WALKER ART CENTER 1 GLOBAL POSITIONING EXPLORING CONTEMPORARY WORLD ART http://globalpositions.walkerart.org Teacher’s Guide Directory x Introduction for Teachers x Part 1: Exploring the Site Interactive Map Visual Navigation Tool Student Exploration Activity x Part 2: Artist Discussion Questions Jac Leirner Sawad Brooks and Beth Stryker Ashley Bickerton Urban Bush Women Ralph Lemon Shirin Neshat Willie Cole Yinka Shonibare Udomsak Krisanamis Eugenio Dittborn Kcho Chris Oﬁli Joseph Beuys Mel Chin x Part 3: Student Activity, “From Global to Personal” x Part 4: Appendix A. List of Artists by Point of View B. Timeline of Global Events 1945-2003 C. Glossary D. Useful Web Sites WALKER ART CENTER 2 Teacher’s Guide to GLOBAL POSITIONING: EXPLORING CONTEMPORARY WORLD ART INTRODUCTION FOR TEACHERS As the world becomes more interconnected, many artists are challenged with the complexities of living in a global world, and as a result their work often transcends cultural and political borders. Global Positioning: Exploring Contemporary World Art highlights selected artworks in the Walker’s collection that reﬂect this phenomenon. The Web site presents each piece of art from multiple perspectives and provides contextual information while raising questions about the work, the artist, and global concerns. In some cases, the content of the site is purposefully provocative and open ended. This Teacher’s Guide has been developed for art and social studies classes at the middle school and high school levels. It suggests ways for students to explore the site and apply its content to the study of global issues. Teachers may present these activities for an entire class to discuss or assign them to individuals or small groups. It is recommended that students keep a journal to record their research, answers to questions, and general responses to the site. The Teacher’s Guide is divided into four major sections: xPart 1 offers activities to learn about the navigational features of the site. xPart 2 consists of questions about each artist. xPart3 provides a research or creative-response activity that focuses on a global issue of the students’ choice. xPart 4 is an appendix that contains a list of the artists organized by points of view, a timeline of global events from 1945 to 2003, a glossary, and an annotated list of Web sites useful for research. Teaching from a global perspective requires that educators and students accept concepts, orientations, and attitudes that serve as lenses through which the world should be understood. These include open- mindedness, anticipation of complexity, resistance to stereotyping, and the ability to place oneself in the role or situation of others.* It is our hope that through Global Positioning, students will engage with issues that are part of modern life and understand the power of art as an expressive tool and a catalyst to action in a global world. Susan Rotilie Program Manager for School Programs Walker Art Center This teacher’s guide is made possible by generous support from Target. Teacher’s guide developed by Susan Rotilie with Kris Wetterlund. Timeline developed by Mary Eileen Sorenson and Morgan Wylie. *Case, Roland. “Key Elements of a Global Perspective,” Social Education 57(6), 1993. pp. 318—325. WALKER ART CENTER 3 Teacher’s Guide to GLOBAL POSITIONING: EXPLORING CONTEMPORARY WORLD ART PART 1: EXPLORING THE SITE xInteractive Map On the entry page of the Web site, students are invited to submit information Questions for journals or discussion: about themselves by clicking on the map “to place a dot where you are from.” The phrase “where you are from” is intentionally vague, and individuals may interpret it 1. Why are visitors given the opportunity to click on in different ways. It can refer to a birthplace, a past childhood location, or a present more than one place to show where they are from? home. Allowing students more than one response acknowledges that many people 2. Besides a speciﬁc place, what other possible are “from” more than one place in the world. Once the student responds, the map answers could you give to the question “Where are changes to show where other visitors to the site are from, as well as where the you from?” highlighted artists are from. xVisual Navigation Tool The Global Positioning site highlights 14 works by contemporary artists. To enter an Student Exploration Activity artist’s section, drag a thumbnail image to the box at the right. Students are invited Ask students to explore at least seven artworks on the to make choices for exploration based on their responses to what they can or cannot site by selecting thumbnail images that catch their at- see in the small image. tention. Once a thumbnail has been selected, the screen displays a larger image and a menu Have students keep a reﬂective journal of this of various points of view for approaching the artwork. The text for these viewpoints, process by answering the following questions: rather than being purely didactic, raises questions and evokes responses from the student. 1. What caught your eye in the small image? 2. How is the full view different from or the same as Each artwork begins with an artist’s statement and information from the museum’s what you expected? perspective. Several works have links to more information, video clips, and interactive 3. Read the artist’s point of view. What questions activities. would you like to ask this artist about her or his work? 4. Read the museum’s point of view. List two pieces of information about this artist or artwork that you ﬁnd interesting. Provide students with the list of Artist Discussion Questions from Part 2 of this guide. Ask them to re- cord in their journals their responses to the questions for the artists they chose. WALKER ART CENTER 4 Teacher’s Guide to GLOBAL POSITIONING: EXPLORING CONTEMPORARY WORLD ART PART 2: ARTIST DISCUSSION QUESTIONS These questions could be used for class presentations, small-group discussions, or individual journals about the artwork and the points of view presented on the site. Before answering the questions, students should read all of the points of view for an artist. xJac Leirner, Blue Phase, 1992 Read Jac Leirner’s statement on