Syntactic curve detection by lindayy

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Chapter 8

Syntactic curve detection

8.1   Introduction

This chapter presents an algorithm for detecting curves in images by defining a pattern
language and estimating a model for it. The algorithm uses entropic chunking to identify
the pixels that belong to the individual curves in an image. It then applies an alternat-
ing algorithm to update the detected curves, using a curve model that simply comprises
smoothness and continuity constraints like those used by the snakes described in Chapter
5. The main advantages of this algorithm over snakes are that it does not require any
initialisation, and it performs a type of model selection by finding the number of curves
in the image in an unsupervised fashion.

   For the purpose of illustrating how curves can be detected, it is assumed that that
original image has already been passed through an edge detector, and that the image data
used as input to the syntactic model is binary. That is, pixels are labelled as being part
of an edge or not. Edge images of this kind will usually be contaminated by noise that
may be random in nature (for example, speckle noise), locally correlated (for example,
noise caused by lens distortions) or caused by occlusion. The method for detecting curves
described in this chapter can handle each of these types of noise.

   Section 8.2 defines the discrete spatial pattern language used to detect curves in images.

   The UpWrite is described in Section 8.3. The UpWrite determines which pixels com-
prise the individual curves in an image, and thereby learns compositional relationships.
This makes it an example of an S-UpWrite. The S-UpWrite is performed by entropic
chunking. Since curves can be simply approximated by a sequence of line segments, the
natural choice of sub-pattern is a line segment. Because the pattern language is a discrete
spatial language, the sub-patterns are n2 -patterns. Section 8.3.1 describes an algorithm
described by Alder and McLaughlin [6, 150, 151], called the Spot algorithm, for extract-
ing the n2 -patterns in the image and estimating models for them. The sequential Spot
algorithm uses the simplifying assumption that curves are smoothly continuous to simul-
taneously extract and order the n2 -patterns.
118                                                        Chapter 8. Syntactic curve detection


      As outlined in Chapter 6 and discussed in Chapter 7, the choice of representation for
  the n2 -patterns is an important step in the entropic chunking algorithm. In the case of
  curve detection, the line segments that form the n2 -patterns must be represented in a
  way that can be used to estimate a causal sub-pattern model. Section 8.3.2 describes
  a transformation-based representation where the transformation from a predecessor line
  segment lk−1 to its successor lk , written (lk |lk−1 ), is represented as a group action of the
  special Euclidean group SE(2) of rotations and translations in the R2 [164], so that

                                          g = (∆r, ∆t)T

  where ∆r is the angle of rotation of lk from lk−1 and ∆t ∈ R2 is the translation of lk
  from lk−1 . The transformation-based representation is invariant to rotation, scaling and
  translation in the plane. Section 8.3.3 describes how it is used to estimate a local model
  and perform entropic chunking of pixels into curves.

      The use of a transformation-based representation and the estimation of a local model
  of order n2 means that if one or more n2 -patterns are missing, they can be predicted
  using their predecessors and the local model. Prediction can then be incorporated into
  entropic chunking to produce a predictive chunking algorithm that is used in situations
  where part of a curve is occluded or affected by local noise. This is an important property
  of the syntactic approach and a desirable property for a curve representation. Section
  8.3.4 describes predictive chunking for detecting curves.

      Finally, Section 8.4 presents an alternating algorithm for detecting curves that iter-
  atively updates the n2 -patterns and measurement models using an algorithm similar to
  the algorithm described in Section 3.4 in Chapter 3. The algorithm alternately extracts
  n2 -patterns at different scales, and then updates the measurement models using the n2 -
  pattern models, giving an alternating algorithm that filters spatially varying noise.

      The material in this chapter applies and extends previous work by Alder [6], McLaugh-
  lin [151] and most recently, Hill [101].


  8.2   A pattern language for curve detection

  This section defines a pattern language for detecting curves in images. The level 0 substrate
  is taken to be N × N, so that the level 0 pattern language is a discrete spatial language.

