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									   WALKER ART CENTER                                      1




   GLOBAL POSITIONING
   EXPLORING CONTEMPORARY WORLD ART
   http://globalpositions.walkerart.org




   Teacher’s Guide

   Directory




x Introduction for Teachers
x Part 1:   Exploring the Site
            Interactive Map
            Visual Navigation Tool
            Student Exploration Activity


x Part 2:   Artist Discussion Questions
            Jac Leirner
            Sawad Brooks and Beth Stryker
            Ashley Bickerton
            Urban Bush Women
            Ralph Lemon
            Shirin Neshat
            Willie Cole
            Yinka Shonibare
            Udomsak Krisanamis
            Eugenio Dittborn
            Kcho
            Chris Ofili
            Joseph Beuys
            Mel Chin

x Part 3:   Student Activity, “From Global to Personal”

x Part 4:   Appendix
            A. List of Artists by Point of View
            B. Timeline of Global Events 1945-2003
            C. Glossary
            D. Useful Web Sites
    WALKER ART CENTER                                                      2

    Teacher’s Guide to   GLOBAL POSITIONING: EXPLORING CONTEMPORARY WORLD ART




   INTRODUCTION FOR TEACHERS
   As the world becomes more interconnected, many artists are challenged with the complexities of living
   in a global world, and as a result their work often transcends cultural and political borders. Global
   Positioning: Exploring Contemporary World Art highlights selected artworks in the Walker’s collection
   that reflect this phenomenon. The Web site presents each piece of art from multiple perspectives and
   provides contextual information while raising questions about the work, the artist, and global concerns.
   In some cases, the content of the site is purposefully provocative and open ended.

   This Teacher’s Guide has been developed for art and social studies classes at the middle school and
   high school levels. It suggests ways for students to explore the site and apply its content to the study
   of global issues. Teachers may present these activities for an entire class to discuss or assign them to
   individuals or small groups. It is recommended that students keep a journal to record their research,
   answers to questions, and general responses to the site.

   The Teacher’s Guide is divided into four major sections:

xPart 1 offers activities to learn about the navigational features of the site.
xPart 2 consists of questions about each artist.
xPart3 provides a research or creative-response activity that focuses on a global issue of the students’
   choice.

xPart 4    is an appendix that contains a list of the artists organized by points of view, a timeline of
   global events from 1945 to 2003, a glossary, and an annotated list of Web sites useful for research.

   Teaching from a global perspective requires that educators and students accept concepts, orientations,
   and attitudes that serve as lenses through which the world should be understood. These include open-
   mindedness, anticipation of complexity, resistance to stereotyping, and the ability to place oneself in
   the role or situation of others.* It is our hope that through Global Positioning, students will engage with
   issues that are part of modern life and understand the power of art as an expressive tool and a catalyst
   to action in a global world.

   Susan Rotilie
   Program Manager for School Programs
   Walker Art Center

   This teacher’s guide is made possible by generous support from Target.
   Teacher’s guide developed by Susan Rotilie with Kris Wetterlund.
   Timeline developed by Mary Eileen Sorenson and Morgan Wylie.




   *Case, Roland. “Key Elements of a Global Perspective,” Social Education 57(6), 1993. pp. 318—325.
   WALKER ART CENTER                                                      3

   Teacher’s Guide to   GLOBAL POSITIONING: EXPLORING CONTEMPORARY WORLD ART




   PART 1: EXPLORING THE SITE
xInteractive Map




   On the entry page of the Web site, students are invited to submit information              Questions for journals or discussion:
   about themselves by clicking on the map “to place a dot where you are from.” The
   phrase “where you are from” is intentionally vague, and individuals may interpret it       1. Why are visitors given the opportunity to click on
   in different ways. It can refer to a birthplace, a past childhood location, or a present   more than one place to show where they are from?
   home. Allowing students more than one response acknowledges that many people               2. Besides a specific place, what other possible
   are “from” more than one place in the world. Once the student responds, the map            answers could you give to the question “Where are
   changes to show where other visitors to the site are from, as well as where the            you from?”
   highlighted artists are from.




xVisual Navigation Tool




   The Global Positioning site highlights 14 works by contemporary artists. To enter an       Student Exploration Activity
   artist’s section, drag a thumbnail image to the box at the right. Students are invited     Ask students to explore at least seven artworks on the
   to make choices for exploration based on their responses to what they can or cannot        site by selecting thumbnail images that catch their at-
   see in the small image.                                                                    tention.

   Once a thumbnail has been selected, the screen displays a larger image and a menu          Have students keep a reflective journal of this
   of various points of view for approaching the artwork. The text for these viewpoints,      process by answering the following questions:
   rather than being purely didactic, raises questions and evokes responses from the
   student.                                                                                   1. What caught your eye in the small image?
                                                                                              2. How is the full view different from or the same as
   Each artwork begins with an artist’s statement and information from the museum’s           what you expected?
   perspective. Several works have links to more information, video clips, and interactive    3. Read the artist’s point of view. What questions
   activities.                                                                                would you like to ask this artist about her or his work?
                                                                                              4. Read the museum’s point of view. List two pieces
                                                                                              of information about this artist or artwork that you find
                                                                                              interesting.

                                                                                              Provide students with the list of Artist Discussion
                                                                                              Questions from Part 2 of this guide. Ask them to re-
                                                                                              cord in their journals their responses to the questions
                                                                                              for the artists they chose.
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   Teacher’s Guide to   GLOBAL POSITIONING: EXPLORING CONTEMPORARY WORLD ART




   PART 2: ARTIST DISCUSSION QUESTIONS
   These questions could be used for class presentations, small-group discussions, or
   individual journals about the artwork and the points of view presented on the site.