the artist page. How are materials such as bank notes “impregnated by meanings”? Why would Leirner use hundreds of banknotes in this piece instead of just one or two? If you were living in Brazil in the 1980s, how would hyperinﬂation affect your life? Compare and contrast Jac Leirner’s Blue Phase with Donald Judd’s untitled, 1969/1982, shown on the “Rights: Power” page. Donald Judd is associated with the style of art called Minimalism. During the 1960s and 1970s, powerful art critics promoted Minimalism as the most important style in contemporary art. One reaction against Minimalism is that it focused exclusively on materials and forms and avoided content—especially political content. Would you describe Jac Leirner’s work as Minimalist? Why or why not? xSawad Brooks and Beth Stryker, DissemiNET, 1998 DissemiNET The artwork DissemiNET exists in two formats: as an installation in a museum or gallery—pictured on the artist page—and as a Web site. In both formats, Sawad Brooks and Beth Stryker explore the idea of being part of a community, in contrast with the solitary activity of viewing a Web page. What two words are combined in the title of this artwork? What do you think Brooks and Stryker meant by combining these words? Click the DissemiNET icon at the left to view the Web site/artwork. Before you click “enter,” move the cursor over the graphic. What do you see? What is happening? What do you think it means? Make a list of the words that appear. How do their meanings relate to the graphic? DissemiNET Working with a partner, click “enter” and explore DissemiNET. With other classmates, share your experience viewing this Web site. What did you see? What did you read? Did everyone have the same experience? Why or why not? Read the “Rights: Testimonies” page on the Global Positioning site. Compare the way information about the “disappeared” children of El Salvador is presented with the manner in which it is expressed on the DissemiNET site. Which had the strongest effect on you? Why? Read the “Literature: Walter Benjamin” point of view. Write a ﬁrst-person “testimony” or story as described by Benjamin of how an event affected your life. WALKER ART CENTER 5 Teacher’s Guide to GLOBAL POSITIONING: EXPLORING CONTEMPORARY WORLD ART xAshley Bickerton, Minimalism’s Evil Orthodoxy Monoculture’s Totalitarian Esthetic #1, 1989 In the glossary, look up deﬁnitions of the words in the title of this artwork. After reading the points of view of the artist and the museum, discuss why Ashley Bickerton sees a relationship between Minimalism and monoculture. How do you think this artwork promotes discourse? Compare this artwork with the work by Jac Leirner and Donald Judd on this site. How are they similar? Which seem to be about forms and which seem to be more political in content? Using the zoom feature, identify the contents of each of the containers in the sculpture. How is the practice of monoculture related to the global economy? How is it related to global environmentalism? xUrban Bush Women, Praise House, 1991 To view the video clips from performances of Praise House, click the Hyperessay icon. Open the dance index and scroll down to Praise House. Which different styles of dance, music, and visual art are blended in Praise House? (Possible answers: African dance, modern dance, spiritual music, outsider art.) How is Praise House a blending of cultural identities? Look up the deﬁnition of diaspora. What was/is the African diaspora? How is Praise House an expression of this? Compare the connections between art and spirituality in the work of Hannah (Minnie Evans) and the work of Jawole Willa Jo Zollar. What do you think Jawole Willa Jo Zollar means by her statements on the “Identity: Legacies” page? How do you think this point of view is expressed in her work? of the Geography Trilogy), Trilogy xRalph Lemon, Tree (Part IIperformance/movement you2000in the two video clips of Compare and contrast the see Tree. Would you describe what you see as dance, theater, or another art form? Give reasons for your answer. Read the text from the ﬁrst video clip on the “Place: Earthquake” page. What is the Mercalli scale? How does this relate to the ﬁrst video clip? The title Tree is drawn from an ancient piece of literature called The Bhagavad Gita. What culture and religion is this from? Draw an image or choreograph movement of a tree based on the description in the text from The Bhagavad Gita that appears on the “Ritual: Temples” page. Read the list of the major themes in Tree in the “Ritual: Temples” section. Select one or two pairs of words and list how they relate to and/or contrast with each other. Write personal associations you have with the words you selected. Do you agree with Ralph Lemon that globalism is shrinking the world? Why or why not? Support your answer with examples from your own experience. WALKER ART CENTER 6 Teacher’s Guide to GLOBAL POSITIONING: EXPLORING CONTEMPORARY WORLD ART x Shirin Neshat, Soliloquy, 1999 What is a soliloquy? Why would Shirin Neshat give this title to her ﬁlm installation? This was the ﬁrst of Neshat’s ﬁlms in which she herself appeared. Why do you think she chose to do so in this ﬁlm? In each of the ﬁlm stills shown here, Neshat places herself in relation to an architectural element. Which are from Middle Eastern cultures and which are from Western cultures? Look at each photograph and describe what this juxtaposition may symbolize. Have you ever been “in between” two worlds, cultures, or groups? How did you feel in this situation? How does Shirin Neshat’s ﬁlm installation, as it is described on this site, reinforce this feeling? Why do you think Neshat wears clothing resembling a chador in Soliloquy? At various times in modern Iranian history, women have been allowed to wear the chador if they chose. When the Shah was promoting westernization of Iran, however, they were forbidden to wear it. Since the Islamic revolution of 1979, they have been forced to wear it. Can you think of other times when clothing has been central to a political or cultural issue? x Willie Cole, Stowage, 1997 What images come to mind when you look at the print Stowage? Can you see references to the slave trade? to domestic workers? to