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					                   Sc 3: Materials and their
                          Properties
                      2. Changing
                       materials
P.O.S.
Key Stage 1 Sc3: 2a,2b
Key Stage 2 Sc3: 1a, 2a, 2b, 2c, 2d, 2e, 2f, 2g
Key Stage 3 Sc3: 2a, 2c

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LEARNING OBJECTIVES
        To be able to explore a variety of materials for bendiness, squashiness, twistability and stretchiness.
        To be able to use the scientific vocabulary in discussion.
        To be able to explore a range of changes when materials are heated or cooled.
        To know some of the ways materials can change when mixed.
        To be able to discuss a range of changes.
        To explore how varying factors affect changes.
        To be able to describe some of the changes caused by heating and cooling.
        To be able to name some reversible changes.
        To be able to name some non-reversible changes.
        To be able to predict which things might change permanently and which could be reversible.
        To know that burning is generally a permanent change.
        To know some things are made by burning e.g. smoke, ash.
        To know that air is needed for burning.
        To be able to identify solids, liquids and gases.
        To know that solids have a fixed shape and volume.
        To know that liquids have a fixed volume, take the shape of the container and flow easily.
        To know that gases have the shape and volume of the container and flow very easily.
        To know that these processes are reversible, to be able to explain melting, boiling, condensing, freezing and evaporating in terms of
         solids, liquids and gases.
        To be able to describe the water cycle.
        To know that water condenses and evaporates
        To be able to use the scientific vocabulary for the water cycle correctly.


ICT                                                       LINKS                                     VOCABULARY
Use digital camera to record changes in materials.        DT – Food                                 Bend, squash, twist, push, pull, press, squeeze, stretch, heat,
Use a datalogger to record any temperature changes when   Geography – water cycle                   cool, ice, freeze, runny, pour, set, hard (solid, liquid), mixture,
substances are mixed.                                                                               dissolve, fizz, substance, temperature, thermometer, cold,
                                                                                                    freezing, melting, thawing, reversible, non-reversible, solidify,
                                                                                                    permanent, burn, smoke, firm, light, hard, volume, shape,
                                                                                                    evaporate, dissolve, boil, melt, condense, water cycle,
                                                                                                    evaporating, condensation, water vapour




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                                    ACTIVITIES                                                 RESOURCES                   POINTS TO NOTE


ACTIVITIES                                                                                    RESOURCES                POINTS TO NOTE
      Sort materials into those that can be squashed and those that can‟t. Discuss.         Selection of materials      Pupils often think that
      How many times can you twist/bend something before it breaks?                          e.g. plasticine,             melted things weigh
      Which toys have things that bend? Twist?                                               dough, fabric, card,         less than the solid
      Draw a picture of plasticine and then how it would look after it had been              plastic, thin wire,          form
       squashed, twisted etc.                                                                 springs, candle etc.        Pupils may not see a
      Explore materials that will change shape when twisted, stretched etc but return       Plasticine.                  connection between
       to original shape when released.                                                      Springs, elastic,            boiling and
      Drop plasticine and other objects onto the floor. What happens to them?                sponges. Stretchy            evaporating or
      Explore balloons that have different amounts of air in them.                           material, soft balls         condensation and
      Which packaging materials can be bent, squashed etc.                                   etc.                         water.
      Make salt dough models. Discuss changes after they have been in the oven.             Balloons.
      Make Plaster of Paris.                                                                Selection of
      Put ice cubes in a variety of places (in bags!) or use ice pops.                       packaging materials.
      Make jelly. How could setting be speeded up?                                          Salt dough:1½ cups
      Put a variety of liquids e.g. cooking oil, milk, sauce, salad cream etc in the         flour, ½ cup salt &
       freezer.                                                                               water.
      Melt things like ice, butter, chocolate, ice cream etc.                               Plaster of Paris,
      Make toast using a different setting on the toaster each time and compare to           water, spoons, pots.
       bread. What are the differences?                                                      Ice-cubes, plastic bag
      Cook rice? Spaghetti? Chips? Compare before and after.                                 and ties.
      Make yoghurt in a flask and then look at it the following day.                        Jelly hot water, jug,
      Draw round puddles and observe them at intervals during the day.                       little pots.
      Mix a variety of materials with water. Discuss the changes (e.g. fizzing; colour      Cooking oil, milk,
       change; dissolves; makes a paste).                                                     sauce, salad cream,
      Mix milk & vinegar; vinegar & bicarbonate of soda.                                     pots.
      Mix flour with different liquids e.g. water, milk, coke, syrup, oil.                  Ice, butter,
      Make a „fun‟ mixture from a range of things e.g. „sticky‟ or „runny‟ mixture.          chocolate, ice cream
      Mix Plaster of Paris with different amounts of water. Time how long they take to       etc. Foil containers
       set and measure the temperature change (wrap end of thermometer in foil so it          to float on hot water.
       can be removed).                                                                      Bowl.
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                                      ACTIVITIES                                                     RESOURCES                POINTS TO NOTE