   Before answering the questions, students should read all of the points of view for
   an artist.



xJac Leirner, Blue Phase, 1992
   Read Jac Leirner’s statement on the artist page.
   How are materials such as bank notes “impregnated by meanings”?
   Why would Leirner use hundreds of banknotes in this piece instead of just one or
   two?
   If you were living in Brazil in the 1980s, how would hyperinflation affect your life?

   Compare and contrast Jac Leirner’s Blue Phase with Donald Judd’s untitled,
   1969/1982, shown on the “Rights: Power” page.

   Donald Judd is associated with the style of art called Minimalism. During
   the 1960s and 1970s, powerful art critics promoted Minimalism as the most
   important style in contemporary art. One reaction against Minimalism is that it focused
   exclusively on materials and forms and avoided content—especially political content.

   Would you describe Jac Leirner’s work as Minimalist? Why or why not?



xSawad Brooks and Beth Stryker, DissemiNET, 1998
                                DissemiNET
   The artwork DissemiNET exists in two formats: as an installation in a museum or
   gallery—pictured on the artist page—and as a Web site. In both formats, Sawad
   Brooks and Beth Stryker explore the idea of being part of a community, in contrast
   with the solitary activity of viewing a Web page.

   What two words are combined in the title of this artwork? What do you think Brooks
   and Stryker meant by combining these words?

   Click the DissemiNET icon at the left to view the Web site/artwork. Before you click
   “enter,” move the cursor over the graphic.
   What do you see? What is happening? What do you think it means?
   Make a list of the words that appear. How do their meanings relate to the graphic?

                                                     DissemiNET
   Working with a partner, click “enter” and explore DissemiNET. With other classmates,
   share your experience viewing this Web site. What did you see? What did you read?
   Did everyone have the same experience? Why or why not?

   Read the “Rights: Testimonies” page on the Global Positioning site. Compare the
   way information about the “disappeared” children of El Salvador is presented with
   the manner in which it is expressed on the DissemiNET site. Which had the strongest
   effect on you? Why?

   Read the “Literature: Walter Benjamin” point of view. Write a first-person “testimony”
   or story as described by Benjamin of how an event affected your life.
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    Teacher’s Guide to   GLOBAL POSITIONING: EXPLORING CONTEMPORARY WORLD ART




xAshley Bickerton, Minimalism’s Evil Orthodoxy Monoculture’s Totalitarian Esthetic
   #1, 1989
   In the glossary, look up definitions of the words in the title of this artwork.

   After reading the points of view of the artist and the museum, discuss why Ashley
   Bickerton sees a relationship between Minimalism and monoculture. How do you
   think this artwork promotes discourse?

   Compare this artwork with the work by Jac Leirner and Donald Judd on this site. How
   are they similar? Which seem to be about forms and which seem to be more political
   in content?

   Using the zoom feature, identify the contents of each of the containers in the
   sculpture.

   How is the practice of monoculture related to the global economy? How is it related
   to global environmentalism?



xUrban Bush Women, Praise House, 1991
   To view the video clips from performances of Praise House, click the Hyperessay
   icon. Open the dance index and scroll down to Praise House.
   Which different styles of dance, music, and visual art are blended in Praise House?
   (Possible answers: African dance, modern dance, spiritual music, outsider
   art.)
   How is Praise House a blending of cultural identities?

   Look up the definition of diaspora.
   What was/is the African diaspora?
   How is Praise House an expression of this?

   Compare the connections between art and spirituality in the work of Hannah (Minnie
   Evans) and the work of Jawole Willa Jo Zollar.

   What do you think Jawole Willa Jo Zollar means by her statements on the “Identity:
   Legacies” page? How do you think this point of view is expressed in her work?


                            of the Geography Trilogy),
                                             Trilogy
xRalph Lemon, Tree (Part IIperformance/movement you2000in the two video clips of
 Compare and contrast the                              see
   Tree. Would you describe what you see as dance, theater, or another art form? Give
   reasons for your answer.

   Read the text from the first video clip on the “Place: Earthquake” page.
   What is the Mercalli scale? How does this relate to the first video
   clip?

   The title Tree is drawn from an ancient piece of literature called The Bhagavad Gita.
   What culture and religion is this from?

   Draw an image or choreograph movement of a tree based on the description in the
   text from The Bhagavad Gita that appears on the “Ritual: Temples” page.

   Read the list of the major themes in Tree in the “Ritual: Temples” section. Select one
   or two pairs of words and list how they relate to and/or contrast with each other.
   Write personal associations you have with the words you selected.

   Do you agree with Ralph Lemon that globalism is shrinking the world? Why or why
   not? Support your answer with examples from your own experience.
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   Teacher’s Guide to   GLOBAL POSITIONING: EXPLORING CONTEMPORARY WORLD ART




x Shirin Neshat, Soliloquy, 1999
   What is a soliloquy? Why would Shirin Neshat give this title to her film
   installation?

   This was the first of Neshat’s films in which she herself appeared. Why do you think
   she chose to do so in this film?

   In each of the film stills shown here, Neshat places herself in relation to an architectural
   element. Which are from Middle Eastern cultures and which are from Western cultures?
   Look at each photograph and describe what this juxtaposition may
   symbolize.

   Have you ever been “in between” two worlds, cultures, or groups? How did you feel
   in this situation? How does Shirin Neshat’s film installation, as it is described on this
   site, reinforce this feeling?

   Why do you think Neshat wears clothing resembling a chador in Soliloquy?
   At various times in modern Iranian history, women have been allowed to wear the
   chador if they chose. When the Shah was promoting westernization of Iran, however,
   they were forbidden to wear it. Since the Islamic revolution of 1979, they have been
   forced to wear it. Can you think of other times when clothing has been central to a
   political or cultural issue?



x Willie Cole, Stowage, 1997
   What images come to mind when you look at the print Stowage? Can you see
   references to the slave trade? to domestic workers? to African masks? to the ritual
   of scarification? Why do you think Willie Cole combined these
   references in this print?

