Eco-Cities

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					                                                 Eco-Cities
      Summary of Presentations on May 14th, 2009 in Shanghai and on May 18th, 2009 in Wuhan

Both the Shanghai Environmental Protection Bureau and the Hubei Environmental Protection
Bureau chose eco-city related topics among their top priority areas for focus of the conferences.
In the case of Shanghai, interest in the topic is related to the 2010 Shanghai Expo’s theme,
“better life, better city.” At the Expo, urbanization and sustainability of urbanization will be key
topics. In Shanghai, World Bank Infrastructure Specialist Shenhua Wang was invited to speak
on the Bank’s new urban development program, “Eco2;” and Mr. Xu Ding of the Shanghai
World Expo Bureau spoke on the “Green Expo,” both in terms of Expo content and in terms of
preparation of the city of Shanghai for the Expo. In the case of Wuhan, there is an interest in
eco-cities to inform part of the province’s “two circles, one belt” strategy, which is discussed in
the notes from the presentation on cooperation between Hubei and the World Bank. One of the
“circles” in the strategy is the urban area centered on Wuhan, which also contains eight other
cities; and this is the part of the strategy for which the province hopes to get input on eco-cities.
Thus, at the Wuhan conference, Sing (“Terry”) Cho, Urban Specialist with the World Bank, was
invited to speak on the Bank’s “Eco2” program.




1. International Experience in Eco-city Development and Insights
for Shanghai and Wuhan
Presented in Shanghai by Shenhua Wang, Senior Infrastructure Specialist, and in Wuhan
by Sing (“Terry”) Cho, Urban Specialist, both of the Urban Sector Development Unit, East
Asia and Pacific Region, World Bank (notes are a compilation of the two presentations, as well
as the brochure provided)

The World Bank’s Eco21 Cities Program focuses on integrating and simultaneously achieving
the environmental and economic development of cities. The underlying thesis is that these two
aspects of development can be pursued together and can be mutually reinforcing. The Bank’s
program seeks to support the integrated environmental and economic development of cities in
developing countries, drawing largely on lessons learned from successful case studies around the
world.

The presentations covered: (1) a brief overview of urbanization in the world and China and
implications, (2) global experiences with eco-cities, (3) China’s experiences with eco-cities and
relevance of eco-city work to the local situation (e.g. in Shanghai or Wuhan), (4) principals of


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    “Eco2” might also be interpreted as “Eco-squared” as the “double eco” in the name refers to economy and ecology.
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the World Bank’s Eco2 Program and examples of the Eco2 approach, and (5) possible financial
support from the World Bank and others.


Global Urbanization and China’s Expected Urbanization: The presenters emphasized the
massive scale of new urbanization expected in coming years and the potential environmental
impacts of this large-scale urbanization. Projected new built up urban area in the developing
countries alone from 2000 to 2030 is expected to be 400,000 km2. This equals the total built up
urban area of the entire world as of 2001. The bulk of new urbanization is expected to occur in
East Asia, where there will be 500 million new urban dwellers within 20 years. The
environmental implications of such massive urbanization are great. At present, 75 percent of all
greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are generated by cities, so that increases in urban area suggest
increases in GHG emissions. At the same time as increased urbanization causes concern with
regard to humanity’s ecological footprint, urbanization is also seen to be key to economic growth
and poverty reduction. Seventy-five percent of global economic production takes place in cities;
and, in many developing countries, the share of cities in GDP already surpasses 60 percent.
Cities propel the growth of national economies, provide an environment in which sectors develop
side by side thus leading to innovation across sectors, and provide opportunities for hundreds of
millions to lift themselves out of poverty.

China’s expected urbanization is massive. It is expected that China alone will generate over 16
percent (or 65,000 km2) of the new urban built up area indicated above (400,000 km2 between
2000 and 2030). China is experiencing large-scale growth of its urban population; and this is
expected to continue into the future. By 2005, China’s urban population had grown from 254
million in 1990 to 572 million (or 44 percent of the nation’s total). Of the growth in urban
population, 103 million was anticipated to be from migration. By 2025, the urban population in
China is estimated to be 926 million (or 64 percent of the nation’s total), of which 243 million
are expected to be migrants. Increasing environmental pressures, such as scarce water resources,
untreated wastewater, increasing solid waste, rapid growth in vehicle population, inefficient
heating/cooling, and air pollution, accompany China’s urbanization.