African masks? to the ritual of scarification? Why do you think Willie Cole combined these references in this print? What different meanings does the word “iron” have? In what ways has Cole used irons in this print? Read the excerpt of a speech by Malcolm X on the “Rights: Malcolm X” page of this section. Who was Malcolm X? How have his ideas affected African American culture today? What was his point in talking about “house Negro” and “ﬁeld Negro”? Have you ever participated in an oppressive system because you gained from it (like Malcolm X’s house Negro)? Was there a time when you suffered to avoid taking part in an oppressive system (like Malcolm X’s ﬁeld Negro)? x Yinka Shonibare, Dysfunctional Family, 1999 Do you consider this work of art to be humorous or political? Give reasons for your answer. What different meanings can you think of for the word “alien”? How do the meanings relate to Yinka Shonibare and his artwork? Study the timeline of the history of batik by clicking the Batik icon next to the large pictures on these pages. Can you think of another commodity that has a similar interesting history (such as gold, coffee, peanuts, chocolate, tulips, or tobacco)? When did H. G. Wells write The War of the Worlds? What was it about? What is your reaction to the ideas in the excerpt that appears on the “Literature: H. G. Wells” page of this section? What stereotypes can you ﬁnd in this piece? Why do you think Shonibare was interested in this story? WALKER ART CENTER 7 Teacher’s Guide to GLOBAL POSITIONING: EXPLORING CONTEMPORARY WORLD ART xUdomsak Krisanamis, How Deep is the Ocean?, 1998 What happened to the newspaper collage in this artwork? Why do you think Udomsak Krisanamis used newspaper in this piece? Try this: Take a page full of text from a newspaper or book. Fill in each letter that has a circle or closed space (such as o, a, b, d, p, q, e, g). Turn it into a design or drawing of something. Did the words on the page have an effect on your ﬁnished artwork? Why or why not? Compare this activity to Krisanamis’ process of making his paintings. How do the “holes” in this painting serve as a metaphor? Think of other ways that empty space can be a metaphor. Have you ever been in a place where you didn’t know how to speak the language? How did you communicate? How did you feel? xEugenio Dittborn, 10th History of the Human Face (to Commission and to Collect) (Numbers 84a and 84b), 1991 Describe the faces you see in Eugenio Dittborn’s work. Why do you think the human face is such a common subject in art? Why do you think Dittborn included a range of drawing and photo styles in this piece? Where did the faces in this piece come from? Read the list on the “Rights: Untold Stories” page of this section. What do the sources of these faces have to do with Chilean history and culture? Watch the path that Dittborn’s paintings take by clicking the Airmail icon to the left on the pages of this section. In what way is this activity part of the artistic process for Dittborn? Why do you think he mailed his art around the world? Many artists who lived in Chile in the 1970s and 1980s found life difﬁcult because they had no place to show their work and the government restricted their travel. How did Dittborn comment on this situation in his artwork? How did he try to overcome the obstacles? xKcho (Alexis Leyva Machado), Obras Escogidas (Selected Works), 1994 What materials did Kcho use to make this sculpture of a boat? Why do you think he chose them? What might they symbolize to the artist? Boats can be used for recreation, travel, or transporting goods. Similarly, books can be used for pleasure, reference, or learning. Boats and books can also be seen as metaphors. Research poems, stories, or novels that make references to boats and/or books. Discuss whether the writers see them as functional or symbolic objects. What larger ideas could they symbolize? How big is Cuba in square miles? Compare Cuba to the size of other countries, such as the United States, Mexico, or Spain. How do you think life in the United States, Mexico, or Spain would be different if they were islands? Research the history of the relationship between Cuba and the United States from the 1950s to the present. These web sites might be useful: http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/latin_america/cuba http://www.state.gov/p/wha/rls/fs/2001/2558.htm Why is Kcho a controversial ﬁgure among Cuban Americans? WALKER ART CENTER 8 Teacher’s Guide to GLOBAL POSITIONING: EXPLORING CONTEMPORARY WORLD ART xChris Oﬁli , Third Eye Vision, 1999 Read the list of materials in this artwork. Which ones seem unusual or surprising? Use the zoom feature to examine how these items are used. Locate the following: • paint applied in patterns of tiny dots • small magazine cutouts of faces • glow-in-the-dark materials • varnished elephant dung • pictures and words made with map pins Look again at the entire artwork. How do these separate elements create an overall image? On the artist page, read the answers Chris Oﬁli gave to the magazine interview questions. Why do you think he responded this way? How would you answer the questions? Click the Portrait icon. What impression do Oﬁli’s answers and this portrait give you about his personality? Oﬁli is a fan of hip-hop. Describe what you see in this painting that connects with this style of music and culture. On the “Museum: Background Information” page, the text reads in part: “Like all of Oﬁli’s work, this painting fearlessly takes on questions of the profane juxtaposed with the sacred, the humorous with the sublime, and the bold with the mysterious.” What is profane about this painting? What is sacred? How is it humorous? sublime? What is bold about it? mysterious? xJoseph Beuys, Filzanzug (Felt Suit), 1970 (Felt Suit) Joseph Beuys did not intend for this suit to be worn, because it has meaning beyond an article of clothing. Other than something to wear, what associations can you think of for a gray suit? How do you think Beuys’ experiences as a soldier in World War II affected his life? (For more information, you may click the Hyperessay link at the left on the Web page.) Beuys was interested in the possible metaphors