   What different meanings does the word “iron” have? In what ways has Cole used
   irons in this print?

   Read the excerpt of a speech by Malcolm X on the “Rights: Malcolm X” page of this
   section.
   Who was Malcolm X? How have his ideas affected African American culture today?
   What was his point in talking about “house Negro” and “field Negro”?
   Have you ever participated in an oppressive system because you gained from it (like
   Malcolm X’s house Negro)? Was there a time when you suffered to avoid taking part
   in an oppressive system (like Malcolm X’s field Negro)?



x Yinka Shonibare, Dysfunctional Family, 1999
   Do you consider this work of art to be humorous or political? Give reasons for your
   answer.

   What different meanings can you think of for the word “alien”? How do the meanings
   relate to Yinka Shonibare and his artwork?

   Study the timeline of the history of batik by clicking the Batik icon next to the large
   pictures on these pages. Can you think of another commodity that has a similar
   interesting history (such as gold, coffee, peanuts, chocolate, tulips, or tobacco)?

   When did H. G. Wells write The War of the Worlds? What was it about? What is
   your reaction to the ideas in the excerpt that appears on the “Literature: H. G. Wells”
   page of this section? What stereotypes can you find in this piece? Why do you think
   Shonibare was interested in this story?
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    Teacher’s Guide to   GLOBAL POSITIONING: EXPLORING CONTEMPORARY WORLD ART




xUdomsak Krisanamis, How Deep is the Ocean?, 1998
   What happened to the newspaper collage in this artwork? Why do you think Udomsak
   Krisanamis used newspaper in this piece?

   Try this: Take a page full of text from a newspaper or book. Fill in each letter that has
   a circle or closed space (such as o, a, b, d, p, q, e, g). Turn it into a design or drawing
   of something. Did the words on the page have an effect on your finished artwork?
   Why or why not?

   Compare this activity to Krisanamis’ process of making his paintings.

   How do the “holes” in this painting serve as a metaphor? Think of other
   ways that empty space can be a metaphor.

   Have you ever been in a place where you didn’t know how to speak the language?
   How did you communicate? How did you feel?



xEugenio Dittborn, 10th History of the Human Face (to Commission and to Collect)
   (Numbers 84a and 84b), 1991
   Describe the faces you see in Eugenio Dittborn’s work. Why do you think the human
   face is such a common subject in art? Why do you think Dittborn included a range of
   drawing and photo styles in this piece?

   Where did the faces in this piece come from? Read the list on the “Rights: Untold
   Stories” page of this section. What do the sources of these faces have to do with
   Chilean history and culture?

   Watch the path that Dittborn’s paintings take by clicking the Airmail icon to the left
   on the pages of this section. In what way is this activity part of the artistic process for
   Dittborn? Why do you think he mailed his art around the world?

   Many artists who lived in Chile in the 1970s and 1980s found life difficult because
   they had no place to show their work and the government restricted their travel. How
   did Dittborn comment on this situation in his artwork? How did he try to overcome
   the obstacles?



xKcho (Alexis Leyva Machado), Obras Escogidas (Selected Works), 1994
   What materials did Kcho use to make this sculpture of a boat? Why do you think he
   chose them? What might they symbolize to the artist?

   Boats can be used for recreation, travel, or transporting goods. Similarly, books can
   be used for pleasure, reference, or learning. Boats and books can also be seen as
   metaphors.

   Research poems, stories, or novels that make references to boats and/or books.
   Discuss whether the writers see them as functional or symbolic objects. What larger
   ideas could they symbolize?

   How big is Cuba in square miles? Compare Cuba to the size of other countries, such
   as the United States, Mexico, or Spain. How do you think life in the United States,
   Mexico, or Spain would be different if they were islands?

   Research the history of the relationship between Cuba and the United States from
   the 1950s to the present. These web sites might be useful:
   http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/latin_america/cuba
   http://www.state.gov/p/wha/rls/fs/2001/2558.htm
   Why is Kcho a controversial figure among Cuban Americans?
   WALKER ART CENTER                                                       8

    Teacher’s Guide to   GLOBAL POSITIONING: EXPLORING CONTEMPORARY WORLD ART




xChris Ofili , Third Eye Vision, 1999
   Read the list of materials in this artwork. Which ones seem unusual or surprising?
   Use the zoom feature to examine how these items are used.
   Locate the following:
   • paint applied in patterns of tiny dots
   • small magazine cutouts of faces
   • glow-in-the-dark materials
   • varnished elephant dung
   • pictures and words made with map pins
   Look again at the entire artwork. How do these separate elements create an overall
   image?

   On the artist page, read the answers Chris Ofili gave to the magazine interview
   questions. Why do you think he responded this way? How would you answer the
   questions? Click the Portrait icon. What impression do Ofili’s answers and this
   portrait give you about his personality?

   Ofili is a fan of hip-hop. Describe what you see in this painting that connects with this
   style of music and culture.

   On the “Museum: Background Information” page, the text reads in part: “Like all
   of Ofili’s work, this painting fearlessly takes on questions of the profane
   juxtaposed with the sacred, the humorous with the sublime, and the
   bold with the mysterious.”
   What is profane about this painting? What is sacred?
   How is it humorous? sublime?
   What is bold about it? mysterious?



xJoseph Beuys, Filzanzug (Felt Suit), 1970
                         (Felt Suit)
   Joseph Beuys did not intend for this suit to be worn, because it has meaning beyond
   an article of clothing. Other than something to wear, what associations can you think
   of for a gray suit?

   How do you think Beuys’ experiences as a soldier in World War II affected his life?
   (For more information, you may click the Hyperessay link at the left on the Web
   page.)