Global Experiences with Eco-Cities: The presenters indicated that solutions to the apparent
conflict between economics and the environment exist in “global best practice cities”. Selected
case studies of such cities were covered in the presentation and include: (a) Stockholm, Sweden;
(b) Curitaba, Brazil; (c) Singapore; (d) Yokohama, Japan; and (e) London and other cities (on the
topic of congestion pricing). These case studies are meant to show how opportunities for
economic growth and poverty reduction by urbanization can be more effectively harnessed,
through mitigation of the negative economic, social, and environmental externalities of rapid



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urbanization. In this part of the presentation, international examples of the relationship between
urban density and energy efficiency are also given.

Stockholm, Sweden: The city of Stockholm, Sweden is aiming to achieve increased sustainability
through integrated utility and resource management. Stockholm has redeveloped an old industrial
district, Hammarby Sjostad, in the southern area of the city. The redevelopment focuses on
optimizing use of resources and minimizing waste. For many indicators (particularly energy
efficiency per m2), the district has achieved twice the Swedish average. This result is very
impressive, given that Sweden has already reached high levels of sustainability compared to
other countries. Hammarby Sjostad has achieved this through integrating different utility
operations to manage resources and waste efficiently. For example, the utilities first collect waste,
then use it as fuel for incineration, and then use the ash from incineration for building materials.

Curitaba, Brazil: Curitaba, Brazil, is an example that shows that sustainable urban development
is not only for rich countries. Curitaba, combining good urban planning with innovative ideas,
has been able to achieve strong results. Curitaba pursued innovative land use management,
working with the Urban Planning Institute of Curitaba (IPPUC) in its integrated planning. The
city designed “linear urban growth” along five strategic axes with highly dense commercial/
residential development to absorb rapid population growth. A key element of the plan is bus
rapid transit lanes along the five strategic axes. Curitaba encouraged denser development along
the bus axes by use of zoning (high “floor area ratios” are allowed on land close to the bus lines,
so that high density buildings are developed in these areas), so that it’s convenient for people to
use the buses. The city had the goal of attracting more people to live near the bus routes and
offering poor people the chance to have jobs in the city by utilization of this transit. The choice
of a bus system over subway or light rail kept costs much lower than they would have been
otherwise. The bus system only cost about $3 million per km, which is just three to six percent of
the costs of an underground metro. The city has achieved 45 percent bus ridership (as proportion
of total trips). As a result, the city has achieved less traffic congestion (and thus less wasted time
and cleaner air) than other major Brazilian cities. Curitaba has also achieved flood control by
increasing green space. It is noteworthy that the city started its urban environmental program by
planting 1.5 million trees, involving its citizens, when the city was still very poor.

Singapore: The case study of Singapore and its integrated water resource management illustrates
the “comprehensive resource management” concept, a key element of Eco2. Singapore, an
island-state, is water scarce and has been importing water from neighboring Malaysia.
Singapore treats its water resources as a single system. The entire water cycle is managed by one
organization; and the city has a “closed water loop”, meaning that water from various sources is
collected for re-use. The focus, given that Singapore wants to reduce dependency on Malaysia
for water, is “water security.” This is achieved by a combination of: water catchment (collection
of rainwater from rivers, streams, etc.), wastewater reclamation (wastewater treated so that it is

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drinkable); and desalinization. Singapore emphasizes not only the supply side, but also demand
management. That is, policy makers and planners have departed from the conventional supply
driven investment approach (often based on the business as usual scenario for forecasting
demand) to the new “resource management approach,” which includes demand side management.
There is a water tariff to give users financial incentive to reduce consumption. The program has
been quite successful: Singapore lowered its annual water demand from 454 million tons in 2000
to 400 million tons in 2004, while its population and GDP per capita have grown 3.4 percent and
10.3 percent, respectively, during the same period. During this same period, monthly average
household water consumption also went down.