of substances such as felt, fat, gold, and copper. Make a list of these materials and others mentioned on this Web site. Next to each item, brainstorm words that come to mind when you think of that material. Create a drawing or write a poem that expresses your associations. An afterimage is an image that stays with you even after you have stopped looking at an object. For example, when you stare at something red and then shift your gaze to a white background, you see a blue-green image of the object you were staring at. Try this by clicking the Afterimage icon to the left of the large picture on these pages. How is Beuys combining science and art in his work? Can you imagine other connections between art and science? Listen to “Sonne statt Reagan” by clicking the Song icon to the left of the large picture on these pages. The English lyrics appear on the page “Sound: Sonne statt Reagan (Sun Instead of Rain).” Can you think of other pop songs that attempt to send a political message to the masses? Is this is an effective approach? Do you agree with Beuys’ ideas about money in our society? Why or why not? WALKER ART CENTER 9 Teacher’s Guide to GLOBAL POSITIONING: EXPLORING CONTEMPORARY WORLD ART xMel Chin, Color copy of the project plan for Revival Field, 1990 Compare the project plan and model with the ﬁnal planted site. How did the shapes and forms used for this project change as the work progressed? How do you think the design of the site reﬂected the purpose of this project? Mel Chin described this project as a sculpture. How does it differ from other sculptures you have seen? What qualities does it share with more traditional sculpture? Click the “Chin + NEA” icon to follow the correspondence between the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) and people asking for funds to create Revival Field. Why do you think this project was at ﬁrst rejected for funds? What made the chairman of the NEA change his mind? Do you agree with his decision? Why or why not? How far are you from the Pig’s Eye landﬁll? To ﬁnd out, use the Directions icon to the left of the large picture on these pages. Are there similar sites closer to you? How might you ﬁnd out? Can art help solve global issues such as pollution of the environment? Why or why not? WALKER ART CENTER 10 Teacher’s Guide to GLOBAL POSITIONING: EXPLORING CONTEMPORARY WORLD ART PART 3: STUDENT ACTIVITY <FROM GLOBAL TO PERSONAL> Many of the points of view on this Web site have to do with current global issues. In this activity, students select an issue, relate it to artworks on the site, research a related event in the last 50 years, and create a personal response. xA. Choose one issue from the list below: cultural identity human rights global economy environmental concerns xB. Write in your journal why you selected this topic. What makes it an “issue”? What different points of view do you think exist around it? How do you think this issue is critical in the world today? xC. Find one or more artworks on this site that connect to your issue. (It may be helpful to look at the List of Artists by Point of View in the appendix.) Complete the attached “Big Picture worksheet” for one artwork. xD. Pick an event in the last 50 years that relates to the issue you chose. (You may refer to the timeline in the appendix if you wish.) Research the event on the Internet or using library resources at your school. (See the list of Useful Web Sites in the appendix.) Use the “Global Event Chart” to organize information. xE. Brainstorm a list of words that express your personal reactions to this event. Think of objects or concepts that could serve as metaphors for your feelings. To spark your ideas, you may refer to metaphors used by Global Positioning artists. Then create a poem about the event and your reactions to it. xF. Create a drawing, painting, or collage that includes a visual symbol or metaphor expressing an aspect of the event or your reaction to it. Write an artist’s statement about your artwork, including how it communicates your reactions to the event. WALKER ART CENTER 11 Teacher’s Guide to GLOBAL POSITIONING: EXPLORING CONTEMPORARY WORLD ART x BIG PICTURE WORKSHEET BIG PICTURE WORKSHEET WORK OF ART ARTISTIC FORMS Title Materials Artist Techniques Date Elements DESCRIPTION MOODS/FEELINGS EXPRESSED PLACE(S)/GEOGRAPHY ARTIST BIOGRAPHY Movement HISTORY/EVENTS Current events Historic events Issues Global systems WALKER ART CENTER 12 Teacher’s Guide to GLOBAL POSITIONING: EXPLORING CONTEMPORARY WORLD ART x THE GLOBAL EVENT CHART WHAT HAPPENED? WHAT ARE THE DATES OF THE EVENT? WHO ARE THE KEY PEOPLE ASSOCIATED WITH THIS EVENT? WHAT GLOBAL ISSUES CAN BE SELECT AN EVENT THAT HAS IMPACTED THE WHERE DID THIS EVENT TAKE PLACE? ASSOCIATED WITH THE EVENT? WORLD IN THE LAST 50 YEARS: WERE OTHER PLACES AFFECTED? •GLOBAL ECONOMY •TECHNOLOGICAL •ENVIRONMENTAL •POLITICAL WHAT IS YOUR PERSONAL CONNECTION OR REACTION •CULTURAL IDENTITY TO THIS EVENT? •HUMAN RIGHTS •PEACE AND SECURITY MAKE A LIST OF WORDS THAT EXPRESS YOUR REACTIONS TO THIS CREATE A VISUAL SYMBOL OR IMAGE THAT EXPRESSES YOUR EVENT: REACTIONS TO THIS EVENT: WALKER ART CENTER 13 Teacher’s Guide to GLOBAL POSITIONING: EXPLORING CONTEMPORARY WORLD ART PART 4: APPENDIX xA. List of Artists by Point of View Identity English language learner: Udomsak Krisanamis immigration: Kcho in between: Shirin Neshat juxtaposition: Ralph Lemon legacies: Urban Bush Women Rights aliens: Yinka Shonibare Malcolm X: Willie Cole power: Jac Leirner testimonies: Sawad Brooks and Beth Stryker untold stories: Eugenio Dittborn women’s experience: Shirin Neshat Place airmail: Eugenio Dittborn Cuba: Kcho earthquake: Ralph Lemon monoculture: Ashley Bickerton Pig’s Eye dump: Mel Chin Economy batik: Yinka Shonibare coffee: Ashley Bickerton inﬂation: Jac Leirner multiples: Joseph Beuys Ritual chador: Shirin Neshat spirituality: Urban Bush Women temples: Ralph Lemon Metaphor empty spaces: Udomsak Krisanamis iron: Willie Cole universal boat: Kcho Sound hip-hop: Chris Oﬁli Sonne statt Reagan: Joseph Beuys WALKER ART CENTER 14 Teacher’s Guide to GLOBAL POSITIONING: EXPLORING CONTEMPORARY WORLD ART xB. Timeline of Global Events 1945-2003 1945 World War II (WWII) ends. Defeated nations Germany and Japan, as well as all of Western Europe, receive ﬁnancial recovery aid from the United States. United Nations (UN) established to maintain world peace. 