     Add Ribena to water and then cooking oil. Use a straw to get a separate layer of             Toaster, bread
      Ribena.                                                                                      Rice, spaghetti,
     Mix gravy mix with hot and cold water. Compare.                                               potatoes.
     Mix squash with different amounts of water. Do a “taste test” survey. (SAFETY                Flask, milk, natural
      SYMBOL)                                                                                       live yoghurt.
     Make a „flat‟ drink fizzy again (use bicarb? Baking powder? Broken eggshell?                 Flour, salt, custard
      Limestone?).                                                                                  powder, yeast,
     Make butter from cream – get all the class to shake it and observe changes.                   lemonade crystals.
      Strain through muslin.                                                                       Bicarb, milk, vinegar.
     Put common liquids in the freezer and observe what happens.                                  Pots, spoons.
     Put things in the freezer that aren‟t recommended e.g. bananas, lettuce, single              Flour, syrup,
      cream, mayonnaise, cucumber, jellies. Observe what happens.                                   washing-up liquid,
     Compare fresh and thawed foods.                                                               powder pain etc.
     Two containers of ice cubes; measure temperatures and add salt to one of the                 Foil, Plaster of Paris,
      containers. What happens to the temperature?                                                  containers, stop
     Make chocolate crispie cakes and discuss changes.                                             clock, thermometers.
     Use clay to make „bricks‟ – „cook‟ at different temperatures and then compare                Ribena, plastic cups,
      them.                                                                                         syringes, straws.
     Weigh a lump of ice before and after it melts.                                               Gravy mix, hot water,
     Use some of the activities above and discuss if the original substance can be got             pots, spoons.
      back.                                                                                        Squash, cups, water,
     Can pupils get raw egg from boiled egg?                                                       measuring cylinders.
     Make a poster/collage of all the things which change permanently.                            Cream, plastic jar
     Leave a piece of cooking apple and eating apple in the air and compare.                       with well-fitting lid,
     Use dried fruit and vegetable and try to get them back to „normal‟                            muslin.
     Burn a candle and observe all the changes. Try to burn the wick on its own and               Water, milk, pop,
      then the wax. Discuss if a burning candle is reversible or permanent.                         sauce, salad cream,
     Bake cakes using simple Victoria sandwich recipe. Find out what happens if egg                cooking oil.
      is left out, sugar is halved or left out; plain flour is used instead of SR flour, oven      Fresh and thawed
      temperature is changed.                                                                       fruits, vegetables,
     Bake bread. Compare dough to bread.                                                           milk.

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                                     ACTIVITIES                                                    RESOURCES               POINTS TO NOTE

     Melt sugar to make caramel and dissolve sugar in water to make a syrup. Which
      can be reversed?                                                                           Ice cubes,
     Make popcorn.                                                                               containers,
     Teacher demonstration or supervised group work: burn tiny pieces of materials               thermometers, salt.
      in night-lights. (SAFETY SYMBOL). Put burnt sample next to the original.                   Boiled eggs.
     Discuss how to prevent burning e.g. fire blankets, extinguishers, flame retardant          Dried onions, peas,
      materials, fire triangle.                                                                   apricots, apple etc.
     Make a list of different fuels. Discuss if they are solid, liquid or gas and how they      Candles, tray of sand.
      are used. Can they be “got back” again.                                                    Margarine, sugar, SR
     Weigh a candle as it burns.                                                                 and plain flour, eggs,
     Burn sugar to make caramel and note the changes.                                            bun cases.
     Discuss changes at Bonfire Night – what happens to wood? Guy Fawkes?                       Bread, dough.
      Fireworks?
     Set up a circus of simple activities e.g. ice cube in a pot; breathing on a mirror;        Sugar, water, pan,
      adding salt to water and stirring; picture of boiling kettle; lighting a candle and         spoons.
      watching the wax melt; make wet hand print on the board and observe what                   Popcorn, pan.
      happens. (SAFETY SYMBOL). Discuss.                                                         Sugar, wool, leaves,
     Sequence picture cards for change of state.                                                 cotton, silk, wood,
     Make toffee and discuss what processes are used (dissolving, melting, boiling,              paper, night-lights,
      evaporating).                                                                               sand trays, wooden
     Consider where they see these processes in everyday life.                                   pegs.
     Put containers of water in different places on a sunny day (shade outside; sun             Leaflets on different
      outside; shade inside; sun inside).                                                         fuels, books, CD
     Put a glass in a fridge for 10 minutes – bring it out and observe what happens.             Rom.
     Use work on solids, liquids and gases to discuss these changes.                            Candle, accurate
     Teach the water cycle through pictures and diagrams. Use correct vocabulary.                scales, sugar, pan.
     Make a model bottle garden to simulate the water cycle.                                    Ice cube, pot, mirror,
     Design a poster to show the water cycle.                                                    salt, water, spoon,
     Make up some statements about the water cycle and the pupils have to decide if                  candle, sand tray,
      they are true or false.                                                                         picture of kettle.
     Use drama to act out the water cycle.                                                      Cards with words on.
     Classify clouds simply (cirrus, cumulus, stratus).
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                                    ACTIVITIES                                            RESOURCES               POINTS TO NOTE