Yokohama, Japan: In the same way that Singapore achieved success with water management,
Yokohama, Japan, has achieved success with its “closed loop” solid waste management program.
Overall, the city achieved a 38.7 percent reduction in solid waste in six years (2001 to 2007).
The program, known as 3R (reduce, reuse, and recycle), has saved the city the US$1.1 billion in
capital costs that would have been required for renovation of two incinerators, as well as $6
million in annual operation and maintenance costs. (These savings were achieved through the
closing down of the two incinerators, made possible by the reduction in solid waste.) The city
also saved money by increasing the lifetime of landfill sites (also due to reduction in solid waste
loads). The city achieved all this through a public awareness program that stimulated the
cooperation of the public and businesses in reducing and reusing waste.

Congestion pricing - London, Stockholm, Milan, and Singapore: Congestion pricing is an
example of how cities can generate necessary resources for strategic investments for Eco2
programs by introducing taxes and charges promoting efficient resource and energy use.
Congestion pricing has been used to ease traffic congestion in London, Singapore, Stockholm,
and Milan. In London, in 2007/2008, 137 million pounds were raised through congestion tariffs
to invest back into improving public transport. The congestion tariffs reduced traffic by 21
percent from the levels before tariffs were charged within the charging zone. There were 70,000
fewer cars per day in the area. The policy also increased the use of buses and bicycles. The
congestion-charge approach can kill two birds with one stone: (1) It provides negative incentive
to use cars in congested areas and thus reduces GHGs and local air pollution. (2) It demonstrates
a new channel of financial resources needed for public transport investments, which provide an
eco-friendly alternative transport mode. This case might be applied to China’s situation,
especially in benefitting the less well-off. People who are less affluent tend to take buses and ride
bicycles, while the wealthy drive cars. Thus, tariffs on using autos, with revenues ploughed back
into public transport, tend to be socially equitable and benefit the less well-off, providing them
with increased mobility to work and school.

Relationship between urban density and energy efficiency: The presenters discussed how denser
cities are more energy efficient and then provided data to support this. They showed two spatial

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maps of the same scale depicting the built-up area of Atlanta (population 2.5 million in 1990) in
the US and Barcelona (population 2.8 million in 1990) in Spain. Despite similar populations,
Barcelona’s built up areas take up only a small fraction of the total area of Atlanta, so that one
can easily guess that Barcelona is a more energy efficient city. Data displayed comparing urban
density (in inhabitants per hectare) to transport-related energy consumption per capita per year
shows north American cities to have the highest transport-related energy consumption and
(except for Australian cities) the lowest urban density. European cities fare much better, with
much lower per capita transport-related energy consumptions and higher urban densities. The
conclusion – High urban density cities have lower transport-related energy consumption.

The further point was made that sustainability is linked to spatial development patterns. The
presenters showed a comparison of Chengdu’s spatial development, which evidences fragmented
land use, as compared to Stockholm, which exhibits more compact, rational land use and thus
would supposedly have the potential for greater efficiency, given other variables (e.g. standard of
living) kept equal.


China’s Experience with Eco-Cities: China already has some programs to develop eco-cities.
The Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP) has developed indices for eco-counties, eco-
cities, and eco-provinces. The program has strict standards covering socio-economic
development, environmental quality, infrastructure, and environmental management. Altogether,
eleven counties/districts and cities have been identified to be a part of this program. The
Ministry of Housing and Urban Development (MOHURD) has developed a standard for
national-level eco-cities. MOHURD’s standards for national-level eco-cities include 19
indicators; and eleven cities have been proposed as pilot cities. Indicators include those in the
areas of natural environment (species, plants, green coverage, etc.), man-made environment (air
pollution, water quality, noise, etc.), and infrastructure (coverage of water and sewage service,
reuse of water, hospital bed provision, etc.). Some examples of eco-cities in China include:
Dongta, Caofeidian (in Hebei Province), Sino-Singapore Tianjin Eco-city, etc.