1946 Cold War begins. All of Eastern Europe eventually falls under control of Communist governments until 1989, creating tensions between Western powers and the Soviet Union. Battlegrounds between the United States and the Soviet Union include Cuba, Africa, the Middle East, Southeast Asia. 1947 India gains independence from Britain. After violent clashes, Pakistan is created as a Muslim state to ease Muslim/ Hindu tensions in the area. A year later Hindu leader Mahatma Gandhi is assassinated by a Hindu extremist enraged by the partition. 1948 UN Declaration of Human Rights The policy of apartheid is enacted by the Afrikaner National Party to cement control and domination by whites over South African economic and social systems. The state of Israel is established. The United Nations treaty also promises a Palestinian state. World sympathy for Jews following extermination of 6 million of their people and 4 million other “undesirables” by Nazi Germany in WWII. 1949 Indonesia, one of several Asian nations to overthrow European colonialism after WWII, wins independence from the Netherlands. The Chinese Communists, led by Mao Zedong, declare the People’s Republic of China. The nationalist opposition forces, led by Chiang Kai-shek, are forced into exile on the island of Taiwan. 1953 Iran overthrows the shah and becomes a democracy, only to have the ruler return to power with support from the United States and Great Britain, which aim to stiﬂe Communism and maintain access to oil. Iran begins a long distrust of the United States. 1954 France defeated in Vietnam. The United States commits to sending advisers to Vietnam, eventually increasing commitment of ground troops and air strikes by the mid-1960s. Fear of Chinese Communist takeover of Southeast Asia pushes the United States deeper into war. Thailand continues as an independent country and place of refuge for civilians of warring neighbors. 1959 Fidel Castro becomes premier of Cuba, establishes a Communist government, and after 1960 becomes a strong ally of the Soviet Union. The microchip is invented, paving the way for the personal computer. In the last decade of the 20th century, exchange of Internet information becomes instant around the world. 1960 Seventeen African countries become independent of European colonial powers. Postcolonial governments struggle with political instability, causing many Africans to immigrate to former colonial powers, especially Britain and France. Iraq, Iran, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia form the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). WALKER ART CENTER 15 Teacher’s Guide to GLOBAL POSITIONING: EXPLORING CONTEMPORARY WORLD ART 1961 The United States breaks off diplomatic relations with Cuba. U.S. attempt to overthrow Castro government culminates in the Bay of Pigs disaster. Beatles’ ﬁrst concert in Liverpool, England. The government of East Berlin, Germany, erects the Berlin wall, physically dividing the city between east and west, Communist and non-Communist. It symbolizes repression throughout world. 1962 Rachel Carson publishes Silent Spring, which exposes the hazards of the pesticide DDT, questions humanity’s faith in technology, and helps set the stage for the environmental movement. England’s Commonwealth Immigrant Act severely restricts black immigration from Africa. Cuban missile crisis: Soviets remove warheads from Cuba after U.S. President John F. Kennedy threatens to invade the country. 1963 President Kennedy is assassinated in Dallas, Texas. 1964 U.S. President Lyndon Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act, outlawing segregation. Military coup in Brazil leads to years of political oppression, including the abolishing of the constitution and censorship of artists. 1965 The ﬁrst U.S. troops arrive in Vietnam. Black Muslim leader Malcolm X is assassinated. 1966 Military coup installs repressive regime in Nigeria. Bloody civil war breaks out as the region of Biafra declares independence and secedes. Over 2 million people die in over two years until Biafra surrenders. 1968 U.S. civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr. is assassinated; violence erupts across the country. Protesters force the Museum of Modern Art in New York to include works by African American artists in a memorial exhibition. U.S. troops massacre hundreds of Vietnamese civilians in My Lai. Antiwar protests erupt across the nation and in Europe. Students riot in Brazil against the authoritarian regime. Demonstrations and strikes protest suppression of civil rights in France, Czechoslovakia, Mexico, and other countries. 1969 U.S. astronaut Neil Armstrong walks on the moon. 1970 Ohio National Guardsmen kill four students during a protest against the Vietnam War at Kent State University. Salvador Allende is elected president of Chile, ending a military dictatorship. Three years later the military deposes and murders Allende with U.S. assistance. Under General Augusto Pinochet, a period of bloody repression leaves thousands of civilians tortured, murdered, or “disappeared.” Pinochet introduces “free market” reforms. First Earth Day declared. By 2000, more than 150 countries participate. WALKER ART CENTER 16 Teacher’s Guide to GLOBAL POSITIONING: EXPLORING CONTEMPORARY WORLD ART 1971 Bloody war between Pakistan and India ends when India’s superior airpower drives Pakistani troops out of eastern Pakistan, which gains independence as Bangladesh. The People’s Republic of China, established in the 1949 Communist revolution, is seated in the United Nations, replacing Taiwan, which had represented the Chinese people since 1949. The ﬁrst Green party, the United Tasmania Group, forms in Australia, although the term “green” is coined in 1979 in Germany. 1972 U.S. President Richard Nixon visits China to discuss easing trade relations and improving diplomatic relations. 