     Consider different forms of precipitation.
     If winter – breathe out in the cold to see condensation or breathe onto cold      Sugar, butter, water,
      object.                                                                            vinegar.
                                                                                        Equal containers,
                                                                                         water, measuring
                                                                                         cylinders.
                                                                                        Glass jar.
                                                                                        Diagrams, models of
                                                                                         water cycle.
                                                                                        Plastic bottles, soil,
                                                                                         water, plants.
                                                                                        True/false
                                                                                         statements.




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OWN ACTIVITIES




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POSSIBLE INVESTIGATIONS
      Which is the squashiest foam?
      Which is the stretchiest elastic band? (SAFETY SYMBOL)
      Does height affect how plasticine changes when dropped?
      Does the type of flour affect the salt dough?
      Does the colour of an ice-cube make a difference to how fast it melts?
      Can you stop an ice-cube melting?
      Is there a limit to how much water you can add to jelly before it doesn‟t set? (Temperature of water? Type of jelly? Amount of jelly?)
      Do you get the same amount of cheese from different types of milk? (1 pint milk + ½ lemon; leave in warm place overnight and strain
       through muslin.)
      Do all Smarties melt at the same rate?
      What effect does the amount of salt have on ice cubes?
      How can you stop peeled apple from going brown? (Cling film; salt; water etc)
      What makes sherbet fizz? (Make sherbet from sugar, bicarb and citric acid crystals)(Could also vary the type of sugar)
      What makes iron rust? (adding a bit of lemon juice to the water can speed this up! The boiled water doesn‟t always remove oxygen so
       you might have to cheat and replace the nail!)
      Does the size of a jar affect how long a candle burns for?
      Does the size of a candle affect how long it will burn for in a jar?
      Does the shape of the container affect evaporation?
      What affects the rate at which a puddle evaporates? (Size? Depth? Surface area? Wind? Sun?) The pupils can make their own puddles
       for this.
      Where does the condensation come from on a tub of ice cream? (The container has leaked? Freezer not working properly? Are the drops
       water? It was wet in the freezer? The air?)




 Version 01 05/02                                                                                                                               8
Name:
Date Record Began:

 Outcomes: NC Level 1  NC Level 4

                      Can demonstrate how to change shape of a material e.g. screwing up
 1                     a piece of paper.
                      Can change the shape of plasticine in a variety of ways.

                      Uses scientific vocabulary e.g. tells you what action you have just
                       demonstrated on a piece of playdough.
                      Can select some materials which can be squashed (can view but not
                       touch samples).
                      Describes simply what happens when a material is heated or cooled
                       e.g. chocolate, jelly.
                      Describes simply how to make dry sand hold its shape e.g. for making
                       a sandcastle.
                      Records their results in tables drawn by the teacher.
                   
 1+                    Can name one reversible change.
                      Can identify some solids and liquids.
                      Can describe one change when a material is heated and then cooled.




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                   
 2                     Can predict which materials could be changed by squashing, twisting
                       etc.
                      Can suggest how they think something will change when heated.
                      Can describe two ways materials change in a variety of mixtures.
                      Can describe the water cycle in simple terms.
                      Use the words push and pull to describe how they change objects.
                   
 2+                    Can suggest how they think something will change.
                      Can describe a greater number of ways that materials change when
                       mixed.
                      Can describe more than one change caused by hot/cold.
                      Can describe some of the things made by burning.
                      Can name one reversible change.
                      Can name one non-reversible change.
                      Know that burning is a non-reversible change.




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                   
 3                     Can suggest things that might speed up/slow down the change e.g.
                       temperature.
                      Can describe factors that may affect the change e.g. amount of
                       substance used.
                      Can sort substances into solids, liquids and gases – possibly with
                       some help.
                      Are able to predict the effect of hot/cold on an „untested‟ substance.

                      Can explain simply the difference between the two changes,
                       reversible and non-reversible.
                      Know that air (oxygen) is needed for burning.
                      Can describe how solids, liquids and gases are different using one
                       characteristic.
                      Can describe the water cycle in more detail using some scientific
                       vocabulary.
                      Can describe how solids, liquids and gases are different using more
 3+                    than one characteristic.
                      Can explain some of the change of state processes in terms of solids,
                       liquids and gases.
                      Can name more than one of each type of reversible or non-reversible
                       change.
                   
 4                     Can predict whether an „untested‟ substance will show a reversible or
                       non-reversible change.
                      Can explain changes of state in terms of solids, liquids and gases.

                      Knows that different objects in the same place will be the same
                       temperature.
                      Can describe the water cycle in detail using scientific vocabulary
                       correctly and appropriately.
 Further Comments




Version 01 05/02                                                                                11