The presenters compared a list of China’s typically used indicators for eco-cities to some of the
methods used in the global best practice case studies. The conclusion was drawn that, while there
are not global standards for eco-cities, global best practices can offer new ideas for China; and
China’s local experience can also offer learning opportunities for the world. Overall, China’s
approach is different than those of the global case studies, with the latter attaching more
importance to comprehensive management. The indicators listed for China include: green ratio,
public green area per capita, air pollution index, standard rate of quality of water environment,
infrastructure coverage rate, reuse water utilization rate, main/minor road average speed, etc.
Methods used in global best practice case studies that are listed include: compact dense city
spatial pattern (as in Barcelona), integrated utility management through systematic stakeholder

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collaboration (as in Stockholm), integrated land and transport planning (as in Curitiba), one-
system integrated water management (as in Singapore), waste management and reduction (as in
Yokohama), and economic incentives (as with congestion tax in a few cities).

A few suggestions were made for the Chinese case. First, it was suggested that careful
consideration be given to the method of managing eco-city development. A cross-cutting office
should be designated to review spatial and sector plans to ensure they follow the eco-city plan.
This might be a special office under the mayor. Second, thought should be given as to how to
integrate public participation, perhaps through a special office open to the public. When
comparing possible eco-city models for a particular city, one should consider the following:
climate, existing spatial pattern (and whether it is a new or existing city), natural resources and
location, land availability, socio-economic conditions, and capacity of municipal administration.

In his presentation in Wuhan, Sing Cho offered some background on Wuhan’s experience and
strategy in urban development. As the capital of Hubei Province, Wuhan in the eighth largest
city in China and has over eight million inhabitants. It is a major economic and transportation
hub in central China. In December 2007, Wuhan was designated a National Experimental Zone
for implementation of the nation’s “Comprehensive Supplementary Reform on the Construction
of a Resource-Saving/Environmentally Friendly Oriented Society” (or a “Two-Type Society”).
Wuhan is now pursuing an urban development strategy of “poly-centricity”, or multiple urban
centers. Among these centers, there is specialization of function according to the special
competencies of each. The nodes of the centers are linked by ICT (information and
communication technology) and transportation. Cooperation and interaction among the centers is
encouraged to maximize the benefits and synergies across centers and to integrate them.


Principals of the World Bank’s Eco2 Program and examples of the Eco2 approach: Eco2 is
the World Bank’s new program to help cities in developing countries simultaneously become
ecological and economically sustainable, based on global best practices. The program takes as its
core four principles: (1) a city-based approach, (2) an expanded, integrated platform for
collaborative design and decision-making, (3) a one-system approach, and (4) investing in
sustainability and resiliency.

A “city-based approach” (principle 1) indicates that cities should be the unit of work and
decision-making for eco-city initiatives. Different cities are different, so eco-cities initiatives
must be tailored to the local situation of each, according to local geographic and environmental
conditions. Strong leadership of the city initiatives is key. Cities need to be the unit of work,
because of their key role in national economies and environmental impacts, as well as their role
being on the frontline of economic, social, and cultural development. Cities are said to make up
50 percent of the world’s population and continue to increase their share. They are said to make

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up 75 percent of the world’s GDP, 67 percent of its energy consumption, and 70 percent of its
GHG emissions.

An “expanded platform for collaborative design and decision-making (principle 2) indicates the
involvement of the public sector, the private sector (businesses), and individual citizens in eco-
city initiatives. Involving these groups, cities might work to lead a collaborative working group
on three tiers: corporate (e.g. environmental management, fleet management, etc.), municipal
services (e.g. waste, water, etc.), and regional systems (natural gas, ecosystems, industry, etc.).
Moving from the first (corporate) to the third (regional) tiers increases the number of
stakeholders, the complexity, and the scope of potential benefits.