1973 The Vietnam War ends, with the United States forced to withdraw and recognize the Communist government of Ho Chi Minh. Large numbers of Southeast Asians ﬂee to refugee camps in Thailand, and over the next 20 years many settle in the United States. The Arab OPEC countries reduce oil production to penalize the United States for supporting Israel in its October 1972 war against Egypt and Syria. Egyptian forces attack Israel. 1974 OPEC lifts its oil embargo on the United States. President Nixon resigns because of the Watergate scandal. 1975 The Khmer Rouge, under the leadership of Pol Pot, seizes control of Cambodia. Under the murderous regime, more than a third of the population, once estimated at 8 million, perishes from war, disease, and genocidal policies. Many refugees ﬂee to camps in neighboring Thailand. 1976 Revolutionary leader Mao Zedong, noted for developing China into a powerful Communist nation, dies. Punk rock and the “new wave” aesthetic appear in New York City and the United Kingdom, questioning who qualiﬁes as an artist and blurring boundaries between visual art, performance art, and rock concerts and between high and low culture. 1977 The Revolutionary Association of the Women of Afghanistan (RAWA) is founded by activist Meena. Going underground for a time, and reemerging strongly in the 1990s, this women’s resistance movement communicated with international helpers who provided funds, technical support, and political advice via the Internet. Now reaching millions through the Internet, RAWA continues to create schools for girls and women, defend women from abuse, and exercise increasing political power. 1978 U.S. President Jimmy Carter declares an emergency at Love Canal, Niagara Falls, New York. The Love Canal scandal alerts the nation to long-term, hidden dangers of soil and groundwater pollution. WALKER ART CENTER 17 Teacher’s Guide to GLOBAL POSITIONING: EXPLORING CONTEMPORARY WORLD ART 1979 Soviet Union invades Afghanistan. Eight years later it is forced to withdraw as resistance forces, supported by the United States, take over the country. Joseph Beuys, founding member of the ecological Green Party, loses an election for a seat in the European Parliament. After the Shah of Iran is deposed, Muslim clerical leader Ayatollah Khomeini returns from exile to rule. The nation of non-Arab Muslim Shi’ites becomes an Islamic republic. War with the neighboring Arab country of Iraq follows. A trade agreement between Japan and China continues China’s modernization campaign by including foreign investment and technical aid. A “democracy wall” with slogans and posters challenges some of the restrictive practices of the government. Early 1980s Rap becomes the music of the hip-hop street culture of New York, speaking of hatred, violence, alienation, and oppression. A new generation of African American activists moves away from the civil rights generation of the 1960s. 1980 In elections in the former British colony of Zimbabwe, the majority black population defeats the white minority and establishes a new government. Iranian radicals hold hostage 52 U.S. citizens to protest U.S. support of Iraq in the war between the neighboring countries. The captives are released shortly after the election of President Ronald Reagan. 1984 Indian leader Indira Gandhi is assassinated by her Sikh bodyguards. The year before, she had ordered Indian troops to storm the sacred Sikh Golden Temple at Amritsar to root out Sikh extremists; over 600 people were killed. Approximately 3,800 people die in Bhopal, India, when gas leaks from a Union Carbide industrial plant that manufactures pesticides. 1985 Artists and activists the Guerrilla Girls form in New York City. With posters, banners, and leaﬂets they challenge the art establishment on the women and non-white artists missing from museums and galleries. 1986 Actor and playwright Augusto Boal returns to Brazil after the dictatorship ends. He begins to create popular theater groups based on his Center for the Theater of the Oppressed, a technique that breaks down barriers between actors and audience. Today he partners with Brazil’s Landless Rural Workers Movement to bring the theater’s methods back to rural communities. Chernobyl nuclear power plant melt down occurs in the Soviet Union. President Reagan, in what becomes known as the Iran-Contra affair, approves secret shipments of military equipment to Iran through Israel. The seven-year war between Iraq and Iran continues. 1988 In Jerusalem 30 Israelis, called Women in Black, gather in silent protest of Israel’s occupation of the West Bank and Gaza. This international movement grew out of vigils held by Argentine and Central American women who mourned the “disappeared” during years of war in the 1970s and 1980s. By 2002, demonstrations appear in Yugoslavia, the Philippines, India, South Africa, Israel, Ireland, and the United States, including the Twin Cities. 1989 The Berlin wall comes down. Political changes in Eastern Europe eventually lead to the defeat of Communism there. Democracy is restored as Chile conducts its ﬁrst presidential election in 19 years. WALKER ART CENTER 18 Teacher’s Guide to GLOBAL POSITIONING: EXPLORING CONTEMPORARY WORLD ART 1989 (cont.) In Beijing, China, grief over the death of a popular reform leader turns into pro-democracy demonstrations in Tiananmen Square. Many students and progressives are killed by government forces. Instantaneous communication through global media channels fuels worldwide dismay at the brutality. A Robert Mapplethorpe exhibit at the Corcoran Gallery of Art in Washington, DC, is canceled after protests over photographs of nude children. Senator Jesse Helms campaigns to control public funding of art by the National Endowment for the Arts. The ship Exxon Valdez runs aground in Alaska, spilling thousands of gallons of crude oil into the sea. It is considered the worst spill in terms of damage to the environment. Sony, the Japanese electronics giant, buys Columbia Pictures Entertainment. Along with its purchase of CBS Records, Sony hopes to market U.S. pop culture through cutting-edge Japanese technologies in ﬁlm, television, and music. Deepak Chopra’s book Quantum Healing becomes a best-seller. Promoting a 4,000-year-old healing tradition from India, it helps stimulate interest in alternative medicine worldwide. 