      uninjured         injured        involved        injured       severely     injured     INCLUSION       GROUP
                                                           drivers in       drivers in     drivers in       (but not      injured     drivers in    CRITERIA
                                                         NSW (87-2007)    NSW (87-200 7) NSW (87-2007)     severely)     drivers in     NSW,         INV=100
                                                              and              and            and         drivers in     NSW and       Victoria       INJ=20
                                                           QLD, WA          QLD, WA        QLD, WA        NSW and         Victoria    (87-2007)
                                                           (91-2007)        (91-2007 )     (91-200 7)       Victoria     (87-2007)       and
                                                              and              and            and          (87-2007 )       and     QLD, WA, NZ
                                                          SA (95 -2007)    SA (95-200 7) SA (95-2007)         and      QLD, WA, NZ    (91-2007)
                                                                                                         QLD, WA, NZ     (91-2007)       and
                                                                                                           (91-2007 )       and     SA (95-2007)
                                                                                                              and      SA (95-2007)
                                                                                                         SA (95-200 7)

Toyota   Celica                       86-89    T06 B         2403             400           2803             378           94          472             1       Medium
Toyota   Celica                       90-93    T06 C         2485             439           2924             444          102          546             1       Medium
Toyota   Celica                       94-99    T06 D         1470             303           1773             271           49          320             1       Medium
Toyota   Celica                       00-05    T06 E          414              90            504              53           14           67             1       Medium
Toyota   Celica Others                         T06 Z          62               24            86               80           23          103             0
Toyota   Crown / Cressida / Mark II   82-85    T07 A         2060             388           2448             405          120          525             1       Large
Toyota   Crown / Cressida / Mark II   86-88    T07 B          995             141           1136             100           40          140             1       Large
Toyota   Cressida / Mark II           89-93    T07 C         2350             347           2697             266           75          341             1       Large
Toyota   Crown/Cres Others                     T07 Z          42                7            49               33            6           39             0
Toyota   Tercel                       83-88    T09 Z          494             114            608             126           32          158             1       Small
Toyota   Lexcen Others                         T10 Z           1                0             1               2             0           2              0
Toyota   Supra                        82-90    T11 Z          537             102            639              96           34          130             1       Large
Toyota   MR2                          87-90    T12 A          244              59            303             107           37          144             1       Small
Toyota   MR2                          91-00    T12 B          195              34            229              80           16           96             1       Small
Toyota   MR2 Others                            T12 Z          27                8            35               37            5           42             0
Toyota   Paseo / Cynos                91-99    T13 Z         1532             337           1869             303           65          368             1       Small
Toyota   Bundera                               T14 Z          10                4            14               4             1           5              0
Toyota   Hiace/Liteace                82-86    T15 A         4490             827           5317             895          264          1159            1       Commercial - Van
Toyota   Hiace/Liteace                87-89    T15 B         2351             408           2759             574          146          720             1       Commercial - Van
Toyota   Hiace/Liteace                90-95    T15 C         5524             792           6316             779          236          1015            1       Commercial - Van
Toyota   Hiace/Liteace                96-04    T15 D         4973             692           5665             584          144          728             1       Commercial - Van
Toyoa    Hiace                        05-07    T15 E          276              38            314              35           11           46             1       Commercial - Van
Toyota   Hiace/Liteace Others                  T15 Z          214              55            269             214           45          259             0
Toyota   4Runner/Hilux                82-85    T16 A         5393             1091          6484             772          306          1078            1       Commercial - Ute
Toyota   4Runner/Hilux                86-88    T16 B         4166             788           4954             788          302          1090            1       Commercial - Ute
Toyota   4Runner/Hilux                89-97    T16 C         17901            3290          21191            2729         1093         3822            1       Commercial - Ute
Toyota   Hilux                        98-02    T16 D         5422             973           6395             695          233          928             1       Commercial - Ute
Toyota   Hilux                        03--04   T16 E         1252             227           1479             182           56          238             1       Commercial - Ute
Toyota   Hilux                        05-07    T16 F          976             168           1144             107           51          158             1       Commercial - Ute
                   MAKE/MODEL                 MODEL       No. of           No. of         No. of          No. of        No. of       No. of      ANALYSIS      MARKET
                                              CODE      uninjured         injured        involved        injured       severely     injured     INCLUSION       GROUP
                                                        drivers in       drivers in     drivers in       (but not      injured     drivers in    CRITERIA
                                                      NSW (87-2007)    NSW (87-200 7) NSW (87-2007)     severely)     drivers in     NSW,         INV=100
                                                           and              and            and         drivers in     NSW and       Victoria       INJ=20
                                                        QLD, WA          QLD, WA        QLD, WA        NSW and         Victoria    (87-2007)
                                                        (91-2007)        (91-2007 )     (91-200 7)       Victoria     (87-2007)       and
                                                           and              and            and          (87-2007 )       and     QLD, WA, NZ
                                                       SA (95 -2007)    SA (95-200 7) SA (95-2007)         and      QLD, WA, NZ    (91-2007)
                                                                                                      QLD, WA, NZ     (91-2007)       and
                                                                                                        (91-2007 )       and     SA (95-2007)
                                                                                                           and      SA (95-2007)
                                                                                                      SA (95-200 7)

Toyota   4Runner/Hilux Others               T16 Z          901             300           1201             412           148         560             0
Lexus    ES300 / Windom             92-01   T17 Z          559              92            651             109           26          135             1       Large
Toyota   Tarago                     83-89   T18 A         4772             1214          5986             803           243         1046            1       People Mover
Toyota   Tarago                     90      T18 B          189              29            218             130           15          145             0
Toyota   Tarago / Previa / Estima   91-99   T18 C         3202             493           3695             365           86          451             1       People Mover
Toyota   Tarago / Previa / Estima   00-06   T18 D          678             111            789              79           19           98             1       People Mover
Toyota   Tarago Others                      T18 Z          117              32            149              23            9           32             0
Toyota   Commercials                        T19 Z         5226             846           6072             549           143         692             0
Toyota   Landcruiser                82-89   T20 A         7792             1299          9091             943           419         1362            1       4WD - Large
Toyota   Landcruiser                90-97   T20 B         11533            1585          13118            1239          501         1740            1       4WD - Large
Toyota   Landcruiser                98-07   T20 C         4842              833          5675             662           243          905            1       4WD - Large
Toyota   Lancruiser Others                  T20 Z         619               195          814              171           84           255            0
Toyota   RAV4                       94-00   T21 A         2608              527          3135             514           109          623            1       4WD - Compact
Toyota   RAV4                       01-06   T21 B         1902              435          2337             297           73           370            1       4WD - Compact
                                            T21 Z          56               15            71              18             6           24             0
Toyota   Starlet                    96-99   T22 Z         3966             1106          5072             849           214         1063            1       Light
Lexus    LS400 / Celsior            90-00   T25 Z          186              30            216              26            3           29             1       Large
Lexus    IS200 / IS300              99-04   T26 Z          496              84            580              32            5           37             1       Medium
Toyota   Echo                       99-05   T27 Z         4103             1208          5311             864           249         1113            1       Light
Lexus    GS300                      97-04   T28 Z         129               16           145               9             1           10             0
Toyota   Avalon                     00-05   T29 Z         2033              398          2431             297           71           368            1       Large
Toyota   MR2                        00-05   T30 Z          74               24            98               8             2           10             0
Lexus    LS430                      00-04   T31 Z          38               2             40               2             0           2              0
Toyota   Corolla 4WD Wagon          92-96   T32 Z          481              87            568              56           14           70             1       Small
Toyota   Spacia                     93-00   T33 A          155              38            193              24            4           28             1       People Mover
Toyota   Spacia                     01-02   T33 B          13                5             18              4             0            4             0
                                            T33 Z          2                 0             2               .             .            .             0
Lexus    ES300                      01-05   T34 Z          66                7             73              1             1            2             0
                  MAKE/MODEL              MODEL       No. of           No. of         No. of          No. of        No. of       No. of      ANALYSIS      MARKET
                                          CODE      uninjured         injured        involved        injured       severely     injured     INCLUSION       GROUP
                                                    drivers in       drivers in     drivers in       (but not      injured     drivers in    CRITERIA
                                                  NSW (87-2007)    NSW (87-200 7) NSW (87-2007)     severely)     drivers in     NSW,         INV=100
                                                       and              and            and         drivers in     NSW and       Victoria       INJ=20
                                                    QLD, WA          QLD, WA        QLD, WA        NSW and         Victoria    (87-2007)
                                                    (91-2007)        (91-2007 )     (91-200 7)       Victoria     (87-2007)       and
                                                       and              and            and          (87-2007 )       and     QLD, WA, NZ
                                                   SA (95 -2007)    SA (95-200 7) SA (95-2007)         and      QLD, WA, NZ    (91-2007)
                                                                                                  QLD, WA, NZ     (91-2007)       and
                                                                                                    (91-2007 )       and     SA (95-2007)
                                                                                                       and      SA (95-2007)
                                                                                                  SA (95-200 7)

Lexus    SC430                 01-07    T35 Z          17                0             17              1             0            1             0
Toyota   Camry                 02-06    T36 Z         3789              837          4626             632           112          744            1       Large
Toyota   Prius                 01-Feb   T37 Z          26                1            27               1             0            1             0
Toyota   Avensis Verso         01-07    T38 Z          118              23            141              10            7           17             0
Toyota   Prius                 03-07    T39 Z          70               10            80               14            2           16             0
Toyota   Kluger                03-07    T40 Z          449              74           523               49           14           63             1       4WD - Medium
Toyota   Landcruiser Prado     96-03    T41 Z          984              142          1126              92           32           124            1       4WD - Medium
Toyota   Landcruiser Prado     03-07    T42 Z         1063              139          1202             106           25           131            1       4WD - Medium
Lexus    RX330                 03-05    T43 Z         143               19           162              11             5           16             0
Lexus    GS300/430/450h        05-07    T44 Z          16                2            18               3             0            3             0
Toyota   Yaris                 05-07    T45 Z          546              137           683             103           30           133            1       Light
                                        T46 Z          8                 5             13              .             .            .             0
Lexus    IS250                 05-07    T48 Z          63                7             70              4             0            4             0
Lexus    ZZZZ                  06-07    T49 Z           8               0              8                .            .            .             0
Toyota   Aurion                06-07    T50 Z          104              20            124              10            1           11             0
Toyota   Camry                 06-07    T51 Z          241              53            294              32            3           35             1       Large
Toyota   RAV4                  06-07    T52 Z          200              37            237              26            7           33             1       4WD - Compact
Toyota   Tarago                06-07    T54 Z          45                9             54              3             0            3             0
Lexus    LS460                 07-07    T55 Z          1                 0             1               .             .            .             0
Toyota   Kluger                07-07    T57 Z           8               0              8                .            .            .             0
Toyota   Others                         T99 Z         27790            4429          32219            8711         2917         11628           0
Volvo    850/S70/V70/C70       92-05    V877Z         1710              277          1987             218           49           267            1       Large
Volvo    200 Series            82-93    VO02Z         3225              457          3682             336           95           431            1       Medium
Volvo    300 Series            84-88    VO03Z         192               27           219              34            12           46             1       Small
Volvo    700/900 Series        84-92    VO07Z         2144              330          2474             280           50           330            1       Large
Volvo    960/S90/V90           90-98    VO10Z         113               24           137              19             5           24             1       Large
Volvo    S80                   98-06    VO11Z          71                8             79              6             1            7             0
                      MAKE/MODEL                MODEL       No. of           No. of         No. of          No. of        No. of       No. of      ANALYSIS      MARKET
                                                CODE      uninjured         injured        involved        injured       severely     injured     INCLUSION       GROUP
                                                          drivers in       drivers in     drivers in       (but not      injured     drivers in    CRITERIA
                                                        NSW (87-2007)    NSW (87-200 7) NSW (87-2007)     severely)     drivers in     NSW,         INV=100
                                                             and              and            and         drivers in     NSW and       Victoria       INJ=20
                                                          QLD, WA          QLD, WA        QLD, WA        NSW and         Victoria    (87-2007)
                                                          (91-2007)        (91-2007 )     (91-200 7)       Victoria     (87-2007)       and
                                                             and              and            and          (87-2007 )       and     QLD, WA, NZ
                                                         SA (95 -2007)    SA (95-200 7) SA (95-2007)         and      QLD, WA, NZ    (91-2007)
                                                                                                        QLD, WA, NZ     (91-2007)       and
                                                                                                          (91-2007 )       and     SA (95-2007)
                                                                                                             and      SA (95-2007)
                                                                                                        SA (95-200 7)

Volvo        S60                       01-07   VO12Z         109              15            124              13            3           16             0
Volvo        XC 90                     03-07   VO13Z         73               14             87              7             3           10             0
Volvo        S40/V50                   04-07   VO14Z         32               11             43              7             0           7              0
Volvo        S40/V40                   97-04   VO40Z        641               113          754              86            17           103            1       Small
Volvo        Others                            VO99Z        3191              422          3613             513           141          654            0
Volkswagon                                     VOLKZ          9               2             11               19            5           24             0
Volkswagen   Caravelle / Transporter   88-94   VS01A         340              44            384              27            7           34             1       Commercial - Van
Volkswagen   Caravelle / Transporter   95-04   VS01B         916              141          1057              89           10           99             1       Commercial - Van
                                               VS01Z         121              18           139               10            3           13             0
Volkswagen   Golf                      82-94   VS02A        222               41           263              61            15           76             1       Small
Volkswagen   Golf                      95-98   VS02B        1067              183          1250             121           21           142            1       Small
Volkswagen   Golf / Bora               99-04   VS02C        1433              290          1723             244           36           280            1       Small
Volkswagen   Golf Others                       VS02Z         7                 2            9                6             0            6             0
Volkswagen   Kombi                             VS03Z         6                 4             10              3             1            4             0
Volkswagen   Passat                    95-97   VS04A         45                6             51              7             1            8             0
Volkswagen   Passat                    98-06   VS04B         298              43            341              48            7           55             1       Medium
Volkswagon   Passat Others                     VS04Z          4               1              5               2             0           2              0
Volkswagen   70E Pick Up                       VS07Z         24                1            25               5             1            6             0
Volkswagen   Polo                      96-00   VS08A         451              121           572              90           11           101            1       Light
Volkswagen   Polo                      01-02   VS08B         53               16             69              12            6           18             0
Volkswagon   Polo Others                       VS08Z         6                1              7               2             0           2              0
Volkswagen   New Beetle                00-07   VS10Z         187              38            225              43            4           47             1       Small
Volkswagen   Polo                      02-07   VS11Z         141              33            174              26            4           30             1       Light
Volkswagen   LT                        03-06   VS12Z         20               1             21               3             1           4              0
Volkswagen   Touareg                   03-07   VS13Z         40               4             44               3             2           5              0
Volkswagen   Golf / Jetta              04-07   VS15Z         361              58            419              60            7           67             1       Small
Volkswagen   Caddy                     05-07   VS16Z         33                9             42              2             1            3             0
                      MAKE/MODEL             MODEL       No. of           No. of         No. of          No. of        No. of       No. of      ANALYSIS   MARKET
                                             CODE      uninjured         injured        involved        injured       severely     injured     INCLUSION    GROUP
                                                       drivers in       drivers in     drivers in       (but not      injured     drivers in    CRITERIA
                                                     NSW (87-2007)    NSW (87-200 7) NSW (87-2007)     severely)     drivers in     NSW,         INV=100
                                                          and              and            and         drivers in     NSW and       Victoria       INJ=20
                                                       QLD, WA          QLD, WA        QLD, WA        NSW and         Victoria    (87-2007)
                                                       (91-2007)        (91-2007 )     (91-200 7)       Victoria     (87-2007)       and
                                                          and              and            and          (87-2007 )       and     QLD, WA, NZ
                                                      SA (95 -2007)    SA (95-200 7) SA (95-2007)         and      QLD, WA, NZ    (91-2007)
                                                                                                     QLD, WA, NZ     (91-2007)       and
                                                                                                       (91-2007 )       and     SA (95-2007)
                                                                                                          and      SA (95-2007)
                                                                                                     SA (95-200 7)

Volkswagen   Multivan              04-07   VS17Z           7                3             10              3             0            3             0
Volkswagen   Passat                06-07   VS18Z          23                1             24              3             0            3             0
Volkswagen   EOS                   07-07   VS20Z          3                 1             4               .             .            .             0
Volkswagon   Others                        VS99Z         353               51           404              77            28           105            0
Unknown                                                 240991            79833        320824           61084         22106        83190           0
                                           Total        2065882          441172        2507054          414840       118171       533011          427
                                            APPENDIX 2




          LOGISTIC REGRESSION ESTIMATES OF
CRASHWORTHINESS INJURY RISK BY MODEL AND MARKET GROUP
                            CRASHWORTHINESS INJURY RISK RATINGS

                   New South Wales Data (1987-2007), South Australia (1995-2007),
                        Queensland and Western Australia Data (1991-2007)


Make              Model of Car                           Years of   Pr(Risk)   Lower 95%    Upper 95%    Width of
                                                        Manufacture %          Confidence   Confidence   Confidence
                                                                               Limit        Limit        Interval
ALL VEHICLE AVERAGE                                                 16.84

Compact Four Wheel Drive Vehicles                                   17.87      17.47        18.27        0.80

Daihatsu          Feroza / Rocky                           89-97    19.74      17.48        22.21        4.73
Daihatsu          Rocky / Rugger                           85-98    22.23      19.06        25.76        6.70
Daihatsu          Terios                                   97-05    23.21      20.54        26.12        5.57
Holden            Cruze                                    02-06    21.91      18.74        25.44        6.70
Mitsubishi        Outlander                                03-06    15.58      12.05        19.90        7.84
Kia               Sportage                                 98-03    16.26      13.73        19.15        5.42
Kia               Sorento                                  03-07    11.45      7.41         17.28        9.88
Ford / Mazda      Escape / Tribute                         01-06    13.22      11.49        15.16        3.67
Nissan            X-Trail                                  01-07    15.75      14.07        17.59        3.52
Lada              Niva                                     84-99    18.81      15.11        23.18        8.07
Honda             CR-V                                     97-01    13.83      12.54        15.24        2.70
Honda             CR-V                                     02-07    13.02      11.50        14.71        3.21
Honda             HR-V                                     99-02    15.46      12.51        18.95        6.45
Land Rover        Freelander                               98-06    13.35      9.43         18.56        9.13
Subaru            Forester                                 97-02    13.36      11.92        14.95        3.03
Subaru            Forester                                 02-07    13.92      12.19        15.85        3.66
Suzuki            Vitara / Escudo                          88-98    20.63      19.37        21.95        2.58
Suzuki            Grand Vitara                             99-05    15.52      13.20        18.17        4.96
                  Drover / Sierra / Samurai / SJ410 /
Holden / Suzuki                                            82-99    26.22      24.92        27.56        2.65
                  SJ413
Suzuki            Jimny                                    98-07    22.24      18.06        27.08        9.02
Toyota            RAV4                                     94-00    15.59      14.35        16.91        2.56
Toyota            RAV4                                     01-06    14.95      13.63        16.37        2.74
Toyota            RAV4                                     06-07    11.15      8.03         15.28        7.25

Medium Four Wheel Drive Vehicles                                    13.03      12.59        13.47        0.88

Daewoo /          Musso
                                                           98-02    12.11      8.64         16.71        8.07
Ssangong
Ford              Territory SX/SY                          04-07    9.09       7.16         11.49        4.33
Holden / Isuzu    Jackaroo / Bighorn                       82-91    20.23      17.74        22.98        5.24
Holden / Isuzu    Jackaroo / Bighorn                       92-97    15.24      12.87        17.94        5.07
Holden / Isuzu    Jackaroo / Bighorn                       98-02    14.76      12.54        17.30        4.76
Holden            Frontera / Mu                            95-03    14.74      11.59        18.58        6.99
Holden            Adventra                                 03-06    11.86      7.76         17.70        9.93
Hyundai           Santa Fe                                 00-06    15.74      12.45        19.71        7.26
Mitsubishi        Pajero                                   82-90    17.63      16.03        19.35        3.32
Mitsubishi        Pajero                                   92-99    12.35      11.34        13.43        2.08
Mitsubishi        Pajero NM / NP / NS                      00-07    8.63       7.20         10.31        3.10
Mitsubishi        Challenger                               98-06    12.24      9.73         15.28        5.55
Jeep              Cherokee XJ                              96-00    12.82      11.08        14.79        3.71
Jeep              Wrangler                                 96-04    14.75      10.99        19.52        8.53
Make              Model of Car                      Years of   Pr(Risk)   Lower 95%    Upper 95%    Width of
                                                   Manufacture %          Confidence   Confidence   Confidence
                                                                          Limit        Limit        Interval
Jeep              Cherokee KJ                         01-07    10.94      7.36         15.97        8.61
Land Rover        Defender                            92-07    13.40      10.33        17.19        6.86
Nissan            Pathfinder / Terrano                88-94    14.09      11.45        17.22        5.76
Nissan            Pathfinder / Terrano / Regulus      95-05    11.63      9.79         13.78        3.99
Toyota            Kluger                              03-07    11.69      9.34         14.55        5.21
Toyota            Landcruiser Prado                   96-03    9.82       8.32         11.56        3.24
Toyota            Landcruiser Prado                   03-07    8.79       7.44         10.36        2.92

Large Four Wheel Drive Vehicles                                12.54      12.25        12.84        0.58

BMW               X5                                  01-07    10.94      8.01         14.77        6.75
Ford              Bronco                              82-87    15.76      10.87        22.29        11.42
Ford              Explorer                            00-01    18.43      15.03        22.39        7.37
Ford              Explorer                            01-05    10.40      7.19         14.81        7.63
Jeep              Grand Cherokee ZG                   96-99    10.35      7.19         14.69        7.50
Jeep              Grand Cherokee WJ/WG                99-05    10.48      7.16         15.09        7.93
Land Rover        Discovery                           91-02    12.12      10.40        14.07        3.67
Mercedes Benz     M-Class W163                        98-05    9.31       6.92         12.41        5.48
Nissan            Patrol / Safari                     82-87    14.26      12.50        16.22        3.71
Nissan / Ford     Patrol / Maverick / Safari          88-97    11.74      11.03        12.49        1.45
Nissan            Patrol / Safari                     98-07    10.23      9.30         11.25        1.95
Land Rover        Range Rover                         82-94    13.73      11.57        16.23        4.66
Land Rover        Range Rover                         95-02    11.13      7.22         16.76        9.54
Toyota            Landcruiser                         82-89    15.84      15.03        16.69        1.65
Toyota            Landcruiser                         90-97    12.42      11.83        13.04        1.21
Toyota            Landcruiser                         98-07    12.18      11.38        13.03        1.65

Commercial Vehicles- Vans                                      17.74      17.31        18.17        0.86

Daihatsu          Handivan                            82-90    34.49      31.30        37.82        6.52
Daihatsu          Hi-Jet                              82-90    42.58      35.46        50.03        14.56
Daihatsu          Handivan / Cuore                    99-03    27.26      21.98        33.26        11.28
Ford              Falcon Panel Van                    82-95    16.89      15.64        18.22        2.59
Ford              Falcon Panel Van                    96-99    13.61      10.76        17.06        6.30
Ford              Transit                             95-00    14.16      12.10        16.50        4.40
Ford              Transit                             01-07    10.32      7.86         13.43        5.58
Holden            Shuttle / WFR Van                   82-87    22.88      19.27        26.94        7.67
Kia               Pregio                              02-06    16.74      13.53        20.53        7.01
Mercedes Benz     MB100 / MB140                       99-04    10.39      7.35         14.48        7.12
Mercedes Benz     Vito / Viano                        99-07    9.22       6.83         12.32        5.49
Mercedes Benz     Sprinter                            98-04    13.50      10.53        17.14        6.61
Honda             Acty                                83-86    16.43      12.85        20.77        7.93
Holden / Suzuki   Scurry / Carry                      82-00    34.07      29.98        38.42        8.44
Suzuki            Carry                               99-05    19.00      12.37        28.04        15.66
Toyota            Hiace/Liteace                       82-86    22.32      21.00        23.70        2.70
Toyota            Hiace/Liteace                       87-89    21.08      19.33        22.95        3.63
Toyota            Hiace/Liteace                       90-95    17.81      16.71        18.97        2.26
Toyota            Hiace/Liteace                       96-04    14.85      13.84        15.92        2.07
Toyoa             Hiace                               05-07    12.72      9.34         17.08        7.73
Volkswagen        Caravelle / Transporter             88-94    13.83      10.43        18.12        7.68
Volkswagen        Caravelle / Transporter             95-04    15.24      13.04        17.73        4.69
Make             Model of Car                       Years of   Pr(Risk)   Lower 95%    Upper 95%    Width of
                                                   Manufacture %          Confidence   Confidence   Confidence
                                                                          Limit        Limit        Interval

Commercial Vehicles- Utes                                       15.52     15.30        15.74        0.44

Ford / Nissan    Falcon Ute / XFN Ute                 82-95     16.09     15.37        16.84        1.47
Ford             Falcon Ute                           96-99     15.05     13.67        16.54        2.87
Ford             Falcon Ute AU                        00-02     12.61     11.36        13.98        2.62
Ford             Falcon Ute BA/BF                     03-07     11.90     10.45        13.52        3.07
Ford             Ford F-Series                        82-92     14.60     12.41        17.12        4.71
Holden           Commodore Ute VG/VP                  90-93     16.36     14.76        18.09        3.33
Holden / Isuzu   Rodeo / Pickup                       82-85     19.51     16.75        22.62        5.87
Holden / Isuzu   Rodeo / Pickup                       86-88     19.08     15.49        23.26        7.78
Holden / Isuzu   Rodeo / Pickup                       89-95     16.95     16.06        17.88        1.82
Holden           Rodeo                                96-98     16.22     14.95        17.57        2.61
Holden           Rodeo                                99-02     14.89     13.71        16.16        2.45
Holden           WB Series                            82-85     16.31     14.62        18.15        3.53
Holden           Commodore Ute VR/VS                  94-00     15.43     14.65        16.23        1.58
Holden           Commodore VU Ute                     00-02     12.83     11.47        14.31        2.84
Holden           Commodore VY/VZ Ute                  02-07     13.13     12.02        14.31        2.29
Holden           Rodeo                                03-07     12.99     11.75        14.34        2.60
Mitsubishi       Triton MK                            96-06     12.34     10.56        14.36        3.80
Kia              Ceres                                92-00     20.66     18.33        23.21        4.88
Ford / Mazda     Courier / B-Series / Bounty          98-02     13.77     12.31        15.38        3.07
Ford / Mazda     Courier / Bravo / Bounty             03-06     16.94     14.71        19.43        4.71
Nissan           720 Ute                              82-85     19.38     17.47        21.43        3.96
Nissan           Navara                               86-91     16.75     15.55        18.01        2.46
Nissan           Navara                               92-96     15.05     13.47        16.77        3.30
Nissan           Navara                               97-05     11.02     9.76         12.42        2.66
Nissan           Navara                               05-07     10.86     6.92         16.64        9.72
Subaru           Brumby                               82-92     21.18     19.41        23.06        3.65
Suzuki           Mighty Boy                           85-88     36.77     32.72        41.03        8.31
Toyota           4Runner/Hilux                        82-85     19.06     18.02        20.14        2.13
Toyota           4Runner/Hilux                        86-88     17.82     16.68        19.03        2.35
Toyota           4Runner/Hilux                        89-97     16.38     15.83        16.94        1.11
Toyota           Hilux                                98-02     14.08     13.24        14.97        1.73
Toyota           Hilux                                03-04     13.13     11.55        14.89        3.34
Toyota           Hilux                                05-07     12.11     10.41        14.04        3.63

Large Cars                                                      15.93     15.80        16.07        0.27

BMW              7 Series E23                         82-88     12.97     9.31         17.79        8.48
BMW              7 Series E32                         89-94     13.92     9.75         19.49        9.73
BMW              7 Series E38                         95-01     10.56     6.86         15.91        9.06
Ford             Falcon XE/XF                         82-88     17.55     17.19        17.92        0.73
Ford             Fairlane Z & LTD F                   82-87     17.12     16.16        18.13        1.96
Ford             Falcon EA / Falcon EB Series I     88-Mar 92   16.74     16.36        17.13        0.76
Ford             Falcon EB Series II / Falcon ED    Apr 92-94   15.33     14.82        15.86        1.04
Ford             Fairlane N & LTD D                   88-94     14.04     13.09        15.06        1.97
Ford             Fairlane N & LTD D                   95-98     14.34     12.82        16.00        3.18
Ford             Fairlane & LTD AU                    99-02     14.36     12.40        16.58        4.19
Ford             Fairlane & LTD BA/BF                 03-07     12.05     8.91         16.09        7.17
Ford             Falcon EF/EL                         94-98     15.25     14.89        15.61        0.72
Ford             Falcon AU                            98-02     14.82     14.36        15.30        0.94
Ford             Taurus                               96-98     16.58     13.60        20.06        6.46
Ford             Falcon BA/BF                         02-07     13.71     13.05        14.40        1.35
Make              Model of Car                    Years of   Pr(Risk)   Lower 95%    Upper 95%    Width of
                                                 Manufacture %          Confidence   Confidence   Confidence
                                                                        Limit        Limit        Interval
Holden / Toyota   Commodore VN/VP / Lexcen          89-93    17.31      16.97        17.65        0.68
Holden            Statesman/Caprice WB              82-85    16.66      11.34        23.81        12.47
Holden            Stateman/Caprice VQ               90-93    15.23      12.72        18.14        5.42
Holden            Stateman/Caprice VR/VS            94-98    15.28      14.21        16.42        2.21
Holden / Toyota   Commodore VR/VS / Lexcen          93-97    15.94      15.61        16.28        0.68
Holden            Commodore VT/VX                   97-02    15.40      15.03        15.77        0.74
Holden            Statesman/Caprice WH              99-03    13.06      11.33        15.01        3.68
Holden            Commodore VY/VZ                   02-07    14.35      13.71        15.02        1.31
Holden            Monaro                            01-05    14.67      12.13        17.64        5.51
Holden            Statesman/Caprice WK/WL           03-06    15.92      12.75        19.70        6.95
Holden            Commodore VB-VL                   82-88    18.76      18.37        19.16        0.78
Holden            Commodore VE                      06-07    12.80      10.94        14.91        3.97
Hyundai           Sonata                            89-97    17.81      16.63        19.05        2.42
Hyundai           Grandeaur / XG                    99-00    13.88      10.55        18.05        7.50
                  Magna TM/TN/TP / Sigma /
Mitsubishi                                          85-90    18.60      18.11        19.10        0.99
                  V3000
                  Magna TE/TF/TH/TJ / Verada
Mitsubishi                                          96-03    15.51      14.98        16.06        1.07
                  KE/KF/KH/KJ / Diamante
                  Magna TR/TS / Verada KR/KS /
Mitsubishi                                          91-96    16.57      16.09        17.05        0.95
                  V3000 / Diamante
Mitsubishi        Magna TL/TW / Verada KL/KW        03-05    15.08      13.16        17.22        4.06
Mitsubishi        380                               05-07    15.21      11.30        20.18        8.88
Jaguar            XJ6                               82-86    17.82      13.88        22.59        8.71
Jaguar            XJ6                               87-94    12.89      10.12        16.28        6.17
Mazda             929 / Luce                        82-90    19.21      17.85        20.64        2.79
Mazda             929 / Sentia / Efini MS-9         92-96    17.28      12.99        22.62        9.63
Mercedes Benz     E-Class W123                      82-85    13.77      10.89        17.26        6.37
Mercedes Benz     E-Class W124                      86-94    15.14      13.22        17.28        4.05
Mercedes Benz     E-Class W210                      96-02    11.54      9.45         14.02        4.58
Mercedes Benz     S-Class W126                      82-92    13.56      11.45        15.98        4.53
Nissan            Skyline                           83-88    18.09      17.05        19.18        2.13
Nissan            300ZX / Fairlady Z                90-95    17.80      14.73        21.34        6.61
Nissan            Maxima                            90-94    16.74      14.39        19.39        5.00
Nissan            Maxima / Cefiro                   95-99    16.70      14.66        18.97        4.31
Nissan            Maxima                            00-02    15.87      12.66        19.72        7.06
Nissan            Maxima                            06-07    13.15      9.36         18.19        8.83
Honda             Legend                            86-95    12.82      10.69        15.32        4.63
Rover             3500                              82-87    19.48      13.86        26.68        12.82
Saab              9-5                               98-05    16.46      12.27        21.72        9.45
Toyota            Camry                             98-02    15.39      14.84        15.95        1.12
Toyota            Crown / Cressida / Mark II        82-85    18.82      17.17        20.60        3.43
Toyota            Crown / Cressida / Mark II        86-88    14.80      12.66        17.24        4.58
Toyota            Cressida / Mark II                89-93    14.08      12.73        15.55        2.82
Toyota            Supra                             82-90    20.04      16.77        23.77        7.00
Lexus             ES300 / Windom                    92-01    15.32      12.62        18.47        5.85
Lexus             LS400 / Celsior                   90-00    13.97      9.87         19.39        9.52
Toyota            Avalon                            00-05    14.21      12.91        15.61        2.70
Toyota            Camry                             02-06    15.16      14.19        16.19        2.00
Toyota            Camry                             06-07    15.16      11.64        19.51        7.87
Volvo             850/S70/V70/C70                   92-05    14.23      12.71        15.89        3.18
Volvo             700/900 Series                    84-92    15.25      13.77        16.86        3.09
Volvo             960/S90/V90                       90-98    16.96      11.46        24.35        12.89
Make            Model of Car                       Years of   Pr(Risk)   Lower 95%    Upper 95%    Width of
                                                  Manufacture %          Confidence   Confidence   Confidence
                                                                         Limit        Limit        Interval

Medium Cars                                                   17.28      17.11        17.46        0.35

Alfa Romeo      156                                  99-06    15.25      11.98        19.21        7.23
Audi            A4                                   95-01    13.06      10.86        15.63        4.77
Audi            A4                                   01-07    12.20      9.69         15.25        5.56
BMW             Z3 E36                               97-03    12.36      8.62         17.40        8.78
BMW             3 Series E90                         05-07    20.97      15.12        28.32        13.20
BMW             3 Series E30                         82-91    16.87      15.64        18.17        2.53
BMW             3 Series E36                         92-98    16.32      15.31        17.39        2.07
BMW             3 Series E46                         99-06    15.10      13.78        16.53        2.76
BMW             5 Series E28                         82-88    14.28      12.10        16.79        4.70
BMW             5 Series E34                         89-95    15.25      12.92        17.91        5.00
BMW             5 Series E39                         96-03    10.49      8.52         12.85        4.33
Chrysler        PT Cruiser                           00-07    18.18      12.73        25.29        12.56
Daewoo          Espero                               95-97    21.76      19.23        24.53        5.31
Daewoo          Leganza                              97-02    15.63      13.24        18.35        5.11
Ford            Mondeo                               95-01    14.92      13.53        16.42        2.90
Ford            Probe                                94-98    21.27      16.47        27.02        10.55
Ford            Cougar                               99-03    14.63      11.34        18.69        7.36
Holden          Calibra                              94-97    15.12      11.86        19.09        7.23
Holden          Camira                               82-89    23.14      22.44        23.85        1.41
Holden          Vectra                               97-03    16.19      15.03        17.42        2.39
Holden          Vectra ZC                            03-05    13.37      9.90         17.82        7.93
Hyundai         Sonata                               98-01    16.27      14.14        18.65        4.51
Hyundai         Sonata EF                            02-05    18.13      13.53        23.86        10.33
                Sigma / Galant / Sapporo /
Mitsubishi                                           82-84    20.46      19.69        21.25        1.56
                Lambda
Mitsubishi      Starion                              82-87    21.72      15.96        28.83        12.87
Mitsubishi      Galant                               95-96    18.72      16.86        20.74        3.88
Ford / Mazda    Telstar / 626 / MX6 / Capella        83-86    19.87      19.05        20.71        1.65
Ford / Mazda    Telstar / 626 / MX6 / Capella        88-91    17.72      16.77        18.72        1.95
                Telstar / 626 / MX6 / Capella /
Ford / Mazda                                         92-97    15.16      14.27        16.10        1.83
                Cronos
Mazda           626                                  98-02    15.48      13.99        17.09        3.10
Mazda           RX7                                  82-85    21.81      18.61        25.40        6.79
Mazda           RX7                                  86-91    17.24      13.50        21.75        8.25
Mazda           Eunos 500                            93-99    22.12      17.83        27.11        9.28
Mazda           Eunos 800                            94-00    13.74      8.42         21.62        13.19
Mazda           6                                    02-07    14.50      12.46        16.81        4.35
Mercedes Benz   C-Class W201                         87-93    16.20      13.82        18.91        5.09
Mercedes Benz   C-Class W202                         95-00    13.15      11.48        15.02        3.54
Mercedes Benz   CLK C208                             97-03    14.95      10.67        20.55        9.87
Mercedes Benz   SLK R170                             97-04    14.61      10.28        20.35        10.07
Mercedes Benz   C-Class W203                         00-07    13.55      11.23        16.28        5.05
Nissan          Pintara                              86-88    18.36      17.36        19.42        2.06
Nissan / Ford   Pintara / Corsair / Bluebird         89-92    19.66      18.85        20.50        1.65
Nissan          Bluebird                             82-86    20.87      20.11        21.64        1.53
Nissan          280ZX                                82-84    16.90      10.86        25.34        14.48
Nissan          Bluebird                             93-97    14.76      13.14        16.55        3.41
Nissan          200SX / Silvia                       94-02    13.57      11.83        15.51        3.68
Nissan          350Z                                 03-07    21.87      15.33        30.21        14.88
Honda           Accord Euro                          03-07    14.55      12.31        17.12        4.81
Honda           Accord                               03-07    14.23      11.20        17.92        6.72
Make              Model of Car                      Years of   Pr(Risk)   Lower 95%    Upper 95%    Width of
                                                   Manufacture %          Confidence   Confidence   Confidence
                                                                          Limit        Limit        Interval
Honda             Accord                              82-85    21.39      19.63        23.26        3.63
Honda             Accord                              86-90    16.70      15.18        18.34        3.16
Honda             Accord                              91-93    13.48      11.84        15.31        3.47
Honda             Accord                              94-98    14.90      13.68        16.20        2.52
Honda             Accord                              99-02    14.62      12.12        17.54        5.42
Honda             Prelude                             82-82    18.92      14.06        24.96        10.90
Honda             Prelude                             83-91    18.06      16.74        19.45        2.71
Honda             Prelude                             92-96    16.85      14.99        18.89        3.90
Honda             Prelude                             97-02    15.37      12.80        18.35        5.55
Peugeot           405                                 89-97    14.89      12.25        17.97        5.72
Peugeot           505                                 82-93    12.24      9.96         14.95        4.99
Peugeot           406                                 96-04    8.33       5.47         12.48        7.01
Porsche           944                                 82-91    14.96      8.51         24.97        16.45
Renault           Feugo                               82-87    17.64      13.57        22.62        9.05
Saab              900 Series                          82-92    16.83      14.63        19.29        4.66
Saab              900/9-3                             94-02    13.00      11.30        14.92        3.63
Saab              9000                                86-97    15.08      12.97        17.46        4.49
                  1800 / Leone / Omega / 4WD
Subaru                                                82-93    20.19      19.25        21.17        1.91
                  Wagon
Subaru            Liberty / Legacy                    89-93    16.93      15.94        17.97        2.03
Subaru            Liberty / Legacy / Outback          94-98    14.73      13.45        16.10        2.65
Subaru            Liberty / Legacy / Outback          99-03    13.08      11.93        14.31        2.38
Subaru            Liberty / Legacy / Outback          03-07    11.14      9.09         13.57        4.48
Toyota            Corona                              82-88    20.49      19.87        21.13        1.26
Toyota            Camry                               83-86    19.51      18.26        20.83        2.57
Holden / Toyota   Apollo JK/JL / Camry / Vista        88-92    17.14      16.72        17.58        0.86
Holden / Toyota   Apollo JM/JP / Camry / Sceptor      93-97    17.60      17.13        18.08        0.96
Toyota            Celica                              81-85    20.40      18.80        22.10        3.30
Toyota            Celica                              86-89    17.74      16.21        19.39        3.19
Toyota            Celica                              90-93    17.69      16.21        19.27        3.06
Toyota            Celica                              94-99    18.44      16.60        20.44        3.84
Toyota            Celica                              00-05    16.23      13.30        19.67        6.37
Lexus             IS200 / IS300                       99-04    13.86      11.28        16.92        5.64
Volvo             200 Series                          82-93    14.00      12.83        15.26        2.43
Volkswagen        Passat                              98-06    12.28      9.18         16.23        7.04

People Movers                                                  18.25      17.82        18.70        0.88