      The measurable alphabet is the set {0, 1} with its power set and the counting measure.
  The observed data Y form a binary image, taking value one if they are labeled as an edge
  and zero otherwise. The location of a pixel in the image is a template of order one, and
  higher order templates are sets of pixel locations. For convenience, Y is indexed such that
  each pixel is denoted by y = (y0 , y1 )T ∈ R2 for i = 1, ..., N , where y0 specifies the location
  of a pixel in the x direction and y1 specifies its location in the y direction.
8.3. The UpWrite: pixels to curves                                                            119



                                Level 1: curves
                                                       S−UpWrite
                                Level 0: pixels


                            Figure 8.1: A pattern language for curves.



      The patterns in the language are the individual curves in the image, each mapping
a template comprised of a set of pixels. Figure 8.1 shows the hierarchy of the pattern
language.


8.3      The UpWrite: pixels to curves

Inference of a model for this pattern language involves determining which templates (of
a given order) are mapped by the individual patterns in an image (or equivalently, iden-
tifying which pixels comprise which curves). This involves the learning of compositional
relationships and is thus an example of a S-UpWrite. The S-UpWrite is performed by
entropic chunking.

      As described in Section 6.4.1, for a given scale, the steps required for entropic chunking
are:


   1. Extract the n-patterns.

   2. Choose a suitable representation for the n-patterns.

   3. Use the partial order of the substrate to order the n-patterns into predecessor -
        successor pairs (θT , θT ) where T ≤ T .

   4. Estimate a local model order n for the pattern language comprised of conditional
        models p (θT |θT ) for successors1 θT of θT .

   5. Calculate the entropy of the conditional models, and threshold.


These steps are elaborated in Subsections 8.3.1 – 8.3.3. Subsection 8.3.4 describes an
extension to entropic chunking, called predictive entropic chunking. Predictive entropic
chunking uses the estimated local model to predict missing n2 -patterns given their prede-
cessors. It is useful when a curve is corrupted by local noise or small occlusions.
  1
      Or neighbours in a noncausal pattern language.
120                                                                 Chapter 8. Syntactic curve detection


  8.3.1        Extracting sub-patterns

  The first step required for entropic chunking is to centre a template of order n over each
  pixel location. The n2 -patterns then comprise the values taken by pixels (zero or one)
  within the template. In practice, it is not necessary to centre an n2 -pattern on each pixel
  location. It is sufficient to find a covering set of templates T = {Tm : m = 1, ..., M },
  where each Tm is of order n such that for each y ∈ Y mapped by a pattern from the
  pattern language, there exists at least one Tm such that y ∈ Tm . The corresponding set
  of sub-patterns {θT : T ∈ T } is called a covering set of sub-patterns for the data Y .

          The Spot Algorithm [6, 150, 151] can be used to find a covering set of sub-patterns for
  the data Y at a given scale n. First note that since only those y ∈ Y that take values of
  one are of interest, the data Y can be constrained to include only those pixel locations.
  Then, the Spot Algorithm applies the following steps:

      1. Select any yi ∈ Y .

      2. Centre a template T of order n on yi and tag all elements of Y that lie within T as
            forming a subset Y of Y .

      3. Store n2 -pattern θT → Y (or a suitable representation of it).

      4. Remove the subset Y from Y .

      5. Iterate steps 2-4 until there are no more points in Y .

          Since curves can be approximated by a sequence of short line segments, the natural
  choice of representation for an n2 -pattern is a line segment. As discussed in Section 3.4,
  a line segment l can be modelled using a bivariate Gaussian p (l) ∼ N (µ, Σ) fitted to the
  pixels in the template that take value one2 .