   Beuys was interested in the possible metaphors of substances such as
   felt, fat, gold, and copper. Make a list of these materials and others mentioned on this
   Web site. Next to each item, brainstorm words that come to mind when you think of
   that material. Create a drawing or write a poem that expresses your associations.

   An afterimage is an image that stays with you even after you have stopped looking at
   an object. For example, when you stare at something red and then shift your gaze to
   a white background, you see a blue-green image of the object you were staring at. Try
   this by clicking the Afterimage icon to the left of the large picture on these pages.

   How is Beuys combining science and art in his work? Can you imagine other
   connections between art and science?

   Listen to “Sonne statt Reagan” by clicking the Song icon to the left of the large
   picture on these pages. The English lyrics appear on the page “Sound: Sonne statt
   Reagan (Sun Instead of Rain).” Can you think of other pop songs that attempt to send
   a political message to the masses? Is this is an effective approach?

   Do you agree with Beuys’ ideas about money in our society? Why or why not?
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    Teacher’s Guide to   GLOBAL POSITIONING: EXPLORING CONTEMPORARY WORLD ART


xMel Chin, Color copy of the project plan for Revival Field, 1990
   Compare the project plan and model with the final planted site. How did the shapes
   and forms used for this project change as the work progressed? How do you think
   the design of the site reflected the purpose of this project?

   Mel Chin described this project as a sculpture. How does it differ from other sculptures
   you have seen? What qualities does it share with more traditional sculpture?

   Click the “Chin + NEA” icon to follow the correspondence between the National
   Endowment for the Arts (NEA) and people asking for funds to create Revival Field.
   Why do you think this project was at first rejected for funds? What made the chairman
   of the NEA change his mind? Do you agree with his decision? Why or why not?

   How far are you from the Pig’s Eye landfill? To find out, use the Directions icon to the
   left of the large picture on these pages. Are there similar sites closer to you? How
   might you find out?

   Can art help solve global issues such as pollution of the environment? Why or why
   not?
    WALKER ART CENTER                                                     10

    Teacher’s Guide to   GLOBAL POSITIONING: EXPLORING CONTEMPORARY WORLD ART



    PART 3: STUDENT ACTIVITY
    <FROM GLOBAL TO PERSONAL>
    Many of the points of view on this Web site have to do with current global issues. In
    this activity, students select an issue, relate it to artworks on the site, research a
    related event in the last 50 years, and create a personal response.

xA. Choose one issue from the list below:
                cultural identity
                human rights
                global economy
                environmental concerns

xB. Write in your journal why you selected this topic. What makes it an “issue”? What
    different points of view do you think exist around it? How do you think this issue is
    critical in the world today?

xC. Find one or more artworks on this site that connect to your issue. (It may be helpful
    to look at the List of Artists by Point of View in the appendix.) Complete the attached
    “Big Picture worksheet” for one artwork.

xD. Pick an event in the last 50 years that relates to the issue you chose. (You may
    refer to the timeline in the appendix if you wish.) Research the event on the Internet
    or using library resources at your school. (See the list of Useful Web Sites in the
    appendix.) Use the “Global Event Chart” to organize information.

xE. Brainstorm a list of words that express your personal reactions to this event. Think
    of objects or concepts that could serve as metaphors for your feelings. To spark your
    ideas, you may refer to metaphors used by Global Positioning artists. Then create a
    poem about the event and your reactions to it.

xF. Create a drawing, painting, or collage that includes a visual symbol or metaphor
    expressing an aspect of the event or your reaction to it. Write an artist’s statement
    about your artwork, including how it communicates your reactions to the event.
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  Teacher’s Guide to   GLOBAL POSITIONING: EXPLORING CONTEMPORARY WORLD ART



x BIG       PICTURE WORKSHEET                                                 BIG PICTURE WORKSHEET


  WORK OF ART                                                                 ARTISTIC FORMS
  Title                                                                       Materials

  Artist                                                                      Techniques

  Date                                                                        Elements




  DESCRIPTION                                                                 MOODS/FEELINGS EXPRESSED




  PLACE(S)/GEOGRAPHY                                                          ARTIST BIOGRAPHY
  Movement




  HISTORY/EVENTS
  Current events



  Historic events



  Issues



  Global systems
   WALKER ART CENTER                                                     12

   Teacher’s Guide to   GLOBAL POSITIONING: EXPLORING CONTEMPORARY WORLD ART



x THE          GLOBAL EVENT CHART
WHAT HAPPENED?                                              WHAT ARE THE DATES OF THE EVENT?           WHO ARE THE KEY PEOPLE
                                                                                                       ASSOCIATED WITH THIS EVENT?




WHAT GLOBAL ISSUES CAN BE                           SELECT AN EVENT THAT HAS IMPACTED THE              WHERE DID THIS EVENT TAKE PLACE?
ASSOCIATED WITH THE EVENT?                          WORLD IN THE LAST 50 YEARS:                        WERE OTHER PLACES AFFECTED?




•GLOBAL ECONOMY
•TECHNOLOGICAL
•ENVIRONMENTAL
•POLITICAL                                          WHAT IS YOUR PERSONAL CONNECTION OR REACTION
•CULTURAL IDENTITY                                  TO THIS EVENT?
•HUMAN RIGHTS
•PEACE AND SECURITY




MAKE A LIST OF WORDS THAT EXPRESS YOUR REACTIONS TO THIS                       CREATE A VISUAL SYMBOL OR IMAGE THAT EXPRESSES YOUR
EVENT:                                                                         REACTIONS TO THIS EVENT:
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    Teacher’s Guide to   GLOBAL POSITIONING: EXPLORING CONTEMPORARY WORLD ART



   PART 4: APPENDIX

xA. List of Artists by Point of View
   Identity
   English language learner: Udomsak Krisanamis
   immigration: Kcho
   in between: Shirin Neshat
   juxtaposition: Ralph Lemon
   legacies: Urban Bush Women