Chrysler          Voyager                             97-01    11.88      9.38         14.93        5.55
Holden            Zafira TT                           01-05    13.87      10.33        18.37        8.04
Mitsubishi        Nimbus / Chariot / Spacewagon       85-91    21.39      17.94        25.30        7.36
Mitsubishi        Nimbus / Chariot                    92-98    18.90      16.45        21.63        5.19
Mitsubishi        Nimbus                              99-03    11.75      8.63         15.81        7.18
Mitsubishi        Starwagon / L300                    83-86    25.46      23.89        27.11        3.22
Mitsubishi        Starwagon / Delica Starwagon        87-93    21.17      20.07        22.31        2.24
Mitsubishi        Starwagon / Delica Spacegear        95-98    17.66      15.85        19.64        3.79
Mitsubishi        Starwagon / Delica Spacegear        98-03    15.95      13.92        18.21        4.29
Kia               Carnival                            99-06    10.80      9.01         12.89        3.88
Mazda             MPV                                 94-99    11.30      8.41         15.03        6.62
Nissan            Prairie                             84-86    22.32      18.39        26.81        8.42
Nissan            Serena                              92-95    15.23      10.29        21.98        11.69
Honda             Odyssey                             95-00    13.10      10.59        16.10        5.51
Toyota            Tarago                              83-89    22.78      21.63        23.96        2.33
Toyota            Tarago / Previa / Estima            91-99    13.31      12.22        14.48        2.25
Make              Model of Car                  Years of   Pr(Risk)   Lower 95%    Upper 95%    Width of
                                               Manufacture %          Confidence   Confidence   Confidence
                                                                      Limit        Limit        Interval
Toyota            Tarago / Previa / Estima        00-06    11.62      9.68         13.90        4.22
Toyota            Spacia                          93-00    16.96      12.42        22.74        10.32

Light Cars                                                 22.52      22.27        22.78        0.51

Daihatsu          Charade                         82-86    27.83      25.94        29.81        3.87
Daihatsu          Charade                         88-92    24.43      23.47        25.41        1.95
Daihatsu          Charade                         93-00    22.82      21.85        23.82        1.97
Daihatsu          Pyzar                           97-01    20.27      16.58        24.55        7.97
Daihatsu          Sirion / Storia                 98-04    21.64      19.70        23.72        4.02
Daihatsu          Mira                            90-96    33.86      30.77        37.10        6.32
Daewoo            Matiz                           99-04    27.69      24.85        30.72        5.87
Daewoo            Kalos                           03-04    20.09      16.27        24.55        8.29
Ford              Festiva WD/WH/WF                94-01    23.76      23.08        24.46        1.38
Ford              Ka                              99-02    20.81      17.46        24.60        7.14
Holden            Barina XC                       01-06    18.13      16.65        19.71        3.07
Holden            Barina SB                       95-00    22.18      21.26        23.13        1.87
Holden            Barina TK                       05-07    1 8.19     14.70        22.29        7.59
Hyundai           Getz / TB                       02-07    18.16      16.62        19.80        3.18
Mitsubishi        Mirage / Colt                   82-88    24.26      23.50        25.04        1.54
Mitsubishi        Colt                            04-07    12.94      8.42         19.37        10.94
Ford / Mazda      Festiva WA / 121                87-90    23.95      22.99        24.93        1.94
Mazda             121 / Autozam Review            94-96    22.75      21.47        24.08        2.60
Mazda             121 Metro / Demio               97-02    19.88      18.46        21.37        2.91
Mazda             2                               02-07    16.29      13.72        19.25        5.53
Nissan            Micra                           95-97    22.34      19.82        25.07        5.25
Honda             Jazz / Fit                      02-07    16.90      14.68        19.37        4.69
Honda             City                            83-86    30.78      26.46        35.47        9.01
Peugeot           205                             87-94    17.45      13.24        22.65        9.41
Peugeot           206                             99-07    15.08      12.57        17.98        5.41
Proton            Satria                          97-05    22.67      17.03        29.50        12.47
Renault           Clio                            02-07    18.79      13.81        25.06        11.26
Subaru            Sherpa / Fiori / 700 / Rex      89-92    36.43      33.23        39.75        6.52
Suzuki            Swift                           82-85    27.58      22.22        33.67        11.45
Holden / Suzuki   Barina / Swift / Cultus         86-88    28.20      26.85        29.60        2.75
Holden / Suzuki   Barina / Swift / Cultus         89-99    23.56      22.93        24.20        1.27
Suzuki            Hatch / Alto                    82-84    35.89      32.96        38.92        5.96
Suzuki            Alto                            85-00    33.73      28.29        39.64        11.35
Suzuki            Ignis                           00-02    22.62      19.01        26.70        7.69
Suzuki            Swift                           05-07    19.25      16.18        22.75        6.57
Toyota            Starlet                         96-99    20.60      19.48        21.76        2.28
Toyota            Echo                            99-05    18.45      17.46        19.48        2.02
Toyota            Yaris                           05-07    15.22      12.90        17.87        4.97
Volkswagen        Polo                            96-00    19.18      16.19        22.58        6.39
Volkswagen        Polo                            02-07    14.98      10.70        20.57        9.87

Small Cars                                                 19.64      19.47        19.80        0.33

Alfa Romeo        33                              83-92    18.86      15.88        22.25        6.37
Alfa Romeo        75                              86-92    16.89      12.03        23.20        11.17
Alfa Romeo        GTV                             82-84    15.69      10.15        23.48        13.33
Alfa Romeo        Sprint                          82-88    22.29      15.47        31.00        15.52
Alfa Romeo        Alfasud                         82-84    21.55      14.63        30.57        15.94
Audi              A3/S3                           97-04    14.95      11.72        18.88        7.16
Make              Model of Car                        Years of   Pr(Risk)   Lower 95%    Upper 95%    Width of
                                                     Manufacture %          Confidence   Confidence   Confidence
                                                                            Limit        Limit        Interval
Mini              Mini Cooper                           02-07    15.16      10.73        21.00        10.28
Chrysler          Neon                                  96-99    16.30      13.43        19.66        6.23
Chrysler          Neon                                  00-02    14.70      9.23         22.59        13.36
Daihatsu          Applause                              89-99    20.96      19.63        22.35        2.72
Daewoo            1.5i                                  94-95    26.29      21.14        32.19        11.05
Daewoo            Cielo                                 95-97    22.10      20.89        23.36        2.47
Daewoo            Nubira                                97-03    17.17      15.90        18.51        2.61
Daewoo            Lanos                                 97-03    20.07      19.00        21.17        2.18
Daewoo            Lacetti                               03-04    18.55      12.82        26.09        13.27
Ford              Laser                                 91-94    20.16      19.53        20.82        1.29
Ford              Laser                                 95-97    18.52      17.46        19.64        2.18
Ford              Capri                                 89-94    24.79      22.80        26.89        4.09
Ford              Focus LR                              02-05    17.31      15.31        19.51        4.20
Ford              Focus LS / LT                         05-07    13.07      10.55        16.09        5.55
Fiat              Regata                                84-88    16.17      11.77        21.80        10.03
Holden            Gemini                                82-84    23.09      22.04        24.18        2.14
Holden            Gemini RB                             86-87    25.97      23.53        28.57        5.04
Holden            Astra TR                              96-98    16.13      14.24        18.22        3.98
Holden            Astra TS                              98-06    16.62      15.88        17.38        1.50
Holden            Astra AH                              04-07    15.01      12.88        17.43        4.56
Holden            Viva JF                               05-07    17.29      13.37        22.07        8.70
Hyundai           Excel                                 86-90    24.44      23.00        25.93        2.93
Hyundai           Excel                                 90-94    23.03      22.23        23.85        1.63
Hyundai           Excel / Accent                        95-00    22.06      21.55        22.57        1.02
Hyundai           Elantra                               00-07    16.76      15.29        18.34        3.05
Hyundai           S Coupe                               90-96    23.05      20.95        25.29        4.34
Hyundai           Lantra                                91-95    20.21      18.69        21.81        3.12
Hyundai           Lantra                                96-00    17.81      16.76        18.91        2.15
Hyundai           Coupe                                 96-00    17.77      15.50        20.29        4.79
Hyundai           Accent                                00-06    18.33      17.29        19.41        2.12
Mitsubishi        Lancer / Mirage CA                    89-90    18.78      17.76        19.84        2.08
Mitsubishi        Lancer / Mirage CB                    91-92    21.71      19.26        24.39        5.13
Mitsubishi        Lancer / Mirage CC                    93-95    19.07      18.20        19.97        1.77
Mitsubishi        Lancer / Mirage CE                    96-03    19.68      19.11        20.27        1.15
Mitsubishi        Cordia                                83-87    23.10      21.05        25.29        4.25
Mitsubishi        Lancer CH / CJ                        03-07    18.85      16.99        20.86        3.87
Kia               Rio                                   00-05    19.53      17.93        21.23        3.30
Kia               Spectra                               01-04    18.78      14.67        23.72        9.05
Kia               Cerato                                04-07    17.97      13.95        22.84        8.89
Kia               Rio JB                                05-07    17.51      13.01        23.14        10.13
Ford / Mazda      Laser / 323 / Familia                 82-88    23.65      23.21        24.11        0.90
Mazda             323 / Familia / Lantis                90-93    18.72      17.56        19.95        2.39
Mazda             323 / Familia / Lantis                95-98    18.99      17.93        20.09        2.16
Ford / Mazda      Laser / 323                           99-03    17.25      16.35        18.20        1.85
Mazda             MX5 / Eunos Roadster                  89-97    21.25      17.78        25.19        7.41
Mazda             MX5 / Eunos Roadster                  98-05    16.81      13.59        20.62        7.03
                  Eunos 30X / Presso / MX-3 /
Mazda                                                   90-97    18.79      15.73        22.30        6.57
                  Autozam AZ-3
Mazda             3 / Axela                             03-07    15.60      14.23        17.08        2.85
Mercedes Benz     A-Class W168                          98-04    17.61      13.94        22.00        8.06
Holden / Nissan   Astra / Pulsar / Langley              84-86    23.70      22.85        24.58        1.73
Holden / Nissan   Astra / Pulsar / Vector / Sentra      88-90    20.67      19.98        21.37        1.38
Nissan            Pulsar / Vector / Sentra              92-95    17.85      16.99        18.76        1.77
Nissan            Pulsar / Vector / Sentra              96-99    19.23      18.45        20.04        1.59
Make              Model of Car                 Years of   Pr(Risk)   Lower 95%    Upper 95%    Width of
                                              Manufacture %          Confidence   Confidence   Confidence
                                                                     Limit        Limit        Interval
Nissan            Stanza                         82-83    21.56      18.12        25.46        7.35
Nissan            Gazelle / Silvia               84-86    22.03      18.09        26.56        8.47
Nissan            Exa                            83-86    28.21      24.24        32.56        8.32
Nissan            Exa                            87-91    19.65      15.03        25.25        10.22
Nissan            NX/NX-R                        91-96    21.14      18.53        24.02        5.49
Nissan            Pulsar                         00-05    17.80      16.89        18.75        1.86
Honda             Civic                          82-83    22.26      19.32        25.51        6.19
Honda             Civic / Ballade / Shuttle      84-87    22.81      21.23        24.48        3.25
Honda             Civic / Shuttle                88-91    20.57      19.40        21.79        2.40
Honda             Civic                          92-95    18.98      17.91        20.10        2.19
Honda             Civic                          96-00    17.86      16.84        18.93        2.09
Honda             CRX                            87-91    23.43      19.25        28.19        8.94
Honda             CRX                            92-98    17.56      13.01        23.28        10.27
Honda             Civic                          01-05    14.33      12.57        16.28        3.70
Honda             Integra                        86-88    20.64      17.59        24.07        6.47
Honda             Integra                        90-92    18.59      15.86        21.66        5.80
Honda             Integra                        93-01    16.82      14.64        19.24        4.59
Honda             Integra                        02-06    19.00      14.25        24.87        10.62
Honda             Concerto                       89-93    17.77      14.86        21.12        6.26
Peugeot           306                            94-01    16.56      14.60        18.73        4.14
Peugeot           307                            01-07    12.63      9.91         15.97        6.07
Proton            Wira                           95-96    19.04      17.13        21.09        3.96
Renault           19                             91-96    20.13      15.79        25.31        9.52
Renault           Scenic                         01-04    15.48      11.09        21.21        10.12
Rover             Quintet                        82-86    22.54      17.84        28.05        10.20
MG                MGF / MG TF                    99-05    12.59      8.92         17.48        8.56
Subaru            Impreza                        93-00    18.41      17.31        19.56        2.25
Subaru            Impreza                        01-07    13.79      12.34        15.37        3.03
Suzuki            Baleno / Cultus Crescent       95-02    19.35      17.65        21.17        3.52
Suzuki            Liana                          01-07    15.52      12.12        19.66        7.54
Toyota            Corolla                        82-84    22.97      22.13        23.83        1.70
Toyota            Corolla                        86-88    21.33      20.71        21.96        1.25
Toyota / Holden   Corolla / Nova                 89-93    19.62      19.14        20.11        0.96
Toyota / Holden   Corolla / Nova                 94-97    18.45      17.90        19.02        1.12
Toyota            Corolla / Allex                98-01    16.96      16.11        17.84        1.73
Toyota            Corolla                        02-07    16.34      15.55        17.15        1.60
Toyota            Tercel                         83-88    21.53      18.18        25.29        7.11
Toyota            MR2                            87-90    24.28      19.28        30.10        10.82
Toyota            MR2                            91-00    19.82      14.55        26.41        11.87
Toyota            Paseo / Cynos                  91-99    19.43      17.59        21.42        3.82
Toyota            Corolla 4WD Wagon              92-96    15.11      12.31        18.40        6.09
Volvo             300 Series                     84-88    15.56      10.88        21.76        10.87
Volvo             S40/V40                        97-04    14.40      12.06        17.11        5.04
Volkswagen        Golf                           82-94    20.11      15.15        26.17        11.02
Volkswagen        Golf                           95-98    15.63      13.63        17.86        4.23
Volkswagen        Golf / Bora                    99-04    15.26      13.66        17.00        3.34
Volkswagen        New Beetle                     00-07    13.88      10.17        18.67        8.50
Volkswagen        Golf / Jetta                   04-07    11.58      8.99         14.79        5.80
                                            APPENDIX 3




         LOGISTIC REGRESSION ESTIMATES OF
CRASHWORTHINESS INJURY SEVERITY BY MODEL AND MARKET
                      GROUP
                         CRASHWORTHINESS INJURY SEVERITY RATINGS

                 New South Wales Data (1987-2007), South Australia Data (1995-2007),
                        Queensland and Western Australia Data (1991-2007)


Make             Model of Car                  Years of   Pr(Severity)   Lower 95% Upper 95%     Width of
                                              Manufacture %              Confidence Confidence   Confidence
                                                                         Limit      Limit        Interval
ALL VEHICLE AVERAGE                                        20.77

Compact Four Wheel Drive Vehicles                          19.48         18.53      20.47        1.94

Daihatsu        Feroza / Rocky                   89-97     25.19         19.69      31.62        11.92
Daihatsu        Rocky / Rugger                   85-98     28.68         21.92      36.56        14.64
Daihatsu        Terios                           97-05     21.38         16.19      27.68        11.49
Holden          Cruze                            02-06     26.70         19.98      34.70        14.72
Mitsubishi      Outlander                        03-06     16.86         7.84       32.59        24.75
Kia             Sportage                         98-03     15.28         9.86       22.93        13.07
Kia             Sorento                          03-07     24.74         11.25      46.02        34.77
Ford / Mazda    Escape / Tribute                 01-06     19.97         14.75      26.46        11.70
Nissan          X-Trail                          01-07     18.41         14.21      23.51        9.30
Lada            Niva                             84-99     21.50         14.04      31.48        17.45
Honda           CR-V                             97-01     16.49         12.81      20.98        8.17
Honda           CR-V                             02-07     12.51         8.55       17.94        9.39
Honda           HR-V                             99-02     22.73         14.13      34.47        20.34
Land Rover      Freelander                       98-06     38.13         22.62      56.49        33.87
Subaru          Forester                         97-02     17.95         13.89      22.90        9.01
Subaru          Forester                         02-07     14.79         10.25      20.88        10.63
Suzuki          Vitara / Escudo                  88-98     22.47         19.59      25.63        6.04
Suzuki          Grand Vitara                     99-0 5    20.41         14.48      27.98        13.51
                Drover / Sierra / Samurai /
Holden / Suzuki                                  82-99     22.15         19.68      24.83        5.15
                SJ410 / SJ413
Suzuki          Jimny                            98-07     18.47         11.38      28.57        17.19
Toyota          RAV4                             94-00     20.70         17.35      24.51        7.16
Toyota          RAV4                             01-06     20.40         16.35      25.16        8.81
Toyota          RAV4                             06-07     16.10         7.49       31.28        23.79

Medium Four Wheel Drive Vehicles                           19.99         18.75      21.29        2.55

Daewoo /         Musso
                                                 98-02     27.98         15.89      44.41        28.52
Ssangong
Ford             Territory SX/SY                 04-07     22.64         14.71      33.18        18.47
Holden / Isuzu   Jackaroo / Bighorn              82-91     15.95         11.97      20.95        8.99
Holden / Isuzu   Jackaroo / Bighorn              92-97     20.65         15.26      27.33        12.07
Holden / Isuzu   Jackaroo / Bighorn              98-02     22.03         15.62      30.15        14.53
Holden           Frontera / Mu                   95-03     19.19         11.35      30.56        19.21
Holden           Adventra                        03-06     4.36          0.60       25.75        25.15
Hyundai          Santa Fe                        00-06     19.96         10.76      34.04        23.28
Mitsubishi       Pajero                          82-90     25.31         21.56      29.46        7.91
Mitsubishi       Pajero                          92-99     21.71         18.27      25.59        7.32
Mitsubishi       Pajero NM / NP / NS             00-07     20.80         13.94      29.86        15.93
Mitsubishi       Challenger                      98-06     23.59         15.23      34.66        19.42
Jeep             Cherokee XJ                     96-00     21.71         16.59      27.89        11.30
Jeep             Wrangler                        96-04     27.85         17.59      41.11        23.51
Make              Model of Car                      Years of   Pr(Severity)   Lower 95%    Upper 95%    Width of
                                                   Manufacture %              Confidence   Confidence   Confidence
                                                                              Limit        Limit        Interval
Jeep              Cherokee KJ                         01-07     16.82         7.48         33.58        26.11
Land Rover        Defender                            92-07     29.74         19.67        42.25        22.58
Nissan            Pathfinder / Terrano                88-94     21.46         17.02        26.69        9.67
Nissan            Pathfinder / Terrano / Regulus      95-05     16.99         11.87        23.73        11.86
Toyota            Kluger                              03-07     22.04         13.14        34.57        21.43
Toyota            Landcruiser Prado                   96-03     20.69         14.59        28.49        13.90
Toyota            Landcruiser Prado                   03-07     14.95         10.04        21.67        11.63

Large Four Wheel Drive Vehicles                                 21.26         20.36        22.18        1.82

BMW               X5                                  01-07     13.04         4.04         34.80        30.76
Ford              Bronco                              82-87     34.65         18.56        55.23        36.68
Ford              Explorer                            00-01     24.42         17.08        33.64        16.56
Ford              Explorer                            01-05     11.36         4.95         24.00        19.05
Jeep              Grand Cherokee ZG                   96-99     21.59         12.00        35.75        23.75
Jeep              Grand Cherokee WJ/WG                99-05     16.32         8.23         29.79        21.57
Land Rover        Discovery                           91-02     18.14         13.10        24.57        11.47
Mercedes Benz     M-Class W163                        98-05     14.21         6.27         29.09        22.82
Nissan            Patrol / Safari                     82-87     22.79         17.83        28.66        10.83
Nissan / Ford     Patrol / Maverick / Safari          88-97     21.73         19.33        24.35        5.02
Nissan            Patrol / Safari                     98-07     21.17         17.69        25.14        7.45
Land Rover        Range Rover                         82-94     20.34         15.26        26.57        11.30
Land Rover        Range Rover                         95-02     12.13         4.91         26.96        22.04
Toyota            Landcruiser                         82-89     26.30         23.96        28.77        4.81
Toyota            Landcruiser                         90-97     24.16         22.15        26.29        4.14
Toyota            Landcruiser                         98-07     20.57         18.12        23.26        5.14

Commercial Vehicles- Vans                                       20.75         19.76        21.78        2.02

Daihatsu          Handivan                            82-90     24.66         19.59        30.54        10.95
Daihatsu          Hi-Jet                              82-90     29.02         19.85        40.30        20.46
Daihatsu          Handivan / Cuore                    99-03     16.72         8.91         29.19        20.29
Ford              Falcon Panel Van                    82-95     20.11         16.80        23.88        7.08
Ford              Falcon Panel Van                    96-99     17.45         10.24        28.14        17.91
Ford              Transit                             95-00     21.92         15.57        29.94        14.36
Ford              Transit                             01-07     11.12         6.12         19.36        13.24
Holden            Shuttle / WFR Van                   82-87     27.29         19.28        37.10        17.83
Kia               Pregio                              02-06     16.94         9.99         27.25        17.26
Mercedes Benz     MB100 / MB140                       99-04     24.77         12.20        43.83        31.63
Mercedes Benz     Vito / Viano                        99-07     22.73         12.75        37.19        24.44
Mercedes Benz     Sprinter                            98-04     15.24         8.95         24.75        15.80
Honda             Acty                                83-86     23.14         14.28        35.24        20.95
Holden / Suzuki   Scurry / Carry                      82-00     28.81         22.35        36.27        13.92
Suzuki            Carry                               99-05     19.89         7.65         42.66        35.01
Toyota            Hiace/Liteace                       82-86     25.24         22.60        28.08        5.48
Toyota            Hiace/Liteace                       87-89     22.99         19.80        26.52        6.72
Toyota            Hiace/Liteace                       90-95     24.90         22.13        27.89        5.77
Toyota            Hiace/Liteace                       96-04     20.31         17.37        23.60        6.22
Toyoa             Hiace                               05-07     26.48         15.00        42.38        27.38
Volkswagen        Caravelle / Transporter             88-94     20.27         9.58         37.89        28.31
Volkswagen        Caravelle / Transporter             95-04     9.71          5.23         17.34        12.10
Make             Model of Car                    Years of   Pr(Severity)   Lower 95% Upper 95%     Width of
                                                Manufacture %              Confidence Confidence   Confidence
                                                                           Limit      Limit        Interval

Commercial Vehicles- Utes                                    21.47         20.89      22.07        1.18

Ford / Nissan    Falcon Ute / XFN Ute              82-95     23.87         21.77      26.11        4.34
Ford             Falcon Ute                        96-99     20.15         16.47      24.41        7.94
Ford             Falcon Ute AU                     00-02     20.29         16.49      24.70        8.21
Ford             Falcon Ute BA/BF                  03-07     16.71         12.65      21.76        9.11
Ford             Ford F-Series                     82-92     18.72         12.83      26.49        13.66
Holden           Commodore Ute VG/VP               90-93     26.25         21.62      31.46        9.84
Holden / Isuzu   Rodeo / Pickup                    82-85     23.09         16.87      30.76        13.88
Holden / Isuzu   Rodeo / Pickup                    86-8 8    12.87         6.73       23.19        16.46
Holden / Isuzu   Rodeo / Pickup                    89-95     24.48         21.95      27.19        5.24
Holden           Rodeo                             96-98     20.43         17.16      24.15        7.00
Holden           Rodeo                             99-02     20.69         17.34      24.49        7.15
Holden           WB Series                         82-85     32.18         26.70      38.20        11.50
Holden           Commodore Ute VR/VS               94-00     24.76         22.44      27.23        4.80
Holden           Commodore VU Ute                  00-02     24.74         20.12      30.01        9.89
Holden           Commodore VY/VZ Ute               02-07     18.42         15.34      21.95        6.61
Holden           Rodeo                             03-07     20.46         16.48      25.12        8.65
Mitsubishi       Triton MK                         96-06     16.96         11.69      23.98        12.29
Kia              Ceres                             92-00     27.91         22.08      34.61        12.53
Ford / Mazda     Courier / B-Series / Bounty       98-02     22.00         17.86      26.78        8.92
Ford / Mazda     Courier / Bravo / Bounty          03-06     21.72         16.59      27.91        11.33
Nissan           720 Ute                           82-85     23.01         18.69      28.00        9.31
Nissan           Navara                            86-91     23.19         20.25      26.41        6.16
Nissan           Navara                            92-96     20.77         16.80      25.41        8.61
Nissan           Navara                            97-05     22.15         17.79      27.23        9.44
Nissan           Navara                            05-07     22.96         9.39       46.14        36.75
Subaru           Brumby                            82-92     29.26         25.18      33.70        8.52
Suzuki           Mighty Boy                        85-88     25.98         19.66      33.50        13.84
Toyota           4Runner/Hilux                     82-85     23.83         21.38      26.46        5.09
Toyota           4Runner/Hilux                     86-88     24.63         22.12      27.33        5.21
Toyota           4Runner/Hilux                     89-97     24.21         22.80      25.68        2.88
Toyota           Hilux                             98-02     19.98         17.58      22.62        5.04
Toyota           Hilux                             03-04     18.44         14.17      23.63        9.46
Toyota           Hilux                             05-07     23.39         17.69      30.27        12.58

Large Cars                                                   20.39         20.04      20.74        0.70

BMW              7 Series E23                      82-88     22.18         11.81      37.77        25.96
BMW              7 Series E32                      89-94     23.63         12.91      39.24        26.33
BMW              7 Series E38                      95-01     13.01         4.77       30.87        26.09
Ford             Falcon XE/XF                      82-88     24.00         23.04      24.98        1.94
Ford             Fairlane Z & LTD F                82-8 7    23.47         21.02      26.11        5.09
                 Falcon EA / Falcon EB Series
Ford                                             88-Mar 92   22.63         21.61      23.70        2.09
                 I
                 Falcon EB Series II / Falcon
Ford                                             Apr 92-94   22.47         21.01      24.00        2.98
                 ED
Ford             Fairlane N & LTD D                88-94     21.30         18.66      24.20        5.54
Ford             Fairlane N & LTD D                95-98     23.07         18.69      28.13        9.45
Ford             Fairlane & LTD AU                 99-02     17.64         11.87      25.39        13.52
Ford             Fairlane & LTD BA/BF              03-07     30.06         15.35      50.46        35.11
Ford             Falcon EF/EL                      94-98     20.73         19.70      21.78        2.08
Ford             Falcon AU                         98-02     19.07         17.74      20.48        2.74
Make              Model of Car                  Years of   Pr(Severity)   Lower 95%    Upper 95%    Width of
                                               Manufacture %              Confidence   Confidence   Confidence
                                                                          Limit        Limit        Interval
Ford              Taurus                          96-98     21.58         14.43        31.00        16.56
Ford              Falcon BA/BF                    02-07     17.69         15.77        19.79        4.01
Holden / Toyota   Commodore VN/VP / Lexcen        89-93     24.04         23.12        24.98        1.86
Holden            Statesman/Caprice WB            82-85     40.12         26.59        55.34        28.75
Holden            Stateman/Caprice VQ             90-93     28.27         21.21        36.57        15.36
Holden            Stateman/Caprice VR/VS          94-98     21.64         18.65        24.96        6.31
Holden / Toyota   Commodore VR/VS / Lexcen        93-97     21.18         20.24        22.15        1.92
Holden            Commodore VT/VX                 97-02     19.36         18.32        20.44        2.12
Holden            Statesman/Caprice WH            99-03     15.18         10.28        21.86        11.59
Holden            Commodore VY/VZ                 02-07     16.17         14.45        18.05        3.60
Holden            Monaro                          01-05     21.88         14.90        30.94        16.05
Holden            Statesman/Caprice WK/WL         03-06     18.19         10.19        30.36        20.17
Holden            Commodore VB-VL                 82-88     25.13         24.14        26.14        2.00
Holden            Commodore VE                    06-07     15.93         11.17        22.20        11.03
Hyundai           Sonata                          89-97     20.21         17.22        23.57        6.35
Hyundai           Grandeaur / XG                  99-00     7.11          1.73         24.95        23.22
                  Magna TM/TN/TP / Sigma /
Mitsubishi                                        85-90     24.11         22.86        25.42        2.56
                  V3000
                  Magna TE/TF/TH/TJ / Verada
Mitsubishi                                        96-03     20.85         19.22        22.58        3.36
                  KE/KF/KH/KJ / Diamante
                  Magna TR/TS / Verada
Mitsubishi                                        91-96     20.85         19.56        22.20        2.64
                  KR/KS / V3000 / Diamante
                  Magna TL/TW / Verada
Mitsubishi                                        03-05     13.93         9.13         20.68        11.55
                  KL/KW
Mitsubishi        380                             05-07     10.13         3.68         24.97        21.29
Jaguar            XJ6                             82-86     28.05         16.86        42.84        25.98
Jaguar            XJ6                             87-94     15.74         8.76         26.64        17.88
Mazda             929 / Luce                      82-90     23.66         20.66        26.96        6.30
Mazda             929 / Sentia / Efini MS-9       92-96     21.71         11.89        36.28        24.39
Mercedes Benz     E-Class W123                    82-85     22.46         12.71        36.56        23.85
Mercedes Benz     E-Class W124                    86-94     18.41         13.27        24.97        11.71
Mercedes Benz     E-Class W210                    96-02     23.46         15.51        33.85        18.34
Mercedes Benz     S-Class W126                    82-92     21.67         14.88        30.46        15.59
Nissan            Skyline                         83-88     24.65         22.41        27.04        4.64
Nissan            300ZX / Fairlady Z              90-95     22.11         15.72        30.17        14.44
Nissan            Maxima                          90-94     20.69         16.42        25.73        9.32
Nissan            Maxima / Cefiro                 95-99     19.57         15.29        24.69        9.40
Nissan            Maxima                          00-02     20.23         13.21        29.70        16.49
Nissan            Maxima                          06-07     17.98         8.56         33.91        25.36
Honda             Legend                          86-95     21.26         15.56        28.34        12.78
Rover             3500                            82-87     11.12         4.20         26.32        22.12
Saab              9-5                             98-05     9.64          3.12         26.10        22.97
Toyota            Camry                           98-02     19.52         17.80        21.37        3.57
Toyota            Crown / Cressida / Mark II      82-85     23.97         20.28        28.09        7.80
Toyota            Crown / Cressida / Mark II      86-88     28.71         21.50        37.21        15.71
Toyota            Cressida / Mark II              89-93     20.12         16.13        24.80        8.67
Toyota            Supra                           82-90     29.37         21.65        38.50        16.84
Lexus             ES300 / Windom                  92-01     22.12         15.39        30.72        15.34
Lexus             LS400 / Celsior                 90-00     9.95          3.13         27.40        24.27
Toyota            Avalon                          00-05     18.88         15.06        23.41        8.35
Toyota            Camry                           02-06     14.66         12.22        17.50        5.28
Toyota            Camry                           06-07     8.84          2.81         24.52        21.71
Volvo             850/S70/V70/C70                 92-05     21.26         16.36        27.15        10.79
Volvo             700/900 Series                  84-92     16.98         13.04        21.82        8.78
Volvo             960/S90/V90                     90-98     18.84         7.68         39.29        31.60
Make            Model of Car                       Years of   Pr(Severity)   Lower 95% Upper 95%     Width of
                                                  Manufacture %              Confidence Confidence   Confidence
                                                                             Limit      Limit        Interval

Medium Cars                                                    20.38         19.97      20.80        0.83

Alfa Romeo      156                                  99-06     16.03         7.15       32.10        24.95
Audi            A4                                   95-01     21.01         14.29      29.78        15.49
Audi            A4                                   01-07     14.98         6.88       29.59        22.71
BMW             Z3 E36                               97-03     30.75         16.99      49.06        32.06
BMW             3 Series E90                         05-07     4.99          0.67       28.85        28.17
BMW             3 Series E30                         82-91     21.24         18.22      24.62        6.40
BMW             3 Series E36                         92-98     19.32         16.61      22.34        5.73
BMW             3 Series E46                         99-06     16.99         13.22      21.58        8.36
BMW             5 Series E28                         82-88     23.20         16.35      31.83        15.48
BMW             5 Series E34                         89-95     20.42         14.67      27.70        13.03
BMW             5 Series E39                         96-03     21.39         14.28      30.76        16.48
Chrysler        PT Cruiser                           00-07     22.90         9.75       44.93        35.18
Daewoo          Espero                               95-97     25.10         19.07      32.27        13.19
Daewoo          Leganza                              97-02     20.64         14.15      29.10        14.95
Ford            Mondeo                               95-01     17.30         14.13      21.01        6.88
Ford            Probe                                94-98     19.74         11.12      32.59        21.47
Ford            Cougar                               99-03     21.31         12.22      34.51        22.30
Holden          Calibra                              94-97     15.86         9.68       24.88        15.20
Holden          Camira                               82-89     23.19         21.79      24.65        2.86
Holden          Vectra                               97-03     17.30         14.44      20.59        6.14
Holden          Vectra ZC                            03-05     16.47         8.91       28.46        19.55
Hyundai         Sonata                               98-01     26.25         19.02      35.03        16.00
Hyundai         Sonata EF                            02-05     11.54         2.89       36.43        33.54
                Sigma / Galant / Sapporo /
Mitsubishi                                           82-84     23.10         21.51      24.77        3.26
                Lambda
Mitsubishi      Starion                              82-87     40.14         28.42      53.10        24.69
Mitsubishi      Galant                               95-96     21.04         17.32      25.30        7.98
Ford / Mazda    Telstar / 626 / MX6 / Capella        83-86     22.20         20.62      23.86        3.24
Ford / Mazda    Telstar / 626 / MX6 / Capella        88-91     21.13         19.23      23.17        3.95
                Telstar / 626 / MX6 / Capella /
Ford / Mazda                                         92-97     22.45         20.20      24.87        4.67
                Cronos
Mazda           626                                  98-02     19.11         15.24      23.68        8.44
Mazda           RX7                                  82-85     24.20         17.91      31.84        13.94
Mazda           RX7                                  86-91     24.68         17.35      33.83        16.48
Mazda           Eunos 500                            93-99     17.93         10.16      29.68        19.52
Mazda           Eunos 800                            94-00     19.37         6.31       46.14        39.82
Mazda           6                                    02-07     12.85         8.83       18.35        9.52
Mercedes Benz   C-Class W201                         87-93     20.89         14.91      28.47        13.56
Mercedes Benz   C-Class W202                         95-00     18.44         13.27      25.04        11.77
Mercedes Benz   CLK C208                             97-03     20.58         9.36       39.41        30.06
Mercedes Benz   SLK R170                             97-04     11.65         2.87       36.99        34.11
Mercedes Benz   C-Class W203                         00-07     21.28         12.83      33.18        20.35
Nissan          Pintara                              86-88     23.75         21.19      26.51        5.32
Nissan / Ford   Pintara / Corsair / Bluebird         89-92     23.76         21.93      25.69        3.76
Nissan          Bluebird                             82-86     25.45         23.79      27.18        3.38
Nissan          280ZX                                82-84     30.62         15.61      51.28        35.67
Nissan          Bluebird                             93-97     21.67         18.42      25.33        6.91
Nissan          200SX / Silvia                       94-02     22.73         17.28      29.31        12.03
Nissan          350Z                                 03-07     20.24         9.31       38.57        29.26
Honda           Accord Euro                          03-07     13.85         8.76       21.23        12.47
Honda           Accord                               03-07     18.90         11.18      30.14        18.96
Make            Model of Car                    Years of   Pr(Severity)   Lower 95%    Upper 95%    Width of
                                               Manufacture %              Confidence   Confidence   Confidence
                                                                          Limit        Limit        Interval
Honda           Accord                            82-85     24.30         21.68        27.11        5.43
Honda           Accord                            86-90     20.67         18.05        23.56        5.50
Honda           Accord                            91-93     25.24         20.80        30.25        9.45
Honda           Accord                            94-98     23.39         19.98        27.19        7.20
Honda           Accord                            99-02     13.06         8.07         20.45        12.38
Honda           Prelude                           82-82     18.55         8.56         35.64        27.07
Honda           Prelude                           83-91     24.33         21.97        26.85        4.88
Honda           Prelude                           92-96     24.77         20.24        29.94        9.70
Honda           Prelude                           97-02     16.69         10.57        25.35        14.78
Peugeot         405                               89-97     20.48         14.88        27.50        12.62
Peugeot         505                               82-93     21.64         15.14        29.94        14.80
Peugeot         406                               96-04     16.11         7.70         30.64        22.94
Porsche         944                               82-91     34.83         16.50        59.12        42.62
Renault         Feugo                             82-87     21.81         13.51        33.26        19.75
Saab            900 Series                        82-92     21.51         16.18        28.01        11.83
Saab            900/9-3                           94-02     17.37         11.94        24.58        12.64
Saab            9000                              86-97     11.64         7.30         18.07        10.77
                1800 / Leone / Omega / 4WD
Subaru                                            82-93     23.43         21.38        25.61        4.23
                Wagon
Subaru          Liberty / Legacy                  89-93     21.73         19.59        24.04        4.45
Subaru          Liberty / Legacy / Outback        94-98     21.19         18.16        24.58        6.42
Subaru          Liberty / Legacy / Outback        99-03     18.72         14.92        23.21        8.29
Subaru          Liberty / Legacy / Outback        03-07     22.42         14.78        32.50        17.72
Toyota          Corona                            82-88     23.61         22.14        25.14        3.00
Toyota          Camry                             83-86     24.02         20.85        27.50        6.65
Holden / Toyota Apollo JK/JL / Camry / Vista      88-92     22.48         21.27        23.74        2.47
                Apollo JM/JP / Camry /
Holden / Toyota                                   93-97     22.46         21.12        23.86        2.74
                Sceptor
Toyota          Celica                            81-85     20.40         17.25        23.97        6.72
Toyota          Celica                            86-89     24.07         20.01        28.65        8.64
Toyota          Celica                            90-93     23.43         19.63        27.71        8.08
Toyota          Celica                            94-99     18.84         14.46        24.17        9.71
Toyota          Celica                            00-05     22.60         13.48        35.38        21.90
Lexus           IS200 / IS300                     99-04     12.89         5.27         28.28        23.01
Volvo           200 Series                        82-93     23.66         19.61        28.26        8.65
Volkswagen      Passat                            98-06     14.62         7.07         27.84        20.77

People Movers                                               21.05         19.99        22.15        2.16

Chrysler        Voyager                           97-01     18.39         9.43         32.78        23.35
Holden          Zafira TT                         01-05     24.46         12.01        43.44        31.43
                Nimbus / Chariot /
Mitsubishi                                        85-91     20.91         15.76        27.20        11.44
                Spacewagon
Mitsubishi      Nimbus / Chariot                  92-98     20.59         15.25        27.20        11.95
Mitsubishi      Nimbus                            99-03     19.40         8.26         39.14        30.87
Mitsubishi      Starwagon / L300                  83-86     28.74         25.43        32.30        6.87
Mitsubishi      Starwagon / Delica Starwagon      87-93     23.30         20.81        25.99        5.18
Mitsubishi      Starwagon / Delica Spacegear      95-98     20.15         15.42        25.88        10.47
Mitsubishi      Starwagon / Delica Spacegear      98-03     25.81         19.39        33.46        14.07
Kia             Carnival                          99-06     11.52         6.68         19.15        12.47
Mazda           MPV                               94-99     6.97          1.70         24.50        22.80
Nissan          Prairie                           84-86     20.78         14.67        28.59        13.92
Nissan          Serena                            92-95     15.22         9.21         24.12        14.91
Honda           Odyssey                           95-00     16.41         10.31        25.11        14.79
Make              Model of Car                  Years of   Pr(Severity)   Lower 95%    Upper 95%    Width of
                                               Manufacture %              Confidence   Confidence   Confidence
                                                                          Limit        Limit        Interval
Toyota            Tarago                          83-89     24.78         22.05        27.73        5.68
Toyota            Tarago / Previa / Estima        91-99     21.92         17.97        26.44        8.47
Toyota            Tarago / Previa / Estima        00-06     20.01         12.89        29.72        16.84
Toyota            Spacia                          93-00     12.81         4.62         30.83        26.21

Light Cars                                                  22.23         21.68        22.79        1.10

