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Microsoft PowerPoint - Conclusiv


									Marketing Research

            When you can measure what you are speaking
            about and express it in numbers, you know                                                         Conclusive Research
            something about it.

                                                               Lord Kelvin

                                                                                                                                         Dr. Paurav Shukla

                                          Session Objectives                                                                            Focus                           Depth                    Projective
                                                                                               Criteria                                 Groups                        Interviews                Techniques

        §   Survey Methods                                                             1. Degree of Structure                     Relatively high               Relatively medium Relatively low
        §   Observation methods                                                        2 Probing of individual                    Low                           High              Medium
        §   Experimentation                                                            3. Moderator bias                          Relatively medium Relatively high   Low to high
                                                                                       4. Interpretation bias                     Relatively low    Relatively medium Relatively high
        §   Research proposal
                                                                                       5. Uncovering                              Low               Medium to high    High
                                                                                       6. Discovering innovative                  High                          Medium                       Low
                                                                                       7. Obtaining sensitive                     Low                           Medium                       High
                                                                                       8. Involve unusual                         No                            To a limited extent Yes
                                                                                          behavior or questioning
                                                                                       9. Overall usefulness                      Highly useful                 Useful                       Somewhat

                                                                               3                                                                                                                                4

                                                                                                                  A Comparative Evaluation of Survey
                   A Classification of Survey Methods                                                                                       Methods
                                                                                        Criteria                     Phone/ In-Home                                     Mail       Mail
                                                                                                                                       Intercept            CAPI                              E-Mail      Internet
                                                                                                                      CATI Interviews Interviews                       Surveys    Panels
                                        Methods                                         Flexibility of data            Moderate     High          High     Moderate     Low        Low        Low      Moderate
                                                                                        collection                      to high                             to high                                     to high
                                                                                        Diversity of questions           Low        High          High       High     Moderate   Moderate   Moderate   Moderate
                                                                                                                                                                                                        to high
                                                                                        Use of physical stimuli          Low      Moderate        High       High     Moderate   Moderate     Low      Moderate
                                                                                                                                   to high
                                                                                        Sample control                 Moderate   Potentially   Moderate   Moderate     Low      Moderate     Low       Low to
                                                                                                                        to high     high                                          to high              moderate
      Telephone           Personal                      Mail           Electronic       Control of data collection     Moderate   Moderate        High       High       Low        Low        Low        Low
                                                                                        environment                                to high
                                                                                        Control of field force         Moderate     Low         Moderate   Moderate    High       High        High       High
                                                                                        Quantity of data                 Low        High        Moderate   Moderate   Moderate    High      Moderate   Moderate
                                                                                        Response rate                  Moderate     High          High      High        Low      Moderate     Low      Very Low
              In-Home        Mall         Computer-             E-mail      Internet    Perceived anonymity of         Moderate     Low           Low        Low       High       High      Moderate     High
                          Intercept    Assisted Personal                                the respondent
                                                                                        Social desirability            Moderate     High          High       High       Low       Low       Moderate     Low
                                         Interviewing                                   Obtaining sensitive             High        Low           Low       Low to      High      High      Moderate     High
                                                                                        information                                                        moderate
                                                                                        Potential for interviewer      Moderate     High          High       Low        None      None       None       None
     Traditional   Computer-Assisted        Mail
                                                                                        Speed                           High      Moderate      Moderate   Moderate     Low       Low to      High     Very high
                                                               Mail                                                                              to high    to high              moderate
     Telephone     Telephone                Interview                                   Cost                           Moderate     High        Moderate   Moderate     Low       Low to      Low        Low
                                                               Panel                                                                             to high    to high              moderate
                                                                               5                                                                                                                                6

Dr. Paurav Shukla                                                                                                                                                                                                    1
Marketing Research

                                                          Some Decisions Related to the
                                                                Mail Interview Package                                                                      A Classification of Observation Methods

      Outgoing Envelope                                                                                                                                                             Observation Methods
      Outgoing envelope: size, color, return address
      Postage         Method of addressing
      Cover Letter
      Sponsorship      Type of appeal Postscript
      Personalization Signature                                                                                                                         Personal         Mechanical                        Content           Trace
      Questionnaire                                                                                                                                                                          Audit
                                                                                                                                                       Observation       Observation                       Analysis         Analysis
      Length           Size                Layout    Format
      Content          Reproduction        Color     Respondent anonymity
      Return Envelope
      Type of envelope Postage
      Monetary versus non-monetary. Prepaid versus promised amt.
                                                                                                                                                  7                                                                                    8

