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Poison Prevention

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					             Poisonings


       Poisonings
Wendy J. Pomerantz, M.D., M.S.
            Definition
               Definition
•Anything someone eats, drinks,
 breaths in, or gets in their eyes or on
 their skin that can cause illness or
 death

•Can be solids, liquids, gases, or
 aerosols
    Examples of Poisons
       Examples of Poisons
       Household Products/Chemicals
Hair relaxer                Kerosene
Hair removal products       Cigarettes
Mouthwash                   Antifreeze
Liquid drain openers        Turpentine
Toilet bowl cleaners        Paint thinner
Oven cleaners
Lamp oil
Plants
Pesticides
Furniture polish
Windshield washer fluid
Examples of Poisons Cont.
   Examples of Poisons Cont’d
           Medications
      Prescription pharmaceuticals
            Over-the-counter


            Alcohols
        Gases and Fumes
         Carbon monoxide
          Epidemiology
             Epidemiology
•Third leading cause of unintentional
  injury deaths and suicide deaths in
  the U.S.
•Report by poison control centers in
 2000:
                 - 2.2 million poison exposures
         - 500,000 people treated in healthcare
           facilities
         - 20,230 deaths
•7.3 deaths/100,000 population
•184.0 nonfatal poisonings/100,000 pop.
      Types of Poisonings
         Types of Poisonings
   Acute
    – Unintentional ingestions by toddlers
    – Suicide attempt by adolescents
   Chronic
    – Lead poisoning in children in old
      houses
    – Daily pesticide exposure in children
      living on farms
Poisoning Facts in Children
    Poisoning Facts in Children
   A child is poisoned every 30 minutes in the U.S.
   60% of all poisonings in kids less than 6 years old
   In 2000:
    – over 1.1 million unintentional poisonings in kids less
      than 5 years old
    – 26 kids less 12 years old died; 20 less than 6 years old

   In children less than 5 years old, more than 50%
    of all poisonings came from non-pharmaceutical
    products
   Immediately calling a poison control center may
    decrease the likelihood of severe poisoning
                        Poisoning
Risk Factors forfor Poisoning
   Risk Factors
    •Unsupervised home setting
    •African American race
    •Males less than 5 years old
    •Lower level of education
    •Substance abuse
    •Depressed adolescents
    •Adolescent females
                    Cost
                       Cost
•Total annual cost more than $7.6 billion
 among children less than 14 years old.
•Children 4 years old and younger account
 for $5.1 billion
•Medical expenses average $925 per case
•Average cost of inpatient treatment is
 $8,700
•Between 1996 and 1998, there were
 1,252,904 years of potential life lost in
  the U.S. from poisoning deaths
   Poisonings are Preventable

Poisonings Are Preventable
     Poison Prevention Tips
        Poison Prevention Tips
   Store all medications, including over-the-
    counter medications:
    – Out of sight and reach of children
    – In child-resistant bottles
    – In locked cabinets

   Be sure that caps of medications and
    household products are always on tight
   Do not remove child-resistant caps
   Never refer to medications or vitamins as
    “candy”
   Teach children about poisonous substances
Poison Prevention Tips Cont.
  Poison Prevention Tips Cont’d
     Keep purses and other bags with
      medications out of reach of children;
      remind visitors to do the same
     Do not take medications or give
      medications to others in front of
      children
     Store all household products and
      chemicals out of reach of children
     Be sure to return household products
      and chemicals to a safe place
      immediately after use
Poison Prevention Tips Cont.
     Poison Prevention Tips Cont’d
    Store all household products in their
     original, labeled containers; do not
     transfer to other containers such as
     soda cans, milk cartons, or water jugs
    Throw away old medications and other
     potential poisons that are not used
     anymore
    Use cabinet latches to prevent children
     from getting to household products and
     medications
    Never leave a child alone with
     medications or household products
Poison Prevention Tips Cont.
     Poison Prevention Tips Cont’d
    Know which plants in your home are toxic; be
     sure to keep toxic plants out of reach of
     children
    Make sure there is no peeling or chipped paint
     in areas where children eat, sleep or play
    Install functioning smoke detectors and carbon
     monoxide detectors near sleeping areas
    Teach grandparents, other relatives and
     friends to take precautions before children
     visit their homes
    Keep poison control center number near all
     telephones
National Toll-Free Number
    National Toll-Free Number
for Poison Control Centers


  1-800-222-1222
     If a Poisoning Occurs
          If
 Stay calm. a Poisoning Occurs

   If the poison is swallowed: do not give the
    child anything to eat or drink; do not make the
    person throw up or give Syrup of Ipecac unless
    directed by the poison center or a doctor and
    immediately contact the poison control center
   If the poison is inhaled, move the child to
    fresh air and immediately contact the poison
    control center
   If the poison is on the skin, remove
    contaminated clothing and rinse the skin with
    water for 10 minutes, then contact the poison
    control center
   If the poison is in the eye, flush the eye with
    water for 15 minutes, then contact the poison
    control center
     Poisoning Occurs Cont.
If a If a Poisoning Occurs Cont’d
    Contact the poison control center at
     1-800-222-1222 and have the following
     information available:
     – Time the poisoning occurred
     – Product that the child was exposed to; have
         the container nearby
     –   How much the child ingested
     –   Any treatment given
     –   Child’s age, weight, and condition
     –   Any preexisting medical problems
     –   Your name and telephone number
    Follow instructions given by the poison
     center.
For Further Information
    For Further Information
 Contact:
   – American Association of Poison
     Control Centers at
     http://www.aapcc.org/
   – Your local poison control center
   – Poison Prevention Week Council at
     http://www.poisonprevention.org/

				
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