Daihatsu          Charade                         82-86     28.80         25.49        32.35        6.87
Daihatsu          Charade                         88-92     25.27         23.02        27.66        4.65
Daihatsu          Charade                         93-00     26.69         24.00        29.58        5.58
Daihatsu          Pyzar                           97-01     25.80         16.10        38.65        22.55
Daihatsu          Sirion / Storia                 98-04     20.49         16.08        25.72        9.64
Daihatsu          Mira                            90-96     29.51         24.54        35.02        10.47
Daewoo            Matiz                           99-04     17.09         12.85        22.36        9.52
Daewoo            Kalos                           03-04     24.56         15.68        36.30        20.63
Ford              Festiva WD/WH/WF                94-01     24.82         23.22        26.50        3.28
Ford              Ka                              99-02     21.94         14.88        31.13        16.25
Holden            Barina XC                       01-06     18.84         15.37        22.89        7.52
Holden            Barina SB                       95-00     20.63         18.46        22.97        4.51
Holden            Barina TK                       05-07     23.04         15.04        33.62        18.58
Hyundai           Getz / TB                       02-07     26.82         22.04        32.22        10.17
Mitsubishi        Mirage / Colt                   82-88     24.16         22.61        25.78        3.17
Mitsubishi        Colt                            04-07     30.52         17.70        47.29        29.59
Ford / Mazda      Festiva WA / 121                87-90     24.81         22.69        27.06        4.37
Mazda             121 / Autozam Review            94-96     21.05         18.21        24.21        6.01
Mazda             121 Metro / Demio               97-02     20.87         17.52        24.66        7.14
Mazda             2                               02-07     20.52         14.11        28.85        14.74
Nissan            Micra                           95-97     28.26         22.18        35.26        13.07
Honda             Jazz / Fit                      02-07     18.19         13.36        24.28        10.92
Honda             City                            83-86     23.31         19.93        27.07        7.14
Peugeot           205                             87-94     24.23         15.52        35.75        20.23
Peugeot           206                             99-07     28.65         19.98        39.25        19.27
Proton            Satria                          97-05     20.61         8.56         41.86        33.30
Renault           Clio                            02-07     21.33         10.35        38.90        28.56
Subaru            Sherpa / Fiori / 700 / Rex      89-92     24.96         20.42        30.14        9.72
Suzuki            Swift                           82-85     30.26         20.24        42.60        22.35
Holden / Suzuki   Barina / Swift / Cultus         86-88     26.25         23.80        28.86        5.06
Holden / Suzuki   Barina / Swift / Cultus         89-99     23.79         22.32        25.32        3.01
Suzuki            Hatch / Alto                    82-84     26.27         21.66        31.48        9.82
Suzuki            Alto                            85-00     29.49         23.24        36.61        13.37
Suzuki            Ignis                           00-02     24.61         17.54        33.38        15.84
Suzuki            Swift                           05-07     17.42         11.44        25.61        14.17
Toyota            Starlet                         96-99     23.86         21.08        26.88        5.80
Toyota            Echo                            99-05     23.79         21.17        26.63        5.46
Toyota            Yaris                           05-07     20.44         14.36        28.25        13.89
Volkswagen        Polo                            96-00     14.72         8.35         24.64        16.30
Volkswagen        Polo                            02-07     16.84         6.42         37.40        30.98

Small Cars                                                  20.74         20.37        21.12        0.75

Alfa Romeo        33                              83-92     24.22         17.42        32.64        15.22
Alfa Romeo        75                              86-92     19.70         7.72         41.84        34.12
Alfa Romeo        GTV                             82-84     47.94         27.98        68.58        40.60
Alfa Romeo        Sprint                          82-88     20.75         9.63         39.15        29.51
Make              Model of Car                      Years of   Pr(Severity)   Lower 95%    Upper 95%    Width of
                                                   Manufacture %              Confidence   Confidence   Confidence
                                                                              Limit        Limit        Interval
Alfa Romeo      Alfasud                               82-84     29.58         13.91        52.21        38.30
Audi            A3/S3                                 97-04     12.73         5.38         27.21        21.82
Mini            Mini Cooper                           02-07     14.33         6.51         28.68        22.18
Chrysler        Neon                                  96-99     20.68         12.78        31.71        18.93
Chrysler        Neon                                  00-02     23.08         8.90         47.97        39.07
Daihatsu        Applause                              89-99     21.91         18.65        25.57        6.92
Daewoo          1.5i                                  94-95     23.06         12.13        39.43        27.30
Daewoo          Cielo                                 95-97     20.53         17.89        23.45        5.56
Daewoo          Nubira                                97-03     21.33         17.85        25.29        7.44
Daewoo          Lanos                                 97-03     23.54         20.86        26.46        5.59
Daewoo          Lacetti                               03-04     27.31         13.16        48.21        35.05
Ford            Laser                                 91-94     22.06         20.59        23.61        3.02
Ford            Laser                                 95-97     24.10         21.30        27.13        5.83
Ford            Capri                                 89-94     22.23         18.16        26.91        8.75
Ford            Focus LR                              02-05     17.17         12.93        22.44        9.52
Ford            Focus LS / LT                         05-07     11.67         6.45         20.19        13.74
Fiat            Regata                                84-88     28.54         15.00        47.48        32.48
Holden          Gemini                                82-84     23.32         21.21        25.56        4.35
Holden          Gemini RB                             86-87     21.76         17.41        26.84        9.43
Holden          Astra TR                              96-98     18.97         14.36        24.64        10.28
Holden          Astra TS                              98-06     18.01         15.99        20.23        4.24
Holden          Astra AH                              04-07     20.07         13.41        28.92        15.51
Holden          Viva JF                               05-07     16.15         9.10         27.06        17.96
Hyundai         Excel                                 86-90     25.55         22.77        28.54        5.77
Hyundai         Excel                                 90-94     24.64         22.77        26.61        3.84
Hyundai         Excel / Accent                        95-00     22.18         20.93        23.49        2.56
Hyundai         Elantra                               00-07     19.78         15.36        25.09        9.73
Hyundai         S Coupe                               90-96     23.16         18.40        28.71        10.31
Hyundai         Lantra                                91-95     25.05         21.03        29.55        8.52
Hyundai         Lantra                                96-00     22.56         19.55        25.89        6.33
Hyundai         Coupe                                 96-00     24.44         18.18        32.02        13.84
Hyundai         Accent                                00-06     24.17         21.06        27.58        6.51
Mitsubishi      Lancer / Mirage CA                    89-90     22.38         20.11        24.83        4.72
Mitsubishi      Lancer / Mirage CB                    91-92     24.78         20.03        30.23        10.20
Mitsubishi      Lancer / Mirage CC                    93-95     22.62         20.49        24.89        4.40
Mitsubishi      Lancer / Mirage CE                    96-03     21.73         20.17        23.38        3.21
Mitsubishi      Cordia                                83-87     25.47         22.04        29.23        7.20
Mitsubishi      Lancer CH / CJ                        03-07     22.89         17.77        28.97        11.21
Kia             Rio                                   00-05     23.96         19.93        28.51        8.58
Kia             Spectra                               01-04     17.72         9.49         30.68        21.19
Kia             Cerato                                04-07     16.87         9.04         29.29        20.25
Kia             Rio JB                                05-07     15.63         7.63         29.37        21.74
Ford / Mazda    Laser / 323 / Familia                 82-88     23.78         22.88        24.71        1.83
Mazda           323 / Familia / Lantis                90-93     21.56         19.43        23.84        4.41
Mazda           323 / Familia / Lantis                95-98     21.80         19.12        24.74        5.62
Ford / Mazda    Laser / 323                           99-03     18.85         16.46        21.51        5.05
Mazda           MX5 / Eunos Roadster                  89-97     21.27         13.98        30.99        17.00
Mazda           MX5 / Eunos Roadster                  98-05     14.25         7.34         25.86        18.52
                Eunos 30X / Presso / MX-3 /
Mazda                                                 90-97     17.44         10.70        27.14        16.43
                Autozam AZ-3
Mazda           3 / Axela                             03-07     15.22         11.81        19.38        7.57
Mercedes Benz A-Class W168                            98-04     19.30         8.88         36.99        28.11
Holden / Nissan Astra / Pulsar / Langley              84-86     25.19         23.47        26.98        3.51
Holden / Nissan Astra / Pulsar / Vector / Sentra      88-90     23.99         22.40        25.66        3.27
Make              Model of Car                 Years of   Pr(Severity)   Lower 95%    Upper 95%    Width of
                                              Manufacture %              Confidence   Confidence   Confidence
                                                                         Limit        Limit        Interval
Nissan            Pulsar / Vector / Sentra       92-95     21.14         19.13        23.30        4.16
Nissan            Pulsar / Vector / Sentra       96-99     21.98         19.99        24.12        4.13
Nissan            Stanza                         82-83     19.99         13.30        28.93        15.63
Nissan            Gazelle / Silvia               84-86     26.60         22.75        30.83        8.08
Nissan            Exa                            83-86     27.23         20.20        35.62        15.42
Nissan            Exa                            87-91     28.19         18.06        41.14        23.08
Nissan            NX/NX-R                        91-96     28.83         22.37        36.29        13.92
Nissan            Pulsar                         00-05     21.09         18.65        23.75        5.11
Honda             Civic                          82-83     24.72         20.91        28.97        8.05
Honda             Civic / Ballade / Shuttle      84-87     25.80         23.25        28.54        5.29
Honda             Civic / Shuttle                88-91     22.98         20.80        25.33        4.53
Honda             Civic                          92-95     20.98         18.64        23.54        4.91
Honda             Civic                          96-00     20.17         17.43        23.22        5.79
Honda             CRX                            87-91     28.65         23.70        34.18        10.48
Honda             CRX                            92-98     26.09         17.10        37.67        20.57
Honda             Civic                          01-05     21.49         16.39        27.65        11.27
Honda             Integra                        86-88     24.24         19.98        29.07        9.08
Honda             Integra                        90-92     21.64         16.87        27.30        10.42
Honda             Integra                        93-01     21.01         16.22        26.75        10.53
Honda             Integra                        02-06     18.46         8.96         34.25        25.30
Honda             Concerto                       89-93     22.86         17.64        29.08        11.44
Peugeot           306                            94-01     14.61         10.72        19.59        8.87
Peugeot           307                            01-07     16.78         9.50         27.90        18.40
Proton            Wira                           95-96     25.66         20.51        31.58        11.07
Renault           19                             91-96     18.19         9.72         31.48        21.76
Renault           Scenic                         01-04     5.59          0.78         30.93        30.15
Rover             Quintet                        82-86     22.50         14.48        33.24        18.76
MG                MGF / MG TF                    99-05     18.35         8.35         35.65        27.30
Subaru            Impreza                        93-00     24.75         22.00        27.73        5.73
Subaru            Impreza                        01-07     17.52         13.02        23.17        10.16
Suzuki            Baleno / Cultus Crescent       95-02     20.85         16.46        26.04        9.59
Suzuki            Liana                          01-07     17.06         9.47         28.80        19.33
Toyota            Corolla                        82-84     23.42         21.79        25.14        3.35
Toyota            Corolla                        86-88     23.48         22.07        24.95        2.88
Toyota / Holden   Corolla / Nova                 89-93     22.52         21.35        23.73        2.37
Toyota / Holden   Corolla / Nova                 94-97     22.11         20.63        23.65        3.02
Toyota            Corolla / Allex                98-01     17.65         15.45        20.09        4.64
Toyota            Corolla                        02-07     19.84         17.70        22.17        4.46
Toyota            Tercel                         83-88     24.09         17.48        32.23        14.76
Toyota            MR2                            87-90     28.49         21.31        36.95        15.64
Toyota            MR2                            91-00     17.79         11.10        27.28        16.18
Toyota            Paseo / Cynos                  91-99     20.65         16.45        25.59        9.13
Toyota            Corolla 4WD Wagon              92-96     23.12         13.90        35.92        22.02
Volvo             300 Series                     84-88     31.64         18.91        47.89        28.98
Volvo             S40/V40                        97-04     18.61         11.73        28.22        16.49
Volkswagen        Golf                           82-94     31.68         20.57        45.36        24.79
Volkswagen        Golf                           95-98     17.89         11.87        26.06        14.19
Volkswagen        Golf / Bora                    99-04     14.80         10.78        19.98        9.20
Volkswagen        New Beetle                     00-07     10.35         3.92         24.62        20.70
Volkswagen        Golf / Jetta                   04-07     7.87          3.67         16.08        12.41
                                       APPENDIX 4




    CRASHWORTHINESS RATINGS OF
1982-2007 MODELS OF CARS INVOLVED IN
      CRASHES DURING 1987-2007
                  with
      (1) 95 % CONFIDENCE LIMITS
      (2) 90 % CONFIDENCE LIMITS
                                         CRASHWORTHINESS RATINGS
                                         (WITH 95% CONFIDENCE LIMITS)

                  New South Wales Data (1987-2007), South Australia Data (1995-2007),
                         Queensland and Western Australia Data (1991-2007)


Make              Model of Car                         Years of   Serious       Lower 95% Upper 95%     Width of
                                                      Manufacture injury rate   Confidence Confidence   Confidence
                                                                  per 100       Limit      Limit        Interval
                                                                  drivers
                                                                  involved
                                                                  %
ALL VEHICLE AVERAGE                                                3.76

Compact Four Wheel Drive Vehicles                                  3.48         3.30       3.68         0.38

Daihatsu          Feroza / Rocky                         89-97     4.97         3.81       6.48         2.67
Daihatsu          Rocky / Rugger                         85-98     6.38         4.73       8.58         3.85
Daihatsu          Terios                                 97-05     4.96         3.70       6.66         2.97
Holden            Cruze                                  02-06     5.85         4.26       8.02         3.76
Mitsubishi        Outlander                              03-06     2.63         1.22       5.64         4.42
Kia               Sportage                               98-03     2.48         1.58       3.92         2.34
Kia               Sorento                                03-07     2.83         1.23       6.52         5.29
Ford / Mazda      Escape / Tribute                       01-06     2.64         1.91       3.65         1.74
Nissan            X-Trail                                01-07     2.90         2.20       3.82         1.62
Lada              Niva                                   84-99     4.05         2.56       6.40         3.85
Honda             CR-V                                   97-01     2.28         1.75       2.98         1.23
Honda             CR-V                                   02-07     1.63         1.10       2.41         1.31
Honda             HR-V                                   99-02     3.51         2.14       5.76         3.62
Land Rover        Freelander                             98-06     5.09         2.87       9.02         6.15
Subaru            Forester                               97-02     2.40         1.82       3.16         1.34
Subaru            Forester                               02-07     2.06         1.41       3.01         1.60
Suzuki            Vitara / Escudo                        88-98     4.63         4.00       5.37         1.38
Suzuki            Grand Vitara                           99-05     3.17         2.19       4.57         2.38
                  Drover / Sierra / Samurai / SJ410
Holden / Suzuki                                          82-99     5.81         5.12       6.59         1.48
                  / SJ413
Suzuki            Jimny                                  98-07     4.11         2.48       6.81         4.33
Toyota            RAV4                                   94-00     3.23         2.66       3.91         1.24
Toyota            RAV4                                   01-06     3.05         2.41       3.86         1.44
Toyota            RAV4                                   06-07     1.80         0.81       3.97         3.16

Medium Four Wheel Drive Vehicles                                   2.60         2.42       2.80         0.38

Daewoo /
                  Musso                                  98-02     3.39         1.83       6.27         4.44
Ssangong
Ford              Territory SX/SY                        04-07     2.06         1.28       3.30         2.02
Holden / Isuzu    Jackaroo / Bighorn                     82-91     3.23         2.37       4.40         2.03
Holden / Isuzu    Jackaroo / Bighorn                     92-97     3.15         2.25       4.40         2.16
Holden / Isuzu    Jackaroo / Bighorn                     98-02     3.25         2.25       4.70         2.44
Holden            Frontera / Mu                          95-03     2.83         1.63       4.91         3.28
Holden            Adventra                               03-06     0.52         0.07       3.76         3.69
Hyundai           Santa Fe                               00-06     3.14         1.68       5.88         4.19
Mitsubishi        Pajero                                 82-90     4.46         3.72       5.35         1.64
Mitsubishi        Pajero                                 92-99     2.68         2.22       3.24         1.02
Mitsubishi        Pajero NM / NP / NS                    00-07     1.80         1.18       2.74         1.56
Make              Model of Car                      Years of   Serious       Lower 95% Upper 95%     Width of
                                                   Manufacture injury rate   Confidence Confidence   Confidence
                                                               per 100       Limit      Limit        Interval
                                                               drivers
                                                               involved
                                                               %
Mitsubishi        Challenger                         98-06     2.89          1.80       4.63         2.82
Jeep              Cherokee XJ                        96-00     2.78          2.07       3.75         1.68
Jeep              Wrangler                           96-04     4.11          2.45       6.88         4.42
Jeep              Cherokee KJ                        01-07     1.84          0.78       4.33         3.55
Land Rover        Defender                           92-07     3.98          2.51       6.32         3.81
Nissan            Pathfinder / Terrano               88-94     3.02          2.23       4.10         1.87
Nissan            Pathfinder / Terrano / Regulus     95-05     1.98          1.34       2.91         1.57
Toyota            Kluger                             03-07     2.58          1.51       4.40         2.89
Toyota            Landcruiser Prado                  96-03     2.03          1.40       2.95         1.56
Toyota            Landcruiser Prado                  03-07     1.31          0.86       2.00         1.14

Large Four Wheel Drive Vehicles                                 2.67         2.54       2.80         0.26

BMW               X5                                  01-07     1.43         0.45       4.49         4.03
Ford              Bronco                              82-87     5.46         2.83       10.56        7.73
Ford              Explorer                            00-01     4.50         3.03       6.68         3.65
Ford              Explorer                            01-05     1.18         0.49       2.84         2.35
Jeep              Grand Cherokee ZG                   96-99     2.24         1.16       4.31         3.16
Jeep              Grand Cherokee WJ/WG                99-05     1.71         0.81       3.62         2.81
Land Rover        Discovery                           91-02     2.20         1.55       3.12         1.57
Mercedes Benz     M-Class W163                        98-05     1.32         0.58       3.04         2.46
Nissan            Patrol / Safari                     82-87     3.25         2.48       4.26         1.78
Nissan / Ford     Patrol / Maverick / Safari          88-97     2.55         2.24       2.91         0.67
Nissan            Patrol / Safari                     98-07     2.17         1.77       2.65         0.87
Land Rover        Range Rover                         82-94     2.79         2.02       3.87         1.85
Land Rover        Range Rover                         95-02     1.35         0.52       3.53         3.01
Toyota            Landcruiser                         82-89     4.17         3.75       4.63         0.88
Toyota            Landcruiser                         90-97     3.00         2.72       3.31         0.59
Toyota            Landcruiser                         98-07     2.51         2.17       2.89         0.71

Commercial Vehicles- Vans                                       3.68         3.49       3.89         0.40

Daihatsu          Handivan                            82-90     8.50         6.68       10.83        4.15
Daihatsu          Hi-Jet                              82-90     12.36        8.32       18.35        10.03
Daihatsu          Handivan / Cuore                    99-03     4.56         2.42       8.59         6.18
Ford              Falcon Panel Van                    82-95     3.40         2.80       4.12         1.31
Ford              Falcon Panel Van                    96-99     2.37         1.36       4.15         2.80
Ford              Transit                             95-00     3.10         2.16       4.46         2.30
Ford              Transit                             01-07     1.15         0.61       2.17         1.57
Holden            Shuttle / WFR Van                   82-87     6.24         4.32       9.03         4.71
Kia               Pregio                              02-06     2.84         1.64       4.90         3.26
Mercedes Benz     MB100 / MB140                       99-04     2.57         1.24       5.35         4.12
Mercedes Benz     Vito / Viano                        99-07     2.09         1.13       3.88         2.75
Mercedes Benz     Sprinter                            98-04     2.06         1.17       3.63         2.46
Honda             Acty                                83-86     3.80         2.27       6.36         4.09
Holden / Suzuki   Scurry / Carry                      82-00     9.82         7.47       12.89        5.42
Suzuki            Carry                               99-05     3.78         1.43       9.97         8.54
Toyota            Hiace/Liteace                       82-86     5.63         4.98       6.38         1.40
Toyota            Hiace/Liteace                       87-89     4.85         4.09       5.74         1.65
Toyota            Hiace/Liteace                       90-95     4.43         3.89       5.06         1.17
Toyota            Hiace/Liteace                       96-04     3.02         2.55       3.57         1.02
Make             Model of Car                       Years of   Serious       Lower 95% Upper 95%     Width of
                                                   Manufacture injury rate   Confidence Confidence   Confidence
                                                               per 100       Limit      Limit        Interval
                                                               drivers
                                                               involved
                                                               %
Toyoa            Hiace                               05-07     3.37          1.84       6.17         4.33
Volkswagen       Caravelle / Transporter             88-94     2.80          1.32       5.94         4.62
Volkswagen       Caravelle / Transporter             95-04     1.48          0.79       2.76         1.96

Commercial Vehicles- Utes                                       3.33         3.23       3.44         0.21

Ford / Nissan    Falcon Ute / XFN Ute                 82-95     3.84         3.47       4.25         0.78
Ford             Falcon Ute                           96-99     3.03         2.44       3.77         1.34
Ford             Falcon Ute AU                        00-02     2.56         2.04       3.21         1.17
Ford             Falcon Ute BA/BF                     03-07     1.99         1.47       2.69         1.21
Ford             Ford F-Series                        82-92     2.73         1.84       4.07         2.23
Holden           Commodore Ute VG/VP                  90-93     4.29         3.47       5.32         1.85
Holden / Isuzu   Rodeo / Pickup                       82-85     4.51         3.22       6.31         3.09
Holden / Isuzu   Rodeo / Pickup                       86-88     2.45         1.27       4.73         3.45
Holden / Isuzu   Rodeo / Pickup                       89-95     4.15         3.68       4.68         1.00
Holden           Rodeo                                96-98     3.31         2.74       4.00         1.26
Holden           Rodeo                                99-02     3.08         2.54       3.73         1.19
Holden           WB Series                            82-85     5.25         4.26       6.47         2.21
Holden           Commodore Ute VR/VS                  94-00     3.82         3.42       4.26         0.84
Holden           Commodore VU Ute                     00-02     3.17         2.52       3.99         1.46
Holden           Commodore VY/VZ Ute                  02-07     2.42         1.98       2.95         0.97
Holden           Rodeo                                03-07     2.66         2.10       3.36         1.25
Mitsubishi       Triton MK                            96-06     2.09         1.41       3.10         1.68
Kia              Ceres                                92-00     5.77         4.47       7.44         2.96
Ford / Mazda     Courier / B-Series / Bounty          98-02     3.03         2.40       3.82         1.41
Ford / Mazda     Courier / Bravo / Bounty             03-06     3.68         2.74       4.94         2.21
Nissan           720 Ute                              82-85     4.46         3.55       5.59         2.04
Nissan           Navara                               86-91     3.88         3.34       4.52         1.18
Nissan           Navara                               92-96     3.13         2.47       3.95         1.48
Nissan           Navara                               97-05     2.44         1.91       3.12         1.21
Nissan           Navara                               05-07     2.49         0.99       6.29         5.30
Subaru           Brumby                               82-92     6.20         5.23       7.34         2.11
Suzuki           Mighty Boy                           85-88     9.56         7.15       12.77        5.62
Toyota           4Runner/Hilux                        82-85     4.54         4.03       5.12         1.10
Toyota           4Runner/Hilux                        86-88     4.39         3.88       4.97         1.10
Toyota           4Runner/Hilux                        89-97     3.97         3.70       4.25         0.54
Toyota           Hilux                                98-02     2.81         2.45       3.24         0.79
Toyota           Hilux                                03-04     2.42         1.82       3.22         1.40
Toyota           Hilux                                05-07     2.83         2.08       3.86         1.77

Large Cars                                                      3.25         3.19       3.31         0.12

BMW              7 Series E23                         82-88     2.88         1.47       5.63         4.16
BMW              7 Series E32                         89-94     3.29         1.70       6.37         4.67
BMW              7 Series E38                         95-01     1.37         0.49       3.89         3.40
Ford             Falcon XE/XF                         82-88     4.21         4.02       4.41         0.38
Ford             Fairlane Z & LTD F                   82-87     4.02         3.56       4.54         0.99
Ford             Falcon EA / Falcon EB Series I     88-Mar 92   3.79         3.60       3.99         0.39
Ford             Falcon EB Series II / Falcon ED    Apr 92-94   3.45         3.20       3.71         0.51
Ford             Fairlane N & LTD D                   88-94     2.99         2.58       3.47         0.89
Ford             Fairlane N & LTD D                   95-98     3.31         2.62       4.18         1.56
Make              Model of Car                    Years of   Serious       Lower 95% Upper 95%     Width of
                                                 Manufacture injury rate   Confidence Confidence   Confidence
                                                             per 100       Limit      Limit        Interval
                                                             drivers
                                                             involved
                                                             %
Ford              Fairlane & LTD AU                99-02     2.53          1.68       3.81         2.13
Ford              Fairlane & LTD BA/BF             03-07     3.62          1.85       7.09         5.24
Ford              Falcon EF/EL                     94-98     3.16          2.99       3.34         0.35
Ford              Falcon AU                        98-02     2.83          2.61       3.06         0.44
Ford              Taurus                           96-98     3.58          2.33       5.50         3.18
Ford              Falcon BA/BF                     02-07     2.43          2.14       2.74         0.60
Holden / Toyota   Commodore VN/VP / Lexcen         89-93     4.16          3.98       4.34         0.36
Holden            Statesman/Caprice WB             82-85     6.69          3.96       11.29        7.33
Holden            Stateman/Caprice VQ              90-93     4.30          3.11       5.96         2.86
Holden            Stateman/Caprice VR/VS           94-98     3.31          2.81       3.89         1.08
Holden / Toyota   Commodore VR/VS / Lexcen         93-97     3.38          3.21       3.55         0.34
Holden            Commodore VT/VX                  97-02     2.98          2.81       3.16         0.36
Holden            Statesman/Caprice WH             99-03     1.98          1.32       2.97         1.65
Holden            Commodore VY/VZ                  02-07     2.32          2.06       2.62         0.56
Holden            Monaro                           01-05     3.21          2.13       4.85         2.72
Holden            Statesman/Caprice WK/WL          03-06     2.90          1.60       5.24         3.63
Holden            Commodore VB-VL                  82-88     4.71          4.51       4.93         0.42
Holden            Commodore VE                     06-07     2.04          1.40       2.97         1.58
Hyundai           Sonata                           89-97     3.60          3.03       4.27         1.24
Hyundai           Grandeaur / XG                   99-00     0.99          0.25       3.97         3.72
                  Magna TM/TN/TP / Sigma /
Mitsubishi                                          85-90     4.48         4.23       4.76         0.53
                  V3000
                  Magna TE/TF/TH/TJ / Verada
Mitsubishi                                          96-03     3.23         2.96       3.53         0.57
                  KE/KF/KH/KJ / Diamante
                  Magna TR/TS / Verada KR/KS /
Mitsubishi                                          91-96     3.45         3.22       3.70         0.48
                  V3000 / Diamante
Mitsubishi        Magna TL/TW / Verada KL/KW        03-05     2.10         1.36       3.24         1.87
Mitsubishi        380                               05-07     1.54         0.56       4.26         3.70
Jaguar            XJ6                               82-86     5.00         2.94       8.49         5.55
Jaguar            XJ6                               87-94     2.03         1.10       3.73         2.63
Mazda             929 / Luce                        82-90     4.55         3.91       5.29         1.38
Mazda             929 / Sentia / Efini MS-9         92-96     3.75         2.00       7.03         5.03
Mercedes Benz     E-Class W123                      82-85     3.09         1.73       5.53         3.80
Mercedes Benz     E-Class W124                      86-94     2.79         1.98       3.93         1.96
Mercedes Benz     E-Class W210                      96-02     2.71         1.74       4.20         2.46
Mercedes Benz     S-Class W126                      82-92     2.94         1.98       4.37         2.39
Nissan            Skyline                           83-88     4.46         3.99       4.98         0.99
Nissan            300ZX / Fairlady Z                90-95     3.93         2.70       5.73         3.03
Nissan            Maxima                            90-94     3.46         2.64       4.54         1.89
Nissan            Maxima / Cefiro                   95-99     3.27         2.49       4.29         1.80
Nissan            Maxima                            00-02     3.21         2.02       5.10         3.09
Nissan            Maxima                            06-07     2.36         1.09       5.12         4.03
Honda             Legend                            86-95     2.73         1.92       3.87         1.95
Rover             3500                              82-87     2.17         0.81       5.82         5.02
Saab              9-5                               98-05     1.59         0.52       4.86         4.34
Toyota            Camry                             98-02     3.00         2.72       3.31         0.59
Toyota            Crown / Cressida / Mark II        82-85     4.51         3.74       5.44         1.69
Toyota            Crown / Cressida / Mark II        86-88     4.25         3.10       5.83         2.73
Toyota            Cressida / Mark II                89-93     2.83         2.23       3.59         1.36
Toyota            Supra                             82-90     5.89         4.20       8.25         4.05
Lexus             ES300 / Windom                    92-01     3.39         2.28       5.04         2.75
Lexus             LS400 / Celsior                   90-00     1.39         0.44       4.42         3.98
Make            Model of Car                       Years of   Serious       Lower 95% Upper 95%     Width of
                                                  Manufacture injury rate   Confidence Confidence   Confidence
                                                              per 100       Limit      Limit        Interval
                                                              drivers
                                                              involved
                                                              %
Toyota          Avalon                              00-05     2.68          2.11       3.41         1.30
Toyota          Camry                               02-06     2.22          1.84       2.69         0.86
Toyota          Camry                               06-07     1.34          0.43       4.16         3.73
Volvo           850/S70/V70/C70                     92-05     3.02          2.29       3.99         1.70
Volvo           700/900 Series                      84-92     2.59          1.96       3.42         1.45
Volvo           960/S90/V90                         90-98     3.19          1.28       7.97         6.69

Medium Cars                                                    3.52         3.44       3.60         0.16

Alfa Romeo      156                                  99-06     2.44         1.10       5.43         4.33
Audi            A4                                   95-01     2.74         1.82       4.14         2.32
Audi            A4                                   01-07     1.83         0.84       3.96         3.12
BMW             Z3 E36                               97-03     3.80         2.00       7.22         5.22
BMW             3 Series E90                         05-07     1.05         0.15       7.48         7.34
BMW             3 Series E30                         82-91     3.58         3.03       4.24         1.21
BMW             3 Series E36                         92-98     3.15         2.68       3.70         1.02
BMW             3 Series E46                         99-06     2.57         1.98       3.34         1.36
BMW             5 Series E28                         82-88     3.31         2.28       4.81         2.53
BMW             5 Series E34                         89-95     3.11         2.18       4.46         2.28
BMW             5 Series E39                         96-03     2.24         1.45       3.47         2.02
Chrysler        PT Cruiser                           00-07     4.16         1.78       9.76         7.98
Daewoo          Espero                               95-97     5.46         4.09       7.30         3.22
Daewoo          Leganza                              97-02     3.23         2.17       4.80         2.63
Ford            Mondeo                               95-01     2.58         2.07       3.22         1.15
Ford            Probe                                94-98     4.20         2.31       7.62         5.31
Ford            Cougar                               99-03     3.12         1.75       5.57         3.83
Holden          Calibra                              94-97     2.40         1.41       4.08         2.67
Holden          Camira                               82-89     5.37         5.01       5.75         0.74
Holden          Vectra                               97-03     2.80         2.31       3.39         1.08
Holden          Vectra ZC                            03-05     2.20         1.14       4.24         3.10
Hyundai         Sonata                               98-01     4.27         3.05       5.97         2.92
Hyundai         Sonata EF                            02-05     2.09         0.55       7.99         7.44
                Sigma / Galant / Sapporo /
Mitsubishi                                           82-84     4.73         4.36       5.12         0.76
                Lambda
Mitsubishi      Starion                              82-87     8.72         5.66       13.42        7.76
Mitsubishi      Galant                               95-96     3.94         3.17       4.89         1.71
Ford / Mazda    Telstar / 626 / MX6 / Capella        83-86     4.41         4.05       4.80         0.74
Ford / Mazda    Telstar / 626 / MX6 / Capella        88-91     3.75         3.36       4.17         0.81
                Telstar / 626 / MX6 / Capella /
Ford / Mazda                                         92-97     3.40         3.02       3.84         0.82
                Cronos
Mazda           626                                  98-02     2.96         2.32       3.77         1.45
Mazda           RX7                                  82-85     5.28         3.80       7.33         3.52
Mazda           RX7                                  86-91     4.25         2.82       6.42         3.60
Mazda           Eunos 500                            93-99     3.97         2.22       7.08         4.86
Mazda           Eunos 800                            94-00     2.66         0.86       8.23         7.37
Mazda           6                                    02-07     1.86         1.25       2.77         1.52
Mercedes Benz   C-Class W201                         87-93     3.39         2.36       4.85         2.49
Mercedes Benz   C-Class W202                         95-00     2.42         1.72       3.43         1.71
Mercedes Benz   CLK C208                             97-03     3.08         1.38       6.86         5.48
Mercedes Benz   SLK R170                             97-04     1.70         0.44       6.65         6.22
Mercedes Benz   C-Class W203                         00-07     2.88         1.73       4.82         3.09
Nissan          Pintara                              86-88     4.36         3.85       4.94         1.10
Make              Model of Car                      Years of   Serious       Lower 95% Upper 95%     Width of
                                                   Manufacture injury rate   Confidence Confidence   Confidence
                                                               per 100       Limit      Limit        Interval
                                                               drivers
                                                               involved
                                                               %
Nissan / Ford     Pintara / Corsair / Bluebird       89-92     4.67          4.27       5.11         0.84
Nissan            Bluebird                           82-86     5.31          4.92       5.73         0.81
Nissan            280ZX                              82-84     5.17          2.47       10.82        8.35
Nissan            Bluebird                           93-97     3.20          2.63       3.90         1.27
Nissan            200SX / Silvia                     94-02     3.08          2.29       4.15         1.86
Nissan            350Z                               03-07     4.43          1.99       9.84         7.85
Honda             Accord Euro                        03-07     2.02          1.25       3.24         1.99
Honda             Accord                             03-07     2.69          1.55       4.67         3.12
Honda             Accord                             82-85     5.20          4.52       5.98         1.46
Honda             Accord                             86-90     3.45          2.93       4.06         1.13
Honda             Accord                             91-93     3.40          2.71       4.27         1.56
Honda             Accord                             94-98     3.49          2.92       4.15         1.23
Honda             Accord                             99-02     1.91          1.16       3.16         2.00
Honda             Prelude                            82-82     3.51          1.61       7.65         6.03
Honda             Prelude                            83-91     4.39          3.88       4.98         1.10
Honda             Prelude                            92-96     4.17          3.32       5.24         1.92
Honda             Prelude                            97-02     2.56          1.59       4.12         2.53
Peugeot           405                                89-97     3.05          2.12       4.38         2.26
Peugeot           505                                82-93     2.65          1.78       3.94         2.16
Peugeot           406                                96-04     1.34          0.60       3.02         2.43
Porsche           944                                82-91     5.21          2.24       12.13        9.90
Renault           Feugo                              82-87     3.85          2.29       6.48         4.19
Saab              900 Series                         82-92     3.62          2.66       4.92         2.26
Saab              900/9-3                            94-02     2.26          1.53       3.33         1.80
Saab              9000                               86-97     1.76          1.09       2.83         1.75
                  1800 / Leone / Omega / 4WD
Subaru                                                82-93     4.73         4.27       5.24         0.97
                  Wagon
Subaru            Liberty / Legacy                    89-93     3.68         3.27       4.14         0.88
Subaru            Liberty / Legacy / Outback          94-98     3.12         2.62       3.72         1.11
Subaru            Liberty / Legacy / Outback          99-03     2.45         1.93       3.11         1.18
Subaru            Liberty / Legacy / Outback          03-07     2.50         1.60       3.89         2.29
Toyota            Corona                              82-88     4.84         4.51       5.19         0.68
Toyota            Camry                               83-86     4.69         4.02       5.46         1.44
Holden / Toyota   Apollo JK/JL / Camry / Vista        88-92     3.85         3.63       4.09         0.47
Holden / Toyota   Apollo JM/JP / Camry / Sceptor      93-97     3.95         3.70       4.23         0.53
Toyota            Celica                              81-85     4.16         3.46       5.00         1.54
Toyota            Celica                              86-89     4.27         3.49       5.22         1.73
Toyota            Celica                              90-93     4.14         3.42       5.03         1.61
Toyota            Celica                              94-99     3.48         2.63       4.59         1.95
Toyota            Celica                              00-05     3.67         2.17       6.20         4.03
Lexus             IS200 / IS300                       99-04     1.79         0.74       4.30         3.55
Volvo             200 Series                          82-93     3.31         2.71       4.06         1.35
Volkswagen        Passat                              98-06     1.80         0.85       3.80         2.95

People Movers                                                   3.84         3.63       4.07         0.44

Chrysler          Voyager                             97-01     2.19         1.12       4.28         3.16
Holden            Zafira TT                           01-05     3.39         1.66       6.92         5.26
Mitsubishi        Nimbus / Chariot / Spacewagon       85-91     4.47         3.24       6.18         2.94
Mitsubishi        Nimbus / Chariot                    92-98     3.89         2.82       5.36         2.54
Mitsubishi        Nimbus                              99-03     2.28         0.98       5.32         4.35
Make              Model of Car                    Years of   Serious       Lower 95% Upper 95%     Width of
                                                 Manufacture injury rate   Confidence Confidence   Confidence
                                                             per 100       Limit      Limit        Interval
                                                             drivers
                                                             involved
                                                             %
Mitsubishi        Starwagon / L300                 83-86     7.32          6.39       8.38         1.99
Mitsubishi        Starwagon / Delica Starwagon     87-93     4.93          4.36       5.58         1.22
Mitsubishi        Starwagon / Delica Spacegear     95-98     3.56          2.69       4.71         2.03
Mitsubishi        Starwagon / Delica Spacegear     98-03     4.12          3.04       5.58         2.55
Kia               Carnival                         99-06     1.24          0.71       2.18         1.46
Mazda             MPV                              94-99     0.79          0.20       3.18         2.98
Nissan            Prairie                          84-86     4.64          3.16       6.81         3.65
Nissan            Serena                           92-95     2.32          1.25       4.29         3.04
Honda             Odyssey                          95-00     2.15          1.31       3.52         2.21
Toyota            Tarago                           83-89     5.65          4.98       6.40         1.42
Toyota            Tarago / Previa / Estima         91-99     2.92          2.36       3.60         1.24
Toyota            Tarago / Previa / Estima         00-06     2.33          1.47       3.67         2.20
Toyota            Spacia                           93-00     2.17          0.79       5.99         5.20

Light Cars                                                    5.01         4.87       5.15         0.27

Daihatsu          Charade                           82-86     8.02         6.98       9.20         2.22
Daihatsu          Charade                           88-92     6.17         5.58       6.82         1.24
Daihatsu          Charade                           93-00     6.09         5.44       6.82         1.38
Daihatsu          Pyzar                             97-01     5.23         3.23       8.48         5.25
Daihatsu          Sirion / Storia                   98-04     4.43         3.44       5.71         2.27
Daihatsu          Mira                              90-96     9.99         8.17       12.22        4.04
Daewoo            Matiz                             99-04     4.73         3.51       6.37         2.85
Daewoo            Kalos                             03-04     4.93         3.08       7.90         4.81
Ford              Festiva WD/WH/WF                  94-01     5.90         5.49       6.34         0.85
Ford              Ka                                99-02     4.57         3.03       6.87         3.84
Holden            Barina XC                         01-06     3.42         2.75       4.24         1.49
Holden            Barina SB                         95-00     4.58         4.07       5.14         1.07
Holden            Barina TK                         05-07     4.19         2.66       6.60         3.95
Hyundai           Getz / TB                         02-07     4.87         3.95       6.00         2.05
Mitsubishi        Mirage / Colt                     82-88     5.86         5.45       6.31         0.86
Mitsubishi        Colt                              04-07     3.95         2.06       7.55         5.49
Ford / Mazda      Festiva WA / 121                  87-90     5.94         5.39       6.55         1.15
Mazda             121 / Autozam Review              94-96     4.79         4.11       5.59         1.48
Mazda             121 Metro / Demio                 97-02     4.15         3.44       5.00         1.55
Mazda             2                                 02-07     3.34         2.25       4.97         2.72
Nissan            Micra                             95-97     6.31         4.87       8.19         3.32
Honda             Jazz / Fit                        02-07     3.07         2.21       4.28         2.07
Honda             City                              83-86     7.17         5.80       8.87         3.07
Peugeot           205                               87-94     4.23         2.57       6.96         4.39
Peugeot           206                               99-07     4.32         2.94       6.34         3.40
Proton            Satria                            97-05     4.67         1.99       10.99        9.00
Renault           Clio                              02-07     4.01         1.92       8.36         6.44
Subaru            Sherpa / Fiori / 700 / Rex        89-92     9.09         7.34       11.27        3.93
Suzuki            Swift                             82-85     8.35         5.44       12.81        7.37
Holden / Suzuki   Barina / Swift / Cultus           86-88     7.40         6.65       8.25         1.60
Holden / Suzuki   Barina / Swift / Cultus           89-99     5.60         5.23       6.00         0.77
Suzuki            Hatch / Alto                      82-84     9.43         7.68       11.57        3.89
Suzuki            Alto                              85-00     9.95         7.49       13.21        5.71
Suzuki            Ignis                             00-02     5.57         3.86       8.02         4.16
Suzuki            Swift                             05-07     3.35         2.16       5.20         3.04
Make         Model of Car          Years of   Serious       Lower 95% Upper 95%     Width of
                                  Manufacture injury rate   Confidence Confidence   Confidence
                                              per 100       Limit      Limit        Interval
                                              drivers
                                              involved
                                              %
Toyota       Starlet                96-99     4.91          4.30       5.62         1.32
Toyota       Echo                   99-05     4.39          3.86       4.98         1.12
Toyota       Yaris                  05-07     3.11          2.13       4.53         2.40
Volkswagen   Polo                   96-00     2.82          1.60       4.99         3.40
Volkswagen   Polo                   02-07     2.52          0.97       6.57         5.60

Small Cars                                     4.07         3.99       4.16         0.16