   Rights
   aliens: Yinka Shonibare
   Malcolm X: Willie Cole
   power: Jac Leirner
   testimonies: Sawad Brooks and Beth Stryker
   untold stories: Eugenio Dittborn
   women’s experience: Shirin Neshat

   Place
   airmail: Eugenio Dittborn
   Cuba: Kcho
   earthquake: Ralph Lemon
   monoculture: Ashley Bickerton
   Pig’s Eye dump: Mel Chin

   Economy
   batik: Yinka Shonibare
   coffee: Ashley Bickerton
   inflation: Jac Leirner
   multiples: Joseph Beuys

   Ritual
   chador: Shirin Neshat
   spirituality: Urban Bush Women
   temples: Ralph Lemon

   Metaphor
   empty spaces: Udomsak Krisanamis
   iron: Willie Cole
   universal boat: Kcho

   Sound
   hip-hop: Chris Ofili
   Sonne statt Reagan: Joseph Beuys
   WALKER ART CENTER                                                     14

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xB. Timeline of Global Events 1945-2003
   1945
   World War II (WWII) ends. Defeated nations Germany and Japan, as well as all of Western Europe, receive financial
   recovery aid from the United States.

   United Nations (UN) established to maintain world peace.

   1946
   Cold War begins. All of Eastern Europe eventually falls under control of Communist governments until 1989, creating
   tensions between Western powers and the Soviet Union. Battlegrounds between the United States and the Soviet
   Union include Cuba, Africa, the Middle East, Southeast Asia.

   1947
   India gains independence from Britain. After violent clashes, Pakistan is created as a Muslim state to ease Muslim/
   Hindu tensions in the area. A year later Hindu leader Mahatma Gandhi is assassinated by a Hindu extremist enraged
   by the partition.

   1948
   UN Declaration of Human Rights

   The policy of apartheid is enacted by the Afrikaner National Party to cement control and domination by whites over
   South African economic and social systems.

   The state of Israel is established. The United Nations treaty also promises a Palestinian state.
   World sympathy for Jews following extermination of 6 million of their people and 4 million other “undesirables” by Nazi
   Germany in WWII.

   1949
   Indonesia, one of several Asian nations to overthrow European colonialism after WWII, wins independence from the
   Netherlands.

   The Chinese Communists, led by Mao Zedong, declare the People’s Republic of China. The nationalist opposition
   forces, led by Chiang Kai-shek, are forced into exile on the island of Taiwan.

   1953
   Iran overthrows the shah and becomes a democracy, only to have the ruler return to power with support from the
   United States and Great Britain, which aim to stifle Communism and maintain access to oil. Iran begins a long distrust
   of the United States.

   1954
   France defeated in Vietnam. The United States commits to sending advisers to Vietnam, eventually increasing
   commitment of ground troops and air strikes by the mid-1960s. Fear of Chinese Communist takeover of Southeast
   Asia pushes the United States deeper into war. Thailand continues as an independent country and place of refuge
   for civilians of warring neighbors.

   1959
   Fidel Castro becomes premier of Cuba, establishes a Communist government, and after 1960 becomes a strong ally
   of the Soviet Union.

   The microchip is invented, paving the way for the personal computer. In the last decade of the 20th century, exchange
   of Internet information becomes instant around the world.

   1960
   Seventeen African countries become independent of European colonial powers. Postcolonial governments struggle
   with political instability, causing many Africans to immigrate to former colonial powers, especially Britain and France.

   Iraq, Iran, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia form the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC).
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Teacher’s Guide to   GLOBAL POSITIONING: EXPLORING CONTEMPORARY WORLD ART


1961
The United States breaks off diplomatic relations with Cuba. U.S. attempt to overthrow Castro government culminates
in the Bay of Pigs disaster.

Beatles’ first concert in Liverpool, England.

The government of East Berlin, Germany, erects the Berlin wall, physically dividing the city between east and west,
Communist and non-Communist. It symbolizes repression throughout world.

1962
Rachel Carson publishes Silent Spring, which exposes the hazards of the pesticide DDT, questions humanity’s faith
in technology, and helps set the stage for the environmental movement.

England’s Commonwealth Immigrant Act severely restricts black immigration from Africa.

Cuban missile crisis: Soviets remove warheads from Cuba after U.S. President John F. Kennedy threatens to invade
the country.

1963
President Kennedy is assassinated in Dallas, Texas.

1964
U.S. President Lyndon Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act, outlawing segregation.

Military coup in Brazil leads to years of political oppression, including the abolishing of the constitution and censorship
of artists.

1965
The first U.S. troops arrive in Vietnam.

Black Muslim leader Malcolm X is assassinated.

1966
Military coup installs repressive regime in Nigeria. Bloody civil war breaks out as the region of Biafra declares
independence and secedes. Over 2 million people die in over two years until Biafra surrenders.

1968
U.S. civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr. is assassinated; violence erupts across the country. Protesters force the
Museum of Modern Art in New York to include works by African American artists in a memorial exhibition.

U.S. troops massacre hundreds of Vietnamese civilians in My Lai. Antiwar protests erupt across the nation and in
Europe.

Students riot in Brazil against the authoritarian regime.

Demonstrations and strikes protest suppression of civil rights in France, Czechoslovakia, Mexico, and other
countries.

1969
U.S. astronaut Neil Armstrong walks on the moon.

1970
Ohio National Guardsmen kill four students during a protest against the Vietnam War at Kent State University.

Salvador Allende is elected president of Chile, ending a military dictatorship. Three years later the military deposes
and murders Allende with U.S. assistance. Under General Augusto Pinochet, a period of bloody repression leaves
thousands of civilians tortured, murdered, or “disappeared.” Pinochet introduces “free market” reforms.