           A Comparative Evaluation of Observation                                                                                                                   A Comparative Evaluation of Survey
                                         Methods                                                                                                                          Methods for International MR
                                                                                                                                                      Criteria                         Telephone   Personal      Mail     Electronic
     Criteria                                    Personal    Mechanical       Audit       Content        Trace                                        High sample control                    +         +            -         -
                                                 Observation Observation      Analysis     Analysis       Analysis                                    Difficulty in locating                 +         -           +          +
                                                                                                                                                      respondents at home
     Degree of structure                           Low        Low to high     High        High           Medium                                       Inaccessibility of homes               +         -           +          +
     Degree of disguise                            Medium    Low to high      Low         High           High                                         Unavailability of a large              +         -           +          +
     Ability to observe                            High      Low to high      High        Medium         Low
                                                                                                                                                      pool of trained interviewers
     in natural setting
     Observation bias                              High      Low               Low        Medium         Medium                                       Large population in rural areas        -         +           -          -
     Analysis Bias                                 High       Low to            Low       Low             Medium                                      Unavailability of maps                 +         -           +          +
                                                              Medium                                                                                  Unavailability of current              -         +           -          +
     General remarks Most flexible                           Can be         Expensive     Limited to   Method of                                      telephone directory
                                                              intrusive                  communications last resort                                   Unavailability of mailing lists        +         +           -          +
                                                                                                                                                      Low penetration of telephones          -         +           +           -
                                                                                                                                                      Lack of an efficient postal system     +         +           -           +
                                                                                                                                                      Low level of literacy                  -         +           -           -
                                                                                                                                                      Face-to-face communication culture -             +           -           -
                                                                                                                                                      Poor access to comps. & Internet       +         +           ?           -
                                                                                                                                                      Note: A (+) denotes an advantage, and a (–) denotes a disadvantage.

                                                                                                                                                  9                                                                                10

                                               Selecting a Test-Marketing Strategy                                                                                       Laboratory vs Field Experiments
                                                                  Competition                                                                                 Factor                      Laboratory         Field
                                                                                                                                                              Environment                 Artificial         Realistic
                                               Very +ve New Product Development
                Socio-Cultural Environment

                                                                                                   -ve                                                        Control                     High               Low
                                             Other Factors Research on Existing Products
                                                           Research on other Elements
                                                                                                                               Need for Secrecy

                                                                                                                                                              Reactive Error              High               Low
                                                                                                         Stop and Reevaluate

                                               Very +ve                                            -ve                                                        Demand Artifacts            High               Low
                                                             Simulated Test Marketing
                                             Other Factors                                                                                                    Internal Validity           High               Low
                                               Very +ve                                            -ve                                                        External Validity           Low                High
                                                           Controlled Test Marketing
                                             Other Factors                                                                                                    Time                        Short              Long
                                                                                                   -ve                                                        Number of Units             Small              Large
                                                             Standard Test Marketing
                                                                                                                                                              Ease of implementation High                    Low

                                                               National Introduction                                                                          Cost                        Low                High

                                                             Overall Marketing Strategy
                                                                                                                                       11                                                                                          12

Dr. Paurav Shukla                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2
Marketing Research

                          Validity in experimentation                                                   Experimentation

       § Internal validity                                               §   After Only Design
       § External validity                                               §   Before – After Design
                                                                         §   Before – After with Control Group
                                                                         §   Four – Group – Six Study
                                                                         §   After only with Control Group
                                                                         §   Ex Post Facto Design
                                                                         §   Randomized block design
                                                                         §   Latin square design
                                                                         §   Factorial design

                                                                   13                                                          14

           Building Accord According to Personal
                                    Observation                                                      Research Proposal

      Honda Motor Co. had a lot of complaints on their sporty,           §   Executive summary
      restyled Accord (not big enough for U.S. drivers, not stylish      §   Background
      enough for the Japanese drivers). Being afraid to lose its         §   Problem definition / Objectives of the research
      market, Honda sent teams to visit U.S. families and observe
                                                                         §   Approach to the problem
      how the Americans used their Honda Accords. By personal
      observation, the teams found out that the Americans like lots of   §   Research design
      compartments for storing maps and change. The teams also           §   Field work / Data collection
      actually took U.S. road trips in Accord and in Ford Taurus and     §   Data analysis
      Toyota Camry as its rivals in midsize cars. The results of this
                                                                         §   Reporting
      observation study were used to design a new 1998 Accord for
      U.S. drivers which has 101.7 cubic feet for passenger space        §   Appendices
      compared to 101.5 cubic feet for Ford Taurus and 97.9 cubic
      feet for Toyota Camry. Moreover, Accord also delivered higher
      customer value by cutting the price.
                                                                   15                                                          16

Dr. Paurav Shukla                                                                                                                   3

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