Alfa Romeo   33                      83-92     4.57         3.20       6.53         3.34
Alfa Romeo   75                      86-92     3.33         1.32       8.39         7.07
Alfa Romeo   GTV                     82-84     7.52         4.06       13.93        9.86
Alfa Romeo   Sprint                  82-88     4.62         2.09       10.22        8.13
Alfa Romeo   Alfasud                 82-84     6.37         2.96       13.74        10.78
Audi         A3/S3                   97-04     1.90         0.81       4.47         3.67
Mini         Mini Cooper             02-07     2.17         0.95       4.95         4.00
Chrysler     Neon                    96-99     3.37         2.05       5.54         3.48
Chrysler     Neon                    00-02     3.39         1.28       8.98         7.70
Daihatsu     Applause                89-99     4.59         3.87       5.45         1.58
Daewoo       1.5i                    94-95     6.06         3.22       11.41        8.19
Daewoo       Cielo                   95-97     4.54         3.92       5.25         1.33
Daewoo       Nubira                  97-03     3.66         3.03       4.43         1.40
Daewoo       Lanos                   97-03     4.72         4.15       5.38         1.24
Daewoo       Lacetti                 03-04     5.07         2.39       10.73        8.33
Ford         Laser                   91-94     4.45         4.12       4.80         0.67
Ford         Laser                   95-97     4.46         3.90       5.11         1.21
Ford         Capri                   89-94     5.51         4.45       6.82         2.37
Ford         Focus LR                02-05     2.97         2.20       4.02         1.82
Ford         Focus LS / LT           05-07     1.52         0.83       2.81         1.99
Fiat         Regata                  84-88     4.62         2.38       8.93         6.55
Holden       Gemini                  82-84     5.38         4.85       5.98         1.12
Holden       Gemini RB               86-87     5.65         4.46       7.16         2.71
Holden       Astra TR                96-98     3.06         2.27       4.12         1.85
Holden       Astra TS                98-06     2.99         2.64       3.39         0.76
Holden       Astra AH                04-07     3.01         1.99       4.56         2.57
Holden       Viva JF                 05-07     2.79         1.53       5.11         3.58
Hyundai      Excel                   86-90     6.24         5.49       7.10         1.60
Hyundai      Excel                   90-94     5.67         5.21       6.18         0.97
Hyundai      Excel / Accent          95-00     4.89         4.60       5.21         0.61
Hyundai      Elantra                 00-07     3.32         2.55       4.31         1.76
Hyundai      S Coupe                 90-96     5.34         4.19       6.80         2.61
Hyundai      Lantra                  91-95     5.06         4.20       6.10         1.90
Hyundai      Lantra                  96-00     4.02         3.45       4.68         1.23
Hyundai      Coupe                   96-00     4.34         3.17       5.95         2.77
Hyundai      Accent                  00-06     4.43         3.83       5.13         1.30
Mitsubishi   Lancer / Mirage CA      89-90     4.20         3.73       4.73         1.00
Mitsubishi   Lancer / Mirage CB      91-92     5.38         4.24       6.82         2.58
Mitsubishi   Lancer / Mirage CC      93-95     4.31         3.87       4.80         0.93
Mitsubishi   Lancer / Mirage CE      96-03     4.28         3.95       4.63         0.68
Mitsubishi   Cordia                  83-87     5.88         4.97       6.96         1.99
Mitsubishi   Lancer CH / CJ          03-07     4.32         3.31       5.63         2.32
Kia          Rio                     00-05     4.68         3.84       5.70         1.87
Make              Model of Car                        Years of   Serious       Lower 95% Upper 95%     Width of
                                                     Manufacture injury rate   Confidence Confidence   Confidence
                                                                 per 100       Limit      Limit        Interval
                                                                 drivers
                                                                 involved
                                                                 %
Kia               Spectra                              01-04     3.33          1.76       6.31         4.55
Kia               Cerato                               04-07     3.03          1.59       5.76         4.17
Kia               Rio JB                               05-07     2.74          1.31       5.74         4.43
Ford / Mazda      Laser / 323 / Familia                82-88     5.63          5.39       5.87         0.48
Mazda             323 / Familia / Lantis               90-93     4.04          3.58       4.55         0.98
Mazda             323 / Familia / Lantis               95-98     4.14          3.59       4.76         1.17
Ford / Mazda      Laser / 323                          99-03     3.25          2.82       3.76         0.94
Mazda             MX5 / Eunos Roadster                 89-97     4.52          2.92       6.99         4.07
Mazda             MX5 / Eunos Roadster                 98-05     2.40          1.23       4.68         3.45
                  Eunos 30X / Presso / MX-3 /
Mazda                                                   90-97     3.28         1.99       5.40         3.41
                  Autozam AZ-3
Mazda             3 / Axela                             03-07     2.37         1.82       3.09         1.27
Mercedes Benz     A-Class W168                          98-04     3.40         1.59       7.27         5.68
Holden / Nissan   Astra / Pulsar / Langley              84-86     5.97         5.52       6.46         0.94
Holden / Nissan   Astra / Pulsar / Vector / Sentra      88-90     4.96         4.60       5.35         0.75
Nissan            Pulsar / Vector / Sentra              92-95     3.77         3.38       4.21         0.83
Nissan            Pulsar / Vector / Sentra              96-99     4.23         3.82       4.69         0.87
Nissan            Stanza                                82-83     4.31         2.82       6.60         3.78
Nissan            Gazelle / Silvia                      84-86     5.86         4.59       7.49         2.90
Nissan            Exa                                   83-86     7.68         5.58       10.59        5.01
Nissan            Exa                                   87-91     5.54         3.40       9.03         5.64
Nissan            NX/NX-R                               91-96     6.10         4.63       8.02         3.39
Nissan            Pulsar                                00-05     3.75         3.29       4.28         0.99
Honda             Civic                                 82-83     5.50         4.44       6.82         2.38
Honda             Civic / Ballade / Shuttle             84-87     5.89         5.20       6.67         1.47
Honda             Civic / Shuttle                       88-91     4.73         4.22       5.30         1.08
Honda             Civic                                 92-95     3.98         3.50       4.54         1.04
Honda             Civic                                 96-00     3.60         3.09       4.21         1.12
Honda             CRX                                   87-91     6.71         5.15       8.75         3.60
Honda             CRX                                   92-98     4.58         2.80       7.50         4.70
Honda             Civic                                 01-05     3.08         2.30       4.12         1.83
Honda             Integra                               86-88     5.00         3.92       6.39         2.47
Honda             Integra                               90-92     4.02         3.02       5.36         2.34
Honda             Integra                               93-01     3.53         2.66       4.70         2.04
Honda             Integra                               02-06     3.51         1.68       7.31         5.63
Honda             Concerto                              89-93     4.06         2.99       5.52         2.53
Peugeot           306                                   94-01     2.42         1.74       3.35         1.61
Peugeot           307                                   01-07     2.12         1.17       3.84         2.66
Proton            Wira                                  95-96     4.88         3.84       6.21         2.36
Renault           19                                    91-96     3.66         1.93       6.94         5.00
Renault           Scenic                                01-04     0.87         0.12       6.01         5.88
Rover             Quintet                               82-86     5.07         3.15       8.16         5.00
MG                MGF / MG TF                           99-05     2.31         1.03       5.19         4.17
Subaru            Impreza                               93-00     4.56         4.00       5.20         1.20
Subaru            Impreza                               01-07     2.42         1.77       3.29         1.52
Suzuki            Baleno / Cultus Crescent              95-02     4.03         3.15       5.16         2.01
Suzuki            Liana                                 01-07     2.65         1.44       4.88         3.44
Toyota            Corolla                               82-84     5.38         4.97       5.83         0.87
Toyota            Corolla                               86-88     5.01         4.68       5.36         0.68
Toyota / Holden   Corolla / Nova                        89-93     4.42         4.17       4.68         0.51
Toyota / Holden   Corolla / Nova                        94-97     4.08         3.78       4.40         0.61
Make         Model of Car         Years of   Serious       Lower 95% Upper 95%     Width of
                                 Manufacture injury rate   Confidence Confidence   Confidence
                                             per 100       Limit      Limit        Interval
                                             drivers
                                             involved
                                             %
Toyota       Corolla / Allex       98-01     2.99          2.60       3.45         0.85
Toyota       Corolla               02-07     3.24          2.87       3.66         0.80
Toyota       Tercel                83-88     5.19          3.66       7.35         3.69
Toyota       MR2                   87-90     6.92          4.85       9.86         5.01
Toyota       MR2                   91-00     3.53          2.05       6.06         4.01
Toyota       Paseo / Cynos         91-99     4.01          3.15       5.11         1.96
Toyota       Corolla 4WD Wagon     92-96     3.49          2.08       5.87         3.79
Volvo        300 Series            84-88     4.92          2.75       8.82         6.08
Volvo        S40/V40               97-04     2.68          1.67       4.31         2.64
Volkswagen   Golf                  82-94     6.37          3.93       10.32        6.40
Volkswagen   Golf                  95-98     2.80          1.84       4.25         2.40
Volkswagen   Golf / Bora           99-04     2.26          1.63       3.14         1.51
Volkswagen   New Beetle            00-07     1.44          0.54       3.83         3.29
Volkswagen   Golf / Jetta          04-07     0.91          0.42       2.00         1.58
                                        CRASHWORTHINESS RATINGS
                                        (WITH 90% CONFIDENCE LIMITS)

                  New South Wales Data (1987-2007), South Australia Data (1995-2007),
                         Queensland and Western Australia Data (1991-2007)


Make              Model of Car                         Years of   Serious       Lower 90% Upper 90%     Width of
                                                      Manufacture injury rate   Confidence Confidence   Confidence
                                                                  per 100       Limit      Limit        Interval
                                                                  drivers
                                                                  involved
                                                                  %
ALL VEHICLE AVERAGE                                                3.76

Compact Four Wheel Drive Vehicles                                  3.48         3.33       3.64         0.32

Daihatsu          Feroza / Rocky                         89-97     4.97         3.98       6.21         2.23
Daihatsu          Rocky / Rugger                         85-98     6.38         4.97       8.18         3.21
Daihatsu          Terios                                 97-05     4.96         3.88       6.35         2.47
Holden            Cruze                                  02-06     5.85         4.49       7.62         3.13
Mitsubishi        Outlander                              03-06     2.63         1.38       4.98         3.60
Kia               Sportage                               98-03     2.48         1.70       3.64         1.94
Kia               Sorento                                03-07     2.83         1.41       5.69         4.28
Ford / Mazda      Escape / Tribute                       01-06     2.64         2.01       3.46         1.45
Nissan            X-Trail                                01-07     2.90         2.30       3.65         1.35
Lada              Niva                                   84-99     4.05         2.75       5.94         3.18
Honda             CR-V                                   97-01     2.28         1.83       2.85         1.02
Honda             CR-V                                   02-07     1.63         1.17       2.26         1.09
Honda             HR-V                                   99-02     3.51         2.32       5.32         2.99
Land Rover        Freelander                             98-06     5.09         3.15       8.22         5.07
Subaru            Forester                               97-02     2.40         1.91       3.02         1.11
Subaru            Forester                               02-07     2.06         1.50       2.83         1.33
Suzuki            Vitara / Escudo                        88-98     4.63         4.09       5.25         1.15
Suzuki            Grand Vitara                           99-05     3.17         2.33       4.31         1.98
                  Drover / Sierra / Samurai / SJ410
Holden / Suzuki                                          82-99     5.81         5.22       6.46         1.23
                  / SJ413
Suzuki            Jimny                                  98-07     4.11         2.69       6.27         3.58
Toyota            RAV4                                   94-00     3.23         2.75       3.79         1.04
Toyota            RAV4                                   01-06     3.05         2.51       3.71         1.20
Toyota            RAV4                                   06-07     1.80         0.93       3.49         2.56

Medium Four Wheel Drive Vehicles                                   2.60         2.45       2.77         0.31

Daewoo /
                  Musso                                  98-02     3.39         2.02       5.67         3.65
Ssangong
Ford              Territory SX/SY                        04-07     2.06         1.39       3.06         1.67
Holden / Isuzu    Jackaroo / Bighorn                     82-91     3.23         2.49       4.18         1.69
Holden / Isuzu    Jackaroo / Bighorn                     92-97     3.15         2.37       4.17         1.79
Holden / Isuzu    Jackaroo / Bighorn                     98-02     3.25         2.39       4.42         2.03
Holden            Frontera / Mu                          95-03     2.83         1.78       4.49         2.71
Holden            Adventra                               03-06     0.52         0.10       2.72         2.62
Hyundai           Santa Fe                               00-06     3.14         1.86       5.30         3.44
Mitsubishi        Pajero                                 82-90     4.46         3.83       5.20         1.37
Mitsubishi        Pajero                                 92-99     2.68         2.29       3.14         0.85
Mitsubishi        Pajero NM / NP / NS                    00-07     1.80         1.26       2.56         1.30
Make              Model of Car                      Years of   Serious       Lower 90% Upper 90%     Width of
                                                   Manufacture injury rate   Confidence Confidence   Confidence
                                                               per 100       Limit      Limit        Interval
                                                               drivers
                                                               involved
                                                               %
Mitsubishi        Challenger                         98-06     2.89          1.95       4.28         2.34
Jeep              Cherokee XJ                        96-00     2.78          2.17       3.57         1.40
Jeep              Wrangler                           96-04     4.11          2.67       6.32         3.65
Jeep              Cherokee KJ                        01-07     1.84          0.90       3.77         2.87
Land Rover        Defender                           92-07     3.98          2.71       5.86         3.15
Nissan            Pathfinder / Terrano               88-94     3.02          2.35       3.90         1.55
Nissan            Pathfinder / Terrano / Regulus     95-05     1.98          1.43       2.73         1.30
Toyota            Kluger                             03-07     2.58          1.65       4.03         2.39
Toyota            Landcruiser Prado                  96-03     2.03          1.49       2.78         1.29
Toyota            Landcruiser Prado                  03-07     1.31          0.92       1.87         0.94

Large Four Wheel Drive Vehicles                                 2.67         2.56       2.78         0.22

BMW               X5                                  01-07     1.43         0.55       3.72         3.17
Ford              Bronco                              82-87     5.46         3.15       9.48         6.33
Ford              Explorer                            00-01     4.50         3.23       6.26         3.03
Ford              Explorer                            01-05     1.18         0.57       2.46         1.89
Jeep              Grand Cherokee ZG                   96-99     2.24         1.29       3.88         2.59
Jeep              Grand Cherokee WJ/WG                99-05     1.71         0.91       3.20         2.29
Land Rover        Discovery                           91-02     2.20         1.64       2.95         1.31
Mercedes Benz     M-Class W163                        98-05     1.32         0.66       2.65         1.99
Nissan            Patrol / Safari                     82-87     3.25         2.59       4.08         1.49
Nissan / Ford     Patrol / Maverick / Safari          88-97     2.55         2.29       2.85         0.56
Nissan            Patrol / Safari                     98-07     2.17         1.83       2.56         0.73
Land Rover        Range Rover                         82-94     2.79         2.13       3.67         1.54
Land Rover        Range Rover                         95-02     1.35         0.60       3.02         2.41
Toyota            Landcruiser                         82-89     4.17         3.81       4.55         0.74
Toyota            Landcruiser                         90-97     3.00         2.76       3.26         0.50
Toyota            Landcruiser                         98-07     2.51         2.22       2.82         0.60

Commercial Vehicles- Vans                                       3.68         3.52       3.85         0.34

Daihatsu          Handivan                            82-90     8.50         6.95       10.41        3.46
Daihatsu          Hi-Jet                              82-90     12.36        8.88       17.21        8.33
Daihatsu          Handivan / Cuore                    99-03     4.56         2.68       7.75         5.07
Ford              Falcon Panel Van                    82-95     3.40         2.89       3.99         1.10
Ford              Falcon Panel Van                    96-99     2.37         1.49       3.79         2.30
Ford              Transit                             95-00     3.10         2.29       4.20         1.91
Ford              Transit                             01-07     1.15         0.67       1.96         1.28
Holden            Shuttle / WFR Van                   82-87     6.24         4.58       8.50         3.92
Kia               Pregio                              02-06     2.84         1.79       4.48         2.69
Mercedes Benz     MB100 / MB140                       99-04     2.57         1.39       4.75         3.35
Mercedes Benz     Vito / Viano                        99-07     2.09         1.25       3.51         2.26
Mercedes Benz     Sprinter                            98-04     2.06         1.28       3.31         2.03
Honda             Acty                                83-86     3.80         2.47       5.85         3.38
Holden / Suzuki   Scurry / Carry                      82-00     9.82         7.82       12.33        4.52
Suzuki            Carry                               99-05     3.78         1.68       8.51         6.83
Toyota            Hiace/Liteace                       82-86     5.63         5.08       6.25         1.17
Toyota            Hiace/Liteace                       87-89     4.85         4.21       5.59         1.38
Toyota            Hiace/Liteace                       90-95     4.43         3.97       4.95         0.98
Toyota            Hiace/Liteace                       96-04     3.02         2.62       3.47         0.85
Make             Model of Car                       Years of   Serious       Lower 90% Upper 90%     Width of
                                                   Manufacture injury rate   Confidence Confidence   Confidence
                                                               per 100       Limit      Limit        Interval
                                                               drivers
                                                               involved
                                                               %
Toyoa            Hiace                               05-07     3.37          2.03       5.59         3.56
Volkswagen       Caravelle / Transporter             88-94     2.80          1.50       5.25         3.76
Volkswagen       Caravelle / Transporter             95-04     1.48          0.88       2.49         1.61

Commercial Vehicles- Utes                                       3.33         3.25       3.42         0.17

Ford / Nissan    Falcon Ute / XFN Ute                 82-95     3.84         3.53       4.18         0.66
Ford             Falcon Ute                           96-99     3.03         2.52       3.64         1.12
Ford             Falcon Ute AU                        00-02     2.56         2.12       3.09         0.98
Ford             Falcon Ute BA/BF                     03-07     1.99         1.55       2.56         1.01
Ford             Ford F-Series                        82-92     2.73         1.96       3.81         1.85
Holden           Commodore Ute VG/VP                  90-93     4.29         3.59       5.13         1.54
Holden / Isuzu   Rodeo / Pickup                       82-85     4.51         3.40       5.97         2.57
Holden / Isuzu   Rodeo / Pickup                       86-88     2.45         1.42       4.25         2.83
Holden / Isuzu   Rodeo / Pickup                       89-95     4.15         3.75       4.59         0.83
Holden           Rodeo                                96-98     3.31         2.83       3.88         1.05
Holden           Rodeo                                99-02     3.08         2.63       3.62         0.99
Holden           WB Series                            82-85     5.25         4.40       6.25         1.85
Holden           Commodore Ute VR/VS                  94-00     3.82         3.48       4.19         0.70
Holden           Commodore VU Ute                     00-02     3.17         2.62       3.84         1.22
Holden           Commodore VY/VZ Ute                  02-07     2.42         2.05       2.86         0.81
Holden           Rodeo                                03-07     2.66         2.19       3.23         1.05
Mitsubishi       Triton MK                            96-06     2.09         1.51       2.91         1.40
Kia              Ceres                                92-00     5.77         4.66       7.13         2.47
Ford / Mazda     Courier / B-Series / Bounty          98-02     3.03         2.50       3.68         1.18
Ford / Mazda     Courier / Bravo / Bounty             03-06     3.68         2.87       4.71         1.84
Nissan           720 Ute                              82-85     4.46         3.69       5.39         1.70
Nissan           Navara                               86-91     3.88         3.42       4.41         0.99
Nissan           Navara                               92-96     3.13         2.57       3.80         1.23
Nissan           Navara                               97-05     2.44         1.99       3.00         1.01
Nissan           Navara                               05-07     2.49         1.15       5.40         4.26
Subaru           Brumby                               82-92     6.20         5.38       7.14         1.76
Suzuki           Mighty Boy                           85-88     9.56         7.49       12.18        4.69
Toyota           4Runner/Hilux                        82-85     4.54         4.11       5.02         0.92
Toyota           4Runner/Hilux                        86-88     4.39         3.96       4.87         0.92
Toyota           4Runner/Hilux                        89-97     3.97         3.74       4.20         0.45
Toyota           Hilux                                98-02     2.81         2.50       3.16         0.66
Toyota           Hilux                                03-04     2.42         1.91       3.07         1.17
Toyota           Hilux                                05-07     2.83         2.19       3.67         1.48

Large Cars                                                      3.25         3.20       3.30         0.10

BMW              7 Series E23                         82-88     2.88         1.64       5.05         3.41
BMW              7 Series E32                         89-94     3.29         1.89       5.72         3.82
BMW              7 Series E38                         95-01     1.37         0.58       3.28         2.71
Ford             Falcon XE/XF                         82-88     4.21         4.05       4.38         0.32
Ford             Fairlane Z & LTD F                   82-87     4.02         3.63       4.45         0.83
Ford             Falcon EA / Falcon EB Series I     88-Mar 92   3.79         3.63       3.96         0.33
Ford             Falcon EB Series II / Falcon ED    Apr 92-94   3.45         3.24       3.67         0.43
Ford             Fairlane N & LTD D                   88-94     2.99         2.64       3.38         0.74
Ford             Fairlane N & LTD D                   95-98     3.31         2.72       4.02         1.30
Make              Model of Car                    Years of   Serious       Lower 90% Upper 90%     Width of
                                                 Manufacture injury rate   Confidence Confidence   Confidence
                                                             per 100       Limit      Limit        Interval
                                                             drivers
                                                             involved
                                                             %
Ford              Fairlane & LTD AU                99-02     2.53          1.80       3.57         1.77
Ford              Fairlane & LTD BA/BF             03-07     3.62          2.06       6.35         4.29
Ford              Falcon EF/EL                     94-98     3.16          3.02       3.31         0.29
Ford              Falcon AU                        98-02     2.83          2.65       3.02         0.37
Ford              Taurus                           96-98     3.58          2.50       5.13         2.63
Ford              Falcon BA/BF                     02-07     2.43          2.19       2.69         0.50
Holden / Toyota   Commodore VN/VP / Lexcen         89-93     4.16          4.01       4.31         0.30
Holden            Statesman/Caprice WB             82-85     6.69          4.31       10.36        6.05
Holden            Stateman/Caprice VQ              90-93     4.30          3.28       5.65         2.38
Holden            Stateman/Caprice VR/VS           94-98     3.31          2.89       3.79         0.90
Holden / Toyota   Commodore VR/VS / Lexcen         93-97     3.38          3.24       3.52         0.28
Holden            Commodore VT/VX                  97-02     2.98          2.83       3.13         0.30
Holden            Statesman/Caprice WH             99-03     1.98          1.41       2.78         1.37
Holden            Commodore VY/VZ                  02-07     2.32          2.10       2.57         0.47
Holden            Monaro                           01-05     3.21          2.27       4.53         2.26
Holden            Statesman/Caprice WK/WL          03-06     2.90          1.76       4.75         2.99
Holden            Commodore VB-VL                  82-88     4.71          4.54       4.90         0.35
Holden            Commodore VE                     06-07     2.04          1.49       2.80         1.31
Hyundai           Sonata                           89-97     3.60          3.12       4.15         1.03
Hyundai           Grandeaur / XG                   99-00     0.99          0.31       3.16         2.85
                  Magna TM/TN/TP / Sigma /
Mitsubishi                                          85-90     4.48         4.27       4.71         0.45
                  V3000
                  Magna TE/TF/TH/TJ / Verada
Mitsubishi                                          96-03     3.23         3.01       3.48         0.48
                  KE/KF/KH/KJ / Diamante
                  Magna TR/TS / Verada KR/KS /
Mitsubishi                                          91-96     3.45         3.26       3.66         0.40
                  V3000 / Diamante
Mitsubishi        Magna TL/TW / Verada KL/KW        03-05     2.10         1.46       3.02         1.55
Mitsubishi        380                               05-07     1.54         0.66       3.61         2.95
Jaguar            XJ6                               82-86     5.00         3.21       7.79         4.58
Jaguar            XJ6                               87-94     2.03         1.22       3.38         2.16
Mazda             929 / Luce                        82-90     4.55         4.00       5.16         1.16
Mazda             929 / Sentia / Efini MS-9         92-96     3.75         2.22       6.35         4.13
Mercedes Benz     E-Class W123                      82-85     3.09         1.90       5.03         3.13
Mercedes Benz     E-Class W124                      86-94     2.79         2.09       3.72         1.63
Mercedes Benz     E-Class W210                      96-02     2.71         1.87       3.91         2.04
Mercedes Benz     S-Class W126                      82-92     2.94         2.11       4.09         1.99
Nissan            Skyline                           83-88     4.46         4.06       4.89         0.83
Nissan            300ZX / Fairlady Z                90-95     3.93         2.87       5.39         2.52
Nissan            Maxima                            90-94     3.46         2.76       4.34         1.58
Nissan            Maxima / Cefiro                   95-99     3.27         2.60       4.11         1.50
Nissan            Maxima                            00-02     3.21         2.18       4.73         2.55
Nissan            Maxima                            06-07     2.36         1.24       4.52         3.28
Honda             Legend                            86-95     2.73         2.03       3.66         1.62
Rover             3500                              82-87     2.17         0.95       4.95         4.01
Saab              9-5                               98-05     1.59         0.62       4.05         3.42
Toyota            Camry                             98-02     3.00         2.77       3.26         0.49
Toyota            Crown / Cressida / Mark II        82-85     4.51         3.86       5.27         1.42
Toyota            Crown / Cressida / Mark II        86-88     4.25         3.26       5.53         2.27
Toyota            Cressida / Mark II                89-93     2.83         2.32       3.45         1.13
Toyota            Supra                             82-90     5.89         4.44       7.81         3.37
Lexus             ES300 / Windom                    92-01     3.39         2.43       4.72         2.29
Lexus             LS400 / Celsior                   90-00     1.39         0.53       3.66         3.13
Make            Model of Car                       Years of   Serious       Lower 90% Upper 90%     Width of
                                                  Manufacture injury rate   Confidence Confidence   Confidence
                                                              per 100       Limit      Limit        Interval
                                                              drivers
                                                              involved
                                                              %
Toyota          Avalon                              00-05     2.68          2.19       3.28         1.09
Toyota          Camry                               02-06     2.22          1.89       2.61         0.72
Toyota          Camry                               06-07     1.34          0.52       3.46         2.94
Volvo           850/S70/V70/C70                     92-05     3.02          2.40       3.81         1.42
Volvo           700/900 Series                      84-92     2.59          2.05       3.26         1.21
Volvo           960/S90/V90                         90-98     3.19          1.49       6.86         5.38

Medium Cars                                                    3.52         3.46       3.59         0.13

Alfa Romeo      156                                  99-06     2.44         1.25       4.76         3.51
Audi            A4                                   95-01     2.74         1.95       3.87         1.93
Audi            A4                                   01-07     1.83         0.96       3.49         2.53
BMW             Z3 E36                               97-03     3.80         2.22       6.50         4.28
BMW             3 Series E90                         05-07     1.05         0.20       5.43         5.22
BMW             3 Series E30                         82-91     3.58         3.11       4.12         1.01
BMW             3 Series E36                         92-98     3.15         2.75       3.61         0.85
BMW             3 Series E46                         99-06     2.57         2.06       3.20         1.13
BMW             5 Series E28                         82-88     3.31         2.43       4.53         2.10
BMW             5 Series E34                         89-95     3.11         2.31       4.20         1.90
BMW             5 Series E39                         96-03     2.24         1.56       3.23         1.68
Chrysler        PT Cruiser                           00-07     4.16         2.04       8.49         6.45
Daewoo          Espero                               95-97     5.46         4.28       6.96         2.68
Daewoo          Leganza                              97-02     3.23         2.31       4.50         2.18
Ford            Mondeo                               95-01     2.58         2.14       3.10         0.96
Ford            Probe                                94-98     4.20         2.55       6.92         4.37
Ford            Cougar                               99-03     3.12         1.92       5.07         3.15
Holden          Calibra                              94-97     2.40         1.54       3.74         2.20
Holden          Camira                               82-89     5.37         5.07       5.68         0.62
Holden          Vectra                               97-03     2.80         2.38       3.29         0.90
Holden          Vectra ZC                            03-05     2.20         1.27       3.81         2.54
Hyundai         Sonata                               98-01     4.27         3.22       5.66         2.43
Hyundai         Sonata EF                            02-05     2.09         0.68       6.42         5.74
                Sigma / Galant / Sapporo /
Mitsubishi                                           82-84     4.73         4.42       5.05         0.63
                Lambda
Mitsubishi      Starion                              82-87     8.72         6.07       12.51        6.43
Mitsubishi      Galant                               95-96     3.94         3.29       4.72         1.43
Ford / Mazda    Telstar / 626 / MX6 / Capella        83-86     4.41         4.11       4.73         0.62
Ford / Mazda    Telstar / 626 / MX6 / Capella        88-91     3.75         3.42       4.10         0.68
                Telstar / 626 / MX6 / Capella /
Ford / Mazda                                         92-97     3.40         3.08       3.76         0.69
                Cronos
Mazda           626                                  98-02     2.96         2.41       3.62         1.21
Mazda           RX7                                  82-85     5.28         4.01       6.95         2.93
Mazda           RX7                                  86-91     4.25         3.01       6.00         2.99
Mazda           Eunos 500                            93-99     3.97         2.44       6.44         4.00
Mazda           Eunos 800                            94-00     2.66         1.03       6.85         5.81
Mazda           6                                    02-07     1.86         1.34       2.60         1.26
Mercedes Benz   C-Class W201                         87-93     3.39         2.50       4.58         2.07
Mercedes Benz   C-Class W202                         95-00     2.42         1.82       3.24         1.42
Mercedes Benz   CLK C208                             97-03     3.08         1.57       6.02         4.44
Mercedes Benz   SLK R170                             97-04     1.70         0.54       5.32         4.78
Mercedes Benz   C-Class W203                         00-07     2.88         1.88       4.43         2.56
Nissan          Pintara                              86-88     4.36         3.93       4.84         0.92
Make              Model of Car                      Years of   Serious       Lower 90% Upper 90%     Width of
                                                   Manufacture injury rate   Confidence Confidence   Confidence
                                                               per 100       Limit      Limit        Interval
                                                               drivers
                                                               involved
                                                               %
Nissan / Ford     Pintara / Corsair / Bluebird       89-92     4.67          4.33       5.03         0.70
Nissan            Bluebird                           82-86     5.31          4.98       5.66         0.67
Nissan            280ZX                              82-84     5.17          2.79       9.59         6.81
Nissan            Bluebird                           93-97     3.20          2.71       3.77         1.06
Nissan            200SX / Silvia                     94-02     3.08          2.40       3.96         1.55
Nissan            350Z                               03-07     4.43          2.27       8.64         6.37
Honda             Accord Euro                        03-07     2.02          1.36       3.00         1.64
Honda             Accord                             03-07     2.69          1.69       4.27         2.58
Honda             Accord                             82-85     5.20          4.62       5.84         1.22
Honda             Accord                             86-90     3.45          3.01       3.96         0.95
Honda             Accord                             91-93     3.40          2.81       4.11         1.30
Honda             Accord                             94-98     3.49          3.01       4.04         1.03
Honda             Accord                             99-02     1.91          1.25       2.91         1.65
Honda             Prelude                            82-82     3.51          1.83       6.73         4.90
Honda             Prelude                            83-91     4.39          3.96       4.88         0.92
Honda             Prelude                            92-96     4.17          3.45       5.05         1.60
Honda             Prelude                            97-02     2.56          1.72       3.82         2.09
Peugeot           405                                89-97     3.05          2.25       4.13         1.88
Peugeot           505                                82-93     2.65          1.90       3.69         1.80
Peugeot           406                                96-04     1.34          0.68       2.65         1.97
Porsche           944                                82-91     5.21          2.57       10.57        8.00
Renault           Feugo                              82-87     3.85          2.49       5.95         3.46
Saab              900 Series                         82-92     3.62          2.80       4.68         1.89
Saab              900/9-3                            94-02     2.26          1.63       3.13         1.49
Saab              9000                               86-97     1.76          1.18       2.62         1.44
                  1800 / Leone / Omega / 4WD
Subaru                                                82-93     4.73         4.34       5.15         0.81
                  Wagon
Subaru            Liberty / Legacy                    89-93     3.68         3.33       4.06         0.73
Subaru            Liberty / Legacy / Outback          94-98     3.12         2.69       3.62         0.92
Subaru            Liberty / Legacy / Outback          99-03     2.45         2.00       2.99         0.99
Subaru            Liberty / Legacy / Outback          03-07     2.50         1.72       3.62         1.90
Toyota            Corona                              82-88     4.84         4.56       5.13         0.57
Toyota            Camry                               83-86     4.69         4.12       5.33         1.21
Holden / Toyota   Apollo JK/JL / Camry / Vista        88-92     3.85         3.66       4.05         0.39
Holden / Toyota   Apollo JM/JP / Camry / Sceptor      93-97     3.95         3.74       4.18         0.44
Toyota            Celica                              81-85     4.16         3.57       4.85         1.28
Toyota            Celica                              86-89     4.27         3.61       5.05         1.44
Toyota            Celica                              90-93     4.14         3.53       4.87         1.34
Toyota            Celica                              94-99     3.48         2.76       4.38         1.63
Toyota            Celica                              00-05     3.67         2.37       5.69         3.32
Lexus             IS200 / IS300                       99-04     1.79         0.86       3.72         2.86
Volvo             200 Series                          82-93     3.31         2.80       3.92         1.13
Volkswagen        Passat                              98-06     1.80         0.96       3.36         2.40

People Movers                                                   3.84         3.67       4.03         0.36

Chrysler          Voyager                             97-01     2.19         1.25       3.83         2.59
Holden            Zafira TT                           01-05     3.39         1.87       6.16         4.29
Mitsubishi        Nimbus / Chariot / Spacewagon       85-91     4.47         3.41       5.86         2.45
Mitsubishi        Nimbus / Chariot                    92-98     3.89         2.98       5.09         2.12
Mitsubishi        Nimbus                              99-03     2.28         1.12       4.63         3.51
Make              Model of Car                    Years of   Serious       Lower 90% Upper 90%     Width of
                                                 Manufacture injury rate   Confidence Confidence   Confidence
                                                             per 100       Limit      Limit        Interval
                                                             drivers
                                                             involved
                                                             %
Mitsubishi        Starwagon / L300                 83-86     7.32          6.53       8.20         1.66
Mitsubishi        Starwagon / Delica Starwagon     87-93     4.93          4.45       5.47         1.02
Mitsubishi        Starwagon / Delica Spacegear     95-98     3.56          2.81       4.50         1.69
Mitsubishi        Starwagon / Delica Spacegear     98-03     4.12          3.19       5.31         2.12
Kia               Carnival                         99-06     1.24          0.78       1.99         1.21
Mazda             MPV                              94-99     0.79          0.25       2.53         2.28
Nissan            Prairie                          84-86     4.64          3.36       6.40         3.04
Nissan            Serena                           92-95     2.32          1.38       3.88         2.50
Honda             Odyssey                          95-00     2.15          1.42       3.25         1.83
Toyota            Tarago                           83-89     5.65          5.08       6.27         1.19
Toyota            Tarago / Previa / Estima         91-99     2.92          2.44       3.48         1.04
Toyota            Tarago / Previa / Estima         00-06     2.33          1.59       3.41         1.82
Toyota            Spacia                           93-00     2.17          0.93       5.08         4.15

Light Cars                                                    5.01         4.89       5.12         0.23

Daihatsu          Charade                           82-86     8.02         7.14       9.00         1.86
Daihatsu          Charade                           88-92     6.17         5.68       6.71         1.04
Daihatsu          Charade                           93-00     6.09         5.54       6.70         1.16
Daihatsu          Pyzar                             97-01     5.23         3.49       7.83         4.34
Daihatsu          Sirion / Storia                   98-04     4.43         3.59       5.48         1.89
Daihatsu          Mira                              90-96     9.99         8.45       11.82        3.38
Daewoo            Matiz                             99-04     4.73         3.69       6.07         2.38
Daewoo            Kalos                             03-04     4.93         3.33       7.31         3.98
Ford              Festiva WD/WH/WF                  94-01     5.90         5.55       6.27         0.71
Ford              Ka                                99-02     4.57         3.24       6.43         3.18
Holden            Barina XC                         01-06     3.42         2.85       4.10         1.25
Holden            Barina SB                         95-00     4.58         4.15       5.05         0.90
Holden            Barina TK                         05-07     4.19         2.86       6.13         3.27
Hyundai           Getz / TB                         02-07     4.87         4.09       5.80         1.71
Mitsubishi        Mirage / Colt                     82-88     5.86         5.52       6.23         0.72
Mitsubishi        Colt                              04-07     3.95         2.30       6.80         4.50
Ford / Mazda      Festiva WA / 121                  87-90     5.94         5.48       6.44         0.97
Mazda             121 / Autozam Review              94-96     4.79         4.21       5.45         1.24
Mazda             121 Metro / Demio                 97-02     4.15         3.55       4.85         1.30
Mazda             2                                 02-07     3.34         2.40       4.66         2.26
Nissan            Micra                             95-97     6.31         5.08       7.85         2.77
Honda             Jazz / Fit                        02-07     3.07         2.33       4.05         1.72
Honda             City                              83-86     7.17         6.01       8.57         2.56
Peugeot           205                               87-94     4.23         2.79       6.42         3.63
Peugeot           206                               99-07     4.32         3.13       5.96         2.82
Proton            Satria                            97-05     4.67         2.28       9.56         7.27
Renault           Clio                              02-07     4.01         2.17       7.42         5.25
Subaru            Sherpa / Fiori / 700 / Rex        89-92     9.09         7.60       10.88        3.28
Suzuki            Swift                             82-85     8.35         5.83       11.94        6.11
Holden / Suzuki   Barina / Swift / Cultus           86-88     7.40         6.76       8.10         1.34
Holden / Suzuki   Barina / Swift / Cultus           89-99     5.60         5.29       5.94         0.64
Suzuki            Hatch / Alto                      82-84     9.43         7.94       11.19        3.25
Suzuki            Alto                              85-00     9.95         7.85       12.61        4.76
Suzuki            Ignis                             00-02     5.57         4.10       7.56         3.45
Suzuki            Swift                             05-07     3.35         2.32       4.84         2.52
Make         Model of Car          Years of   Serious       Lower 90% Upper 90%     Width of
                                  Manufacture injury rate   Confidence Confidence   Confidence
                                              per 100       Limit      Limit        Interval
                                              drivers
                                              involved
                                              %
Toyota       Starlet                96-99     4.91          4.39       5.50         1.10
Toyota       Echo                   99-05     4.39          3.95       4.88         0.94
Toyota       Yaris                  05-07     3.11          2.27       4.26         1.99
Volkswagen   Polo                   96-00     2.82          1.75       4.55         2.80
Volkswagen   Polo                   02-07     2.52          1.13       5.62         4.49

Small Cars                                     4.07         4.01       4.14         0.14

