"Enlightenment and counter enlightenment"
ARC3997/5997: Modern Architecture – Projects and Polemics Spring 2008 Florida International University School of Architecture Professor David Rifkind [firstname.lastname@example.org] room PCA311, Tuesday and Thursday, 11:00-12:15 Office hours, room PCA383b, Tuesday and Thursday, 1:30-3:30 Modern Architecture – Projects and Polemics examines the debates that animated modern architecture from the early nineteenth century to the recent past. The seminar focuses on close readings of primary sources drawn from key works of architectural theory. The course also explores key historical texts (by such figures as Pevsner, Hitchcock, Giedion, Banham, Rowe and Frampton) which, along with architectural theory and criticism, formed the discourse that shaped modern architecture. We analyze specific projects (designs and built works) relevant to each week’s theoretical and historiographic readings in class, zing the relationship between visual and textual analyses as keys to interpreting works of architecture. Requirements: Each student will lead two of the weekly discussions, and will prepare a series of analyses of a work of architecture or design. For each weekly discussion, one or several students will present the assigned reading. Students are expected to distill the text’s arguments into a five- minute presentation, and to prompt the class with three or more penetrating questions that generate an illuminating conversation about the work under discussion. Each student will have at least two opportunities to present during the semester The analytical project will focus on a single work of architecture or design (including landscapes, interiors, cities and objects) chosen by each student in consultation with the instructor. The first assignment calls for three rough models and a written description (600 words) of the building. The second assignment builds on the first, and involves three drawings (plan, section and perspective) and an analytical response to the building (900 words). The third assignment comprises a 1,500-word interpretive essay. The fourth assignment is a presentation model and a catalog entry (900 words) appropriate to an exhibition. Goals: Students will hone their ability to read architects’ theoretical statements and historians’ analyses critically. The course stresses analysis and interpretation of both texts and designed works. Students will gain an intimate understanding of some of the key works of architectural theory and history from the last two centuries. Sessions and readings 1 [1.8] Introduction 2 [1.10] K. Michael Hays, “Critical Architecture: Between Culture and Form,” Perspecta, Vol. 21. (1984), pp. 14-29. select presentations 3 [1.15] Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin, Contrasts. (1836), excerpted in Harry Francis Mallgrave, ed., Architectural Theory, v.I, 383-385. Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin, The True Principles of Pointed or Christian Architecture. (1841), excerpted in Harry Francis Mallgrave, ed., Architectural Theory, v.I, 385-386. Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin, An Apology for the Revival of Christian Architecture in England. (1843), excerpted in Abigail Harrison-Moore and Dorothy Rowe, eds., Architecture and Design in Europe and America, 1750- 2000, 208-214. 4 [1.17] John Ruskin, “The Nature of Gothic,” in The Stones of Venice. New York: DaCapo Press, 1960, 157-190. 5 [1.22] Karl Friedrich Schinkel, “Literary fragments” (1805), excerpted in Harry Francis Mallgrave, ed., Architectural Theory, v.I, 401-403. Heinrich Hübsch, In What Style Shall We Build? (1828), excerpted in Mallgrave, ed., Architectural Theory, v.I, 407-410. Karl Friedrich Schinkel, “Notes for a textbook on architecture” (1830, 1835), excerpted in Mallgrave, ed., Architectural Theory, v.I, 412-415. Carl Bötticher, “The Principles of Hellenic and Germanic Ways of Building” (1846), excerpted in Mallgrave, ed., Architectural Theory, v.I, 421-424. 