          Once a line segment has been extracted, if it forms part of a curve, it is expected that
  another line segment will begin near each of its ends. This can be incorporated into the
  Spot Algorithm at Step 1, by selecting the next template centre yi sequentially: set the
  centre yi to be one of the end points of the line segment that has already been extracted.
  If there is no data in the template T centered on yi , set it to be the other end point
  of the line segment. If there is again no data, yi can then be selected randomly rather
  than sequentially. The resulting sequential Spot Algorithm traces forward and backwards
  along a curve until its ends are reached, before randomly moving to another curve in the
  image. It has the advantage of ordering the line segments as they are extracted, so that
  the predecessor and successor of each is easily identified.
      2
          If the pixel values consist of edge intensities instead of binary values, then the model can be fitted
  using the intensities to weight the pixels in the estimation.
8.3. The UpWrite: pixels to curves                                                                                                                                                                                                      121




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                                 (a) Abutting curves.                                                                                                (b) Joined curves.




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                    (c) Partially occluded curve.                                                                                                       (d) Noisy curve.


                                 Figure 8.2: The results of the sequential Spot Algorithm.
122                                                                Chapter 8. Syntactic curve detection


           Figure 8.2 shows the results of applying the sequential Spot Algorithm to some simple
  curves. In it, each n2 -pattern representation (µ, Σ) is represented by the ellipse drawn at
  a distance of two standard deviations from the mean of its Gaussian model. That is, by
  the set
                                    y ∈ R2 :     (y − µT )T Σ−1 (y − µT ) = 2
                                                             T



           Each ellipse has axes whose directions are given by eigenvectors of Σ and whose lengths
  are given by the eigenvalues of Σ. As discussed in Section 3.4, the major axis of the ellipse
  is the line segment that forms the n2 -pattern. The minor axis provides information about
  the how far the data in the template diverge from the line segment.

           The output from the sequential Spot Algorithm is an ordered sequence of n2 -patterns
  that traces through the curves in an image. While the sequential algorithm can be used to
  mark the ends of some curves (those identifiable because there is no data that continues
  the curve), determining ends of curves in all cases is not trivial. The ends of a curve may
  occur where one object occludes another, resulting in abutting curves like those in Figure
  8.2(a), or where the shape of the curve changes abruptly as in Figure 8.2(b). When part
  of a curve is occluded or partially missing as in Figure 8.2(c), it may appear to end but in
  fact continues elsewhere in the image. There may also be complications caused by locally
  correlated noise, such as the irregularities seen in Figure 8.2(d). The next section describes
  how entropic chunking can be used to find the ends of the curves in each of these cases.


  8.3.2         Sub-pattern representations

  Let lk−1 and lk be consecutive line segments corresponding to n2 -patterns from a curve.3 .

           Because the templates underlying two consecutive line segments lk−1 and lk have the
  same scale, lk−1 and lk will have approximately equal lengths. Therefore, a predecessor line
  segment lk−1 can be transformed into its successor lk by simply translating and rotating
  it in R2 .

           Let ∆r be the angle of rotation of lk from lk−1 and let ∆t = (∆tx , ∆ty ) be the trans-
  lation of lk from lk−1 . Then the SE(2) group action that transforms lk−1 into lk is given
  by
                                               g = (∆r, ∆tx , ∆ty )T .

  This gives a transformation-based representation of (lk |lk−1 ) that is a point in R3 . This
  type of representation enables the estimation of the local model of order n2 required for
  entropic chunking.
       3
           This notation will be used from here on to distinguish line segments lk from the more general sub-
  pattern notation θTk
8.3. The UpWrite: pixels to curves                                                                                          123



                                                      −15   −10   −5   0    5   10   15




                                                                                                                     0.6
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                         rotation




                                                                                                                     0.0
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                                                                       tx
        0
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                                                                                                                     20
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                                                                                                      ty




                                                                                                                     0
                                                                                                                     −10
                                                                                                                     −20
                −0.4   −0.2   0.0   0.2   0.4   0.6                                       −20   −10   0    10   20




Figure 8.3: Pairwise scatterplots showing the rotation and translation (tx is translation
in the x direction and ty is translation in the y direction).