Alfa Romeo   33                      83-92     4.57         3.39       6.16         2.77
Alfa Romeo   75                      86-92     3.33         1.54       7.21         5.68
Alfa Romeo   GTV                     82-84     7.52         4.49       12.59        8.10
Alfa Romeo   Sprint                  82-88     4.62         2.38       8.98         6.60
Alfa Romeo   Alfasud                 82-84     6.37         3.35       12.12        8.77
Audi         A3/S3                   97-04     1.90         0.93       3.89         2.96
Mini         Mini Cooper             02-07     2.17         1.09       4.33         3.24
Chrysler     Neon                    96-99     3.37         2.23       5.11         2.88
Chrysler     Neon                    00-02     3.39         1.50       7.66         6.16
Daihatsu     Applause                89-99     4.59         3.98       5.30         1.32
Daewoo       1.5i                    94-95     6.06         3.57       10.29        6.72
Daewoo       Cielo                   95-97     4.54         4.02       5.13         1.11
Daewoo       Nubira                  97-03     3.66         3.12       4.29         1.17
Daewoo       Lanos                   97-03     4.72         4.24       5.27         1.03
Daewoo       Lacetti                 03-04     5.07         2.70       9.49         6.78
Ford         Laser                   91-94     4.45         4.18       4.74         0.56
Ford         Laser                   95-97     4.46         3.99       5.00         1.01
Ford         Capri                   89-94     5.51         4.61       6.59         1.98
Ford         Focus LR                02-05     2.97         2.31       3.83         1.52
Ford         Focus LS / LT           05-07     1.52         0.91       2.54         1.63
Fiat         Regata                  84-88     4.62         2.66       8.02         5.36
Holden       Gemini                  82-84     5.38         4.93       5.88         0.94
Holden       Gemini RB               86-87     5.65         4.63       6.89         2.26
Holden       Astra TR                96-98     3.06         2.39       3.93         1.54
Holden       Astra TS                98-06     2.99         2.69       3.33         0.63
Holden       Astra AH                04-07     3.01         2.13       4.26         2.13
Holden       Viva JF                 05-07     2.79         1.69       4.63         2.94
Hyundai      Excel                   86-90     6.24         5.61       6.95         1.34
Hyundai      Excel                   90-94     5.67         5.28       6.09         0.81
Hyundai      Excel / Accent          95-00     4.89         4.64       5.15         0.51
Hyundai      Elantra                 00-07     3.32         2.66       4.13         1.47
Hyundai      S Coupe                 90-96     5.34         4.36       6.54         2.18
Hyundai      Lantra                  91-95     5.06         4.33       5.92         1.59
Hyundai      Lantra                  96-00     4.02         3.54       4.57         1.03
Hyundai      Coupe                   96-00     4.34         3.34       5.65         2.31
Hyundai      Accent                  00-06     4.43         3.92       5.01         1.09
Mitsubishi   Lancer / Mirage CA      89-90     4.20         3.80       4.64         0.84
Mitsubishi   Lancer / Mirage CB      91-92     5.38         4.41       6.56         2.15
Mitsubishi   Lancer / Mirage CC      93-95     4.31         3.94       4.72         0.78
Mitsubishi   Lancer / Mirage CE      96-03     4.28         4.00       4.57         0.57
Mitsubishi   Cordia                  83-87     5.88         5.11       6.78         1.67
Mitsubishi   Lancer CH / CJ          03-07     4.32         3.46       5.39         1.93
Kia          Rio                     00-05     4.68         3.96       5.52         1.56
Make              Model of Car                        Years of   Serious       Lower 90% Upper 90%     Width of
                                                     Manufacture injury rate   Confidence Confidence   Confidence
                                                                 per 100       Limit      Limit        Interval
                                                                 drivers
                                                                 involved
                                                                 %
Kia               Spectra                              01-04     3.33          1.95       5.68         3.73
Kia               Cerato                               04-07     3.03          1.77       5.19         3.42
Kia               Rio JB                               05-07     2.74          1.47       5.09         3.61
Ford / Mazda      Laser / 323 / Familia                82-88     5.63          5.43       5.83         0.40
Mazda             323 / Familia / Lantis               90-93     4.04          3.65       4.46         0.82
Mazda             323 / Familia / Lantis               95-98     4.14          3.68       4.66         0.98
Ford / Mazda      Laser / 323                          99-03     3.25          2.88       3.67         0.79
Mazda             MX5 / Eunos Roadster                 89-97     4.52          3.14       6.51         3.37
Mazda             MX5 / Eunos Roadster                 98-05     2.40          1.37       4.19         2.82
                  Eunos 30X / Presso / MX-3 /
Mazda                                                   90-97     3.28         2.16       4.98         2.82
                  Autozam AZ-3
Mazda             3 / Axela                             03-07     2.37         1.90       2.96         1.06
Mercedes Benz     A-Class W168                          98-04     3.40         1.80       6.42         4.62
Holden / Nissan   Astra / Pulsar / Langley              84-86     5.97         5.59       6.38         0.79
Holden / Nissan   Astra / Pulsar / Vector / Sentra      88-90     4.96         4.65       5.28         0.63
Nissan            Pulsar / Vector / Sentra              92-95     3.77         3.44       4.14         0.70
Nissan            Pulsar / Vector / Sentra              96-99     4.23         3.88       4.61         0.73
Nissan            Stanza                                82-83     4.31         3.02       6.16         3.14
Nissan            Gazelle / Silvia                      84-86     5.86         4.77       7.19         2.42
Nissan            Exa                                   83-86     7.68         5.88       10.05        4.17
Nissan            Exa                                   87-91     5.54         3.68       8.34         4.66
Nissan            NX/NX-R                               91-96     6.10         4.84       7.67         2.83
Nissan            Pulsar                                00-05     3.75         3.36       4.19         0.83
Honda             Civic                                 82-83     5.50         4.60       6.58         1.98
Honda             Civic / Ballade / Shuttle             84-87     5.89         5.30       6.53         1.23
Honda             Civic / Shuttle                       88-91     4.73         4.30       5.20         0.91
Honda             Civic                                 92-95     3.98         3.57       4.44         0.87
Honda             Civic                                 96-00     3.60         3.16       4.10         0.94
Honda             CRX                                   87-91     6.71         5.38       8.38         3.00
Honda             CRX                                   92-98     4.58         3.03       6.92         3.89
Honda             Civic                                 01-05     3.08         2.41       3.93         1.52
Honda             Integra                               86-88     5.00         4.08       6.14         2.06
Honda             Integra                               90-92     4.02         3.16       5.11         1.95
Honda             Integra                               93-01     3.53         2.78       4.49         1.70
Honda             Integra                               02-06     3.51         1.90       6.48         4.59
Honda             Concerto                              89-93     4.06         3.15       5.25         2.10
Peugeot           306                                   94-01     2.42         1.84       3.18         1.34
Peugeot           307                                   01-07     2.12         1.29       3.48         2.19
Proton            Wira                                  95-96     4.88         4.00       5.97         1.97
Renault           19                                    91-96     3.66         2.15       6.25         4.10
Renault           Scenic                                01-04     0.87         0.17       4.38         4.21
Rover             Quintet                               82-86     5.07         3.41       7.55         4.14
MG                MGF / MG TF                           99-05     2.31         1.17       4.55         3.38
Subaru            Impreza                               93-00     4.56         4.09       5.09         1.00
Subaru            Impreza                               01-07     2.42         1.87       3.13         1.26
Suzuki            Baleno / Cultus Crescent              95-02     4.03         3.28       4.96         1.68
Suzuki            Liana                                 01-07     2.65         1.59       4.41         2.83
Toyota            Corolla                               82-84     5.38         5.03       5.76         0.73
Toyota            Corolla                               86-88     5.01         4.73       5.30         0.57
Toyota / Holden   Corolla / Nova                        89-93     4.42         4.21       4.64         0.43
Toyota / Holden   Corolla / Nova                        94-97     4.08         3.83       4.34         0.51
Make         Model of Car         Years of   Serious       Lower 90% Upper 90%     Width of
                                 Manufacture injury rate   Confidence Confidence   Confidence
                                             per 100       Limit      Limit        Interval
                                             drivers
                                             involved
                                             %
Toyota       Corolla / Allex       98-01     2.99          2.66       3.37         0.71
Toyota       Corolla               02-07     3.24          2.93       3.59         0.67
Toyota       Tercel                83-88     5.19          3.87       6.94         3.07
Toyota       MR2                   87-90     6.92          5.14       9.31         4.17
Toyota       MR2                   91-00     3.53          2.24       5.55         3.31
Toyota       Paseo / Cynos         91-99     4.01          3.28       4.91         1.64
Toyota       Corolla 4WD Wagon     92-96     3.49          2.26       5.39         3.13
Volvo        300 Series            84-88     4.92          3.02       8.02         5.00
Volvo        S40/V40               97-04     2.68          1.80       3.99         2.19
Volkswagen   Golf                  82-94     6.37          4.25       9.54         5.29
Volkswagen   Golf                  95-98     2.80          1.97       3.97         1.99
Volkswagen   Golf / Bora           99-04     2.26          1.72       2.97         1.26
Volkswagen   New Beetle            00-07     1.44          0.63       3.27         2.63
Volkswagen   Golf / Jetta          04-07     0.91          0.47       1.76         1.28
                                        APPENDIX 5




      AGGRESSIVITY INJURY RISK
 AGGRESSIVITY INJURY SEVERITY AND
 RATINGS OF VEHICLE AGGRESSIVITY
(with 95% and 90% CONFIDENCE LIMITS),
  TOWARDS OTHER VEHICLE DRIVERS
   AND UNPROTECTED ROAD USERS
                                 AGGRESSIVITY INJURY RISK RATINGS

                 New South Wales Data (1987-2007), South Australia Data (1995-2007),
                        Queensland and Western Australia Data (1991-2007)


Make              Model of Car                       Years of Pr(Risk)   Lower 95%    Upper 95% Width of
                                                    Manufacture %        Confidence   Confidence Confidence
                                                                         Limit        Limit      Interval
ALL VEHICLE AVERAGE                                            15.16

Compact Four Wheel Drive Vehicles                              13.93     13.41        14.46      1.05

Daihatsu        Feroza / Rocky                         89-97   18.60     15.55        22.09      6.54
Daihatsu        Rocky / Rugger                         85-98   16.68     12.44        22.00      9.55
Daihatsu        Terios                                 97-05   15.24     11.78        19.48      7.70
Holden          Cruze                                  02-06   12.87     9.29         17.56      8.27
Mitsubishi      Outlander                              03-06   15.65     10.24        23.18      12.94
Kia             Sportage                               98-03   18.30     14.69        22.57      7.88
Ford / Mazda    Escape / Tribute                       01-06   15.52     12.52        19.08      6.56
Nissan          X-Trail                                01-07   13.64     11.08        16.69      5.62
Lada            Niva                                   84-99   16.96     12.84        22.07      9.23
Honda           CR-V                                   97-01   14.60     12.64        16.80      4.16
Honda           CR-V                                   02-07   14.40     11.88        17.34      5.46
Honda           HR-V                                   99-02   15.26     11.34        20.22      8.89
Subaru          Forester                               97-02   13.03     10.77        15.70      4.93
Subaru          Forester                               02-07   14.53     11.49        18.19      6.70
Suzuki          Vitara / Escudo                        88-98   15.80     14.22        17.52      3.30
Suzuki          Grand Vitara                           99-05   13.53     10.04        17.99      7.95
                Drover / Sierra / Samurai / SJ410
Holden / Suzuki                                        82-99   15.12     13.64        16.74      3.10
                / SJ413
Suzuki          Jimny                                  98-07   17.35     11.89        24.62      12.73
Toyota          RAV4                                   94-00   15.86     14.09        17.81      3.73
Toyota          RAV4                                   01-06   16.17     13.91        18.71      4.80

Medium Wheel Drive Vehicles                                    17.37     16.71        18.06      1.35

Daewoo /
                  Musso                                98-02   13.55     8.88         20.13      11.25
Ssangong
Ford              Territory SX/SY                      04-07   17.32     13.46        22.01      8.55
Holden / Isuzu    Jackaroo / Bighorn                   82-91   20.65     17.37        24.36      6.99
Holden / Isuzu    Jackaroo / Bighorn                   92-97   18.28     15.07        22.00      6.93
Holden / Isuzu    Jackaroo / Bighorn                   98-02   21.14     17.41        25.42      8.02
Holden            Frontera / Mu                        95-03   17.19     12.59        23.03      10.43
Hyundai           Santa Fe                             00-06   19.94     14.47        26.84      12.37
Mitsubishi        Pajero                               82-90   19.61     17.36        22.09      4.73
Mitsubishi        Pajero                               92-99   18.95     17.34        20.68      3.34
Mitsubishi        Pajero NM / NP / NS                  00-07   17.39     14.38        20.88      6.50
Mitsubishi        Challenger                           98-06   19.42     14.94        24.86      9.92
Jeep              Cherokee XJ                          96-00   19.14     16.59        21.99      5.40
Jeep              Wrangler                             96-04   22.09     16.79        28.49      11.70
Jeep              Cherokee KJ                          01-07   14.54     9.32         21.98      12.66
Land Rover        Defender                             92-07   19.29     14.26        25.57      11.31
Nissan            Pathfinder / Terrano                 88-94   22.43     18.28        27.21      8.93
Nissan            Pathfinder / Terrano / Regulus       95-05   16.53     13.27        20.40      7.13
Make              Model of Car                  Years of Pr(Risk)   Lower 95%    Upper 95% Width of
                                               Manufacture %        Confidence   Confidence Confidence
                                                                    Limit        Limit      Interval
Toyota            Kluger                          03-07   18.71     13.88        24.73      10.85
Toyota            Landcruiser Prado               96-03   20.80     17.42        24.64      7.22
Toyota            Landcruiser Prado               03-07   19.07     16.00        22.57      6.57

Large Four Wheel Drive Vehicles                           18.83     18.38        19.30      0.92

BMW               X5                              01-07   11.99     7.58         18.46      10.88
Ford              Bronco                          82-87   25.33     17.75        34.77      17.02
Ford              Explorer                        00-01   19.15     14.35        25.09      10.74
Jeep              Grand Cherokee ZG               96-99   18.00     13.06        24.27      11.21
Jeep              Grand Cherokee WJ/WG            99-05   16.27     11.45        22.59      11.13
Land Rover        Discovery                       91-02   17.64     14.74        20.96      6.22
Mercedes Benz     M-Class W163                    98-05   25.08     18.90        32.46      13.56
Nissan            Patrol / Safari                 82-87   21.94     19.26        24.89      5.63
Nissan / Ford     Patrol / Maverick / Safari      88-97   19.81     18.68        21.00      2.32
Nissan            Patrol / Safari                 98-07   20.65     18.90        22.52      3.63
Land Rover        Range Rover                     82-94   22.04     18.48        26.07      7.59
Land Rover        Range Rover                     95-02   14.42     8.70         22.97      14.28
Toyota            Landcruiser                     82-89   21.78     20.57        23.05      2.48
Toyota            Landcruiser                     90-97   21.54     20.55        22.56      2.01
Toyota            Landcruiser                     98-07   19.31     17.87        20.83      2.96

Commercial Vehicles- Vans                                 18.34     17.77        18.92      1.14

Daihatsu          Handivan                        82-90   8.05      5.72         11.22      5.50
Ford              Falcon Panel Van                82-95   16.47     14.90        18.18      3.28
Ford              Falcon Panel Van                96-99   16.74     12.99        21.30      8.31
Ford              Transit                         95-00   20.95     17.96        24.29      6.33
Ford              Transit                         01-07   17.22     13.16        22.20      9.03
Holden            Shuttle / WFR Van               82-87   20.36     15.80        25.83      10.03
Kia               Pregio                          02-06   21.27     16.89        26.42      9.53
Mercedes Benz     MB100 / MB140                   99-04   20.02     15.06        26.10      11.05
Mercedes Benz     Vito / Viano                    99-07   23.44     18.56        29.14      10.58
Mercedes Benz     Sprinter                        98-04   23.29     18.50        28.88      10.38
Honda             Acty                            83-86   12.33     7.66         19.26      11.60
Holden / Suzuki   Scurry / Carry                  82-00   12.26     8.31         17.72      9.41
Toyota            Hiace/Liteace                   82-86   20.65     18.81        22.62      3.81
Toyota            Hiace/Liteace                   87-89   21.12     18.76        23.70      4.94
Toyota            Hiace/Liteace                   90-95   23.12     21.55        24.76      3.22
Toyota            Hiace/Liteace                   96-04   21.15     19.62        22.76      3.14
Toyoa             Hiace                           05-07   17.66     12.72        23.98      11.27
Volkswagen        Caravelle / Transporter         88-94   20.66     15.12        27.57      12.44
Volkswagen        Caravelle / Transporter         95-04   23.48     19.86        27.53      7.68

Commercial Vehicles- Utes                                 16.58     16.28        16.89      0.61

Ford / Nissan     Falcon Ute / XFN Ute            82-95   18.85     17.78        19.96      2.18
Ford              Falcon Ute                      96-99   19.67     17.61        21.91      4.29
Ford              Falcon Ute AU                   00-02   20.18     18.08        22.46      4.38
Ford              Falcon Ute BA/BF                03-07   18.47     15.96        21.29      5.33
Ford              Ford F-Series                   82-92   22.47     19.40        25.86      6.46
Ford              F-Series                        01-06   19.09     12.90        27.34      14.44
Holden            Commodore Ute VG/VP             90-93   15.54     13.24        18.15      4.90
Holden / Isuzu    Rodeo / Pickup                  82-85   16.79     13.18        21.15      7.97
Make              Model of Car                       Years of Pr(Risk)   Lower 95%    Upper 95% Width of
                                                    Manufacture %        Confidence   Confidence Confidence
                                                                         Limit        Limit      Interval
Holden / Isuzu    Rodeo / Pickup                       86-88     18.29   13.98        23.55      9.56
Holden / Isuzu    Rodeo / Pickup                       89-95     18.70   17.49        19.97      2.48
Holden            Rodeo                                96-98     18.48   16.69        20.40      3.71
Holden            Rodeo                                99-02     19.26   17.37        21.30      3.93
Holden            WB Series                            82-85     18.42   16.11        20.99      4.89
Holden            Commodore Ute VR/VS                  94-00     17.35   16.21        18.55      2.34
Holden            Commodore VU Ute                     00-02     15.67   13.49        18.13      4.65
Holden            Commodore VY/VZ Ute                  02-07     16.16   14.39        18.09      3.69
Holden            Rodeo                                03-07     18.51   16.53        20.66      4.13
Mitsubishi        Triton MK                            96-06     17.78   15.16        20.75      5.59
Kia               Ceres                                92-00     13.38   10.89        16.32      5.43
Ford / Mazda      Courier / B-Series / Bounty          98-02     16.86   14.72        19.23      4.51
Ford / Mazda      Courier / Bravo / Bounty             03-06     16.53   13.65        19.88      6.23
Nissan            720 Ute                              82-85     18.10   15.50        21.03      5.53
Nissan            Navara                               86-91     18.03   16.40        19.79      3.39
Nissan            Navara                               92-96     20.48   18.19        22.98      4.79
Nissan            Navara                               97-05     17.88   15.83        20.13      4.31
Subaru            Brumby                               82-92     14.64   12.14        17.55      5.41
Suzuki            Mighty Boy                           85-88     10.21   6.65         15.38      8.73
Toyota            4Runner/Hilux                        82-85     19.11   17.52        20.81      3.29
Toyota            4Runner/Hilux                        86-88     18.61   16.92        20.43      3.51
Toyota            4Runner/Hilux                        89-97     18.46   17.67        19.28      1.61
Toyota            Hilux                                98-02     18.55   17.23        19.94      2.71
Toyota            Hilux                                03-04     18.52   16.03        21.31      5.29
Toyota            Hilux                                05-07     17.68   14.83        20.95      6.12

Large Cars                                                       14.89   14.72        15.07      0.35

BMW               7 Series E23                         82-88     17.15   11.30        25.17      13.87
BMW               7 Series E32                         89-94     17.68   11.61        25.99      14.38
BMW               7 Series E38                         95-01     23.25   16.06        32.42      16.36
Ford              Falcon XE/XF                         82-88     17.06   16.55        17.59      1.04
Ford              Fairlane Z & LTD F                   82-87     16.45   15.17        17.81      2.65
Ford              Falcon EA / Falcon EB Series I     88-Mar 92   16.75   16.24        17.28      1.04
Ford              Falcon EB Series II / Falcon ED    Apr 92-94   17.26   16.53        18.02      1.49
Ford              Fairlane N & LTD D                   88-94     15.12   13.74        16.62      2.88
Ford              Fairlane N & LTD D                   95-98     17.64   15.38        20.15      4.77
Ford              Fairlane & LTD AU                    99-02     14.22   11.62        17.29      5.67
Ford              Fairlane & LTD BA/BF                 03-07     11.94   7.64         18.18      10.54
Ford              Falcon EF/EL                         94-98     17.22   16.70        17.75      1.04
Ford              Falcon AU                            98-02     17.32   16.63        18.03      1.40
Ford              Taurus                               96-98     18.72   14.45        23.90      9.45
Ford              Falcon BA/BF                         02-07     16.46   15.42        17.55      2.12
Holden / Toyota   Commodore VN/VP / Lexcen             89-93     15.37   14.93        15.83      0.90
Holden            Statesman/Caprice WB                 82-85     20.05   13.25        29.17      15.93
Holden            Stateman/Caprice VQ                  90-93     14.96   11.46        19.31      7.86
Holden            Stateman/Caprice VR/VS               94-98     14.93   13.47        16.52      3.05
Holden / Toyota   Commodore VR/VS / Lexcen             93-97     15.22   14.77        15.68      0.92
Holden            Commodore VT/VX                      97-02     17.33   16.78        17.90      1.11
Holden            Statesman/Caprice WH                 99-03     17.01   14.29        20.13      5.84
Holden            Commodore VY/VZ                      02-07     16.66   15.67        17.71      2.04
Holden            Monaro                               01-05     18.26   14.49        22.74      8.25
Holden            Statesman/Caprice WK/WL              03-06     16.27   11.96        21.76      9.80
Holden            Commodore VB-VL                      82-88     16.36   15.85        16.89      1.04
Make            Model of Car                    Years of Pr(Risk)   Lower 95%    Upper 95% Width of
                                               Manufacture %        Confidence   Confidence Confidence
                                                                    Limit        Limit      Interval
Holden          Commodore VE                      06-07   15.97     13.04        19.41      6.37
Hyundai         Sonata                            89-97   15.11     13.63        16.71      3.07
Hyundai         Grandeaur / XG                    99-00   21.58     15.95        28.52      12.58
                Magna TM/TN/TP / Sigma /
Mitsubishi                                        85-90   15.72     15.10        16.36      1.27
                V3000
                Magna TE/TF/TH/TJ / Verada
Mitsubishi                                        96-03   16.38     15.65        17.13      1.48
                KE/KF/KH/KJ / Diamante
                Magna TR/TS / Verada KR/KS /
Mitsubishi                                        91-96   16.74     16.12        17.37      1.26
                V3000 / Diamante
Mitsubishi      Magna TL/TW / Verada KL/KW        03-05   15.27     12.70        18.26      5.56
Mitsubishi      380                               05-07   15.40     10.26        22.49      12.23
Jaguar          XJ6                               82-86   19.42     13.81        26.60      12.79
Jaguar          XJ6                               87-94   21.66     16.84        27.40      10.56
Mazda           929 / Luce                        82-90   16.93     15.14        18.89      3.76
Mazda           929 / Sentia / Efini MS-9         92-96   14.51     9.49         21.54      12.04
Mercedes Benz   E-Class W123                      82-85   16.18     12.26        21.04      8.78
Mercedes Benz   E-Class W124                      86-94   13.24     10.91        15.99      5.08
Mercedes Benz   E-Class W210                      96-02   17.10     13.64        21.22      7.58
Mercedes Benz   S-Class W126                      82-92   14.90     12.06        18.27      6.21
Mercedes Benz   S-Class C140                      93-98   15.24     9.75         23.03      13.28
Mercedes Benz   E-Class W211                      02-07   17.21     11.13        25.64      14.51
Nissan          Skyline                           83-88   17.35     15.93        18.87      2.94
Nissan          300ZX / Fairlady Z                90-95   19.45     14.93        24.93      9.99
Nissan          Maxima                            90-94   15.33     12.32        18.90      6.58
Nissan          Maxima / Cefiro                   95-99   16.13     13.50        19.16      5.66
Nissan          Maxima                            00-02   16.23     11.73        22.01      10.28
Honda           Legend                            86-95   19.58     16.10        23.60      7.50
Saab            9-5                               98-05   12.04     7.63         18.49      10.86
Toyota          Camry                             98-02   16.43     15.66        17.23      1.57
Toyota          Crown / Cressida / Mark II        82-85   16.76     14.52        19.27      4.75
Toyota          Crown / Cressida / Mark II        86-88   13.52     10.62        17.05      6.43
Toyota          Cressida / Mark II                89-93   13.67     11.81        15.78      3.98
Toyota          Supra                             82-90   23.89     18.85        29.79      10.93
Lexus           ES300 / Windom                    92-01   19.52     15.33        24.53      9.20
Lexus           LS400 / Celsior                   90-00   14.78     9.49         22.31      12.82
Toyota          Avalon                            00-05   17.90     15.91        20.08      4.17
Toyota          Camry                             02-06   15.24     13.89        16.70      2.81
Toyota          Camry                             06-07   11.06     7.21         16.59      9.38
Volvo           850/S70/V70/C70                   92-05   17.86     15.56        20.41      4.86
Volvo           700/900 Series                    84-92   16.30     14.15        18.72      4.57

Medium Cars                                               13.65     13.45        13.86      0.41

Alfa Romeo      156                               99-06   9.03      5.80         13.79      7.99
Audi            A4                                95-01   14.37     11.17        18.30      7.13
Audi            A4                                01-07   12.99     9.50         17.52      8.02
BMW             Z3 E36                            97-03   15.56     9.66         24.11      14.45
BMW             3 Series E30                      82-91   13.51     11.93        15.27      3.34
BMW             3 Series E36                      92-98   12.57     11.34        13.92      2.58
BMW             3 Series E46                      99-06   13.51     11.71        15.53      3.81
BMW             5 Series E28                      82-88   16.94     13.61        20.87      7.26
BMW             5 Series E34                      89-95   14.27     11.20        18.02      6.82
BMW             5 Series E39                      96-03   15.28     12.13        19.07      6.93
Daewoo          Espero                            95-97   15.73     12.81        19.18      6.37
Make            Model of Car                       Years of Pr(Risk)   Lower 95%    Upper 95% Width of
                                                  Manufacture %        Confidence   Confidence Confidence
                                                                       Limit        Limit      Interval
Daewoo          Leganza                              97-02   16.97     13.67        20.86      7.19
Ford            Cortina                              82-82   16.18     14.52        17.99      3.46
Ford            Mondeo                               95-01   14.92     13.07        16.99      3.92
Ford            Probe                                94-98   15.14     10.03        22.21      12.18
Ford            Cougar                               99-03   9.45      6.04         14.48      8.43
Holden          Calibra                              94-97   17.37     13.02        22.80      9.77
Holden          Camira                               82-89   16.44     15.58        17.35      1.77
Holden          Vectra                               97-03   14.61     13.06        16.30      3.24
Holden          Vectra ZC                            03-05   18.98     13.29        26.37      13.08
Hyundai         Sonata                               98-01   15.33     12.59        18.55      5.96
Hyundai         Sonata EF                            02-05   15.13     10.13        22.00      11.87
                Sigma / Galant / Sapporo /
Mitsubishi                                           82-84   14.95     14.12        15.81      1.68
                Lambda
Mitsubishi      Galant                               95-96   14.46     12.24        17.01      4.77
Ford / Mazda    Telstar / 626 / MX6 / Capella        83-86   14.74     13.73        15.82      2.08
Ford / Mazda    Telstar / 626 / MX6 / Capella        88-91   14.21     13.04        15.46      2.42
                Telstar / 626 / MX6 / Capella /
Ford / Mazda                                         92-97   12.96     11.86        14.16      2.30
                Cronos
Mazda           626                                  98-02   12.98     11.11        15.11      4.00
Mazda           RX7                                  82-85   12.88     9.02         18.04      9.02
Mazda           RX7                                  86-91   16.41     11.43        23.00      11.57
Mazda           Eunos 500                            93-99   14.05     9.66         20.00      10.35
Mazda           6                                    02-07   12.47     9.80         15.75      5.95
Mercedes Benz   C-Class W201                         87-93   13.62     10.71        17.17      6.46
Mercedes Benz   C-Class W202                         95-00   10.28     8.31         12.65      4.35
Mercedes Benz   CLK C208                             97-03   14.25     8.82         22.22      13.41
Mercedes Benz   C-Class W203                         00-07   13.06     10.02        16.85      6.83
Nissan          Pintara                              86-88   15.22     13.95        16.58      2.63
Nissan / Ford   Pintara / Corsair / Bluebird         89-92   15.43     14.44        16.47      2.03
Nissan          Bluebird                             82-86   14.37     13.43        15.36      1.93
Nissan          Bluebird                             93-97   14.39     12.28        16.80      4.52
Nissan          200SX / Silvia                       94-02   14.88     12.06        18.22      6.17
Honda           Accord Euro                          03-07   13.08     10.23        16.58      6.35
Honda           Accord                               03-07   16.48     12.14        21.98      9.84
Honda           Accord                               82-85   13.39     11.31        15.78      4.47
Honda           Accord                               86-90   13.74     11.89        15.83      3.94
Honda           Accord                               91-93   15.05     12.84        17.58      4.74
Honda           Accord                               94-98   15.99     14.34        17.78      3.43
Honda           Accord                               99-02   15.34     11.92        19.52      7.59
Honda           Prelude                              82-82   10.87     5.74         19.61      13.87
Honda           Prelude                              83-91   14.06     12.44        15.85      3.41
Honda           Prelude                              92-96   14.37     12.05        17.06      5.01
Honda           Prelude                              97-02   12.42     9.26         16.46      7.20
Peugeot         405                                  89-97   12.10     8.87         16.31      7.44
Peugeot         505                                  82-93   13.73     10.18        18.27      8.10
Peugeot         406                                  96-04   6.41      3.21         12.39      9.18
Renault         Feugo                                82-87   12.82     7.81         20.32      12.50
Saab            900 Series                           82-92   12.96     10.25        16.25      6.00
Saab            900/9-3                              94-02   14.58     12.12        17.44      5.32
Saab            9000                                 86-97   14.08     11.42        17.25      5.83
                1800 / Leone / Omega / 4WD
Subaru                                               82-93   13.66     12.45        14.96      2.50
                Wagon
Subaru          Liberty / Legacy                     89-93   15.47     14.16        16.88      2.72
Subaru          Liberty / Legacy / Outback           94-98   14.09     12.33        16.06      3.72
Make              Model of Car                      Years of Pr(Risk)   Lower 95%    Upper 95% Width of
                                                   Manufacture %        Confidence   Confidence Confidence
                                                                        Limit        Limit      Interval
Subaru            Liberty / Legacy / Outback          99-03   13.81     12.03        15.80      3.77
Subaru            Liberty / Legacy / Outback          03-07   9.45      6.66         13.24      6.58
Toyota            Corona                              82-88   14.71     14.03        15.42      1.40
Toyota            Camry                               83-86   16.33     14.69        18.10      3.41
Holden / Toyota   Apollo JK/JL / Camry / Vista        88-92   16.58     16.00        17.18      1.18
Holden / Toyota   Apollo JM/JP / Camry / Sceptor      93-97   15.89     15.29        16.50      1.21
Toyota            Celica                              81-85   18.04     16.07        20.20      4.13
Toyota            Celica                              86-89   16.96     14.92        19.22      4.30
Toyota            Celica                              90-93   17.17     15.20        19.34      4.14
Toyota            Celica                              94-99   16.20     13.79        18.93      5.14
Toyota            Celica                              00-05   13.88     10.28        18.48      8.20
Lexus             IS200 / IS300                       99-04   14.55     10.90        19.15      8.24
Volvo             200 Series                          82-93   14.69     12.95        16.61      3.66
Volkswagen        Passat                              98-06   13.31     9.13         19.01      9.88

People Movers                                                 16.40     15.84        16.99      1.15

Chrysler          Voyager                             97-01   21.77     17.22        27.12      9.90
Holden            Zafira TT                           01-05   13.79     8.90         20.74      11.84
Mitsubishi        Nimbus / Chariot / Spacewagon       85-91   12.72     8.61         18.39      9.78
Mitsubishi        Nimbus / Chariot                    92-98   14.44     11.58        17.86      6.28
Mitsubishi        Nimbus                              99-03   9.44      5.89         14.80      8.91
Mitsubishi        Starwagon / L300                    83-86   21.30     19.04        23.74      4.69
Mitsubishi        Starwagon / Delica Starwagon        87-93   18.43     17.06        19.89      2.83
Mitsubishi        Starwagon / Delica Spacegear        95-98   21.52     19.09        24.16      5.08
Mitsubishi        Starwagon / Delica Spacegear        98-03   17.96     15.26        21.01      5.76
Kia               Carnival                            99-06   23.84     19.92        28.25      8.33
Mazda             MPV                                 94-99   20.37     15.37        26.48      11.12
Nissan            Prairie                             84-86   13.37     8.98         19.43      10.45
Nissan            Serena                              92-95   13.21     7.71         21.71      14.00
Honda             Odyssey                             95-00   17.24     13.36        21.97      8.62
Honda             Odyssey                             00-02   16.61     11.01        24.28      13.28
Toyota            Tarago                              83-89   16.85     15.34        18.48      3.14
Toyota            Tarago / Previa / Estima            91-99   16.96     15.26        18.82      3.56
Toyota            Tarago / Previa / Estima            00-06   15.25     12.12        19.00      6.88

Light Cars                                                    11.18     10.95        11.42      0.48

Daihatsu          Charade                             82-86   12.53     10.51        14.88      4.37
Daihatsu          Charade                             88-92   11.13     10.18        12.15      1.98
Daihatsu          Charade                             93-00   12.98     11.94        14.10      2.17
Daihatsu          Pyzar                               97-01   8.80      5.49         13.81      8.31
Daihatsu          Sirion / Storia                     98-04   9.46      7.68         11.61      3.94
Daihatsu          Mira                                90-96   11.16     8.57         14.40      5.83
Daewoo            Matiz                               99-04   11.65     9.20         14.65      5.45
Daewoo            Kalos                               03-04   13.47     9.32         19.09      9.77
Ford              Festiva WD/WH/WF                    94-01   13.81     13.08        14.58      1.50
Ford              Ka                                  99-02   11.62     8.29         16.06      7.76
Holden            Barina XC                           01-06   14.10     12.24        16.19      3.94
Holden            Barina SB                           95-00   12.81     11.82        13.87      2.05
Holden            Barina TK                           05-07   11.85     8.00         17.22      9.22
Hyundai           Getz / TB                           02-07   14.73     12.77        16.94      4.18
Mitsubishi        Mirage / Colt                       82-88   13.87     13.00        14.77      1.77
Ford / Mazda      Festiva WA / 121                    87-90   13.03     12.01        14.12      2.11
Make              Model of Car                  Years of Pr(Risk)   Lower 95%    Upper 95% Width of
                                               Manufacture %        Confidence   Confidence Confidence
                                                                    Limit        Limit      Interval
Mazda             121 / Autozam Review            94-96   10.51     9.27         11.91      2.64
Mazda             121 Metro / Demio               97-02   10.52     9.17         12.05      2.88
Mazda             2                               02-07   11.20     8.22         15.10      6.88
Nissan            Micra                           95-97   12.35     9.87         15.34      5.47
Honda             Jazz / Fit                      02-07   10.82     8.42         13.80      5.38
Honda             City                            83-86   9.50      5.85         15.07      9.22
Peugeot           205                             87-94   9.82      5.52         16.87      11.34
Peugeot           206                             99-07   12.82     9.31         17.41      8.11
Subaru            Sherpa / Fiori / 700 / Rex      89-92   10.83     8.03         14.45      6.42
Suzuki            Swift                           82-85   13.81     8.12         22.50      14.38
Holden / Suzuki   Barina / Swift / Cultus         86-88   12.74     11.35        14.28      2.93
Holden / Suzuki   Barina / Swift / Cultus         89-99   11.64     11.00        12.31      1.30
Suzuki            Hatch / Alto                    82-84   12.55     9.59         16.25      6.66
Suzuki            Alto                            85-00   14.41     9.25         21.76      12.51
Suzuki            Ignis                           00-02   13.10     9.43         17.92      8.48
Suzuki            Swift                           05-07   11.29     8.17         15.42      7.25
Toyota            Starlet                         96-99   11.66     10.49        12.96      2.47
Toyota            Echo                            99-05   10.81     9.73         11.99      2.26
Toyota            Yaris                           05-07   10.33     7.59         13.91      6.32
Volkswagen        Polo                            96-00   11.19     8.10         15.26      7.16

Small Cars                                                12.12     11.96        12.28      0.33

Alfa Romeo        33                              83-92   7.36      4.74         11.26      6.52
Alfa Romeo        75                              86-92   18.95     12.44        27.80      15.36
Audi              A3/S3                           97-04   14.16     9.59         20.43      10.84
Chrysler          Neon                            96-99   12.62     9.33         16.85      7.53
Daihatsu          Applause                        89-99   13.58     12.07        15.26      3.19
Daewoo            1.5i                            94-95   18.38     12.81        25.66      12.85
Daewoo            Cielo                           95-97   12.76     11.50        14.12      2.62
Daewoo            Nubira                          97-03   13.23     11.71        14.92      3.20
Daewoo            Lanos                           97-03   15.45     14.14        16.85      2.70
Ford              Laser                           91-94   13.59     12.85        14.36      1.51
Ford              Laser                           95-97   12.14     10.95        13.44      2.49
Ford              Escort                          82-82   15.63     13.63        17.85      4.22
Ford              Capri                           89-94   15.59     13.43        18.03      4.60
Ford              Focus LR                        02-05   14.61     12.05        17.61      5.57
Ford              Focus LS / LT                   05-07   13.25     9.60         18.00      8.40
Fiat              Regata                          84-88   11.91     6.67         20.37      13.70
Holden            Gemini                          82-84   12.88     11.69        14.18      2.49
Holden            Gemini RB                       86-87   12.63     10.24        15.49      5.25
Holden            Astra TR                        96-98   12.42     10.22        15.02      4.80
Holden            Astra TS                        98-06   12.85     11.92        13.83      1.91
Holden            Astra AH                        04-07   14.37     11.23        18.20      6.97
Holden            Viva JF                         05-07   12.04     7.78         18.18      10.40
Hyundai           Excel                           86-90   15.75     14.12        17.53      3.40
Hyundai           Excel                           90-94   13.58     12.73        14.48      1.75
Hyundai           Excel / Accent                  95-00   13.20     12.65        13.77      1.12
Hyundai           Elantra                         00-07   13.61     11.81        15.63      3.82
Hyundai           S Coupe                         90-96   12.50     10.35        15.03      4.68
Hyundai           Lantra                          91-95   14.94     13.11        16.97      3.85
Hyundai           Lantra                          96-00   14.85     13.53        16.26      2.73
Hyundai           Coupe                           96-00   15.69     12.73        19.18      6.44
Hyundai           Accent                          00-06   15.12     13.80        16.53      2.73
Make             Model of Car                       Years of Pr(Risk)   Lower 95%    Upper 95% Width of
                                                   Manufacture %        Confidence   Confidence Confidence
                                                                        Limit        Limit      Interval
Mitsubishi      Lancer / Mirage CA                    89-90   12.67     11.51        13.94      2.43
Mitsubishi      Lancer / Mirage CB                    91-92   15.13     12.68        17.95      5.27
Mitsubishi      Lancer / Mirage CC                    93-95   11.95     10.99        12.98      1.99
Mitsubishi      Lancer / Mirage CE                    96-03   13.01     12.38        13.68      1.30
Mitsubishi      Cordia                                83-87   16.67     14.15        19.53      5.37
Mitsubishi      Lancer CH / CJ                        03-07   12.19     10.11        14.62      4.50
Kia             Rio                                   00-05   13.22     11.39        15.29      3.91
Kia             Spectra                               01-04   17.85     12.27        25.24      12.97
Ford / Mazda    Laser / 323 / Familia                 82-88   13.76     13.27        14.27      0.99
Mazda           323 / Familia / Lantis                90-93   12.72     11.34        14.24      2.89
Mazda           323 / Familia / Lantis                95-98   12.39     11.22        13.67      2.45
Ford / Mazda    Laser / 323                           99-03   12.37     11.31        13.50      2.19
Mazda           MX5 / Eunos Roadster                  89-97   15.04     11.01        20.21      9.20
Mazda           MX5 / Eunos Roadster                  98-05   8.09      5.05         12.71      7.66
                Eunos 30X / Presso / MX-3 /
Mazda                                                 90-97   11.77     8.50         16.08      7.58
                Autozam AZ-3
Mazda           3 / Axela                             03-07   14.06     12.21        16.13      3.92
Mercedes Benz A-Class W168                            98-04   11.95     8.01         17.44      9.42
Holden / Nissan Astra / Pulsar / Langley              84-86   13.22     12.27        14.24      1.97
Holden / Nissan Astra / Pulsar / Vector / Sentra      88-90   14.01     13.22        14.83      1.61
Nissan          Pulsar / Vector / Sentra              92-95   13.96     12.89        15.10      2.20
Nissan          Pulsar / Vector / Sentra              96-99   13.38     12.47        14.35      1.89
Nissan          Stanza                                82-83   16.72     12.30        22.32      10.02
Nissan          Gazelle / Silvia                      84-86   13.20     8.92         19.10      10.18
Nissan          Exa                                   83-86   20.44     15.48        26.50      11.02
Nissan          Exa                                   87-91   17.17     11.30        25.23      13.93
Nissan          NX/NX-R                               91-96   18.69     15.37        22.55      7.18
Nissan          Pulsar                                00-05   12.11     11.07        13.23      2.16
Honda           Civic                                 82-83   10.39     7.38         14.44      7.07
Honda           Civic / Ballade / Shuttle             84-87   14.29     12.41        16.40      3.98
Honda           Civic / Shuttle                       88-91   13.70     12.35        15.17      2.82
Honda           Civic                                 92-95   13.35     12.13        14.68      2.56
Honda           Civic                                 96-00   15.21     13.94        16.58      2.64
Honda           CRX                                   87-91   15.09     10.13        21.88      11.74
Honda           CRX                                   92-98   15.67     9.76         24.19      14.42
Honda           Civic                                 01-05   14.09     11.66        16.93      5.26
Honda           Integra                               86-88   13.61     10.25        17.86      7.62
Honda           Integra                               90-92   18.09     14.39        22.51      8.12
Honda           Integra                               93-01   13.82     11.10        17.08      5.98
Honda           Integra                               02-06   15.46     10.04        23.06      13.03
Honda           Concerto                              89-93   11.13     7.97         15.34      7.38
Peugeot         306                                   94-01   11.64     9.27         14.51      5.24
Peugeot         307                                   01-07   12.81     8.81         18.27      9.45
Proton          Wira                                  95-96   13.37     11.22        15.87      4.65
Renault         19                                    91-96   13.78     9.26         20.02      10.76
Rover           Quintet                               82-86   11.47     6.40         19.68      13.28
MG              MGF / MG TF                           99-05   7.91      4.26         14.23      9.97
Subaru          Impreza                               93-00   13.75     12.39        15.23      2.84
Subaru          Impreza                               01-07   12.44     10.48        14.70      4.21
Suzuki          Baleno / Cultus Crescent              95-02   11.35     9.56         13.41      3.85
Suzuki          Liana                                 01-07   11.13     7.18         16.87      9.68
Toyota          Corolla                               82-84   12.56     11.70        13.48      1.78
Toyota          Corolla                               86-88   13.13     12.42        13.86      1.44
Toyota / Holden Corolla / Nova                        89-93   13.72     13.17        14.30      1.14
Make              Model of Car         Years of Pr(Risk)   Lower 95%    Upper 95% Width of
                                      Manufacture %        Confidence   Confidence Confidence
                                                           Limit        Limit      Interval
Toyota / Holden   Corolla / Nova         94-97   12.17     11.54        12.83      1.29
Toyota            Corolla / Allex        98-01   13.35     12.28        14.49      2.20
Toyota            Corolla                02-07   13.32     12.33        14.37      2.05
Toyota            Tercel                 83-88   16.62     12.55        21.69      9.14
Toyota            MR2                    87-90   14.32     8.76         22.55      13.79
Toyota            Paseo / Cynos          91-99   12.48     10.48        14.80      4.33
Toyota            Corolla 4WD Wagon      92-96   18.81     14.64        23.83      9.19
Volvo             S40/V40                97-04   14.69     11.55        18.50      6.95
Volkswagen        Golf                   82-94   14.77     9.70         21.84      12.14
Volkswagen        Golf                   95-98   12.97     10.46        15.96      5.50
Volkswagen        Golf / Bora            99-04   14.37     12.19        16.88      4.69
Volkswagen        New Beetle             00-07   13.79     8.99         20.58      11.59
Volkswagen        Golf / Jetta           04-07   12.15     8.19         17.66      9.47
                           AGGRESSIVITY INJURY SEVERITY RATINGS