1990 Iraq, under Saddam Hussein, invades Kuwait. A coalition led by the United States launches massive air attacks on Iraq, and the Persian Gulf War begins. South Africa releases political prisoner Nelson Mandela, who had been jailed for 27 years. He later becomes president in the ﬁrst multiracial elections in South Africa after 350 years of white domination. 1991 The Soviet Union dissolves into independent republics, and Cuba loses monetary aid. Apartheid laws end in South Africa. Bosnia and Herzegovina declares sovereignty from the former Yugoslavia, beginning regional conﬂict between ethnic Serbs and Croats. 1993 Nigeria continues to repress politicians, artists, and other civilians. Following assaults on Bosnian women in the former Yugoslavia, the United Nations declares the rape of women in areas of armed conﬂict to be a war crime. 1994 The North American Free Trade Agreement is signed by Mexico, Canada, and the United States. By 2002, Mexico has $250 billion a year in commerce with its northern neighbor. In Rwanda, civil war between Hutu and Tutsi tribes leads to over 200,000 civilian deaths. Refugees ﬂee to neighboring African countries. 1995 The United Nations Fourth World Conference on Women takes place in Beijing, China. 1998 Ethnic Serbs and ethnic Albanians conﬂict over land rights in Kosovo; NATO, on the verge of air strikes, reaches a settlement on Kosovo with Serbian leader Slobodan Milosevic. Europeans agree on single currency, the euro. WALKER ART CENTER 19 Teacher’s Guide to GLOBAL POSITIONING: EXPLORING CONTEMPORARY WORLD ART 1999 The Sierra Club protests global trade without adequate environmental controls and joins with Amnesty International in publishing Environmentalists Under Fire: 10 Urgent Cases of Human Rights Abuses. The Chinese government outlaws Falun Dafa (also called Falun Gong), a meditation practice that combines exercise with teachings on how to become a better person. The government considers the movement a cult and prosecutes those who practice it. 2000 Mexico elects Vicente Fox, ending decades of rule by the Institutional Revolutionary Party. The new president promotes relations with the United States, free trade, and foreign investments, and openly criticizes his country’s old friend Fidel Castro of Cuba. Randall Robinson publishes The Debt: What America Owes to Blacks. An advocate of slave reparations, the author argues that slavery is a crime of such proportions that its economic and psychological damage is passed down through generations. The European Union bans leaded gasoline as a public health hazard. 2001 Terrorists hijack airplanes and attack the World Trade Center in New York and the Pentagon in Washington, DC. A third plane crashes in Pennsylvania. Most of the 3,000 killed are U.S. citizens, but the deaths represent people from over 80 nations. Iran offers sanctuary for the United States and its allies during war against the Taliban and terrorists in Afghanistan. Saudi Arabia begins issuing identiﬁcation cards to women, amid both support and criticism from Saudi women. Veils are not worn in the photo IDs. 2002 A treaty creating the International Criminal Court is signed by 60 nations (but not the United States). The permanent tribunal prosecutes individuals for genocide, crimes against humanity, and other war crimes. At the invitation of Fidel Castro, former President Carter visits Cuba, becoming the ﬁrst U.S. president or ex-president to do so in over 70 years. Carter criticizes the country on its human-rights record and urges the United States to ease its trade embargo. The World Health Organization declares HIV infection to be the leading cause of death in sub-Saharan Africa. The National Ice Center announces that three massive hunks of glacial ice have broken away from Antarctica. The largest is 40 miles by 53 miles. The World Summit on Sustainable Development gathers in Johannesburg, South Africa. It is part of a series of global meetings on the environment that began in 1972 in Sweden with the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment and continued with the 1992 Earth Summit in Brazil. 2003 North Korea withdraws from a global treaty on the nonproliferation of nuclear weapons. Troops from the United States and United Kingdom and their allies invade Iraq, after an air strike on the suspected bunker of Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein in Baghdad. A suicide bombing destroys UN headquarters in Baghdad, killing 24, including top envoy Sergio Vieira de Mello. Scientists announce that the ozone layer may be showing signs of recovery due to an international ban on chloroﬂuorocarbons. The World Health Organization issues a global alert on Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). WALKER ART CENTER 20 Teacher’s Guide to GLOBAL POSITIONING: EXPLORING CONTEMPORARY WORLD ART xC. Glossary chador Minimalism a loose, usually black robe worn by Muslim women that covers the a style of art in which the least possible amount of shapes, colors, or body from head to toe and most of the face lines are used to reduce the concept or idea to its simplest form diaspora monoculture a dispersion of people from their homeland, or a dispersion of a lan- the cultivation of a single crop on a farm or in a region or country guage or a culture orthodoxy aesthetic the quality of adhering to what is commonly accepted, customary, or (adj.) of or concerning the appreciation of beauty or good taste traditional (n.) a guiding principle in matters of artistic beauty and taste; artistic sensibility outsider art work by artists who are self-taught and/or choose to remain indepen- issue dent from the art world an idea about which at least two distinct points of view can be held and articulated profane marked by contempt or irreverence for what is sacred juxtaposition the act of putting side by side; placing two or more things together, especially to suggest a link between them or emphasize the contrast scariﬁcation between them creation of a design by means of shallow cuts (as on the skin) that are sometimes rubbed with a colorant or irritant to enhance the resulting scar tissue Mercalli scale a scale created in 1902 by Italian seismologist Giuseppe Mercalli to measure the size of an earthquake