8.3.3         Estimation of the local model and chunking

A local model can be estimated by one of three methods. First, if a suitable training
sample is available it can be used to estimate the local model. An artificial sample, called
CURVES, has been generated for this purpose. It contains 100 artificially generated
images, each of which contains a single curve randomly placed in the image. The curves
have been constrained to look smoothly continuous to the human eye by modelling each
as a 2d cubic polynomial.

   Using n = 12, a covering set of line segments for the data in each image from the
CURVES training sample was found by applying the sequential Spot Algorithm. The
transformation-based representations were calculated for each of the predecessor-successor
124                                                         Chapter 8. Syntactic curve detection


  pairs. The scatterplot matrix is shown in Figure 8.3. It shows that the rotation between a
  predecessor and its successor is generally small, and that the successor is translated away
  from the predecessor by a distance approximately equal to n. The local model p (g) was
  assumed Gaussian and its estimated parameters were

                                   
                           −0.003
                                                                             
                                                    0.006   0.024     0.077
                               
                   µ =  −10.614 and Σ =  0.024           38.308   −7.382 ,
                                                                           
                               
                           −2.424                   0.077 −7.382 124.181


  where the rotation is expressed in radians.

      Second, if no training set is available then the local model of order n2 can be estimated
  in an on-line fashion as the sequential Spot Algorithm is applied. After four line segments
  have been extracted, initial values of the parameters µ and Σ of the local model can be
  estimated. As more line segments are estimated, these values can be updated. If the
  transformation-based representation g for a new line segment lies outside of D standard
  deviations from the mean of the local model; that is

                               d=       (g − µ)T Σ−1 (g − µ) > D,

  then g is deemed an outlier and is not used to update the local model. The value d is
  called the Mahalanobis distace. Taking D = 3 ensures that the set will contain 99% of the
  data used to estimate the model.

      The same criterion is applied to determine when the line segments have high entropy:
  the transformation-based representations of line segments that have a high Mahalanobis
  distance from the local model will have high entropy, so entropic chunking can be per-
  formed by simply thresholding the Mahalanobis distance as the sequential Spot Algorithm
  is applied.

      The third method approximates the entropic chunking algorithm. Entropic chunk-
  ing of line segments into curves can be easily performed in practice, by simply applying
  thresholds to the translation and rotation components of the representation. This gives
  an approximation to entropic chunking that can be performed without requiring the full
  estimation of the local model. The results are shown in Figure 8.4.


  8.3.4   Predictive chunking

  As can be seen in Figure 8.4, entropic chunking can fail when curves intersect, when part
  of a curve has been occluded, or if the curve is corrupted by local noise, since one or more
  ellipses may be affected.
8.3. The UpWrite: pixels to curves                                                                                                                                                                                                   125




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                                  (a) Abutting curves.                                                                                               (b) Joined curves.




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                    (c) Partially occluded curve.                                                                                                       (d) Noisy curve.


Figure 8.4: Curve detection by approximate entropic chunking with the curves shown in
different colours.
126                                                                                                                                                                 Chapter 8. Syntactic curve detection




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                                   (a) Abutting curves.                                                                                                           (b) Partially occluded curve.




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                                                                                                                  (c) Noisy curve.


  Figure 8.5: Curve detection by predictive entropic chunking with the curves shown in
  different colours.

      To detect these situations, a line segment lk−1 can be used with the conditional model
  p (gk ) = p (lk |lk−1 ) to predict several successors ˆk , ˆk+1 , ...ˆk+K at a time (where lk is the
                                                        l l            l
  successor of lk−1 , lk+1 is the successor of lk , etc.). If a line segment is found at one of the
  predicted locations, then the curve is seen to continue, and the predicted line segments
  can be inserted in the locations of those that were missing or noise-affected. Predictive
  chunking includes this type of extended prediction. Its results are shown in Figure 8.5.
  The predictive chunking algorithm has successfully detected the whole of the top curve in
  Figure 8.5(a), as well as the partially occluded curve in Figure 8.5(b).