       New South Wales and Victoria Data (1987-2007), South Australia Data (1995-2007),
              Queensland, Western Australia and New Zealand Data (1991-2007)

Make             Model of Car                        Years of Pr(Severity) Lower 95%    Upper 95% Width of
                                                    Manufacture %          Confidence   Confidence Confidence
                                                                           Limit        Limit      Interval
ALL VEHICLE AVERAGE                                            22.48
Compact Wheel Drive Vehicles                                   21.84       20.63        23.11      2.48

Daihatsu        Feroza / Rocky                         89-97   20.76       14.87        28.20      13.34
Daihatsu        Rocky / Rugger                         85-98   29.85       20.62        41.08      20.46
Daihatsu        Terios                                 97-05   19.15       12.03        29.10      17.07
Holden          Cruze                                  02-06   26.91       15.76        42.02      26.26
Mitsubishi      Outlander                              03-06   30.23       15.61        50.36      34.74
Kia             Sportage                               98-03   19.69       13.29        28.18      14.88
Ford / Mazda    Escape / Tribute                       01-06   20.91       15.12        28.19      13.08
Nissan          X-Trail                                01-07   27.25       20.73        34.93      14.19
Lada            Niva                                   84-99   25.64       16.95        36.80      19.85
Honda           CR-V                                   97-01   21.40       17.26        26.21      8.95
Honda           CR-V                                   02-07   23.29       17.16        30.79      13.63
Honda           HR-V                                   99-02   29.04       19.40        41.04      21.64
Subaru          Forester                               97-02   15.20       11.12        20.41      9.29
Subaru          Forester                               02-07   22.71       15.74        31.60      15.86
Suzuki          Vitara / Escudo                        88-98   23.70       20.09        27.72      7.63
Suzuki          Grand Vitara                           99-05   19.19       12.52        28.26      15.74
                Drover / Sierra / Samurai / SJ410
Holden / Suzuki                                        82-99   21.88       18.45        25.75      7.30
                / SJ413
Suzuki          Jimny                                  98-07   22.90       11.75        39.87      28.12
Toyota          RAV4                                   94-00   26.33       22.50        30.56      8.06
Toyota          RAV4                                   01-06   22.90       17.97        28.70      10.72

Medium Wheel Drive Vehicles                                    23.45       22.17        24.78      2.61

Daewoo /
                 Musso                                 98-02   29.55       18.60        43.49      24.89
Ssangong
Ford             Territory SX/SY                       04-07   26.78       17.73        38.31      20.58
Holden / Isuzu   Jackaroo / Bighorn                    82-91   26.57       21.12        32.84      11.72
Holden / Isuzu   Jackaroo / Bighorn                    92-97   26.54       20.36        33.79      13.43
Holden / Isuzu   Jackaroo / Bighorn                    98-02   26.75       19.40        35.65      16.25
Holden           Frontera / Mu                         95-03   28.77       18.65        41.58      22.94
Hyundai          Santa Fe                              00-06   23.57       14.46        36.01      21.55
Mitsubishi       Pajero                                82-90   25.42       21.72        29.52      7.80
Mitsubishi       Pajero                                92-99   24.22       20.94        27.83      6.89
Mitsubishi       Pajero NM / NP / NS                   00-07   20.73       14.20        29.23      15.02
Mitsubishi       Challenger                            98-06   15.83       9.62         24.96      15.34
Jeep             Cherokee XJ                           96-00   22.42       17.59        28.13      10.53
Jeep             Wrangler                              96-04   24.79       16.38        35.69      19.31
Jeep             Cherokee KJ                           01-07   14.25       5.92         30.50      24.58
Land Rover       Defender                              92-07   23.02       14.38        34.74      20.36
Nissan           Pathfinder / Terrano                  88-94   22.42       18.42        27.00      8.58
Nissan           Pathfinder / Terrano / Regulus        95-05   27.98       21.99        34.87      12.88
Toyota           Kluger                                03-07   18.45       10.74        29.83      19.09
Toyota           Landcruiser Prado                     96-03   28.22       21.29        36.35      15.06
Make              Model of Car                  Years of Pr(Severity) Lower 95%    Upper 95% Width of
                                               Manufacture %          Confidence   Confidence Confidence
                                                                      Limit        Limit      Interval
Toyota            Landcruiser Prado               03-07   25.86       19.34        33.66      14.33

Large Wheel Drive Vehicles                                26.62       25.69        27.58      1.89

BMW               X5                              01-07   28.06       15.05        46.21      31.16
Ford              Bronco                          82-87   26.91       16.01        41.56      25.55
Ford              Explorer                        00-01   21.05       13.22        31.82      18.61
Jeep              Grand Cherokee ZG               96-99   21.24       13.39        32.01      18.63
Jeep              Grand Cherokee WJ/WG            99-05   32.92       23.39        44.10      20.70
Land Rover        Discovery                       91-02   20.01       15.56        25.36      9.80
Mercedes Benz     M-Class W163                    98-05   15.46       9.18         24.84      15.66
Nissan            Patrol / Safari                 82-87   28.35       23.55        33.70      10.14
Nissan / Ford     Patrol / Maverick / Safari      88-97   26.30       24.02        28.72      4.70
Nissan            Patrol / Safari                 98-07   26.84       23.59        30.36      6.77
Land Rover        Range Rover                     82-94   27.81       21.19        35.56      14.37
Land Rover        Range Rover                     95-02   26.37       15.47        41.21      25.73
Toyota            Landcruiser                     82-89   30.08       27.66        32.63      4.97
Toyota            Landcruiser                     90-97   28.52       26.55        30.58      4.03
Toyota            Landcruiser                     98-07   29.74       26.76        32.91      6.15

Commercial Vehicles- Vans                                 23.80       22.79        24.84      2.05

Daihatsu          Handivan                        82-90   30.04       21.43        40.33      18.90
Ford              Falcon Panel Van                82-95   23.43       20.01        27.23      7.22
Ford              Falcon Panel Van                96-99   24.44       16.22        35.07      18.86
Ford              Transit                         95-00   19.44       14.44        25.66      11.22
Ford              Transit                         01-07   19.33       13.09        27.60      14.52
Holden            Shuttle / WFR Van               82-87   19.34       12.49        28.72      16.23
Kia               Pregio                          02-06   19.37       12.00        29.74      17.75
Mercedes Benz     MB100 / MB140                   99-04   24.44       15.10        37.05      21.96
Mercedes Benz     Vito / Viano                    99-07   24.53       16.39        35.04      18.65
Mercedes Benz     Sprinter                        98-04   24.41       16.32        34.82      18.50
Honda             Acty                            83-86   13.28       6.26         26.00      19.74
Holden / Suzuki   Scurry / Carry                  82-00   21.53       13.87        31.84      17.97
Toyota            Hiace/Liteace                   82-86   27.61       24.94        30.44      5.50
Toyota            Hiace/Liteace                   87-89   26.04       22.94        29.40      6.46
Toyota            Hiace/Liteace                   90-95   24.52       22.19        27.01      4.82
Toyota            Hiace/Liteace                   96-04   25.68       22.88        28.70      5.83
Toyoa             Hiace                           05-07   24.66       14.90        37.97      23.08
Volkswagen        Caravelle / Transporter         88-94   21.55       10.51        39.10      28.59
Volkswagen        Caravelle / Transporter         95-04   27.38       20.13        36.07      15.93

Commercial Vehicles- Vans                                 24.28       23.62        24.95      1.33

Ford / Nissan     Falcon Ute / XFN Ute            82-95   22.98       20.87        25.23      4.36
Ford              Falcon Ute                      96-99   22.00       17.92        26.70      8.77
Ford              Falcon Ute AU                   00-02   24.53       20.64        28.88      8.24
Ford              Falcon Ute BA/BF                03-07   20.67       15.65        26.80      11.16
Ford              Ford F-Series                   82-92   27.66       21.80        34.39      12.59
Ford              F-Series                        01-06   28.17       15.02        46.53      31.51
Holden            Commodore Ute VG/VP             90-93   19.46       15.00        24.85      9.85
Holden / Isuzu    Rodeo / Pickup                  82-85   28.67       21.68        36.84      15.16
Holden / Isuzu    Rodeo / Pickup                  86-88   23.24       14.44        35.18      20.74
Holden / Isuzu    Rodeo / Pickup                  89-95   27.75       25.09        30.59      5.50
Make              Model of Car                       Years of Pr(Severity) Lower 95%    Upper 95% Width of
                                                    Manufacture %          Confidence   Confidence Confidence
                                                                           Limit        Limit      Interval
Holden            Rodeo                                96-98     25.39     21.59        29.61      8.02
Holden            Rodeo                                99-02     26.73     22.81        31.05      8.24
Holden            WB Series                            82-85     25.85     21.03        31.34      10.31
Holden            Commodore Ute VR/VS                  94-00     26.15     23.40        29.11      5.70
Holden            Commodore VU Ute                     00-02     27.32     21.39        34.18      12.79
Holden            Commodore VY/VZ Ute                  02-07     30.93     26.11        36.19      10.08
Holden            Rodeo                                03-07     24.83     20.22        30.09      9.88
Mitsubishi        Triton MK                            96-06     26.51     19.23        35.34      16.11
Kia               Ceres                                92-00     23.88     16.61        33.06      16.45
Ford / Mazda      Courier / B-Series / Bounty          98-02     24.50     19.90        29.78      9.88
Ford / Mazda      Courier / Bravo / Bounty             03-06     21.12     15.25        28.48      13.23
Nissan            720 Ute                              82-85     20.12     15.80        25.27      9.47
Nissan            Navara                               86-91     26.07     23.06        29.32      6.27
Nissan            Navara                               92-96     23.68     19.82        28.04      8.22
Nissan            Navara                               97-05     24.20     20.07        28.88      8.82
Subaru            Brumby                               82-92     27.02     21.25        33.67      12.42
Suzuki            Mighty Boy                           85-88     21.44     11.77        35.83      24.06
Toyota            4Runner/Hilux                        82-85     27.59     24.56        30.85      6.29
Toyota            4Runner/Hilux                        86-88     27.03     24.11        30.18      6.07
Toyota            4Runner/Hilux                        89-97     25.24     23.71        26.84      3.12
Toyota            Hilux                                98-02     27.59     24.62        30.78      6.16
Toyota            Hilux                                03-04     22.71     17.25        29.29      12.04
Toyota            Hilux                                05-07     24.98     18.42        32.93      14.51

Large Cars                                                       21.80     21.42        22.19      0.77

BMW               7 Series E23                         82-88     13.43     5.60         28.85      23.24
BMW               7 Series E32                         89-94     26.19     15.46        40.78      25.32
BMW               7 Series E38                         95-01     16.25     6.90         33.69      26.80
Ford              Falcon XE/XF                         82-88     23.50     22.49        24.54      2.05
Ford              Fairlane Z & LTD F                   82-87     23.50     20.75        26.50      5.76
Ford              Falcon EA / Falcon EB Series I     88-Mar 92   23.60     22.51        24.74      2.23
Ford              Falcon EB Series II / Falcon ED    Apr 92-94   23.31     21.76        24.93      3.17
Ford              Fairlane N & LTD D                   88-94     22.33     19.38        25.58      6.20
Ford              Fairlane N & LTD D                   95-98     23.81     19.33        28.94      9.61
Ford              Fairlane & LTD AU                    99-02     20.38     14.63        27.65      13.03
Ford              Fairlane & LTD BA/BF                 03-07     21.49     9.99         40.31      30.32
Ford              Falcon EF/EL                         94-98     22.91     21.82        24.04      2.22
Ford              Falcon AU                            98-02     22.65     21.25        24.11      2.86
Ford              Taurus                               96-98     22.78     15.30        32.52      17.22
Ford              Falcon BA/BF                         02-07     22.53     20.20        25.05      4.86
Holden / Toyota   Commodore VN/VP / Lexcen             89-93     22.62     21.60        23.67      2.06
Holden            Statesman/Caprice WB                 82-85     38.64     18.63        63.40      44.78
Holden            Stateman/Caprice VQ                  90-93     24.68     16.98        34.42      17.44
Holden            Stateman/Caprice VR/VS               94-98     23.89     20.32        27.87      7.55
Holden / Toyota   Commodore VR/VS / Lexcen             93-97     23.05     21.95        24.19      2.24
Holden            Commodore VT/VX                      97-02     23.28     22.06        24.55      2.49
Holden            Statesman/Caprice WH                 99-03     24.18     18.34        31.17      12.83
Holden            Commodore VY/VZ                      02-07     20.48     18.33        22.82      4.49
Holden            Monaro                               01-05     23.90     16.66        33.04      16.38
Holden            Statesman/Caprice WK/WL              03-06     26.89     14.71        43.96      29.24
Holden            Commodore VB-VL                      82-88     22.86     21.77        23.99      2.22
Holden            Commodore VE                         06-07     22.42     15.40        31.45      16.06
Hyundai           Sonata                               89-97     24.10     20.51        28.09      7.58
Make            Model of Car                    Years of Pr(Severity) Lower 95%    Upper 95% Width of
                                               Manufacture %          Confidence   Confidence Confidence
                                                                      Limit        Limit      Interval
Hyundai         Grandeaur / XG                    99-00   23.91       12.86        40.08      27.22
                Magna TM/TN/TP / Sigma /
Mitsubishi                                        85-90   22.89       21.51        24.33      2.82
                V3000
                Magna TE/TF/TH/TJ / Verada
Mitsubishi                                        96-03   21.20       19.53        22.97      3.44
                KE/KF/KH/KJ / Diamante
                Magna TR/TS / Verada KR/KS /
Mitsubishi                                        91-96   21.67       20.35        23.05      2.69
                V3000 / Diamante
Mitsubishi      Magna TL/TW / Verada KL/KW        03-05   26.96       18.78        37.08      18.30
Mitsubishi      380                               05-07   29.22       15.72        47.75      32.02
Jaguar          XJ6                               82-86   27.62       18.18        39.60      21.43
Jaguar          XJ6                               87-94   20.55       12.85        31.23      18.38
Mazda           929 / Luce                        82-90   19.38       16.29        22.90      6.61
Mazda           929 / Sentia / Efini MS-9         92-96   42.29       27.03        59.18      32.15
Mercedes Benz   E-Class W123                      82-85   20.06       12.06        31.49      19.43
Mercedes Benz   E-Class W124                      86-94   26.12       19.96        33.39      13.44
Mercedes Benz   E-Class W210                      96-02   23.22       16.14        32.20      16.07
Mercedes Benz   S-Class W126                      82-92   18.08       12.15        26.05      13.89
Mercedes Benz   S-Class C140                      93-98   22.37       12.06        37.70      25.64
Mercedes Benz   E-Class W211                      02-07   27.24       12.68        49.12      36.45
Nissan          Skyline                           83-88   22.86       20.34        25.59      5.25
Nissan          300ZX / Fairlady Z                90-95   27.68       19.73        37.34      17.62
Nissan          Maxima                            90-94   24.73       19.88        30.31      10.42
Nissan          Maxima / Cefiro                   95-99   17.15       13.21        21.97      8.76
Nissan          Maxima                            00-02   23.20       16.19        32.09      15.90
Honda           Legend                            86-95   24.51       18.51        31.68      13.17
Saab            9-5                               98-05   15.08       6.33         31.81      25.49
Toyota          Camry                             98-02   22.13       20.30        24.08      3.78
Toyota          Crown / Cressida / Mark II        82-85   25.00       20.81        29.72      8.91
Toyota          Crown / Cressida / Mark II        86-88   24.86       17.92        33.39      15.47
Toyota          Cressida / Mark II                89-93   18.37       14.33        23.23      8.90
Toyota          Supra                             82-90   25.76       18.26        35.03      16.77
Lexus           ES300 / Windom                    92-01   17.94       12.22        25.57      13.35
Lexus           LS400 / Celsior                   90-00   34.98       20.68        52.60      31.91
Toyota          Avalon                            00-05   23.26       18.98        28.16      9.18
Toyota          Camry                             02-06   22.70       19.13        26.71      7.58
Toyota          Camry                             06-07   21.41       8.17         45.49      37.32
Volvo           850/S70/V70/C70                   92-05   25.10       20.17        30.78      10.60
Volvo           700/900 Series                    84-92   21.69       17.12        27.09      9.97

Medium Cars                                               21.00       20.54        21.45      0.91

Alfa Romeo      156                               99-06   20.09       9.47         37.66      28.18
Audi            A4                                95-01   19.62       13.25        28.06      14.81
Audi            A4                                01-07   20.34       12.22        31.87      19.65
BMW             Z3 E36                            97-03   24.00       12.84        40.36      27.52
BMW             3 Series E30                      82-91   21.58       18.24        25.34      7.10
BMW             3 Series E36                      92-98   24.84       21.61        28.37      6.76
BMW             3 Series E46                      99-06   21.36       16.96        26.53      9.57
BMW             5 Series E28                      82-88   23.88       17.39        31.85      14.46
BMW             5 Series E34                      89-95   25.49       19.53        32.53      13.00
BMW             5 Series E39                      96-03   18.84       12.66        27.11      14.45
Daewoo          Espero                            95-97   20.69       14.03        29.41      15.38
Daewoo          Leganza                           97-02   26.08       18.07        36.08      18.01
Ford            Cortina                           82-82   22.88       19.54        26.59      7.04
Make            Model of Car                       Years of Pr(Severity) Lower 95%    Upper 95% Width of
                                                  Manufacture %          Confidence   Confidence Confidence
                                                                         Limit        Limit      Interval
Ford            Mondeo                               95-01   22.05       18.42        26.17      7.75
Ford            Probe                                94-98   36.37       21.24        54.77      33.53
Ford            Cougar                               99-03   24.25       14.15        38.35      24.20
Holden          Calibra                              94-97   26.48       18.64        36.14      17.50
Holden          Camira                               82-89   22.06       20.32        23.90      3.58
Holden          Vectra                               97-03   22.76       19.33        26.61      7.28
Holden          Vectra ZC                            03-05   11.29       4.93         23.80      18.87
Hyundai         Sonata                               98-01   18.74       12.42        27.28      14.86
Hyundai         Sonata EF                            02-05   24.83       11.17        46.47      35.30
                Sigma / Galant / Sapporo /
Mitsubishi                                           82-84   22.41       20.66        24.27      3.61
                Lambda
Mitsubishi      Galant                               95-96   20.41       16.43        25.07      8.64
Ford / Mazda    Telstar / 626 / MX6 / Capella        83-86   21.25       19.47        23.14      3.67
Ford / Mazda    Telstar / 626 / MX6 / Capella        88-91   23.87       21.64        26.24      4.60
                Telstar / 626 / MX6 / Capella /
Ford / Mazda                                         92-97   20.05       17.75        22.57      4.83
                Cronos
Mazda           626                                  98-02   25.74       21.09        31.01      9.92
Mazda           RX7                                  82-85   34.25       24.44        45.62      21.18
Mazda           RX7                                  86-91   22.71       14.60        33.54      18.94
Mazda           Eunos 500                            93-99   18.49       9.66         32.49      22.83
Mazda           6                                    02-07   16.71       10.86        24.81      13.95
Mercedes Benz   C-Class W201                         87-93   24.72       17.67        33.44      15.77
Mercedes Benz   C-Class W202                         95-00   25.56       19.25        33.08      13.83
Mercedes Benz   CLK C208                             97-03   23.10       12.35        39.06      26.71
Mercedes Benz   C-Class W203                         00-07   14.37       7.83         24.90      17.08
Nissan          Pintara                              86-88   22.60       19.77        25.71      5.94
Nissan / Ford   Pintara / Corsair / Bluebird         89-92   23.98       21.83        26.27      4.44
Nissan          Bluebird                             82-86   21.63       19.77        23.62      3.85
Nissan          Bluebird                             93-97   18.63       15.51        22.23      6.72
Nissan          200SX / Silvia                       94-02   28.70       21.18        37.63      16.45
Honda           Accord Euro                          03-07   20.37       13.94        28.78      14.84
Honda           Accord                               03-07   30.38       18.46        45.68      27.22
Honda           Accord                               82-85   17.79       14.69        21.39      6.69
Honda           Accord                               86-90   23.75       20.52        27.31      6.78
Honda           Accord                               91-93   17.20       13.34        21.89      8.55
Honda           Accord                               94-98   20.33       17.02        24.11      7.09
Honda           Accord                               99-02   25.78       18.37        34.89      16.52
Honda           Prelude                              82-82   16.82       6.41         37.36      30.95
Honda           Prelude                              83-91   22.45       19.69        25.48      5.79
Honda           Prelude                              92-96   20.13       15.68        25.47      9.79
Honda           Prelude                              97-02   25.40       17.52        35.31      17.79
Peugeot         405                                  89-97   22.80       16.82        30.14      13.33
Peugeot         505                                  82-93   27.02       18.46        37.72      19.26
Peugeot         406                                  96-04   31.93       20.12        46.62      26.50
Renault         Feugo                                82-87   13.63       6.41         26.68      20.28
Saab            900 Series                           82-92   15.66       10.29        23.11      12.82
Saab            900/9-3                              94-02   17.46       12.35        24.11      11.75
Saab            9000                                 86-97   17.03       11.57        24.36      12.79
                1800 / Leone / Omega / 4WD
Subaru                                               82-93   19.09       16.75        21.67      4.92
                Wagon
Subaru          Liberty / Legacy                     89-93   21.31       18.90        23.93      5.03
Subaru          Liberty / Legacy / Outback           94-98   26.30       22.51        30.48      7.97
Subaru          Liberty / Legacy / Outback           99-03   19.68       15.62        24.49      8.88
Subaru          Liberty / Legacy / Outback           03-07   12.39       6.84         21.38      14.54
Make              Model of Car                      Years of Pr(Severity) Lower 95%    Upper 95% Width of
                                                   Manufacture %          Confidence   Confidence Confidence
                                                                          Limit        Limit      Interval
Toyota            Corona                              82-88   23.15       21.52        24.86      3.34
Toyota            Camry                               83-86   20.54       17.29        24.23      6.94
Holden / Toyota   Apollo JK/JL / Camry / Vista        88-92   21.54       20.28        22.85      2.57
Holden / Toyota   Apollo JM/JP / Camry / Sceptor      93-97   22.60       21.13        24.13      3.00
Toyota            Celica                              81-85   21.70       18.11        25.78      7.67
Toyota            Celica                              86-89   22.97       18.88        27.64      8.75
Toyota            Celica                              90-93   24.63       20.53        29.25      8.72
Toyota            Celica                              94-99   20.30       15.10        26.73      11.63
Toyota            Celica                              00-05   24.79       15.16        37.81      22.66
Lexus             IS200 / IS300                       99-04   16.71       7.92         31.86      23.94
Volvo             200 Series                          82-93   23.39       19.35        27.97      8.62
Volkswagen        Passat                              98-06   21.62       12.58        34.60      22.02

People Movers                                                 22.49       21.38        23.65      2.28

Chrysler          Voyager                             97-01   23.01       14.59        34.33      19.73
Holden            Zafira TT                           01-05   23.20       11.58        41.07      29.49
Mitsubishi        Nimbus / Chariot / Spacewagon       85-91   19.64       13.95        26.92      12.97
Mitsubishi        Nimbus / Chariot                    92-98   27.57       20.68        35.72      15.04
Mitsubishi        Nimbus                              99-03   11.32       3.62         30.26      26.64
Mitsubishi        Starwagon / L300                    83-86   24.21       20.95        27.80      6.85
Mitsubishi        Starwagon / Delica Starwagon        87-93   23.43       20.98        26.08      5.10
Mitsubishi        Starwagon / Delica Spacegear        95-98   22.24       17.82        27.39      9.57
Mitsubishi        Starwagon / Delica Spacegear        98-03   21.14       15.46        28.21      12.75
Kia               Carnival                            99-06   28.32       20.50        37.71      17.22
Mazda             MPV                                 94-99   24.12       13.57        39.17      25.60
Nissan            Prairie                             84-86   24.01       16.89        32.96      16.07
Nissan            Serena                              92-95   18.72       12.28        27.49      15.21
Honda             Odyssey                             95-00   23.15       17.06        30.60      13.54
Honda             Odyssey                             00-02   28.40       15.36        46.44      31.08
Toyota            Tarago                              83-89   25.32       22.13        28.82      6.69
Toyota            Tarago / Previa / Estima            91-99   22.58       18.99        26.63      7.65
Toyota            Tarago / Previa / Estima            00-06   25.80       17.59        36.17      18.58

Light Cars                                                    19.70       19.02        20.39      1.37

Daihatsu          Charade                             82-86   21.96       17.63        27.00      9.37
Daihatsu          Charade                             88-92   19.98       17.15        23.15      6.00
Daihatsu          Charade                             93-00   20.64       17.42        24.28      6.86
Daihatsu          Pyzar                               97-01   23.92       13.28        39.22      25.94
Daihatsu          Sirion / Storia                     98-04   16.52       10.75        24.53      13.78
Daihatsu          Mira                                90-96   22.19       16.01        29.90      13.89
Daewoo            Matiz                               99-04   19.54       12.16        29.85      17.69
Daewoo            Kalos                               03-04   28.26       13.99        48.83      34.84
Ford              Festiva WD/WH/WF                    94-01   19.23       17.30        21.32      4.01
Ford              Ka                                  99-02   24.28       14.52        37.70      23.18
Holden            Barina XC                           01-06   21.17       16.53        26.70      10.17
Holden            Barina SB                           95-00   22.13       19.13        25.44      6.31
Holden            Barina TK                           05-07   15.71       6.35         33.85      27.50
Hyundai           Getz / TB                           02-07   32.21       25.86        39.28      13.42
Mitsubishi        Mirage / Colt                       82-88   21.15       19.15        23.29      4.14
Ford / Mazda      Festiva WA / 121                    87-90   19.07       16.42        22.03      5.61
Mazda             121 / Autozam Review                94-96   17.39       13.54        22.05      8.51
Mazda             121 Metro / Demio                   97-02   18.11       14.07        22.99      8.93
Make              Model of Car                  Years of Pr(Severity) Lower 95%    Upper 95% Width of
                                               Manufacture %          Confidence   Confidence Confidence
                                                                      Limit        Limit      Interval
Mazda             2                               02-07   26.57       16.68        39.54      22.86
Nissan            Micra                           95-97   22.35       14.73        32.42      17.70
Honda             Jazz / Fit                      02-07   21.24       14.47        30.06      15.59
Honda             City                            83-86   22.13       16.64        28.80      12.16
Peugeot           205                             87-94   17.13       7.77         33.64      25.87
Peugeot           206                             99-07   17.48       9.47         30.03      20.56
Subaru            Sherpa / Fiori / 700 / Rex      89-92   20.22       14.18        27.99      13.80
Suzuki            Swift                           82-85   22.28       10.66        40.78      30.13
Holden / Suzuki   Barina / Swift / Cultus         86-88   19.66       16.56        23.17      6.61
Holden / Suzuki   Barina / Swift / Cultus         89-99   20.53       18.61        22.60      3.99
Suzuki            Hatch / Alto                    82-84   26.37       18.86        35.56      16.71
Suzuki            Alto                            85-00   29.04       20.25        39.74      19.49
Suzuki            Ignis                           00-02   16.14       8.69         28.03      19.34
Suzuki            Swift                           05-07   18.77       9.42         33.94      24.52
Toyota            Starlet                         96-99   20.97       17.45        24.98      7.54
Toyota            Echo                            99-05   22.52       18.99        26.48      7.49
Toyota            Yaris                           05-07   18.82       10.58        31.23      20.65
Volkswagen        Polo                            96-00   17.25       10.26        27.55      17.29

Small Cars                                                20.44       20.03        20.86      0.83

Alfa Romeo        33                              83-92   24.97       16.70        35.57      18.87
Alfa Romeo        75                              86-92   23.90       11.00        44.38      33.38
Audi              A3/S3                           97-04   27.15       15.95        42.26      26.31
Chrysler          Neon                            96-99   15.03       8.34         25.59      17.24
Daihatsu          Applause                        89-99   18.93       15.13        23.43      8.30
Daewoo            1.5i                            94-95   12.39       3.16         37.97      34.80
Daewoo            Cielo                           95-97   19.88       16.37        23.93      7.56
Daewoo            Nubira                          97-03   19.46       15.48        24.16      8.68
Daewoo            Lanos                           97-03   21.85       18.74        25.31      6.56
Ford              Laser                           91-94   21.42       19.63        23.33      3.70
Ford              Laser                           95-97   23.64       20.24        27.41      7.17
Ford              Escort                          82-82   17.82       13.05        23.87      10.82
Ford              Capri                           89-94   16.76       12.54        22.06      9.52
Ford              Focus LR                        02-05   18.57       13.10        25.64      12.54
Ford              Focus LS / LT                   05-07   23.07       12.44        38.77      26.33
Fiat              Regata                          84-88   29.56       16.71        46.76      30.05
Holden            Gemini                          82-84   20.97       18.12        24.14      6.02
Holden            Gemini RB                       86-87   20.24       14.28        27.88      13.60
Holden            Astra TR                        96-98   21.72       16.04        28.72      12.68
Holden            Astra TS                        98-06   21.59       19.05        24.37      5.32
Holden            Astra AH                        04-07   20.28       12.59        31.01      18.42
Holden            Viva JF                         05-07   31.11       17.50        49.02      31.52
Hyundai           Excel                           86-90   20.45       17.02        24.37      7.35
Hyundai           Excel                           90-94   21.38       18.96        24.00      5.04
Hyundai           Excel / Accent                  95-00   21.50       19.91        23.19      3.28
Hyundai           Elantra                         00-07   22.59       17.01        29.36      12.35
Hyundai           S Coupe                         90-96   20.30       14.49        27.69      13.19
Hyundai           Lantra                          91-95   20.42       15.63        26.23      10.60
Hyundai           Lantra                          96-00   21.00       17.81        24.59      6.79
Hyundai           Coupe                           96-00   16.91       10.90        25.28      14.38
Hyundai           Accent                          00-06   19.98       16.56        23.90      7.34
Mitsubishi        Lancer / Mirage CA              89-90   20.94       18.35        23.79      5.44
Mitsubishi        Lancer / Mirage CB              91-92   25.74       20.20        32.17      11.97
Make              Model of Car                        Years of Pr(Severity) Lower 95%    Upper 95% Width of
                                                     Manufacture %          Confidence   Confidence Confidence
                                                                            Limit        Limit      Interval
Mitsubishi        Lancer / Mirage CC                    93-95   20.14       17.61        22.94      5.34
Mitsubishi        Lancer / Mirage CE                    96-03   21.48       19.61        23.49      3.88
Mitsubishi        Cordia                                83-87   26.20       22.31        30.51      8.20
Mitsubishi        Lancer CH / CJ                        03-07   20.40       13.87        28.97      15.10
Kia               Rio                                   00-05   25.66       19.86        32.47      12.60
Kia               Spectra                               01-04   19.23       8.35         38.37      30.03
Ford / Mazda      Laser / 323 / Familia                 82-88   21.22       20.20        22.27      2.08
Mazda             323 / Familia / Lantis                90-93   18.34       16.02        20.91      4.89
Mazda             323 / Familia / Lantis                95-98   19.77       16.74        23.21      6.48
Ford / Mazda      Laser / 323                           99-03   19.13       16.20        22.46      6.26
Mazda             MX5 / Eunos Roadster                  89-97   18.05       10.63        28.97      18.35
Mazda             MX5 / Eunos Roadster                  98-05   6.28        1.55         22.17      20.62
                  Eunos 30X / Presso / MX-3 /
Mazda                                                   90-97   24.83       14.43        39.27      24.84
                  Autozam AZ-3
Mazda             3 / Axela                             03-07   22.13       16.73        28.66      11.93
Mercedes Benz     A-Class W168                          98-04   17.20       7.77         33.87      26.11
Holden / Nissan   Astra / Pulsar / Langley              84-86   24.49       22.18        26.95      4.78
Holden / Nissan   Astra / Pulsar / Vector / Sentra      88-90   23.29       21.37        25.32      3.95
Nissan            Pulsar / Vector / Sentra              92-95   22.66       20.26        25.26      5.00
Nissan            Pulsar / Vector / Sentra              96-99   20.72       18.30        23.37      5.07
Nissan            Stanza                                82-83   31.38       21.05        43.96      22.91
Nissan            Gazelle / Silvia                      84-86   22.78       16.72        30.23      13.51
Nissan            Exa                                   83-86   25.42       17.19        35.90      18.71
Nissan            Exa                                   87-91   33.59       20.93        49.15      28.22
Nissan            NX/NX-R                               91-96   24.18       17.69        32.12      14.43
Nissan            Pulsar                                00-05   20.52       17.29        24.17      6.87
Honda             Civic                                 82-83   21.74       16.25        28.44      12.19
Honda             Civic / Ballade / Shuttle             84-87   21.49       18.15        25.25      7.10
Honda             Civic / Shuttle                       88-91   20.18       17.46        23.21      5.75
Honda             Civic                                 92-95   22.77       19.86        25.96      6.11
Honda             Civic                                 96-00   16.53       13.81        19.67      5.86
Honda             CRX                                   87-91   21.04       15.41        28.04      12.63
Honda             CRX                                   92-98   29.68       16.99        46.53      29.54
Honda             Civic                                 01-05   21.73       16.04        28.75      12.71
Honda             Integra                               86-88   16.05       11.37        22.18      10.81
Honda             Integra                               90-92   23.54       17.76        30.52      12.76
Honda             Integra                               93-01   18.78       13.97        24.76      10.79
Honda             Integra                               02-06   26.40       13.22        45.78      32.56
Honda             Concerto                              89-93   24.14       17.31        32.59      15.27
Peugeot           306                                   94-01   22.27       16.61        29.17      12.56
Peugeot           307                                   01-07   14.94       7.61         27.23      19.62
Proton            Wira                                  95-96   26.71       19.87        34.89      15.02
Renault           19                                    91-96   20.51       11.52        33.84      22.32
Rover             Quintet                               82-86   10.95       3.95         26.87      22.91
MG                MGF / MG TF                           99-05   17.41       6.63         38.46      31.82
Subaru            Impreza                               93-00   25.92       22.58        29.57      6.99
Subaru            Impreza                               01-07   18.71       13.20        25.85      12.65
Suzuki            Baleno / Cultus Crescent              95-02   12.93       8.57         19.03      10.46
Suzuki            Liana                                 01-07   34.95       18.87        55.38      36.51
Toyota            Corolla                               82-84   20.32       18.44        22.34      3.89
Toyota            Corolla                               86-88   22.44       20.73        24.24      3.51
Toyota / Holden   Corolla / Nova                        89-93   22.25       20.86        23.70      2.83
Toyota / Holden   Corolla / Nova                        94-97   21.04       19.27        22.92      3.65
Toyota            Corolla / Allex                       98-01   21.80       18.79        25.15      6.36
Make         Model of Car         Years of Pr(Severity) Lower 95%    Upper 95% Width of
                                 Manufacture %          Confidence   Confidence Confidence
                                                        Limit        Limit      Interval
Toyota       Corolla                02-07   21.10       18.34        24.14      5.80
Toyota       Tercel                 83-88   16.92       9.88         27.46      17.58
Toyota       MR2                    87-90   23.29       14.91        34.48      19.57
Toyota       Paseo / Cynos          91-99   25.39       19.18        32.80      13.62
Toyota       Corolla 4WD Wagon      92-96   28.01       17.95        40.89      22.93
Volvo        S40/V40                97-04   17.32       9.91         28.53      18.61
Volkswagen   Golf                   82-94   30.59       20.25        43.35      23.10
Volkswagen   Golf                   95-98   25.45       18.19        34.40      16.21
Volkswagen   Golf / Bora            99-04   17.28       12.63        23.20      10.57
Volkswagen   New Beetle             00-07   23.16       12.11        39.76      27.65
Volkswagen   Golf / Jetta           04-07   29.90       16.21        48.47      32.26
                                         AGGRESSIVITY RATINGS
                                     (WITH 95% CONFIDENCE LIMITS)

       New South Wales and Victoria Data (1987-2007), South Australia Data (1995-2007),
              Queensland, Western Australia and New Zealand Data (1991-2007)

Make             Model of Car                        Years of Serious       Lower 95%    Upper 95% Width of
                                                    Manufacture injury rate Confidence   Confidence Confidence
                                                                per 100     Limit        Limit      Interval
                                                                drivers
                                                                involved
ALL VEHICLE AVERAGE                                             3.41

Compact Wheel Drive Vehicles                                    3.04       2.84          3.26       0.41

Daihatsu        Feroza / Rocky                         89-97    3.86       2.68          5.57       2.89
Daihatsu        Rocky / Rugger                         85-98    4.98       3.18          7.80       4.62
Daihatsu        Terios                                 97-05    2.92       1.75          4.86       3.11
Holden          Cruze                                  02-06    3.46       1.92          6.24       4.32
Mitsubishi      Outlander                              03-06    4.73       2.30          9.73       7.43
Kia             Sportage                               98-03    3.60       2.34          5.57       3.23
Ford / Mazda    Escape / Tribute                       01-06    3.25       2.23          4.73       2.51
Nissan          X-Trail                                01-07    3.72       2.67          5.18       2.52
Lada            Niva                                   84-99    4.35       2.70          6.99       4.29
Honda           CR-V                                   97-01    3.12       2.43          4.02       1.60
Honda           CR-V                                   02-07    3.35       2.37          4.75       2.39
Honda           HR-V                                   99-02    4.43       2.75          7.13       4.37
Subaru          Forester                               97-02    1.98       1.38          2.83       1.45
Subaru          Forester                               02-07    3.30       2.17          5.01       2.84
Suzuki          Vitara / Escudo                        88-98    3.74       3.09          4.54       1.45
Suzuki          Grand Vitara                           99-05    2.60       1.57          4.29       2.72
                Drover / Sierra / Samurai / SJ410
Holden / Suzuki                                        82-99    3.31       2.72          4.02       1.30
                / SJ413
Suzuki          Jimny                                  98-07    3.97       1.94          8.15       6.22
Toyota          RAV4                                   94-00    4.18       3.44          5.07       1.62
Toyota          RAV4                                   01-06    3.70       2.81          4.89       2.08

Medium Wheel Drive Vehicles                                     4.07       3.81          4.36       0.55

Daewoo /
                 Musso                                 98-02    4.00       2.21          7.24       5.03
Ssangong
Ford             Territory SX/SY                       04-07    4.64       2.93          7.34       4.41
Holden / Isuzu   Jackaroo / Bighorn                    82-91    5.49       4.15          7.25       3.10
Holden / Isuzu   Jackaroo / Bighorn                    92-97    4.85       3.54          6.66       3.12
Holden / Isuzu   Jackaroo / Bighorn                    98-02    5.65       3.95          8.10       4.15
Holden           Frontera / Mu                         95-03    4.95       2.99          8.19       5.20
Hyundai          Santa Fe                              00-06    4.70       2.70          8.18       5.48
Mitsubishi       Pajero                                82-90    4.99       4.10          6.06       1.96
Mitsubishi       Pajero                                92-99    4.59       3.88          5.43       1.54
Mitsubishi       Pajero NM / NP / NS                   00-07    3.61       2.40          5.42       3.02
Mitsubishi       Challenger                            98-06    3.08       1.79          5.29       3.51
Jeep             Cherokee XJ                           96-00    4.29       3.26          5.65       2.38
Jeep             Wrangler                              96-04    5.48       3.41          8.79       5.37
Jeep             Cherokee KJ                           01-07    2.07       0.81          5.29       4.48
Land Rover       Defender                              92-07    4.44       2.61          7.56       4.95
Nissan           Pathfinder / Terrano                  88-94    5.03       3.81          6.63       2.81
Make              Model of Car                      Years of Serious         Lower 95%    Upper 95% Width of
                                                   Manufacture injury rate   Confidence   Confidence Confidence
                                                               per 100       Limit        Limit      Interval
                                                               drivers
                                                               involved
Nissan            Pathfinder / Terrano / Regulus     95-05     4.63          3.37         6.34       2.97
Toyota            Kluger                             03-07     3.45          1.91         6.23       4.32
Toyota            Landcruiser Prado                  96-03     5.87          4.26         8.08       3.81
Toyota            Landcruiser Prado                  03-07     4.93          3.56         6.84       3.28