6 [1.24] Eugène-Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc, “On the Construction of Religious Buildings in France” (1844), excerpted in Mallgrave, ed., Architectural Theory, v.I, 391-394, 508-510. Eugène-Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc, “Architecture,” Reasoned Dictionary. (1854), excerpted in Mallgrave, ed., Architectural Theory, v.I, 513-515. Eugène-Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc, “Style,” Reasoned Dictionary. (1866), excerpted in Mallgrave, ed., Architectural Theory, v.I, 525-526. Eugène-Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc, Lectures on Architecture, lectures VI and XIII (1854, 1866), excerpted in Mallgrave, ed., Architectural Theory, v.I, 5518-521, 526-527. Models and writing assignment due 7 [1.29] Gottfried Semper, Style in the Technical and Tectonic Arts. (1860) trans. Harry Francis Mallgrave. Santa Monica: Getty, 2004, “Prologomena,” 71- 100. The informative introduction by Mallgrave (1-70) is recommended. [on reserve] 8 [1.31] Otto Wagner, Modern Architecture. (1896-1914) trans. Harry Francis Mallgrave, Santa Monica: Getty, 1988, 53-177. The introduction by Mallgrave (1-51) is recommended. [reserve] 9 [2.5] Adolf Loos, “Glass and China,” (1898) in Ornament and Crime: Selected Essays. trans. Michael Mitchell. Riverside, CA: Ariadne Press, 1998, 68- 74. [on reserve] Adolf Loos, “The Interiors in the Rotunda,” (1898) in Ornament and Crime, 56-62. Adolf Loos, “Ornament and Crime,” (1908) in Ornament and Crime, 167-176. 10 [2.7] Louis Sullivan, “Ornament in Architecture,” (1892) and “The Tall Office Building Artistically Considered,” (1896) in Kindergarten Chats and Other Writings. New York: Wittenborn, Schultz, 1947, 187-190, 202-213. [on reserve] 11 [2.12] Frank Lloyd Wright, “The Art and Craft of the Machine,” (1901), in Frank Lloyd Wright Collected Writings. New York: Rizzoli, 1992, 58-69. [on reserve] Frank Lloyd Wright, “In the Cause of Architecture” (1908), in In the Cause of Architecture. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1975, 53-119. [on reserve] 12 [2.14] F. T. Marinetti, “The Founding and Manifesto of Futurism,” and “The Variety Theater,” in Umbro Apollonio, Futurist Manifestos. New York: Viking Press, 1973, 19-24, 126-131. [on reserve] Umberto Boccioni, “Technical Manifesto of Futurist Sculpture,” in Apollonio, 51-65. Drawings and writing assignment due 13 [2.19] Antonio Sant’Elia, “Manifesto of Futurist Architecture, 1914,” in Apollonio, 160-172. [reserve] Giacomo Balla and Fortunato Depero, “Futurist Reconstruction of the Universe,” in Apollonio, 197-200. 14 [2.21] Naum Gabo and Antoine Pevsner, “The Realistic Manifesto” (1920) in Stephen Bann, ed., The Tradition of Constructivism. New York, 1974, 3-10. “Program of the Productivist Group,” (1920), in Bann, 18-20. Alexei Gan, excerpt from “Constructivism” (1922) in Bann, 32-42. Vladimir Tatlin, et al, “The Work Ahead of Us” (1920), in Catherine Cooke, Russian Avant-Garde: Theories of Art, Architecture and the City, London, 1995, 97. [on reserve] 15 [2.26] Nikolai Ladovsky, “On the Programme of the Working Group of Architects in INKHUK” (1921), in Cooke, 97. [on reserve] Alexander Vesnin, “Credo” (1922), in Cooke, 98. Moisei Ginzburg, “Housing Complex for Employees of Narkomfin, Moscow,” (1929), and “New Methods of Architectural Thought,” (1926), in Cooke, 120, 129. Unovis Group, Vitebsk Almanac No.2 (1921), in Cooke, 158. 16 [2.28] Walter Gropius, “Program of the Staatliches Bauhaus in Weimar” (1919), and “Principles of Bauhaus Production” (1926), in Ulrich Conrads, Programs and Manifestoes on 20th-century Architecture. 49-53, 95-97. [on reserve] Walter Gropius, The New Architecture and the Bauhaus. trans. P. Morton Shand. London: Faber and Faber, 1935. [on reserve] 17 [3.4] Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, “Industrialized Building,” “On Form in Architecture,” and “The New Era,” in Conrads, 81-82, 102, 123. 