First Earth Day declared. By 2000, more than 150 countries participate.
WALKER ART CENTER                                                     16

Teacher’s Guide to   GLOBAL POSITIONING: EXPLORING CONTEMPORARY WORLD ART


1971
Bloody war between Pakistan and India ends when India’s superior airpower drives Pakistani troops out of eastern
Pakistan, which gains independence as Bangladesh.

The People’s Republic of China, established in the 1949 Communist revolution, is seated in the United Nations,
replacing Taiwan, which had represented the Chinese people since 1949.

The first Green party, the United Tasmania Group, forms in Australia, although the term “green” is coined in 1979 in
Germany.

1972
U.S. President Richard Nixon visits China to discuss easing trade relations and improving diplomatic relations.


1973
The Vietnam War ends, with the United States forced to withdraw and recognize the Communist government of Ho
Chi Minh. Large numbers of Southeast Asians flee to refugee camps in Thailand, and over the next 20 years many
settle in the United States.

The Arab OPEC countries reduce oil production to penalize the United States for supporting Israel in its October
1972 war against Egypt and Syria.

Egyptian forces attack Israel.

1974
OPEC lifts its oil embargo on the United States.

President Nixon resigns because of the Watergate scandal.

1975
The Khmer Rouge, under the leadership of Pol Pot, seizes control of Cambodia. Under the murderous regime, more
than a third of the population, once estimated at 8 million, perishes from war, disease, and genocidal policies. Many
refugees flee to camps in neighboring Thailand.

1976
Revolutionary leader Mao Zedong, noted for developing China into a powerful Communist nation, dies.

Punk rock and the “new wave” aesthetic appear in New York City and the United Kingdom, questioning who qualifies
as an artist and blurring boundaries between visual art, performance art, and rock concerts and between high and
low culture.

1977
The Revolutionary Association of the Women of Afghanistan (RAWA) is founded by activist Meena. Going underground
for a time, and reemerging strongly in the 1990s, this women’s resistance movement communicated with international
helpers who provided funds, technical support, and political advice via the Internet. Now reaching millions through the
Internet, RAWA continues to create schools for girls and women, defend women from abuse, and exercise increasing
political power.

1978
U.S. President Jimmy Carter declares an emergency at Love Canal, Niagara Falls, New York. The Love Canal scandal
alerts the nation to long-term, hidden dangers of soil and groundwater pollution.
WALKER ART CENTER                                                     17

Teacher’s Guide to   GLOBAL POSITIONING: EXPLORING CONTEMPORARY WORLD ART


1979
Soviet Union invades Afghanistan. Eight years later it is forced to withdraw as resistance forces, supported by the
United States, take over the country.

Joseph Beuys, founding member of the ecological Green Party, loses an election for a seat in the European
Parliament.

After the Shah of Iran is deposed, Muslim clerical leader Ayatollah Khomeini returns from exile to rule. The nation of
non-Arab Muslim Shi’ites becomes an Islamic republic. War with the neighboring Arab country of Iraq follows.

A trade agreement between Japan and China continues China’s modernization campaign by including foreign
investment and technical aid. A “democracy wall” with slogans and posters challenges some of the restrictive
practices of the government.

Early 1980s
Rap becomes the music of the hip-hop street culture of New York, speaking of hatred, violence, alienation, and
oppression. A new generation of African American activists moves away from the civil rights generation of the
1960s.

1980
In elections in the former British colony of Zimbabwe, the majority black population defeats the white minority and
establishes a new government.

Iranian radicals hold hostage 52 U.S. citizens to protest U.S. support of Iraq in the war between the neighboring
countries. The captives are released shortly after the election of President Ronald Reagan.

1984
Indian leader Indira Gandhi is assassinated by her Sikh bodyguards. The year before, she had ordered Indian troops
to storm the sacred Sikh Golden Temple at Amritsar to root out Sikh extremists; over 600 people were killed.

Approximately 3,800 people die in Bhopal, India, when gas leaks from a Union Carbide industrial plant that
manufactures pesticides.

1985
Artists and activists the Guerrilla Girls form in New York City. With posters, banners, and leaflets they challenge the
art establishment on the women and non-white artists missing from museums and galleries.

1986
Actor and playwright Augusto Boal returns to Brazil after the dictatorship ends. He begins to create popular theater
groups based on his Center for the Theater of the Oppressed, a technique that breaks down barriers between actors
and audience. Today he partners with Brazil’s Landless Rural Workers Movement to bring the theater’s methods back
to rural communities.

Chernobyl nuclear power plant melt down occurs in the Soviet Union.

President Reagan, in what becomes known as the Iran-Contra affair, approves secret shipments of military equipment
to Iran through Israel. The seven-year war between Iraq and Iran continues.

1988
In Jerusalem 30 Israelis, called Women in Black, gather in silent protest of Israel’s occupation of the West Bank and
Gaza. This international movement grew out of vigils held by Argentine and Central American women who mourned
the “disappeared” during years of war in the 1970s and 1980s. By 2002, demonstrations appear in Yugoslavia, the
Philippines, India, South Africa, Israel, Ireland, and the United States, including the Twin Cities.

1989
The Berlin wall comes down. Political changes in Eastern Europe eventually lead to the defeat of Communism there.

Democracy is restored as Chile conducts its first presidential election in 19 years.
WALKER ART CENTER                                                     18

Teacher’s Guide to   GLOBAL POSITIONING: EXPLORING CONTEMPORARY WORLD ART


1989 (cont.)
In Beijing, China, grief over the death of a popular reform leader turns into pro-democracy demonstrations in Tiananmen
Square. Many students and progressives are killed by government forces. Instantaneous communication through
global media channels fuels worldwide dismay at the brutality.

A Robert Mapplethorpe exhibit at the Corcoran Gallery of Art in Washington, DC, is canceled after protests over
photographs of nude children. Senator Jesse Helms campaigns to control public funding of art by the National
Endowment for the Arts.