based on its effects; the Modiﬁed soliloquy Mercalli scale rates a tremor using structural damage and a general a dramatic or literary form of discourse in which a character talks to description of human reactions to the shaking ground himself or herself or reveals his or her thoughts without addressing a listener metaphor one thing conceived as representing another; a symbol totalitarian a form of government in which the political authority exercises abso- lute and centralized control over all aspects of life, the individual is subordinated to the state, and opposing political and cultural expres- sion is suppressed WALKER ART CENTER 21 Teacher’s Guide to GLOBAL POSITIONING: EXPLORING CONTEMPORARY WORLD ART D. Useful Web Sites Globalism http://www.sociology.emory.edu/SOC/globalization The Globalization Website welcomes anyone interested in globalization, such as students taking courses on the subject, scholars engaged in research, members of groups involved in global activism, and the general public. The site includes sections on global debates and a glossary. http://www.globaled.org The American Forum for Global Education offers teaching materials and links to other Web sites. http://www.globalexchange.org Global Exchange is an international human rights organization dedicated to providing environmental, political, and social justice. http://www.uwm.edu/Dept/CIE/Resources/globalization/index.html “Understanding the Face of Globalization,” a resource guide to help educators bring international issues into the classroom, includes many useful links. http://www.choices.edu The Choices Program sells curricular resources and instructional programs with the aim of informing students at the secondary level about international issues. PBS Web Sites http://www.pbs.org/teachersource/soc_stud.htm PBS TeacherSource offers a collection of teacher’s guides developed for social studies programs aired on the Public Broadcasting System. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/globalconnections For teachers, students, and others interested in learning more about world events, Global Connections offers readings, lesson plans, links, timelines, and maps about the Middle East and Liberia. http://www.pbs.org/frontlineworld/stories http://www.pbs.org/frontlineworld/educators These archives of Frontline stories and teacher’s guides cover topics such as culture, geography, economics, history, and politics. http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/latin_america/chile/index.html “Politics in Chile: An Online NewsHour Special Report” http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/latin_america/cuba/index.html “Cuba and the United States: An Online NewsHour Special Report” http://www.pbs.org/newshour/extra/features/july-dec01/g-8.html The NewsHour Extra article “A Global Meeting” deals with the 2001 G-8 global economics summit in Genoa, Italy. WALKER ART CENTER 22 Teacher’s Guide to GLOBAL POSITIONING: EXPLORING CONTEMPORARY WORLD ART Human Rights http://www.state.gov/g/drl/hr The U.S. Department of State Web site on human rights http://www.unhchr.ch/udhr/index.htm This site explains the background and importance of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted in 1948 by the United Nations. Translations of the declaration are available in 300 languages. http://www.hrw.org Human Rights Watch is an international organization dedicated to protecting the human rights of people around the world. http://web.amnesty.org Amnesty International is a worldwide movement of people who campaign for internationally recognized human rights. http://www.derechos.org Derechos Human Rights, an international organization focusing on human rights in Latin America, offers news, reports, and a link to Project Disappeared. In English and Spanish. http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/education/pihre Partners in Human Rights Education teaches international human rights and responsibilities using the framework of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the Convention on the Rights of the Child. The Web site includes ideas for K-12 lessons. Economics http://youthink.worldbank.org On this site for young people, the World Bank offers research, knowledge, and experience gathered by experts on global issues such as poverty, development, and conﬂict. http://www.americas.org The Resource Center of the Americas, which promotes human rights by focusing on the global economy, offers articles from U.S. and Latin American sources, plus a section on globalization. In English and Spanish. http://www.sweatshops.org Co-op America’s program to end sweatshops and promote fair trade Environment http://earthtrends.wri.org This online database, whose sponsors include the World Bank and the United Nations, focuses on the environmental, social, and economic trends that shape the world. http://www.epa.gov The Web site of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency includes sections on speciﬁc environmental topics such as global warming, acid rain, wetlands, and more. WALKER ART CENTER 23 Teacher’s Guide to GLOBAL POSITIONING: EXPLORING CONTEMPORARY WORLD ART http://yosemite.epa.gov/oar/globalwarming.nsf/content/index.html The EPA’s global warming page http://www.epa.gov/kids http://www.epa.gov/highschool These two EPA sites for schools and youth inform about environmental issues and help kids protect the environment. http://www.epa.gov/teachers Teachers seeking information about environmental issues can ﬁnd curriculum resources, workshop calendars, community service projects and more on this EPA site. http://www.unep.org The Web site of the United Nations Environment Program includes a link for children and youth. Immigration/Refugees http://www.state.gov/p/wha/rls/fs/2001/2558.htm U.S. Department of State fact sheet on U.S.-Cuba relations http://memory.loc.gov/learn/features/immig/timeline.html Created by the Library of Congress, this site examines the history of immigration to the United States. http://www.refugees.org Here the U.S. Committee for Refugees posts its World Refugee Survey, news articles, and audio and written testimonials from refugees.
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