Large Wheel Drive Vehicles                                     5.01          4.80         5.23       0.43

BMW               X5                                  01-07    3.37          1.63         6.93       5.30
Ford              Bronco                              82-87    6.81          3.79         12.27      8.48
Ford              Explorer                            00-01    4.03          2.39         6.80       4.42
Jeep              Grand Cherokee ZG                   96-99    3.82          2.23         6.54       4.31
Jeep              Grand Cherokee WJ/WG                99-05    5.36          3.36         8.54       5.18
Land Rover        Discovery                           91-02    3.53          2.61         4.77       2.16
Mercedes Benz     M-Class W163                        98-05    3.88          2.19         6.85       4.66
Nissan            Patrol / Safari                     82-87    6.22          4.99         7.76       2.77
Nissan / Ford     Patrol / Maverick / Safari          88-97    5.21          4.68         5.80       1.12
Nissan            Patrol / Safari                     98-07    5.54          4.75         6.46       1.71
Land Rover        Range Rover                         82-94    6.13          4.49         8.37       3.88
Land Rover        Range Rover                         95-02    3.80          1.90         7.62       5.72
Toyota            Landcruiser                         82-89    6.55          5.93         7.25       1.32
Toyota            Landcruiser                         90-97    6.14          5.64         6.69       1.04
Toyota            Landcruiser                         98-07    5.74          5.05         6.53       1.48

Commercial Vehicles- Vans                                      4.36          4.14         4.60       0.47

Daihatsu          Handivan                            82-90    2.42          1.52         3.84       2.32
Ford              Falcon Panel Van                    82-95    3.86          3.21         4.64       1.42
Ford              Falcon Panel Van                    96-99    4.09          2.58         6.48       3.90
Ford              Transit                             95-00    4.07          2.94         5.64       2.70
Ford              Transit                             01-07    3.33          2.11         5.26       3.15
Holden            Shuttle / WFR Van                   82-87    3.94          2.42         6.40       3.98
Kia               Pregio                              02-06    4.12          2.48         6.85       4.38
Mercedes Benz     MB100 / MB140                       99-04    4.89          2.88         8.31       5.43
Mercedes Benz     Vito / Viano                        99-07    5.75          3.69         8.96       5.27
Mercedes Benz     Sprinter                            98-04    5.68          3.66         8.84       5.18
Honda             Acty                                83-86    1.64          0.70         3.86       3.16
Holden / Suzuki   Scurry / Carry                      82-00    2.64          1.50         4.64       3.14
Toyota            Hiace/Liteace                       82-86    5.70          4.98         6.53       1.55
Toyota            Hiace/Liteace                       87-89    5.50          4.64         6.52       1.88
Toyota            Hiace/Liteace                       90-95    5.67          5.02         6.39       1.37
Toyota            Hiace/Liteace                       96-04    5.43          4.74         6.22       1.48
Toyoa             Hiace                               05-07    4.35          2.46         7.69       5.23
Volkswagen        Caravelle / Transporter             88-94    4.45          2.14         9.25       7.11
Volkswagen        Caravelle / Transporter             95-04    6.43          4.60         8.99       4.39

Commercial Vehicles- Utes                                      4.03          3.89         4.16       0.27

Ford / Nissan     Falcon Ute / XFN Ute                82-95    4.33          3.88         4.84       0.96
Ford              Falcon Ute                          96-99    4.33          3.45         5.43       1.99
Ford              Falcon Ute AU                       00-02    4.95          4.05         6.05       2.00
Ford              Falcon Ute BA/BF                    03-07    3.82          2.81         5.19       2.37
Ford              Ford F-Series                       82-92    6.21          4.74         8.14       3.40
Make              Model of Car                       Years of Serious         Lower 95%    Upper 95% Width of
                                                    Manufacture injury rate   Confidence   Confidence Confidence
                                                                per 100       Limit        Limit      Interval
                                                                drivers
                                                                involved
Ford              F-Series                            01-06     5.38          2.71         10.68      7.97
Holden            Commodore Ute VG/VP                 90-93     3.02          2.24         4.07       1.83
Holden / Isuzu    Rodeo / Pickup                      82-85     4.81          3.37         6.87       3.50
Holden / Isuzu    Rodeo / Pickup                      86-88     4.25          2.53         7.14       4.61
Holden / Isuzu    Rodeo / Pickup                      89-95     5.19          4.61         5.85       1.24
Holden            Rodeo                               96-98     4.69          3.89         5.66       1.77
Holden            Rodeo                               99-02     5.15          4.28         6.19       1.92
Holden            WB Series                           82-85     4.76          3.75         6.05       2.31
Holden            Commodore Ute VR/VS                 94-00     4.54          3.99         5.16       1.17
Holden            Commodore VU Ute                    00-02     4.28          3.24         5.65       2.41
Holden            Commodore VY/VZ Ute                 02-07     5.00          4.09         6.10       2.01
Holden            Rodeo                               03-07     4.59          3.66         5.77       2.12
Mitsubishi        Triton MK                           96-06     4.71          3.34         6.64       3.30
Kia               Ceres                               92-00     3.19          2.14         4.77       2.63
Ford / Mazda      Courier / B-Series / Bounty         98-02     4.13          3.24         5.26       2.02
Ford / Mazda      Courier / Bravo / Bounty            03-06     3.49          2.42         5.03       2.61
Nissan            720 Ute                             82-85     3.64          2.75         4.82       2.07
Nissan            Navara                              86-91     4.70          4.03         5.48       1.44
Nissan            Navara                              92-96     4.85          3.93         5.98       2.05
Nissan            Navara                              97-05     4.33          3.48         5.38       1.91
Subaru            Brumby                              82-92     3.96          2.94         5.31       2.37
Suzuki            Mighty Boy                          85-88     2.19          1.08         4.42       3.34
Toyota            4Runner/Hilux                       82-85     5.27          4.57         6.08       1.51
Toyota            4Runner/Hilux                       86-88     5.03          4.35         5.83       1.48
Toyota            4Runner/Hilux                       89-97     4.66          4.32         5.03       0.71
Toyota            Hilux                               98-02     5.12          4.48         5.85       1.37
Toyota            Hilux                               03-04     4.21          3.11         5.69       2.57
Toyota            Hilux                               05-07     4.42          3.15         6.20       3.05

Large Cars                                                       3.25         3.18         3.32       0.14

BMW               7 Series E23                         82-88     2.30         0.91         5.80       4.89
BMW               7 Series E32                         89-94     4.63         2.45         8.74       6.28
BMW               7 Series E38                         95-01     3.78         1.57         9.11       7.54
Ford              Falcon XE/XF                         82-88     4.01         3.80         4.23       0.43
Ford              Fairlane Z & LTD F                   82-87     3.87         3.34         4.48       1.14
Ford              Falcon EA / Falcon EB Series I     88-Mar 92   3.95         3.74         4.18       0.45
Ford              Falcon EB Series II / Falcon ED    Apr 92-94   4.02         3.71         4.36       0.65
Ford              Fairlane N & LTD D                   88-94     3.38         2.85         4.00       1.14
Ford              Fairlane N & LTD D                   95-98     4.20         3.29         5.36       2.06
Ford              Fairlane & LTD AU                    99-02     2.90         1.99         4.22       2.23
Ford              Fairlane & LTD BA/BF                 03-07     2.56         1.12         5.89       4.78
Ford              Falcon EF/EL                         94-98     3.95         3.73         4.18       0.45
Ford              Falcon AU                            98-02     3.92         3.64         4.23       0.59
Ford              Taurus                               96-98     4.27         2.71         6.72       4.02
Ford              Falcon BA/BF                         02-07     3.71         3.27         4.20       0.93
Holden / Toyota   Commodore VN/VP / Lexcen             89-93     3.48         3.29         3.67       0.38
Holden            Statesman/Caprice WB                 82-85     7.75         3.71         16.19      12.48
Holden            Stateman/Caprice VQ                  90-93     3.69         2.38         5.74       3.36
Holden            Stateman/Caprice VR/VS               94-98     3.57         2.95         4.31       1.35
Holden / Toyota   Commodore VR/VS / Lexcen             93-97     3.51         3.31         3.71       0.40
Holden            Commodore VT/VX                      97-02     4.04         3.79         4.30       0.50
Make            Model of Car                    Years of Serious         Lower 95%    Upper 95% Width of
                                               Manufacture injury rate   Confidence   Confidence Confidence
                                                           per 100       Limit        Limit      Interval
                                                           drivers
                                                           involved
Holden          Statesman/Caprice WH             99-03     4.11          3.00         5.64       2.65
Holden          Commodore VY/VZ                  02-07     3.41          3.01         3.87       0.86
Holden          Monaro                           01-05     4.36          2.89         6.58       3.69
Holden          Statesman/Caprice WK/WL          03-06     4.38          2.33         8.21       5.88
Holden          Commodore VB-VL                  82-88     3.74          3.53         3.96       0.43
Holden          Commodore VE                     06-07     3.58          2.38         5.40       3.02
Hyundai         Sonata                           89-97     3.64          3.02         4.39       1.37
Hyundai         Grandeaur / XG                   99-00     5.16          2.71         9.83       7.12
                Magna TM/TN/TP / Sigma /
Mitsubishi                                        85-90    3.60          3.34         3.87       0.53
                V3000
                Magna TE/TF/TH/TJ / Verada
Mitsubishi                                        96-03    3.47          3.16         3.81       0.65
                KE/KF/KH/KJ / Diamante
                Magna TR/TS / Verada KR/KS /
Mitsubishi                                        91-96    3.63          3.37         3.90       0.53
                V3000 / Diamante
Mitsubishi      Magna TL/TW / Verada KL/KW        03-05    4.12          2.80         6.06       3.27
Mitsubishi      380                               05-07    4.50          2.27         8.94       6.68
Jaguar          XJ6                               82-86    5.36          3.22         8.95       5.73
Jaguar          XJ6                               87-94    4.45          2.68         7.41       4.73
Mazda           929 / Luce                        82-90    3.28          2.68         4.02       1.34
Mazda           929 / Sentia / Efini MS-9         92-96    6.13          3.47         10.84      7.37
Mercedes Benz   E-Class W123                      82-85    3.25          1.87         5.65       3.78
Mercedes Benz   E-Class W124                      86-94    3.46          2.51         4.77       2.26
Mercedes Benz   E-Class W210                      96-02    3.97          2.63         5.99       3.36
Mercedes Benz   S-Class W126                      82-92    2.69          1.74         4.16       2.42
Mercedes Benz   S-Class C140                      93-98    3.41          1.66         7.00       5.34
Mercedes Benz   E-Class W211                      02-07    4.69          2.09         10.50      8.41
Nissan          Skyline                           83-88    3.97          3.44         4.58       1.14
Nissan          300ZX / Fairlady Z                90-95    5.38          3.57         8.11       4.54
Nissan          Maxima                            90-94    3.79          2.81         5.12       2.31
Nissan          Maxima / Cefiro                   95-99    2.77          2.03         3.77       1.74
Nissan          Maxima                            00-02    3.77          2.36         6.00       3.64
Honda           Legend                            86-95    4.80          3.45         6.68       3.23
Saab            9-5                               98-05    1.81          0.71         4.61       3.90
Toyota          Camry                             98-02    3.64          3.30         4.01       0.71
Toyota          Crown / Cressida / Mark II        82-85    4.19          3.34         5.26       1.93
Toyota          Crown / Cressida / Mark II        86-88    3.36          2.27         4.97       2.70
Toyota          Cressida / Mark II                89-93    2.51          1.89         3.33       1.44
Toyota          Supra                             82-90    6.15          4.13         9.18       5.05
Lexus           ES300 / Windom                    92-01    3.50          2.26         5.43       3.18
Lexus           LS400 / Celsior                   90-00    5.17          2.73         9.78       7.04
Toyota          Avalon                            00-05    4.16          3.31         5.24       1.93
Toyota          Camry                             02-06    3.46          2.86         4.19       1.33
Toyota          Camry                             06-07    2.37          0.89         6.27       5.38
Volvo           850/S70/V70/C70                   92-05    4.48          3.49         5.76       2.28
Volvo           700/900 Series                    84-92    3.54          2.70         4.63       1.93

Medium Cars                                                2.87          2.79         2.94       0.15

Alfa Romeo      156                               99-06    1.81          0.80         4.14       3.34
Audi            A4                                95-01    2.82          1.80         4.42       2.63
Audi            A4                                01-07    2.64          1.49         4.68       3.19
BMW             Z3 E36                            97-03    3.73          1.78         7.83       6.04
BMW             3 Series E30                      82-91    2.92          2.37         3.58       1.21
Make            Model of Car                       Years of Serious         Lower 95%    Upper 95% Width of
                                                  Manufacture injury rate   Confidence   Confidence Confidence
                                                              per 100       Limit        Limit      Interval
                                                              drivers
                                                              involved
BMW             3 Series E36                        92-98     3.12          2.63         3.70       1.07
BMW             3 Series E46                        99-06     2.88          2.21         3.76       1.55
BMW             5 Series E28                        82-88     4.04          2.79         5.86       3.07
BMW             5 Series E34                        89-95     3.64          2.56         5.16       2.59
BMW             5 Series E39                        96-03     2.88          1.85         4.49       2.64
Daewoo          Espero                              95-97     3.25          2.13         4.97       2.84
Daewoo          Leganza                             97-02     4.43          2.95         6.65       3.70
Ford            Cortina                             82-82     3.70          3.07         4.46       1.40
Ford            Mondeo                              95-01     3.29          2.64         4.10       1.46
Ford            Probe                               94-98     5.51          2.96         10.26      7.31
Ford            Cougar                              99-03     2.29          1.18         4.46       3.29
Holden          Calibra                             94-97     4.60          2.98         7.11       4.13
Holden          Camira                              82-89     3.63          3.29         4.00       0.71
Holden          Vectra                              97-03     3.32          2.74         4.04       1.30
Holden          Vectra ZC                           03-05     2.14          0.90         5.10       4.20
Hyundai         Sonata                              98-01     2.87          1.85         4.46       2.61
Hyundai         Sonata EF                           02-05     3.76          1.65         8.57       6.92
                Sigma / Galant / Sapporo /
Mitsubishi                                           82-84    3.35          3.04         3.70       0.66
                Lambda
Mitsubishi      Galant                               95-96    2.95          2.26         3.86       1.60
Ford / Mazda    Telstar / 626 / MX6 / Capella        83-86    3.13          2.80         3.50       0.70
Ford / Mazda    Telstar / 626 / MX6 / Capella        88-91    3.39          2.98         3.86       0.87
                Telstar / 626 / MX6 / Capella /
Ford / Mazda                                         92-97    2.60          2.24         3.02       0.78
                Cronos
Mazda           626                                  98-02    3.34          2.61         4.28       1.67
Mazda           RX7                                  82-85    4.41          2.76         7.04       4.28
Mazda           RX7                                  86-91    3.73          2.16         6.43       4.27
Mazda           Eunos 500                            93-99    2.60          1.27         5.30       4.03
Mazda           6                                    02-07    2.08          1.29         3.36       2.07
Mercedes Benz   C-Class W201                         87-93    3.37          2.26         5.01       2.75
Mercedes Benz   C-Class W202                         95-00    2.63          1.86         3.70       1.84
Mercedes Benz   CLK C208                             97-03    3.29          1.56         6.94       5.37
Mercedes Benz   C-Class W203                         00-07    1.88          0.99         3.55       2.56
Nissan          Pintara                              86-88    3.44          2.94         4.03       1.09
Nissan / Ford   Pintara / Corsair / Bluebird         89-92    3.70          3.30         4.14       0.84
Nissan          Bluebird                             82-86    3.11          2.78         3.47       0.69
Nissan          Bluebird                             93-97    2.68          2.11         3.41       1.29
Nissan          200SX / Silvia                       94-02    4.27          3.00         6.09       3.09
Honda           Accord Euro                          03-07    2.67          1.72         4.13       2.40
Honda           Accord                               03-07    5.01          2.90         8.64       5.73
Honda           Accord                               82-85    2.38          1.85         3.06       1.21
Honda           Accord                               86-90    3.26          2.67         3.99       1.33
Honda           Accord                               91-93    2.59          1.93         3.47       1.54
Honda           Accord                               94-98    3.25          2.65         3.99       1.34
Honda           Accord                               99-02    3.95          2.64         5.93       3.30
Honda           Prelude                              82-82    1.83          0.61         5.45       4.83
Honda           Prelude                              83-91    3.16          2.64         3.77       1.12
Honda           Prelude                              92-96    2.89          2.15         3.90       1.76
Honda           Prelude                              97-02    3.15          2.00         4.97       2.97
Peugeot         405                                  89-97    2.76          1.81         4.21       2.40
Peugeot         505                                  82-93    3.71          2.33         5.90       3.56
Peugeot         406                                  96-04    2.05          0.92         4.55       3.63
Make            Model of Car                      Years of Serious         Lower 95%    Upper 95% Width of
                                                 Manufacture injury rate   Confidence   Confidence Confidence
                                                             per 100       Limit        Limit      Interval
                                                             drivers
                                                             involved
Renault         Feugo                              82-87     1.75          0.73         4.16       3.42
Saab            900 Series                         82-92     2.03          1.27         3.24       1.97
Saab            900/9-3                            94-02     2.55          1.74         3.73       1.99
Saab            9000                               86-97     2.40          1.56         3.68       2.11
                1800 / Leone / Omega / 4WD
Subaru                                              82-93    2.61          2.23         3.05       0.83
                Wagon
Subaru          Liberty / Legacy                    89-93    3.30          2.85         3.82       0.97
Subaru          Liberty / Legacy / Outback          94-98    3.71          3.03         4.53       1.50
Subaru          Liberty / Legacy / Outback          99-03    2.72          2.09         3.54       1.45
Subaru          Liberty / Legacy / Outback          03-07    1.17          0.60         2.28       1.68
Toyota          Corona                              82-88    3.41          3.12         3.71       0.59
Toyota          Camry                               83-86    3.35          2.75         4.09       1.34
Holden / Toyota Apollo JK/JL / Camry / Vista        88-92    3.57          3.33         3.83       0.50
Holden / Toyota Apollo JM/JP / Camry / Sceptor      93-97    3.59          3.33         3.88       0.55
Toyota          Celica                              81-85    3.92          3.17         4.83       1.66
Toyota          Celica                              86-89    3.89          3.10         4.90       1.80
Toyota          Celica                              90-93    4.23          3.41         5.24       1.83
Toyota          Celica                              94-99    3.29          2.37         4.56       2.19
Toyota          Celica                              00-05    3.44          1.99         5.94       3.95
Lexus           IS200 / IS300                       99-04    2.43          1.14         5.19       4.06
Volvo           200 Series                          82-93    3.43          2.75         4.29       1.54
Volkswagen      Passat                              98-06    2.88          1.53         5.40       3.86

People Movers                                                3.69          3.47         3.92       0.45

Chrysler        Voyager                             97-01    5.01          3.08         8.15       5.07
Holden          Zafira TT                           01-05    3.20          1.48         6.91       5.42
Mitsubishi      Nimbus / Chariot / Spacewagon       85-91    2.50          1.51         4.13       2.62
Mitsubishi      Nimbus / Chariot                    92-98    3.98          2.81         5.65       2.84
Mitsubishi      Nimbus                              99-03    1.07          0.33         3.48       3.15
Mitsubishi      Starwagon / L300                    83-86    5.16          4.31         6.17       1.86
Mitsubishi      Starwagon / Delica Starwagon        87-93    4.32          3.78         4.94       1.15
Mitsubishi      Starwagon / Delica Spacegear        95-98    4.79          3.74         6.12       2.37
Mitsubishi      Starwagon / Delica Spacegear        98-03    3.80          2.70         5.34       2.64
Kia             Carnival                            99-06    6.75          4.75         9.60       4.86
Mazda           MPV                                 94-99    4.91          2.69         8.96       6.27
Nissan          Prairie                             84-86    3.21          1.92         5.36       3.44
Nissan          Serena                              92-95    2.47          1.28         4.78       3.50
Honda           Odyssey                             95-00    3.99          2.72         5.86       3.15
Honda           Odyssey                             00-02    4.72          2.37         9.37       7.00
Toyota          Tarago                              83-89    4.27          3.63         5.02       1.39
Toyota          Tarago / Previa / Estima            91-99    3.83          3.14         4.68       1.54
Toyota          Tarago / Previa / Estima            00-06    3.93          2.57         6.03       3.46

Light Cars                                                   2.20          2.12         2.29       0.18

Daihatsu        Charade                             82-86    2.75          2.09         3.62       1.53
Daihatsu        Charade                             88-92    2.22          1.87         2.65       0.78
Daihatsu        Charade                             93-00    2.68          2.22         3.23       1.00
Daihatsu        Pyzar                               97-01    2.10          1.03         4.31       3.28
Daihatsu        Sirion / Storia                     98-04    1.56          0.98         2.48       1.50
Daihatsu        Mira                                90-96    2.48          1.65         3.72       2.07
Make              Model of Car                  Years of Serious         Lower 95%    Upper 95% Width of
                                               Manufacture injury rate   Confidence   Confidence Confidence
                                                           per 100       Limit        Limit      Interval
                                                           drivers
                                                           involved
Daewoo            Matiz                          99-04     2.28          1.37         3.78       2.41
Daewoo            Kalos                          03-04     3.81          1.84         7.90       6.06
Ford              Festiva WD/WH/WF               94-01     2.66          2.36         2.99       0.63
Ford              Ka                             99-02     2.82          1.57         5.06       3.49
Holden            Barina XC                      01-06     2.98          2.26         3.94       1.68
Holden            Barina SB                      95-00     2.84          2.41         3.34       0.93
Holden            Barina TK                      05-07     1.86          0.73         4.74       4.01
Hyundai           Getz / TB                      02-07     4.75          3.69         6.11       2.42
Mitsubishi        Mirage / Colt                  82-88     2.93          2.61         3.30       0.69
Ford / Mazda      Festiva WA / 121               87-90     2.49          2.10         2.94       0.84
Mazda             121 / Autozam Review           94-96     1.83          1.39         2.41       1.02
Mazda             121 Metro / Demio              97-02     1.91          1.44         2.52       1.09
Mazda             2                              02-07     2.98          1.75         5.06       3.31
Nissan            Micra                          95-97     2.76          1.75         4.35       2.59
Honda             Jazz / Fit                     02-07     2.30          1.48         3.58       2.10
Honda             City                           83-86     2.10          1.21         3.64       2.43
Peugeot           205                            87-94     1.68          0.66         4.27       3.61
Peugeot           206                            99-07     2.24          1.16         4.35       3.19
Subaru            Sherpa / Fiori / 700 / Rex     89-92     2.19          1.40         3.43       2.04
Suzuki            Swift                          82-85     3.08          1.31         7.22       5.91
Holden / Suzuki   Barina / Swift / Cultus        86-88     2.51          2.04         3.07       1.03
Holden / Suzuki   Barina / Swift / Cultus        89-99     2.39          2.14         2.67       0.54
Suzuki            Hatch / Alto                   82-84     3.31          2.19         5.00       2.82
Suzuki            Alto                           85-00     4.18          2.42         7.23       4.81
Suzuki            Ignis                          00-02     2.12          1.08         4.14       3.07
Suzuki            Swift                          05-07     2.12          1.03         4.37       3.34
Toyota            Starlet                        96-99     2.45          1.99         3.01       1.03
Toyota            Echo                           99-05     2.43          2.00         2.96       0.96
Toyota            Yaris                          05-07     1.94          1.04         3.63       2.59
Volkswagen        Polo                           96-00     1.93          1.07         3.48       2.41

Small Cars                                                 2.48          2.42         2.54       0.12

Alfa Romeo        33                              83-92    1.84          1.03         3.27       2.24
Alfa Romeo        75                              86-92    4.53          2.00         10.25      8.25
Audi              A3/S3                           97-04    3.85          2.07         7.16       5.09
Chrysler          Neon                            96-99    1.90          1.00         3.59       2.59
Daihatsu          Applause                        89-99    2.57          2.01         3.30       1.29
Daewoo            1.5i                            94-95    2.28          0.60         8.61       8.01
Daewoo            Cielo                           95-97    2.54          2.04         3.15       1.10
Daewoo            Nubira                          97-03    2.57          2.00         3.32       1.32
Daewoo            Lanos                           97-03    3.37          2.84         4.02       1.18
Ford              Laser                           91-94    2.91          2.63         3.23       0.60
Ford              Laser                           95-97    2.87          2.39         3.45       1.06
Ford              Escort                          82-82    2.79          2.00         3.88       1.88
Ford              Capri                           89-94    2.61          1.90         3.60       1.70
Ford              Focus LR                        02-05    2.71          1.84         3.99       2.15
Ford              Focus LS / LT                   05-07    3.06          1.59         5.89       4.30
Fiat              Regata                          84-88    3.52          1.64         7.57       5.93
Holden            Gemini                          82-84    2.70          2.27         3.21       0.94
Holden            Gemini RB                       86-87    2.56          1.72         3.79       2.07
Holden            Astra TR                        96-98    2.70          1.90         3.83       1.93
Make             Model of Car                       Years of Serious         Lower 95%    Upper 95% Width of
                                                   Manufacture injury rate   Confidence   Confidence Confidence
                                                               per 100       Limit        Limit      Interval
                                                               drivers
                                                               involved
Holden          Astra TS                             98-06     2.77          2.40         3.20       0.80
Holden          Astra AH                             04-07     2.91          1.74         4.87       3.13
Holden          Viva JF                              05-07     3.74          1.91         7.34       5.43
Hyundai         Excel                                86-90     3.22          2.61         3.97       1.36
Hyundai         Excel                                90-94     2.90          2.54         3.32       0.78
Hyundai         Excel / Accent                       95-00     2.84          2.60         3.10       0.50
Hyundai         Elantra                              00-07     3.07          2.26         4.18       1.92
Hyundai         S Coupe                              90-96     2.54          1.75         3.69       1.95
Hyundai         Lantra                               91-95     3.05          2.28         4.08       1.79
Hyundai         Lantra                               96-00     3.12          2.59         3.75       1.17
Hyundai         Coupe                                96-00     2.65          1.66         4.24       2.58
Hyundai         Accent                               00-06     3.02          2.46         3.71       1.24
Mitsubishi      Lancer / Mirage CA                   89-90     2.65          2.26         3.12       0.86
Mitsubishi      Lancer / Mirage CB                   91-92     3.89          2.91         5.21       2.30
Mitsubishi      Lancer / Mirage CC                   93-95     2.41          2.06         2.81       0.76
Mitsubishi      Lancer / Mirage CE                   96-03     2.80          2.52         3.10       0.58
Mitsubishi      Cordia                               83-87     4.37          3.49         5.47       1.98
Mitsubishi      Lancer CH / CJ                       03-07     2.49          1.64         3.76       2.11
Kia             Rio                                  00-05     3.39          2.55         4.52       1.97
Kia             Spectra                              01-04     3.43          1.46         8.09       6.63
Ford / Mazda    Laser / 323 / Familia                82-88     2.92          2.75         3.10       0.36
Mazda           323 / Familia / Lantis               90-93     2.33          1.96         2.78       0.82
Mazda           323 / Familia / Lantis               95-98     2.45          2.02         2.97       0.94
Ford / Mazda    Laser / 323                          99-03     2.37          1.96         2.85       0.89
Mazda           MX5 / Eunos Roadster                 89-97     2.71          1.50         4.90       3.39
Mazda           MX5 / Eunos Roadster                 98-05     0.51          0.12         2.13       2.01
                Eunos 30X / Presso / MX-3 /
Mazda                                                 90-97    2.92          1.61         5.31       3.70
                Autozam AZ-3
Mazda           3 / Axela                             03-07    3.11          2.30         4.21       1.92
Mercedes Benz A-Class W168                            98-04    2.05          0.88         4.77       3.89
Holden / Nissan Astra / Pulsar / Langley              84-86    3.24          2.86         3.66       0.80
Holden / Nissan Astra / Pulsar / Vector / Sentra      88-90    3.26          2.94         3.61       0.67
Nissan          Pulsar / Vector / Sentra              92-95    3.16          2.76         3.62       0.86
Nissan          Pulsar / Vector / Sentra              96-99    2.77          2.41         3.19       0.79
Nissan          Stanza                                82-83    5.25          3.26         8.44       5.18
Nissan          Gazelle / Silvia                      84-86    3.01          1.85         4.88       3.02
Nissan          Exa                                   83-86    5.20          3.29         8.21       4.93
Nissan          Exa                                   87-91    5.77          3.20         10.40      7.20
Nissan          NX/NX-R                               91-96    4.52          3.17         6.45       3.28
Nissan          Pulsar                                00-05    2.48          2.06         3.00       0.95
Honda           Civic                                 82-83    2.26          1.46         3.50       2.04
Honda           Civic / Ballade / Shuttle             84-87    3.07          2.47         3.81       1.34
Honda           Civic / Shuttle                       88-91    2.76          2.32         3.30       0.98
Honda           Civic                                 92-95    3.04          2.58         3.58       1.01
Honda           Civic                                 96-00    2.51          2.07         3.06       1.00
Honda           CRX                                   87-91    3.17          1.95         5.18       3.23
Honda           CRX                                   92-98    4.65          2.35         9.21       6.86
Honda           Civic                                 01-05    3.06          2.16         4.33       2.17
Honda           Integra                               86-88    2.18          1.41         3.38       1.96
Honda           Integra                               90-92    4.26          3.00         6.06       3.06
Honda           Integra                               93-01    2.60          1.81         3.72       1.90
Honda           Integra                               02-06    4.08          1.92         8.69       6.78
Make              Model of Car                Years of Serious         Lower 95%    Upper 95% Width of
                                             Manufacture injury rate   Confidence   Confidence Confidence
                                                         per 100       Limit        Limit      Interval
                                                         drivers
                                                         involved
Honda             Concerto                     89-93     2.69          1.70         4.24       2.54
Peugeot           306                          94-01     2.59          1.81         3.72       1.91
Peugeot           307                          01-07     1.91          0.91         4.01       3.10
Proton            Wira                         95-96     3.57          2.56         4.98       2.41
Renault           19                           91-96     2.83          1.45         5.51       4.06
Rover             Quintet                      82-86     1.26          0.41         3.87       3.47
MG                MGF / MG TF                  99-05     1.38          0.47         4.07       3.60
Subaru            Impreza                      93-00     3.56          3.01         4.22       1.22
Subaru            Impreza                      01-07     2.33          1.60         3.39       1.80
Suzuki            Baleno / Cultus Crescent     95-02     1.47          0.95         2.26       1.31
Suzuki            Liana                        01-07     3.89          1.95         7.78       5.83
Toyota            Corolla                      82-84     2.55          2.27         2.88       0.61
Toyota            Corolla                      86-88     2.94          2.68         3.24       0.56
Toyota / Holden   Corolla / Nova               89-93     3.05          2.83         3.29       0.46
Toyota / Holden   Corolla / Nova               94-97     2.56          2.31         2.83       0.52
Toyota            Corolla / Allex              98-01     2.91          2.46         3.44       0.98
Toyota            Corolla                      02-07     2.81          2.40         3.29       0.89
Toyota            Tercel                       83-88     2.81          1.57         5.04       3.47
Toyota            MR2                          87-90     3.34          1.77         6.30       4.53
Toyota            Paseo / Cynos                91-99     3.17          2.30         4.36       2.06
Toyota            Corolla 4WD Wagon            92-96     5.27          3.26         8.52       5.26
Volvo             S40/V40                      97-04     2.54          1.42         4.56       3.13
Volkswagen        Golf                         82-94     4.52          2.58         7.90       5.32
Volkswagen        Golf                         95-98     3.30          2.25         4.84       2.59
Volkswagen        Golf / Bora                  99-04     2.48          1.76         3.51       1.75
Volkswagen        New Beetle                   00-07     3.19          1.54         6.64       5.10
Volkswagen        Golf / Jetta                 04-07     3.63          1.85         7.14       5.29
                                          AGGRESSIVITY RATINGS
                                         (WITH 90% CONFIDENCE LIMITS)

         New South Wales and Victoria Data (1987-2007), South Australia Data (1995-2007),
                Queensland, Western Australia and New Zealand Data (1991-2007)

Make              Model of Car                         Years of Serious       Lower 90%    Upper 90% Width of
                                                      Manufacture injury rate Confidence   Confidence Confidence
                                                                  per 100     Limit        Limit      Interval
                                                                  drivers
                                                                  involved
ALL VEHICLE AVERAGE                                               3.41

Compact Wheel Drive Vehicles                                      3.04       2.87          3.22       0.41

Daihatsu          Feroza / Rocky                         89-97    3.86       2.84          5.24       2.40
Daihatsu          Rocky / Rugger                         85-98    4.98       3.42          7.25       3.83
Daihatsu          Terios                                 97-05    2.92       1.90          4.47       2.57
Holden            Cruze                                  02-06    3.46       2.12          5.67       3.55
Mitsubishi        Outlander                              03-06    4.73       2.59          8.65       6.07
Kia               Sportage                               98-03    3.60       2.51          5.18       2.68
Ford / Mazda      Escape / Tribute                       01-06    3.25       2.37          4.45       2.08
Nissan            X-Trail                                01-07    3.72       2.82          4.91       2.10
Lada              Niva                                   84-99    4.35       2.92          6.47       3.55
Honda             CR-V                                   97-01    3.12       2.53          3.86       1.33
Honda             CR-V                                   02-07    3.35       2.50          4.49       1.99
Honda             HR-V                                   99-02    4.43       2.98          6.60       3.62
Subaru            Forester                               97-02    1.98       1.47          2.67       1.20
Subaru            Forester                               02-07    3.30       2.32          4.68       2.36
Suzuki            Vitara / Escudo                        88-98    3.74       3.19          4.40       1.21
Suzuki            Grand Vitara                           99-05    2.60       1.71          3.95       2.25
                  Drover / Sierra / Samurai / SJ410
Holden / Suzuki                                                   3.31       2.81          3.90       1.09
                  / SJ413                                82-99
Suzuki            Jimny                                  98-07    3.97       2.18          7.25       5.07
Toyota            RAV4                                   94-00    4.18       3.55          4.91       1.35
Toyota            RAV4                                   01-06    3.70       2.94          4.67       1.73

Medium Wheel Drive Vehicles                                       4.07       3.85          4.31       0.55

Daewoo /
                  Musso                                           4.00       2.44          6.58       4.14
Ssangong                                                 98-02
Ford              Territory SX/SY                        04-07    4.64       3.16          6.81       3.65
Holden / Isuzu    Jackaroo / Bighorn                     82-91    5.49       4.35          6.93       2.58
Holden / Isuzu    Jackaroo / Bighorn                     92-97    4.85       3.72          6.32       2.60
Holden / Isuzu    Jackaroo / Bighorn                     98-02    5.65       4.18          7.64       3.45
Holden            Frontera / Mu                          95-03    4.95       3.24          7.54       4.30
Hyundai           Santa Fe                               00-06    4.70       2.96          7.48       4.52
Mitsubishi        Pajero                                 82-90    4.99       4.24          5.87       1.64
Mitsubishi        Pajero                                 92-99    4.59       3.99          5.28       1.29
Mitsubishi        Pajero NM / NP / NS                    00-07    3.61       2.56          5.07       2.51
Mitsubishi        Challenger                             98-06    3.08       1.95          4.84       2.89
Jeep              Cherokee XJ                            96-00    4.29       3.41          5.40       1.99
Jeep              Wrangler                               96-04    5.48       3.69          8.13       4.45
Jeep              Cherokee KJ                            01-07    2.07       0.95          4.54       3.59
Land Rover        Defender                               92-07    4.44       2.85          6.93       4.08
Nissan            Pathfinder / Terrano                   88-94    5.03       3.99          6.34       2.35
Make              Model of Car                      Years of Serious         Lower 90%    Upper 90% Width of
                                                   Manufacture injury rate   Confidence   Confidence Confidence
                                                               per 100       Limit        Limit      Interval
                                                               drivers
                                                               involved
Nissan            Pathfinder / Terrano / Regulus     95-05     4.63          3.55         6.02       2.47
Toyota            Kluger                             03-07     3.45          2.11         5.66       3.55
Toyota            Landcruiser Prado                  96-03     5.87          4.49         7.67       3.17
Toyota            Landcruiser Prado                  03-07     4.93          3.75         6.48       2.73

Large Wheel Drive Vehicles                                     5.01          4.84         5.20       0.43

BMW               X5                                  01-07    3.37          1.84         6.16       4.32
Ford              Bronco                              82-87    6.81          4.17         11.14      6.98
Ford              Explorer                            00-01    4.03          2.60         6.25       3.64
Jeep              Grand Cherokee ZG                   96-99    3.82          2.44         5.99       3.56
Jeep              Grand Cherokee WJ/WG                99-05    5.36          3.63         7.91       4.28
Land Rover        Discovery                           91-02    3.53          2.74         4.54       1.80
Mercedes Benz     M-Class W163                        98-05    3.88          2.41         6.24       3.83
Nissan            Patrol / Safari                     82-87    6.22          5.17         7.48       2.31
Nissan / Ford     Patrol / Maverick / Safari          88-97    5.21          4.77         5.70       0.93
Nissan            Patrol / Safari                     98-07    5.54          4.87         6.30       1.43
Land Rover        Range Rover                         82-94    6.13          4.72         7.96       3.23
Land Rover        Range Rover                         95-02    3.80          2.13         6.80       4.68
Toyota            Landcruiser                         82-89    6.55          6.03         7.13       1.10
Toyota            Landcruiser                         90-97    6.14          5.72         6.59       0.87
Toyota            Landcruiser                         98-07    5.74          5.16         6.40       1.24

Commercial Vehicles- Vans                                      4.36          4.17         4.56       0.47

Daihatsu          Handivan                            82-90    2.42          1.64         3.56       1.92
Ford              Falcon Panel Van                    82-95    3.86          3.31         4.50       1.19
Ford              Falcon Panel Van                    96-99    4.09          2.78         6.01       3.23
Ford              Transit                             95-00    4.07          3.10         5.35       2.25
Ford              Transit                             01-07    3.33          2.27         4.88       2.61
Holden            Shuttle / WFR Van                   82-87    3.94          2.62         5.91       3.29
Kia               Pregio                              02-06    4.12          2.69         6.31       3.61
Mercedes Benz     MB100 / MB140                       99-04    4.89          3.14         7.62       4.48
Mercedes Benz     Vito / Viano                        99-07    5.75          3.97         8.34       4.37
Mercedes Benz     Sprinter                            98-04    5.68          3.93         8.22       4.29
Honda             Acty                                83-86    1.64          0.80         3.35       2.55
Holden / Suzuki   Scurry / Carry                      82-00    2.64          1.65         4.23       2.59
Toyota            Hiace/Liteace                       82-86    5.70          5.09         6.39       1.30
Toyota            Hiace/Liteace                       87-89    5.50          4.77         6.34       1.57
Toyota            Hiace/Liteace                       90-95    5.67          5.12         6.27       1.15
Toyota            Hiace/Liteace                       96-04    5.43          4.85         6.08       1.24
Toyoa             Hiace                               05-07    4.35          2.70         7.01       4.30
Volkswagen        Caravelle / Transporter             88-94    4.45          2.41         8.21       5.79
Volkswagen        Caravelle / Transporter             95-04    6.43          4.86         8.51       3.65

Commercial Vehicles- Utes                                      4.03          3.92         4.14       0.27