The ship Exxon Valdez runs aground in Alaska, spilling thousands of gallons of crude oil into the sea. It is considered
the worst spill in terms of damage to the environment.

Sony, the Japanese electronics giant, buys Columbia Pictures Entertainment. Along with its purchase of CBS Records,
Sony hopes to market U.S. pop culture through cutting-edge Japanese technologies in film, television, and music.

Deepak Chopra’s book Quantum Healing becomes a best-seller. Promoting a 4,000-year-old healing tradition from
India, it helps stimulate interest in alternative medicine worldwide.

1990
Iraq, under Saddam Hussein, invades Kuwait. A coalition led by the United States launches massive air attacks on
Iraq, and the Persian Gulf War begins.

South Africa releases political prisoner Nelson Mandela, who had been jailed for 27 years. He later becomes president
in the first multiracial elections in South Africa after 350 years of white domination.

1991
The Soviet Union dissolves into independent republics, and Cuba loses monetary aid.

Apartheid laws end in South Africa.

Bosnia and Herzegovina declares sovereignty from the former Yugoslavia, beginning regional conflict between ethnic
Serbs and Croats.

1993
Nigeria continues to repress politicians, artists, and other civilians.

Following assaults on Bosnian women in the former Yugoslavia, the United Nations declares the rape of women in
areas of armed conflict to be a war crime.

1994
The North American Free Trade Agreement is signed by Mexico, Canada, and the United States. By 2002, Mexico has
$250 billion a year in commerce with its northern neighbor.

In Rwanda, civil war between Hutu and Tutsi tribes leads to over 200,000 civilian deaths. Refugees flee to neighboring
African countries.

1995
The United Nations Fourth World Conference on Women takes place in Beijing, China.

1998
Ethnic Serbs and ethnic Albanians conflict over land rights in Kosovo; NATO, on the verge of air strikes, reaches a
settlement on Kosovo with Serbian leader Slobodan Milosevic.

Europeans agree on single currency, the euro.
WALKER ART CENTER                                                     19

Teacher’s Guide to   GLOBAL POSITIONING: EXPLORING CONTEMPORARY WORLD ART


1999
The Sierra Club protests global trade without adequate environmental controls and joins with Amnesty International
in publishing Environmentalists Under Fire: 10 Urgent Cases of Human Rights Abuses.

The Chinese government outlaws Falun Dafa (also called Falun Gong), a meditation practice that combines exercise
with teachings on how to become a better person. The government considers the movement a cult and prosecutes
those who practice it.

2000
Mexico elects Vicente Fox, ending decades of rule by the Institutional Revolutionary Party. The new president promotes
relations with the United States, free trade, and foreign investments, and openly criticizes his country’s old friend Fidel
Castro of Cuba.

Randall Robinson publishes The Debt: What America Owes to Blacks. An advocate of slave reparations, the author
argues that slavery is a crime of such proportions that its economic and psychological damage is passed down
through generations.

The European Union bans leaded gasoline as a public health hazard.

2001
Terrorists hijack airplanes and attack the World Trade Center in New York and the Pentagon in Washington, DC. A
third plane crashes in Pennsylvania. Most of the 3,000 killed are U.S. citizens, but the deaths represent people from
over 80 nations.

Iran offers sanctuary for the United States and its allies during war against the Taliban and terrorists in Afghanistan.

Saudi Arabia begins issuing identification cards to women, amid both support and criticism from Saudi women. Veils
are not worn in the photo IDs.

2002
A treaty creating the International Criminal Court is signed by 60 nations (but not the United States). The permanent
tribunal prosecutes individuals for genocide, crimes against humanity, and other war crimes.

At the invitation of Fidel Castro, former President Carter visits Cuba, becoming the first U.S. president or ex-president
to do so in over 70 years. Carter criticizes the country on its human-rights record and urges the United States to ease
its trade embargo.

The World Health Organization declares HIV infection to be the leading cause of death in sub-Saharan Africa.

The National Ice Center announces that three massive hunks of glacial ice have broken away from Antarctica. The
largest is 40 miles by 53 miles.

The World Summit on Sustainable Development gathers in Johannesburg, South Africa. It is part of a series of global
meetings on the environment that began in 1972 in Sweden with the United Nations Conference on the Human
Environment and continued with the 1992 Earth Summit in Brazil.

2003
North Korea withdraws from a global treaty on the nonproliferation of nuclear weapons.

Troops from the United States and United Kingdom and their allies invade Iraq, after an air strike on the suspected
bunker of Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein in Baghdad.

A suicide bombing destroys UN headquarters in Baghdad, killing 24, including top envoy Sergio Vieira de Mello.

Scientists announce that the ozone layer may be showing signs of recovery due to an international ban on
chlorofluorocarbons.

The World Health Organization issues a global alert on Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS).
   WALKER ART CENTER                                                     20

   Teacher’s Guide to   GLOBAL POSITIONING: EXPLORING CONTEMPORARY WORLD ART



xC. Glossary

  chador                                                                       Minimalism
  a loose, usually black robe worn by Muslim women that covers the             a style of art in which the least possible amount of shapes, colors, or
  body from head to toe and most of the face                                   lines are used to reduce the concept or idea to its simplest form


  diaspora                                                                     monoculture
  a dispersion of people from their homeland, or a dispersion of a lan-        the cultivation of a single crop on a farm or in a region or country
  guage or a culture