18 [3.6] Le Corbusier, Towards a New Architecture. (1923) trans. Frederick Etchells. London: John Rodker, 1927. [on reserve] Interpretive essay due 19 [3.11] Le Corbusier, The City of To-morrow and its Planning. (1924) trans. Frederick Etchells. London: John Rodker, 1929. [on reserve] 20 [3.13] Henry Russell Hitchcock and Philip Johnson, The International Style: Architecture Since 1922. (1932) New York: W.W. Norton, 1995. [on reserve] Sigfried Giedion, Space, Time and Architecture, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1962 (4th ed.), xxv-xlviii and 1-28. [on reserve] 3.18 + 3.20 Spring Break – no class 21 [3.25] Colin Rowe, “The Mathematics of the Ideal Villa” (1947), and “Transparency: Literal and Phenomenal” (1955), in The Mathematics of the Ideal Villa and other Essays. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1976, 1-27, 159-183. [on reserve] 22 [3.27] Reyner Banham, Theory and Design in the First Machine Age. New York: Praeger, 1960, 14-97. [on reserve] 23 [4.1] William Jordy, “The Symbolic Essence of Modern European Architecture of the Twenties and Its Continuing Influence” (1963), “Symbolic Essence” and Other Writings on Modern Architecture and American Culture. New Haven: Yale University Press, 135-150. [on reserve] 24 [4.3] Robert Venturi, Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture. New York: MoMA, 1966, 22-103. [on reserve] 25 [4.8] Aldo Rossi, Architecture of the City. (1966) New York: Oppositions Books, 1982, 29-48, 70-82, 103-107. 26 [4.10] Kenneth Frampton, “Prospects for a Critical Regionalism,” Perspecta, Vol. 20. (1983), pp. 147-162. Presentation model and catalog entry due. 27 [4.15] Peter Eisenman, “The End of the Classical. The End of the Beginning. The End of the End,” Perspecta, Vol.21 (1984, reprinted in Architecture Theory Since 1968, 522-539). 28 [4.17] Bernard Tschumi, “The Architectural Paradox,” “Abstract Mediation and Strategy,” and “Six Concepts.” in Architecture and Disjunction. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1994, 27-52, 191-206, 227-259. [on reserve] ARC3997/5997: Modern Architecture – Projects and Polemics Spring 2008 Florida International University School of Architecture Professor David Rifkind [email@example.com] room PCA311, Tuesday and Thursday, 11:00-12:15 Office hours, room PCA383b, Tuesday and Thursday, 1:30-3:30 Analytical Project The analytical project will focus on a single work of architecture or design (including landscapes, interiors, cities and objects) chosen by each student in consultation with the instructor. The first assignment calls for three rough models and a written description (600 words) of the building. The first model should depict the project at such a scale that it fits within a 12” cube. The second model should depict the project in context at one tenth the scale of the first model. The third model should depict a key detail of the project at ten times the scale of the first model. The goal is to explore the project through modeling, so focus on the most important aspects of context and detail when making the second and third models. The written description should emphasize the most significant aspects of the project. Use complete sentences, and remember to situate the project in its historical and cultural contexts. What purpose does it serve? Who built it, and for whose use? When and where was it built (or designed), and what aspects of its materiality or construction methods are significant to understanding the work? The second assignment builds on the first, and involves three drawings (plan, section and perspective) and an analytical response to the building (900 words). The drawings should depict the most significant plan of, and section through, the building, as well as the perspective (or multiple vignettes, if necessary) that best help you understand its spatial qualities, relationship to context, and