Ford / Nissan     Falcon Ute / XFN Ute                82-95    4.33          3.95         4.75       0.81
Ford              Falcon Ute                          96-99    4.33          3.58         5.23       1.66
Ford              Falcon Ute AU                       00-02    4.95          4.19         5.85       1.67
Ford              Falcon Ute BA/BF                    03-07    3.82          2.96         4.93       1.98
Ford              Ford F-Series                       82-92    6.21          4.96         7.79       2.83
Make              Model of Car                       Years of Serious         Lower 90%    Upper 90% Width of
                                                    Manufacture injury rate   Confidence   Confidence Confidence
                                                                per 100       Limit        Limit      Interval
                                                                drivers
                                                                involved
Ford              F-Series                            01-06     5.38          3.03         9.55       6.52
Holden            Commodore Ute VG/VP                 90-93     3.02          2.36         3.88       1.52
Holden / Isuzu    Rodeo / Pickup                      82-85     4.81          3.57         6.48       2.91
Holden / Isuzu    Rodeo / Pickup                      86-88     4.25          2.75         6.56       3.80
Holden / Isuzu    Rodeo / Pickup                      89-95     5.19          4.70         5.73       1.04
Holden            Rodeo                               96-98     4.69          4.01         5.49       1.48
Holden            Rodeo                               99-02     5.15          4.41         6.01       1.60
Holden            WB Series                           82-85     4.76          3.90         5.82       1.92
Holden            Commodore Ute VR/VS                 94-00     4.54          4.07         5.05       0.98
Holden            Commodore VU Ute                    00-02     4.28          3.39         5.40       2.01
Holden            Commodore VY/VZ Ute                 02-07     5.00          4.23         5.90       1.67
Holden            Rodeo                               03-07     4.59          3.80         5.56       1.77
Mitsubishi        Triton MK                           96-06     4.71          3.54         6.28       2.75
Kia               Ceres                               92-00     3.19          2.28         4.47       2.18
Ford / Mazda      Courier / B-Series / Bounty         98-02     4.13          3.37         5.06       1.69
Ford / Mazda      Courier / Bravo / Bounty            03-06     3.49          2.57         4.74       2.17
Nissan            720 Ute                             82-85     3.64          2.88         4.61       1.73
Nissan            Navara                              86-91     4.70          4.14         5.34       1.20
Nissan            Navara                              92-96     4.85          4.07         5.78       1.71
Nissan            Navara                              97-05     4.33          3.60         5.20       1.59
Subaru            Brumby                              82-92     3.96          3.09         5.06       1.97
Suzuki            Mighty Boy                          85-88     2.19          1.22         3.94       2.72
Toyota            4Runner/Hilux                       82-85     5.27          4.68         5.94       1.26
Toyota            4Runner/Hilux                       86-88     5.03          4.45         5.69       1.24
Toyota            4Runner/Hilux                       89-97     4.66          4.37         4.96       0.59
Toyota            Hilux                               98-02     5.12          4.58         5.72       1.15
Toyota            Hilux                               03-04     4.21          3.27         5.41       2.14
Toyota            Hilux                               05-07     4.42          3.33         5.87       2.54

Large Cars                                                       3.25         3.19         3.31       0.14

BMW               7 Series E23                         82-88     2.30         1.06         4.99       3.93
BMW               7 Series E32                         89-94     4.63         2.72         7.88       5.16
BMW               7 Series E38                         95-01     3.78         1.81         7.89       6.08
Ford              Falcon XE/XF                         82-88     4.01         3.84         4.19       0.36
Ford              Fairlane Z & LTD F                   82-87     3.87         3.42         4.37       0.95
Ford              Falcon EA / Falcon EB Series I     88-Mar 92   3.95         3.77         4.15       0.37
Ford              Falcon EB Series II / Falcon ED    Apr 92-94   4.02         3.76         4.30       0.54
Ford              Fairlane N & LTD D                   88-94     3.38         2.93         3.89       0.95
Ford              Fairlane N & LTD D                   95-98     4.20         3.43         5.15       1.72
Ford              Fairlane & LTD AU                    99-02     2.90         2.11         3.97       1.86
Ford              Fairlane & LTD BA/BF                 03-07     2.56         1.28         5.15       3.87
Ford              Falcon EF/EL                         94-98     3.95         3.76         4.14       0.38
Ford              Falcon AU                            98-02     3.92         3.68         4.18       0.49
Ford              Taurus                               96-98     4.27         2.91         6.24       3.33
Ford              Falcon BA/BF                         02-07     3.71         3.34         4.12       0.78
Holden / Toyota   Commodore VN/VP / Lexcen             89-93     3.48         3.32         3.64       0.32
Holden            Statesman/Caprice WB                 82-85     7.75         4.18         14.35      10.17
Holden            Stateman/Caprice VQ                  90-93     3.69         2.55         5.34       2.79
Holden            Stateman/Caprice VR/VS               94-98     3.57         3.05         4.17       1.13
Holden / Toyota   Commodore VR/VS / Lexcen             93-97     3.51         3.34         3.68       0.34
Holden            Commodore VT/VX                      97-02     4.04         3.83         4.25       0.42
Make            Model of Car                    Years of Serious         Lower 90%    Upper 90% Width of
                                               Manufacture injury rate   Confidence   Confidence Confidence
                                                           per 100       Limit        Limit      Interval
                                                           drivers
                                                           involved
Holden          Statesman/Caprice WH             99-03     4.11          3.16         5.36       2.20
Holden          Commodore VY/VZ                  02-07     3.41          3.07         3.79       0.72
Holden          Monaro                           01-05     4.36          3.09         6.16       3.06
Holden          Statesman/Caprice WK/WL          03-06     4.38          2.58         7.41       4.83
Holden          Commodore VB-VL                  82-88     3.74          3.56         3.93       0.36
Holden          Commodore VE                     06-07     3.58          2.54         5.05       2.51
Hyundai         Sonata                           89-97     3.64          3.11         4.26       1.15
Hyundai         Grandeaur / XG                   99-00     5.16          3.01         8.85       5.84
                Magna TM/TN/TP / Sigma /
Mitsubishi                                                 3.60          3.38         3.83       0.44
                V3000                             85-90
                Magna TE/TF/TH/TJ / Verada
Mitsubishi                                                 3.47          3.21         3.75       0.54
                KE/KF/KH/KJ / Diamante            96-03
                Magna TR/TS / Verada KR/KS /
Mitsubishi                                                 3.63          3.41         3.85       0.44
                V3000 / Diamante                  91-96
Mitsubishi      Magna TL/TW / Verada KL/KW        03-05    4.12          2.98         5.69       2.71
Mitsubishi      380                               05-07    4.50          2.53         8.00       5.46
Jaguar          XJ6                               82-86    5.36          3.50         8.23       4.73
Jaguar          XJ6                               87-94    4.45          2.91         6.82       3.91
Mazda           929 / Luce                        82-90    3.28          2.77         3.89       1.12
Mazda           929 / Sentia / Efini MS-9         92-96    6.13          3.81         9.88       6.07
Mercedes Benz   E-Class W123                      82-85    3.25          2.04         5.16       3.12
Mercedes Benz   E-Class W124                      86-94    3.46          2.64         4.53       1.88
Mercedes Benz   E-Class W210                      96-02    3.97          2.81         5.60       2.79
Mercedes Benz   S-Class W126                      82-92    2.69          1.87         3.88       2.01
Mercedes Benz   S-Class C140                      93-98    3.41          1.87         6.23       4.36
Mercedes Benz   E-Class W211                      02-07    4.69          2.39         9.21       6.82
Nissan          Skyline                           83-88    3.97          3.52         4.47       0.95
Nissan          300ZX / Fairlady Z                90-95    5.38          3.82         7.59       3.77
Nissan          Maxima                            90-94    3.79          2.95         4.87       1.93
Nissan          Maxima / Cefiro                   95-99    2.77          2.14         3.58       1.45
Nissan          Maxima                            00-02    3.77          2.55         5.56       3.01
Honda           Legend                            86-95    4.80          3.64         6.33       2.69
Saab            9-5                               98-05    1.81          0.83         3.96       3.13
Toyota          Camry                             98-02    3.64          3.35         3.95       0.60
Toyota          Crown / Cressida / Mark II        82-85    4.19          3.46         5.07       1.61
Toyota          Crown / Cressida / Mark II        86-88    3.36          2.42         4.66       2.24
Toyota          Cressida / Mark II                89-93    2.51          1.98         3.18       1.20
Toyota          Supra                             82-90    6.15          4.41         8.60       4.19
Lexus           ES300 / Windom                    92-01    3.50          2.43         5.06       2.63
Lexus           LS400 / Celsior                   90-00    5.17          3.03         8.81       5.78
Toyota          Avalon                            00-05    4.16          3.44         5.04       1.61
Toyota          Camry                             02-06    3.46          2.95         4.06       1.11
Toyota          Camry                             06-07    2.37          1.05         5.35       4.30
Volvo           850/S70/V70/C70                   92-05    4.48          3.63         5.53       1.90
Volvo           700/900 Series                    84-92    3.54          2.82         4.43       1.61

Medium Cars                                                2.87          2.80         2.93       0.15

Alfa Romeo      156                               99-06    1.81          0.91         3.62       2.70
Audi            A4                                95-01    2.82          1.93         4.11       2.18
Audi            A4                                01-07    2.64          1.64         4.26       2.63
BMW             Z3 E36                            97-03    3.73          2.01         6.93       4.92
BMW             3 Series E30                      82-91    2.92          2.45         3.46       1.01
Make            Model of Car                       Years of Serious         Lower 90%    Upper 90% Width of
                                                  Manufacture injury rate   Confidence   Confidence Confidence
                                                              per 100       Limit        Limit      Interval
                                                              drivers
                                                              involved
BMW             3 Series E36                        92-98     3.12          2.71         3.60       0.89
BMW             3 Series E46                        99-06     2.88          2.31         3.60       1.29
BMW             5 Series E28                        82-88     4.04          2.96         5.52       2.55
BMW             5 Series E34                        89-95     3.64          2.72         4.87       2.16
BMW             5 Series E39                        96-03     2.88          1.98         4.18       2.19
Daewoo          Espero                              95-97     3.25          2.28         4.64       2.35
Daewoo          Leganza                             97-02     4.43          3.15         6.22       3.07
Ford            Cortina                             82-82     3.70          3.16         4.33       1.17
Ford            Mondeo                              95-01     3.29          2.74         3.95       1.21
Ford            Probe                               94-98     5.51          3.27         9.27       6.00
Ford            Cougar                              99-03     2.29          1.31         4.00       2.69
Holden          Calibra                             94-97     4.60          3.20         6.62       3.42
Holden          Camira                              82-89     3.63          3.34         3.93       0.59
Holden          Vectra                              97-03     3.32          2.83         3.91       1.09
Holden          Vectra ZC                           03-05     2.14          1.04         4.43       3.39
Hyundai         Sonata                              98-01     2.87          1.99         4.15       2.17
Hyundai         Sonata EF                           02-05     3.76          1.89         7.49       5.60
                Sigma / Galant / Sapporo /
Mitsubishi                                                    3.35          3.09         3.64       0.55
                Lambda                               82-84
Mitsubishi      Galant                               95-96    2.95          2.36         3.69       1.34
Ford / Mazda    Telstar / 626 / MX6 / Capella        83-86    3.13          2.85         3.44       0.59
Ford / Mazda    Telstar / 626 / MX6 / Capella        88-91    3.39          3.04         3.78       0.73
                Telstar / 626 / MX6 / Capella /
Ford / Mazda                                                  2.60          2.29         2.95       0.65
                Cronos                               92-97
Mazda           626                                  98-02    3.34          2.72         4.11       1.39
Mazda           RX7                                  82-85    4.41          2.98         6.52       3.54
Mazda           RX7                                  86-91    3.73          2.36         5.88       3.52
Mazda           Eunos 500                            93-99    2.60          1.43         4.72       3.29
Mazda           6                                    02-07    2.08          1.40         3.11       1.71
Mercedes Benz   C-Class W201                         87-93    3.37          2.41         4.70       2.28
Mercedes Benz   C-Class W202                         95-00    2.63          1.97         3.50       1.53
Mercedes Benz   CLK C208                             97-03    3.29          1.77         6.14       4.38
Mercedes Benz   C-Class W203                         00-07    1.88          1.10         3.20       2.10
Nissan          Pintara                              86-88    3.44          3.02         3.92       0.91
Nissan / Ford   Pintara / Corsair / Bluebird         89-92    3.70          3.36         4.07       0.70
Nissan          Bluebird                             82-86    3.11          2.83         3.41       0.58
Nissan          Bluebird                             93-97    2.68          2.20         3.28       1.08
Nissan          200SX / Silvia                       94-02    4.27          3.17         5.75       2.57
Honda           Accord Euro                          03-07    2.67          1.85         3.84       1.99
Honda           Accord                               03-07    5.01          3.17         7.90       4.73
Honda           Accord                               82-85    2.38          1.93         2.94       1.01
Honda           Accord                               86-90    3.26          2.76         3.87       1.11
Honda           Accord                               91-93    2.59          2.03         3.31       1.29
Honda           Accord                               94-98    3.25          2.74         3.86       1.12
Honda           Accord                               99-02    3.95          2.82         5.55       2.74
Honda           Prelude                              82-82    1.83          0.73         4.56       3.82
Honda           Prelude                              83-91    3.16          2.72         3.66       0.94
Honda           Prelude                              92-96    2.89          2.25         3.72       1.46
Honda           Prelude                              97-02    3.15          2.16         4.62       2.46
Peugeot         405                                  89-97    2.76          1.94         3.93       1.99
Peugeot         505                                  82-93    3.71          2.52         5.47       2.95
Peugeot         406                                  96-04    2.05          1.05         4.00       2.95
Make            Model of Car                      Years of Serious         Lower 90%    Upper 90% Width of
                                                 Manufacture injury rate   Confidence   Confidence Confidence
                                                             per 100       Limit        Limit      Interval
                                                             drivers
                                                             involved
Renault         Feugo                              82-87     1.75          0.85         3.61       2.76
Saab            900 Series                         82-92     2.03          1.37         3.00       1.63
Saab            900/9-3                            94-02     2.55          1.85         3.50       1.65
Saab            9000                               86-97     2.40          1.68         3.43       1.75
                1800 / Leone / Omega / 4WD
Subaru                                                       2.61          2.28         2.98       0.69
                Wagon                               82-93
Subaru          Liberty / Legacy                    89-93    3.30          2.91         3.73       0.81
Subaru          Liberty / Legacy / Outback          94-98    3.71          3.13         4.39       1.25
Subaru          Liberty / Legacy / Outback          99-03    2.72          2.18         3.39       1.21
Subaru          Liberty / Legacy / Outback          03-07    1.17          0.67         2.05       1.38
Toyota          Corona                              82-88    3.41          3.17         3.66       0.49
Toyota          Camry                               83-86    3.35          2.84         3.96       1.12
Holden / Toyota Apollo JK/JL / Camry / Vista        88-92    3.57          3.37         3.79       0.42
Holden / Toyota Apollo JM/JP / Camry / Sceptor      93-97    3.59          3.37         3.83       0.46
Toyota          Celica                              81-85    3.92          3.28         4.67       1.39
Toyota          Celica                              86-89    3.89          3.22         4.72       1.50
Toyota          Celica                              90-93    4.23          3.53         5.06       1.53
Toyota          Celica                              94-99    3.29          2.50         4.32       1.82
Toyota          Celica                              00-05    3.44          2.18         5.43       3.26
Lexus           IS200 / IS300                       99-04    2.43          1.29         4.59       3.30
Volvo           200 Series                          82-93    3.43          2.85         4.14       1.29
Volkswagen      Passat                              98-06    2.88          1.70         4.87       3.17

People Movers                                                3.69          3.50         3.88       0.45

Chrysler        Voyager                             97-01    5.01          3.33         7.53       4.19
Holden          Zafira TT                           01-05    3.20          1.68         6.09       4.41
Mitsubishi      Nimbus / Chariot / Spacewagon       85-91    2.50          1.64         3.81       2.17
Mitsubishi      Nimbus / Chariot                    92-98    3.98          2.97         5.33       2.36
Mitsubishi      Nimbus                              99-03    1.07          0.40         2.87       2.47
Mitsubishi      Starwagon / L300                    83-86    5.16          4.44         5.99       1.55
Mitsubishi      Starwagon / Delica Starwagon        87-93    4.32          3.86         4.83       0.97
Mitsubishi      Starwagon / Delica Spacegear        95-98    4.79          3.90         5.88       1.98
Mitsubishi      Starwagon / Delica Spacegear        98-03    3.80          2.85         5.05       2.20
Kia             Carnival                            99-06    6.75          5.03         9.07       4.04
Mazda           MPV                                 94-99    4.91          2.97         8.12       5.15
Nissan          Prairie                             84-86    3.21          2.09         4.93       2.84
Nissan          Serena                              92-95    2.47          1.42         4.29       2.87
Honda           Odyssey                             95-00    3.99          2.89         5.51       2.61
Honda           Odyssey                             00-02    4.72          2.66         8.38       5.72
Toyota          Tarago                              83-89    4.27          3.73         4.88       1.16
Toyota          Tarago / Previa / Estima            91-99    3.83          3.24         4.53       1.28
Toyota          Tarago / Previa / Estima            00-06    3.93          2.75         5.62       2.87

Light Cars                                                   2.20          2.13         2.28       0.18

Daihatsu        Charade                             82-86    2.75          2.19         3.46       1.28
Daihatsu        Charade                             88-92    2.22          1.92         2.57       0.65
Daihatsu        Charade                             93-00    2.68          2.29         3.13       0.84
Daihatsu        Pyzar                               97-01    2.10          1.16         3.83       2.68
Daihatsu        Sirion / Storia                     98-04    1.56          1.06         2.30       1.24
Daihatsu        Mira                                90-96    2.48          1.76         3.48       1.72
Make              Model of Car                  Years of Serious         Lower 90%    Upper 90% Width of
                                               Manufacture injury rate   Confidence   Confidence Confidence
                                                           per 100       Limit        Limit      Interval
                                                           drivers
                                                           involved
Daewoo            Matiz                          99-04     2.28          1.49         3.48       1.99
Daewoo            Kalos                          03-04     3.81          2.07         7.01       4.94
Ford              Festiva WD/WH/WF               94-01     2.66          2.41         2.93       0.52
Ford              Ka                             99-02     2.82          1.73         4.60       2.87
Holden            Barina XC                      01-06     2.98          2.37         3.77       1.40
Holden            Barina SB                      95-00     2.84          2.47         3.25       0.78
Holden            Barina TK                      05-07     1.86          0.85         4.07       3.22
Hyundai           Getz / TB                      02-07     4.75          3.84         5.86       2.02
Mitsubishi        Mirage / Colt                  82-88     2.93          2.66         3.23       0.57
Ford / Mazda      Festiva WA / 121               87-90     2.49          2.16         2.86       0.70
Mazda             121 / Autozam Review           94-96     1.83          1.45         2.30       0.85
Mazda             121 Metro / Demio              97-02     1.91          1.51         2.41       0.91
Mazda             2                              02-07     2.98          1.91         4.64       2.73
Nissan            Micra                          95-97     2.76          1.89         4.04       2.15
Honda             Jazz / Fit                     02-07     2.30          1.59         3.33       1.74
Honda             City                           83-86     2.10          1.33         3.33       2.00
Peugeot           205                            87-94     1.68          0.77         3.67       2.90
Peugeot           206                            99-07     2.24          1.29         3.90       2.61
Subaru            Sherpa / Fiori / 700 / Rex     89-92     2.19          1.50         3.19       1.69
Suzuki            Swift                          82-85     3.08          1.51         6.28       4.77
Holden / Suzuki   Barina / Swift / Cultus        86-88     2.51          2.11         2.97       0.86
Holden / Suzuki   Barina / Swift / Cultus        89-99     2.39          2.18         2.62       0.45
Suzuki            Hatch / Alto                   82-84     3.31          2.34         4.68       2.34
Suzuki            Alto                           85-00     4.18          2.65         6.61       3.97
Suzuki            Ignis                          00-02     2.12          1.20         3.71       2.51
Suzuki            Swift                          05-07     2.12          1.16         3.88       2.72
Toyota            Starlet                        96-99     2.45          2.05         2.91       0.86
Toyota            Echo                           99-05     2.43          2.06         2.87       0.80
Toyota            Yaris                          05-07     1.94          1.15         3.28       2.13
Volkswagen        Polo                           96-00     1.93          1.18         3.16       1.98

Small Cars                                                 2.48          2.43         2.53       0.12

Alfa Romeo        33                              83-92    1.84          1.14         2.98       1.84
Alfa Romeo        75                              86-92    4.53          2.29         8.97       6.68
Audi              A3/S3                           97-04    3.85          2.29         6.47       4.18
Chrysler          Neon                            96-99    1.90          1.11         3.23       2.12
Daihatsu          Applause                        89-99    2.57          2.09         3.17       1.08
Daewoo            1.5i                            94-95    2.28          0.75         6.93       6.18
Daewoo            Cielo                           95-97    2.54          2.12         3.04       0.92
Daewoo            Nubira                          97-03    2.57          2.08         3.18       1.10
Daewoo            Lanos                           97-03    3.37          2.92         3.90       0.99
Ford              Laser                           91-94    2.91          2.67         3.17       0.50
Ford              Laser                           95-97    2.87          2.46         3.34       0.88
Ford              Escort                          82-82    2.79          2.11         3.68       1.57
Ford              Capri                           89-94    2.61          2.00         3.41       1.41
Ford              Focus LR                        02-05    2.71          1.96         3.75       1.79
Ford              Focus LS / LT                   05-07    3.06          1.77         5.29       3.52
Fiat              Regata                          84-88    3.52          1.85         6.68       4.82
Holden            Gemini                          82-84    2.70          2.34         3.12       0.78
Holden            Gemini RB                       86-87    2.56          1.84         3.56       1.72
Holden            Astra TR                        96-98    2.70          2.01         3.62       1.60
Make              Model of Car                        Years of Serious         Lower 90%    Upper 90% Width of
                                                     Manufacture injury rate   Confidence   Confidence Confidence
                                                                 per 100       Limit        Limit      Interval
                                                                 drivers
                                                                 involved
Holden            Astra TS                             98-06     2.77          2.46         3.13       0.67
Holden            Astra AH                             04-07     2.91          1.90         4.48       2.58
Holden            Viva JF                              05-07     3.74          2.13         6.58       4.44
Hyundai           Excel                                86-90     3.22          2.70         3.84       1.14
Hyundai           Excel                                90-94     2.90          2.59         3.25       0.65
Hyundai           Excel / Accent                       95-00     2.84          2.64         3.05       0.42
Hyundai           Elantra                              00-07     3.07          2.38         3.98       1.60
Hyundai           S Coupe                              90-96     2.54          1.86         3.47       1.62
Hyundai           Lantra                               91-95     3.05          2.39         3.89       1.49
Hyundai           Lantra                               96-00     3.12          2.67         3.64       0.97
Hyundai           Coupe                                96-00     2.65          1.79         3.93       2.14
Hyundai           Accent                               00-06     3.02          2.55         3.58       1.04
Mitsubishi        Lancer / Mirage CA                   89-90     2.65          2.32         3.04       0.72
Mitsubishi        Lancer / Mirage CB                   91-92     3.89          3.05         4.97       1.91
Mitsubishi        Lancer / Mirage CC                   93-95     2.41          2.11         2.74       0.63
Mitsubishi        Lancer / Mirage CE                   96-03     2.80          2.56         3.05       0.48
Mitsubishi        Cordia                               83-87     4.37          3.62         5.27       1.65
Mitsubishi        Lancer CH / CJ                       03-07     2.49          1.76         3.51       1.75
Kia               Rio                                  00-05     3.39          2.67         4.31       1.65
Kia               Spectra                              01-04     3.43          1.68         7.03       5.35
Ford / Mazda      Laser / 323 / Familia                82-88     2.92          2.78         3.07       0.30
Mazda             323 / Familia / Lantis               90-93     2.33          2.01         2.70       0.69
Mazda             323 / Familia / Lantis               95-98     2.45          2.09         2.88       0.79
Ford / Mazda      Laser / 323                          99-03     2.37          2.02         2.76       0.74
Mazda             MX5 / Eunos Roadster                 89-97     2.71          1.66         4.45       2.79
Mazda             MX5 / Eunos Roadster                 98-05     0.51          0.15         1.68       1.53
                  Eunos 30X / Presso / MX-3 /
Mazda                                                            2.92          1.77         4.82       3.05
                  Autozam AZ-3                          90-97
Mazda             3 / Axela                             03-07    3.11          2.41         4.01       1.60
Mercedes Benz     A-Class W168                          98-04    2.05          1.01         4.16       3.14
Holden / Nissan   Astra / Pulsar / Langley              84-86    3.24          2.92         3.59       0.67
Holden / Nissan   Astra / Pulsar / Vector / Sentra      88-90    3.26          2.99         3.55       0.56
Nissan            Pulsar / Vector / Sentra              92-95    3.16          2.82         3.54       0.72
Nissan            Pulsar / Vector / Sentra              96-99    2.77          2.46         3.12       0.66
Nissan            Stanza                                82-83    5.25          3.52         7.81       4.29
Nissan            Gazelle / Silvia                      84-86    3.01          2.00         4.51       2.50
Nissan            Exa                                   83-86    5.20          3.54         7.62       4.08
Nissan            Exa                                   87-91    5.77          3.52         9.45       5.92
Nissan            NX/NX-R                               91-96    4.52          3.36         6.09       2.73
Nissan            Pulsar                                00-05    2.48          2.12         2.91       0.79
Honda             Civic                                 82-83    2.26          1.57         3.26       1.69
Honda             Civic / Ballade / Shuttle             84-87    3.07          2.56         3.68       1.12
Honda             Civic / Shuttle                       88-91    2.76          2.39         3.20       0.82
Honda             Civic                                 92-95    3.04          2.65         3.49       0.84
Honda             Civic                                 96-00    2.51          2.13         2.97       0.83
Honda             CRX                                   87-91    3.17          2.11         4.78       2.67
Honda             CRX                                   92-98    4.65          2.62         8.24       5.61
Honda             Civic                                 01-05    3.06          2.29         4.09       1.80
Honda             Integra                               86-88    2.18          1.52         3.15       1.63
Honda             Integra                               90-92    4.26          3.17         5.72       2.55
Honda             Integra                               93-01    2.60          1.92         3.50       1.58
Honda             Integra                               02-06    4.08          2.17         7.68       5.52
Make              Model of Car                Years of Serious         Lower 90%    Upper 90% Width of
                                             Manufacture injury rate   Confidence   Confidence Confidence
                                                         per 100       Limit        Limit      Interval
                                                         drivers
                                                         involved
Honda             Concerto                     89-93     2.69          1.83         3.94       2.10
Peugeot           306                          94-01     2.59          1.92         3.50       1.59
Peugeot           307                          01-07     1.91          1.03         3.56       2.52
Proton            Wira                         95-96     3.57          2.71         4.71       2.01
Renault           19                           91-96     2.83          1.62         4.94       3.32
Rover             Quintet                      82-86     1.26          0.49         3.22       2.73
MG                MGF / MG TF                  99-05     1.38          0.56         3.41       2.85
Subaru            Impreza                      93-00     3.56          3.09         4.11       1.02
Subaru            Impreza                      01-07     2.33          1.70         3.19       1.49
Suzuki            Baleno / Cultus Crescent     95-02     1.47          1.02         2.11       1.09
Suzuki            Liana                        01-07     3.89          2.18         6.95       4.77
Toyota            Corolla                      82-84     2.55          2.31         2.82       0.51
Toyota            Corolla                      86-88     2.94          2.72         3.19       0.47
Toyota / Holden   Corolla / Nova               89-93     3.05          2.87         3.25       0.39
Toyota / Holden   Corolla / Nova               94-97     2.56          2.35         2.79       0.44
Toyota            Corolla / Allex              98-01     2.91          2.53         3.35       0.82
Toyota            Corolla                      02-07     2.81          2.46         3.21       0.74
Toyota            Tercel                       83-88     2.81          1.73         4.58       2.86
Toyota            MR2                          87-90     3.34          1.96         5.68       3.72
Toyota            Paseo / Cynos                91-99     3.17          2.42         4.14       1.72
Toyota            Corolla 4WD Wagon            92-96     5.27          3.52         7.88       4.35
Volvo             S40/V40                      97-04     2.54          1.56         4.14       2.58
Volkswagen        Golf                         82-94     4.52          2.83         7.21       4.38
Volkswagen        Golf                         95-98     3.30          2.39         4.55       2.15
Volkswagen        Golf / Bora                  99-04     2.48          1.86         3.32       1.46
Volkswagen        New Beetle                   00-07     3.19          1.73         5.89       4.16
Volkswagen        Golf / Jetta                 04-07     3.63          2.07         6.39       4.33
                                       APPENDIX 6




 TOTAL SECONDARY SAFETY INDEX OF
1982-2007 MODELS OF CARS INVOLVED IN
       CRASHES DURING 1987-2007
                  with
        90 % CONFIDENCE LIMITS
                                                 TOTAL SECONDARY SAFETY INDEX

                                                    (WITH 90% CONFIDENCE LIMITS)

                               Victoria and New South Wales Data (1987-2007), Queensland, Western Australia
                                                    and New Zealand Data (1991-2007)

Make               Model of Car                        Years of   Pr(Risk)   Pr(Severity) Serious injury Lower 90%   Lower 90%    Width of
                                                      Manufacture %          %            rate per 100 Confidence    Confidence   Confidence
                                                                                          road users     Limit       Limit        Interval
                                                                                          involved
                                                                                          %

ALL VEHICLE AVERAGE                                                                      3.64
Compact Four Wheel Drive Vehicles                                 16.33      20.27       3.31          3.19          3.43         0.23

Daihatsu           Feroza / Rocky                        89-97    19.42      22.87       4.44          3.70          5.33         1.64
Daihatsu           Rocky / Rugger                        85-98    20.43      29.09       5.94          4.83          7.31         2.48
Daihatsu           Terios                                97-05    20.93      19.86       4.16          3.34          5.18         1.84
Holden             Cruze                                 02-06    19.11      26.62       5.09          4.03          6.43         2.40
Hyundai            Tucson                                04-07    10.20      25.72       2.62          1.36          5.05         3.69
Mitsubishi         Pajero iO                             99-03    15.90      35.27       5.61          3.13          10.04        6.91
Mitsubishi         Outlander                             03-06    15.74      21.71       3.42          2.21          5.30         3.09
Kia                Sportage                              98-03    17.05      16.36       2.79          2.13          3.65         1.51
Kia                Sorento                               03-07    12.57      18.13       2.28          1.21          4.28         3.07
Ford / Mazda       Escape / Tribute                      01-06    13.88      20.42       2.83          2.31          3.48         1.17
Nissan             X-Trail                               01-07    15.30      21.54       3.30          2.77          3.92         1.16
Lada               Niva                                  84-99    18.46      22.80       4.21          3.17          5.58         2.41
Honda              CR-V                                  97-01    14.14      18.37       2.60          2.23          3.03         0.80
Honda              CR-V                                  02-07    13.49      17.07       2.30          1.86          2.86         1.00
Honda              HR-V                                  99-02    15.60      26.56       4.14          3.14          5.47         2.34
Land Rover         Freelander                            98-06    14.99      34.01       5.10          3.52          7.38         3.86
Subaru             Forester                              97-02    13.29      16.24       2.16          1.80          2.60         0.80
Subaru             Forester                              02-07    14.03      17.57       2.47          1.95          3.11         1.16
Suzuki             Vitara / Escudo                       88-98    18.91      22.55       4.26          3.86          4.71         0.85
Suzuki             Grand Vitara                          99-05    15.11      19.95       3.02          2.36          3.86         1.50
Make                Model of Car                                 Years of   Pr(Risk)   Pr(Severity) Serious injury Lower 90%   Lower 90%    Width of
                                                                Manufacture %          %            rate per 100 Confidence    Confidence   Confidence
                                                                                                    road users     Limit       Limit        Interval
                                                                                                    involved
                                                                                                    %

Holden / Suzuki     Drover / Sierra / Samurai / SJ410 / SJ413      82-99    22.41      21.17       4.74          4.33          5.19         0.86
Suzuki              Jimny                                          98-07    20.84      19.63       4.09          2.89          5.80         2.91
Toyota              RAV4                                           94-00    15.69      22.59       3.55          3.16          3.98         0.82
Toyota              RAV4                                           01-06    15.18      21.38       3.25          2.80          3.77         0.97
Toyota              RAV4                                           06-07    10.83      17.75       1.92          1.13          3.28         2.16

Medium Four Wheel Drive Vehicles                                            14.56      21.59       3.14          3.02          3.28         0.26

Daewoo / Ssangong   Musso                                          98-02    12.90      30.19       3.89          2.75          5.51         2.76
Ford                Territory SX/SY                                04-07    11.90      24.45       2.91          2.20          3.84         1.64
Holden / Isuzu      Jackaroo / Bighorn                             82-91    20.70      19.34       4.00          3.34          4.79         1.45
Holden / Isuzu      Jackaroo / Bighorn                             92-97    16.78      23.34       3.92          3.22          4.76         1.54
Holden / Isuzu      Jackaroo / Bighorn                             98-02    17.18      24.43       4.20          3.38          5.21         1.82
Holden              Frontera / Mu                                  95-03    15.89      23.75       3.77          2.77          5.14         2.37
Holden              Adventra                                       03-06    12.01      14.80       1.78          0.94          3.35         2.41
Hyundai             Santa Fe                                       00-06    17.13      21.74       3.72          2.64          5.25         2.61
Hyundai             Terracan                                       01-07    14.98      23.97       3.59          1.95          6.63         4.68
Mitsubishi          Pajero                                         82-90    18.45      24.79       4.57          4.08          5.13         1.05
Mitsubishi          Pajero                                         92-99    15.01      22.80       3.42          3.08          3.80         0.73
Mitsubishi          Pajero NM / NP / NS                            00-07    11.43      20.04       2.29          1.79          2.94         1.15
Mitsubishi          Challenger                                     98-06    14.78      19.32       2.86          2.10          3.88         1.78
Jeep                Cherokee XJ                                    96-00    15.69      21.83       3.42          2.89          4.06         1.17
Jeep                Wrangler                                       96-04    18.15      26.52       4.81          3.59          6.45         2.86
Jeep                Cherokee KJ                                    01-07    12.58      15.80       1.99          1.17          3.38         2.21
Land Rover          Defender                                       92-07    15.62      24.80       3.87          2.87          5.23         2.36
Nissan              Pathfinder / Terrano                           88-94    17.46      20.89       3.65          3.05          4.36         1.31
Nissan              Pathfinder / Terrano / Regulus                 95-05    13.20      22.59       2.98          2.44          3.65         1.22
Nissan              Pathfinder                                     05-07    10.90      2.92        0.32          0.06          1.72         1.66
Toyota              Kluger                                         03-07    13.58      19.76       2.68          1.92          3.74         1.82
Toyota              Landcruiser Prado                              96-03    13.10      24.49       3.21          2.62          3.94         1.32
Make                Model of Car                  Years of   Pr(Risk)   Pr(Severity) Serious injury Lower 90%   Lower 90%    Width of
                                                 Manufacture %          %            rate per 100 Confidence    Confidence   Confidence
                                                                                     road users     Limit       Limit        Interval
                                                                                     involved
                                                                                     %

Toyota              Landcruiser Prado               03-07    11.90      20.08       2.39          1.92          2.97         1.06
Lexus               RX330                           03-05    9.80       41.97       4.11          2.48          6.81         4.32
Volvo               XC 90                           03-07    13.57      27.88       3.78          1.88          7.63         5.75

Large Four Wheel Drive Vehicles                              15.01      23.91       3.59          3.49          3.69         0.19

BMW                 X5                              01-07    11.55      22.01       2.54          1.57          4.13         2.56
Ford                Bronco                          82-87    19.73      29.05       5.73          3.94          8.34         4.41
Ford                Explorer                        00-01    18.96      23.00       4.36          3.35          5.68         2.33
Ford                Explorer                        01-05    11.74      16.61       1.95          1.24          3 .07        1.84
Jeep                Grand Cherokee ZG               96-99    13.88      19.63       2.73          1.91          3.89         1.98
Jeep                Grand Cherokee WJ/WG            99-05    13.30      24.91       3.31          2.38          4.62         2.24
Land Rover          Discovery                       91-02    14.19      19.12       2.71          2.24          3.28         1.04
Land Rover          Discovery                       02-04    14.68      19.83       2.91          1.26          6.73         5.47
Mercedes Benz       M-Class W163                    98-05    13.51      14.62       1.97          1.33          2.93         1.60
Nissan              Patrol / Safari                 82-87    17.38      25.31       4.40          3.80          5.09         1.29
Nissan / Ford       Patrol / Maverick / Safari      88-97    15.08      23.92       3.61          3.36          3.87         0.51
Nissan              Patrol / Safari                 98-07    14.19      23.97       3.40          3.07          3.77         0.70
Land Rover          Range Rover                     82-94    17.04      22.42       3.82          3.14          4.65         1.51
Land Rover          Range Rover                     95-02    12.56      19.82       2.49          1.57          3.95         2.38
Toyota              Landcruiser                     82-89    18.22      27.84       5.07          4.77          5.40         0.63
Toyota              Landcruiser                     90-97    16.12      26.17       4.22          3.99          4.46         0.47
Toyota              Landcruiser                     98-07    14.73      24.65       3.63          3.35          3.94         0.59

Commercial Vehicles- Vans                                    17.49      21.72       3.80          3.68          3.92         0.25

Daihatsu            Handivan                        82-90    25.95      25.01       6.49          5.43          7.75         2.32
Daihatsu            Hi-Jet                          82-90    32.72      25.73       8.42          6.16          11.50        5.34
Daihatsu            Handivan / Cuore                99-03    20.46      15.76       3.23          1.94          5.35         3.41
Ford                Falcon Panel Van                82-95    17.00      21.65       3.68          3.29          4.11         0.82
Make                Model of Car               Years of   Pr(Risk)   Pr(Severity) Serious injury Lower 90%   Lower 90%    Width of
                                              Manufacture %          %            rate per 100 Confidence    Confidence   Confidence
                                                                                  road users     Limit       Limit        Interval
                                                                                  involved
                                                                                  %

Ford                Falcon Panel Van             96-99    15.39      21.39       3.29          2.45          4.43         1.98
Ford                Transit                      95-00    16.59      20.46       3.39          2.76          4.17         1.41
Ford                Transit                      01-07    12.66      14.88       1.88          1.37          2.58         1.21
Holden              Shuttle / WFR Van            82-87    21.43      22.18       4.75          3.69          6.13         2.44
Kia                 Pregio                       02-06    18.90      18.16       3.43          2.51          4.69         2.18
Mercedes Benz       MB100 / MB140                99-04    14.40      23.66       3.41          2.37          4.90         2.53
Mercedes Benz       Vito / Viano                 99-07    14.22      22.95       3.26          2.39          4.45         2.06
Mercedes Benz       Sprinter                     98-04    17.26      20.13       3.47          2.59          4.66         2.07
Honda               Acty                         83-86    15.28      18.88       2.89          1.99          4.18         2.19
Holden / Suzuki     Scurry / Carry               82-00    27.09      25.94       7.03          5.72          8.63         2.92
Suzuki              Carry                        99-05    18.13      16.59       3.01          1.50          6.02         4.52
Toyota              Hiace/Liteace                82-86    21.04      25.60       5.39          4.98          5.82         0.84
Toyota              Hiace/Liteace                87-89    20.54      23.46       4.82          4.35          5.34         1.00
Toyota              Hiace/Liteace                90-95    19.43      23.81       4.62          4.28          5.00         0.72
Toyota              Hiace/Liteace                96-04    16.83      22.20       3.74          3.41          4.10         0.69
Toyoa               Hiace                        05-07    14.55      23.45       3.41          2.38          4.90         2.53
Volkswagen          Caravelle / Transporter      88-94    15.99      20.77       3.32          2.13          5.18         3.05
Volkswagen          Caravelle / Transporter      95-04    17.80      19.08       3.40          2.65          4.36         1.71

Commercial Vehicles- Utes                                 15.68      22.57       3.54          3.47          3.61         0.13

Ford / Nissan       Falcon Ute / XFN Ute         82-95    17.26      23.09       3.99          3.74          4.25         0.51
Ford                Falcon Ute                   96-99    17.17      20.62       3.54          3.10          4.05         0.95
Ford                Falcon Ute AU                00-02    15.76      21.81       3.44          3.03          3.90         0.88
Ford                Falcon Ute BA/BF             03-07    14.59      18.23       2.66          2.22          3.19         0.97
Ford                Ford F-Series                82-92    17.97      23.79       4.28          3.54          5.17         1.63
Ford                F-Series                     01-06    11.05      30.87       3.41          2.20          5.29         3.09
Holden              Commodore Ute VG/VP          90-93    16.21      22.94       3.72          3.21          4.31         1.09
Holden / Isuzu      Rodeo / Pickup               82-85    18.30      25.14       4.60          3.75          5.64         1.89
Holden / Isuzu      Rodeo / Pickup               86-88    19.03      17.72       3.37          2.40          4.73         2.32
Make             Model of Car                   Years of   Pr(Risk)   Pr(Severity) Serious injury Lower 90%   Lower 90%    Width of
                                               Manufacture %          %            rate per 100 Confidence    Confidence   Confidence
                                                                                   road users     Limit       Limit        Interval
                                                                                   involved
                                                                                   %

Holden / Isuzu   Rodeo / Pickup                   89-95    17.70      25.72       4.55          4.24          4.89         0.65
Holden           Rodeo                            96-98    17.00      22.23       3.78          3.38          4.23         0.85
Holden           Rodeo                            99-02    16.14      23.23       3.75          3.35          4.19         0.84
Holden           WB Series                        82-85    17.11      28.69       4.91          4.30          5.61         1.31
Holden           Commodore Ute VR/VS              94-00    16.36      25.01       4.09          3.81          4.39         0.58
Holden           Commodore VU Ute                 00-02    14.01      25.73       3.60          3.11          4.18         1.07
Holden           Commodore VY/VZ Ute              02-07    14.49      22.91       3.32          2.95          3.74         0.80
Holden           Rodeo                            03-07    14.76      21.68       3.20          2.78          3.68         0.90
Mitsubishi       Triton MK                        96-06    14.41      21.15       3.05          2.45          3.80         1.35
Kia              Ceres                            92-00    18.01      26.53       4.78          3.99          5.72         1.73
Kia              K2700                            02-07    13.41      22.36       3.00          1.51          5.95         4.44
Ford / Mazda     Courier / B-Series