                                                                               orthodoxy
  aesthetic                                                                    the quality of adhering to what is commonly accepted, customary, or
  (adj.) of or concerning the appreciation of beauty or good taste             traditional
  (n.) a guiding principle in matters of artistic beauty and taste; artistic
  sensibility
                                                                               outsider art
                                                                               work by artists who are self-taught and/or choose to remain indepen-
  issue                                                                        dent from the art world
  an idea about which at least two distinct points of view can be held
  and articulated
                                                                               profane
                                                                               marked by contempt or irreverence for what is sacred
  juxtaposition
  the act of putting side by side; placing two or more things together,
  especially to suggest a link between them or emphasize the contrast          scarification
  between them                                                                 creation of a design by means of shallow cuts (as on the skin) that are
                                                                               sometimes rubbed with a colorant or irritant to enhance the resulting
                                                                               scar tissue
  Mercalli scale
  a scale created in 1902 by Italian seismologist Giuseppe Mercalli to
  measure the size of an earthquake based on its effects; the Modified          soliloquy
  Mercalli scale rates a tremor using structural damage and a general          a dramatic or literary form of discourse in which a character talks to
  description of human reactions to the shaking ground                         himself or herself or reveals his or her thoughts without addressing a
                                                                               listener

  metaphor
  one thing conceived as representing another; a symbol                        totalitarian
                                                                               a form of government in which the political authority exercises abso-
                                                                               lute and centralized control over all aspects of life, the individual is
                                                                               subordinated to the state, and opposing political and cultural expres-
                                                                               sion is suppressed
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Teacher’s Guide to   GLOBAL POSITIONING: EXPLORING CONTEMPORARY WORLD ART


D. Useful Web Sites

Globalism

http://www.sociology.emory.edu/SOC/globalization
The Globalization Website welcomes anyone interested in globalization, such as students taking courses on the
subject, scholars engaged in research, members of groups involved in global activism, and the general public. The
site includes sections on global debates and a glossary.


http://www.globaled.org
The American Forum for Global Education offers teaching materials and links to other Web sites.


http://www.globalexchange.org
Global Exchange is an international human rights organization dedicated to providing environmental, political, and
social justice.


http://www.uwm.edu/Dept/CIE/Resources/globalization/index.html
“Understanding the Face of Globalization,” a resource guide to help educators bring international issues into the
classroom, includes many useful links.


http://www.choices.edu
The Choices Program sells curricular resources and instructional programs with the aim of informing students at the
secondary level about international issues.


PBS Web Sites

http://www.pbs.org/teachersource/soc_stud.htm
PBS TeacherSource offers a collection of teacher’s guides developed for social studies programs aired on the Public
Broadcasting System.


http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/globalconnections
For teachers, students, and others interested in learning more about world events, Global Connections offers readings,
lesson plans, links, timelines, and maps about the Middle East and Liberia.

http://www.pbs.org/frontlineworld/stories
http://www.pbs.org/frontlineworld/educators
These archives of Frontline stories and teacher’s guides cover topics such as culture, geography, economics, history,
and politics.


http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/latin_america/chile/index.html
“Politics in Chile: An Online NewsHour Special Report”


http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/latin_america/cuba/index.html
“Cuba and the United States: An Online NewsHour Special Report”


http://www.pbs.org/newshour/extra/features/july-dec01/g-8.html
The NewsHour Extra article “A Global Meeting” deals with the 2001 G-8 global economics summit in Genoa, Italy.
WALKER ART CENTER                                                     22

Teacher’s Guide to   GLOBAL POSITIONING: EXPLORING CONTEMPORARY WORLD ART


Human Rights

http://www.state.gov/g/drl/hr
The U.S. Department of State Web site on human rights


http://www.unhchr.ch/udhr/index.htm
This site explains the background and importance of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted in 1948 by
the United Nations. Translations of the declaration are available in 300 languages.


http://www.hrw.org
Human Rights Watch is an international organization dedicated to protecting the human rights of people around the
world.


http://web.amnesty.org
Amnesty International is a worldwide movement of people who campaign for internationally recognized human
rights.


http://www.derechos.org
Derechos Human Rights, an international organization focusing on human rights in Latin America, offers news, reports,
and a link to Project Disappeared. In English and Spanish.


http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/education/pihre
Partners in Human Rights Education teaches international human rights and responsibilities using the framework of
the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the Convention on the Rights of the Child. The Web site includes
ideas for K-12 lessons.


Economics

http://youthink.worldbank.org
On this site for young people, the World Bank offers research, knowledge, and experience gathered by experts on
global issues such as poverty, development, and conflict.


http://www.americas.org
The Resource Center of the Americas, which promotes human rights by focusing on the global economy, offers
articles from U.S. and Latin American sources, plus a section on globalization. In English and Spanish.

http://www.sweatshops.org
Co-op America’s program to end sweatshops and promote fair trade


Environment

http://earthtrends.wri.org
This online database, whose sponsors include the World Bank and the United Nations, focuses on the environmental,
social, and economic trends that shape the world.


http://www.epa.gov
The Web site of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency includes sections on specific environmental topics such
as global warming, acid rain, wetlands, and more.
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Teacher’s Guide to   GLOBAL POSITIONING: EXPLORING CONTEMPORARY WORLD ART


http://yosemite.epa.gov/oar/globalwarming.nsf/content/index.html
The EPA’s global warming page


http://www.epa.gov/kids
http://www.epa.gov/highschool
These two EPA sites for schools and youth inform about environmental issues and help kids protect the
environment.


http://www.epa.gov/teachers
Teachers seeking information about environmental issues can find curriculum resources, workshop calendars,
community service projects and more on this EPA site.


http://www.unep.org
The Web site of the United Nations Environment Program includes a link for children and youth.


Immigration/Refugees

http://www.state.gov/p/wha/rls/fs/2001/2558.htm
U.S. Department of State fact sheet on U.S.-Cuba relations


http://memory.loc.gov/learn/features/immig/timeline.html
Created by the Library of Congress, this site examines the history of immigration to the United States.


http://www.refugees.org
Here the U.S. Committee for Refugees posts its World Refugee Survey, news articles, and audio and written
testimonials from refugees.

								
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