  8.4    An alternating algorithm for detecting curves

  Section 3.4 in Chapter 3 described an algorithm for estimating both a global model and
  a number of independent measurement models. The algorithm iteratively updates the
  global model using the measurement models, and then updates the measurement models
  using the global model. It effectively filters measurement error or local noise using the
  global model. This section presents an algorithm that uses this idea to detect curves that
  may be affected by similar types of noise.
8.5. Discussion                                                                          127


   The chunking algorithms in Section 8.3.4 already make certain assumptions about
the curve in order to predict the locations of successive line segments along it. They
assume that the curvature changes smoothly, the line segments are located at regular
intervals along the curve and they have roughly the same length. The first two of these
assumptions are the smoothness and continuity constraints used by Kass et al. [114] to
iteratively update a snake (as described in Chapter 5).

   In this chapter, the use of n2 -patterns (that is, line segments) has already allowed
entropic chunking to be applied. This alternating algorithm demonstrates a second ad-
vantage of representing a curve as a sequence of line segments {lk }K : the sequence of
                                                                    1
corresponding Gaussian models {p (lk )}K form a model for the curve as a whole, so that
                                       1
there is no need to model the curve globally.

   Extracting n2 -patterns at multiple scales n, and then updating the measurement mod-
els using the Gaussian models (using the same algorithm as that described in Section
3.4), gives an alternating algorithm that filters noise at different scales. The algorithm
first extracts the n2 -patterns using a large value of n. It then uses the Gaussian models
to update the measurement models, and uses their expectations as the data for the next
iteration. The scale n is reduced and the algorithm iterates.

   Figure 8.6 demonstrates how this multiscale alternating algorithm effectively filters
measurement error and local noise. It was run using n ∈ {30, 25, 20, 15, 10}, such that at
each iteration the following steps were performed:


  1. Extract the n2 -patterns (line segments) and their corresponding Gaussian models
      using predictive entropic chunking.

  2. Use Gaussian models to update the measurement models.

  3. Use the expectations of the updated measurement models as the data for the next
      iteration.



8.5   Discussion

This chapter has shown how predictive entropic chunking can be used to detect curves in
images, giving a syntactic curve detection algorithm.

   The UpWrite learns compositional relationships, using entropic chunking to determine
which pixels are part of the individual curves in the image. A local model of order n2 is
estimated in order to use entropic chunking. The estimation can be performed by using a
training sample of images containing single curves, by estimating it in an online fashion,
128                                                                                                                                                           Chapter 8. Syntactic curve detection




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                                              (a) n = 30.                                                                                                                             (b) n = 25.




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                                              (c) n = 20.                                                                                                                             (d) n = 15.




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                                                                                                                      (e) n = 10.


  Figure 8.6: Detected sub-pattern models at each scale (overlaid on expectations of the
  measurement models).
8.5. Discussion                                                                          129


or by making an approximation that uses thresholds on the rotation and translation of
successive line segments.

   The syntactic approach differs from more traditional methods for curve detection,
such as the the Hough transform and deformable models, because it does not require
the specification of a particular curve model, or constraints other than those imposed by
the estimated local model. This makes it similar to the snakes described in Chapter 5,
that only use local smoothness and continuity constraints. However, unlike snakes and
the other active contour methods which require an initialisation for each curve, synactic
shape detection does not require any initialisation, and it can therefore detect and count
the curves in an image without requiring input from the user or programmer.

   This chapter also presented a multiscale approach to curve detection that alternately
updates the sub-pattern models and the measurement models. The resulting algorithm is
intended to allow curves to be detected in the presence of spatially varying noise. This
algorithm has only been demonstrated on a test curve and requires further evaluation.
130   Chapter 8. Syntactic curve detection

								
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