other significant aspects. The accompanying paper should analyze the building by examining its key formal gestures and spatial relationships in relation to its programmatic function, theoretical ambitions, cultural context and other significant factors. The third assignment comprises a 1,500-word interpretive essay. This paper expands on the analytical essay and offers a cogent argument which puts forth well-considered interpretations of the project, based on rigorous analyses drawn from close observation. The fourth assignment is a presentation model and a catalog entry (900 words) appropriate to an exhibition. The model, which can be interpretive or analytical, is intended to explain the project to an audience, in concert with the accompanying catalog entry. List of possible topics for analyses John Soane House and Museum, London, 1792-1824, Sir John Soane Ste.-Geneviève Library (Bibliotèque Ste.-Geneviève), Paris, 1838-50, Henri Labrouste Crystal Palace, London, 1851, Sir Joseph Paxton Stock Exchange, Amsterdam, 1898-1903, Hendrick Petrus Berlage Craftsman Farms, Parsippany (New Jersey), 1907-08, Gustav Stickley Walter Luther Dodge House, West Hollywood (California), 1914, Irving Gill Glass Pavilion at the Werkbund Exhibition, Cologne, 1914, Bruno Taut Skogskyrkogården (Woodland Cemetery), Stockholm, 1914-1940, Erik Gunnar Asplund Einstein Tower, Potsdam (Germany), 1919-24, Erich Mendelsohn Proun Room at the Great Berlin Art Exhibition, Berlin, 1923, El Lissitzky Schröder-Schräder house, Utrecht, 1923-24, Gerrit Rietveld Russian Pavilion at the 1925 Exposition des Arts Decoratifs, Paris, 1925, Konstantin Melnikov PSFS Building, Philadelphia, 1929-32, George Howe and William Lescaze Rivera and Kahlo House and Studios, San Angel (Mexico City), 1930-32, Juan O’Gorman Casa del Fascio, Como (Italy), 1932-36, Giuseppe Terragni Spanish Pavilion at the Paris World Exposition, Paris, 1937, Josep Luis Sert Danteum, Rome, 1938, Pietro Lingeri and Giuseppe Terragni Central University of Venezuela, Caracas, 1944-70, Carlos Raúl Villanueva Town of New Gourna (Egypt), 1945-48, Hassan Fathy Solar House (for Amelia Peabody), Dover (Massachusetts), 1948, Eleanor Raymond (with Maria Telkes) University College, Ibadan (Nigeria), 1948-57, Jane Drew and Maxwell Fry Kagawa Prefectural Government Office, Takamatsu (Japan), 1955-57, Kenzo Tange Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, 1959-65, Louis Kahn Bye House, Connecticutt, 1973, John Hejduk Arab World Institute (Institut du monde arabe), Paris, 1981-87, Jean Nouvel Aranya village, Madhya Pradesh (India), 1983-86, Balkrishna Doshi British Council (Headquarters for British High Commission), Delhi, 1987-92, Charles Correa Menara Mesiniaga, Selangor (Malaysia), 1989-92, Ken Yeang Jean-Marie Tjibaou Cultural Center, Nouméa (New Caledonia), 1991-98, Renzo Piano Ford River Rouge revitalization scheme, Dearborn, 1995-, William McDonough and Julie Bargmann State Capitol, Juneau (Alaska), 2005-, Morphosis (Thom Mayne, with Mike Mense of mmenseArchitects) ARC3997/5997: Modern Architecture – Projects and Polemics Spring 2008 Florida International University School of Architecture Professor David Rifkind [firstname.lastname@example.org] room PCA311, Tuesday and Thursday, 11:00-12:15 Office hours, room PCA383b, Tuesday and Thursday, 1:30-3:30 Class policies Attendance at all classes is mandatory. Students must be prompt and attentive. For every two times a student comes to class late, s/he will be marked absent; four absences are grounds for failing the class. Students are encouraged to take thorough notes in class. You may use a laptop computer to take notes, however, computers may be used only for note taking. Students are required to check their e-mail daily for announcements and updates to the syllabus. Students are encouraged to ask questions during class, and to meet with the instructor during office hours, or by appointment outside of office hours.