The one system approach (principle 3) indicates the integration and/or optimization of the key
subsystems of the city, so as to enable cities to plan, design, and manage the whole urban system.
In this way, cities gain the opportunity to benefit from synergies between subsystems. As an
example, the presenters compared the business as usual approach in which water resources flow
separately from original source to a toilet, sink, and kettle. In the one system approach, the
quality of resource flows is matched to the needs of end users. The system becomes integrated as
flows cascade from one user to another, in this case from sink to toilet to purification to
agricultural field. In a second example of the one system approach, in the business as usual case,
a factory consumes resources and generates waste. In the alternative one system approach, an
“urban ecology” is developed instead. In it, waste heat, water, and material from the factory are
re-used by other land users, thus looping within the city to save costs and reduce negative
impacts on the environment. In a third example of the one system approach, remote facilities
with one-way networks to centralized resource supplies exist in the business as usual case. These
can be transformed in the alternative scenario to distributed systems, such as in the case of
energy systems generating power locally and feeding back into the grid. In a fourth example of
the one system approach, in the business as usual case, a dwelling has high demands for
resources that are satisfied by disconnected infrastructure supply systems. The one system
alternative dwelling is much more resource efficient by design; and the infrastructure uses
combined trenching (multi-functionality) and more varied flows to facilitate sharing and
cascading of resources within the housing cluster. In a fifth example of the one system approach,
a settlement in the business as usual case is not blended into its surrounding ecological systems,
thus neither benefiting from them nor using them efficiently. In the one system case, the
settlement uses all possible attributes of the site (its wind, elevation, sunlight, and ecological
sewage treatment) to its advantage, thus reducing its ecological footprint and its ongoing costs.

The presentations also included five examples of other Eco2 approaches:

1. In the first example of other approaches, a “distributed” (local) system for wastewater
treatment incorporates a low flow fixture in buildings, primary treatment septic tanks attached to

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each building, and a courtyard advanced secondary treatment system to serve a cluster of nearby
buildings. The water is decanted from the septic tanks and sprayed over a gravel bed in the
recirculation tank. The reclaimed water exiting the tank is safe for all uses other than drinking.
It can be used for flushing toilets in a two-pipe system, or irrigating and fertilizing gardens, or as
input into local industrial processes, or as a way to augment water supply to streams, fire
prevention reservoirs, fish ponds, and other water amenities.

2. In the second example of other approaches, the solid waste stream from a city neighborhood is
diverted to other sectors: crushed glass provides road base for transportation; composted organics
provide nutrients and water efficient soil additives to parks and public green spaces; coarse
organics are used to create French drains next to highways, and capture and clean storm water
flows and run-off water from the road; and, finally, a waste-to-energy facility converts organic
matter to biogas for use in generating heat and power.

3. In the third case of other approaches presented, common examples are shown of how energy
systems can take advantage of the flows from other sectors: a sound barrier along the highway
does double duty as a structure for holding photovoltaic panels in generating electricity; a small
turbine mounted in the water supply system takes advantage of excess water pressure in the
supply system to generate electricity on a continuous basis; and methane produced from
composting facilities or sewage treatment plants is used directly for cooking and water heating.

4. In the fourth of other approaches presented, a schematic representing the case of a city whose
storm water management system (instead of being an independent system) is actually assembled
from elements that belong to other urban systems is shown. The examples of these other
elements included are: (a) a cycle path does double duty as an infiltration trench; (b) shady trees
and green roofs intended for reducing energy use in buildings also serve to keep precipitation
away from drainage systems, or sufficiently slow the flow of rainwater to avoid overflows; (c)
on-site water storage for roof drainage converts rainwater management into part of the water
supply system for gardens and lawns; and, finally, (d) the storm water is directed into finishing
ponds for reclaiming wastewater, helping to treat sewage and maintain amenities.

5. In the fifth example, different uses for a common space in urban areas are integrated over time:
A public school functions also as an adult education center in evenings, as a farmers’ market in
summer, as a community craft market on weekends, as a theater on weekend nights, as a cafe in
evenings, and as a community centre all the time.

Key instruments for integration and the “one system approach” of Eco2 address sector
integration (energy, transport, water, and solid waste) and system integration (policy/planning,
investment/financing, institutional/operational integration, and the resource/energy management).
In terms of systems, key instruments for policy/planning systems include integrated spatial

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development/urban design and policy/regulation. Key instruments for investment/financing
systems include investment and financing. Key instruments for institutional/operational
integration include integrated utility management. Key instruments for resources/energy
management include technology, waste management, and resources/energy management and
demand management.

The fourth Eco2 principle is investing in sustainability and resiliency. Here the program
addresses the common problem that most attention in urban development is often paid to the
initial investment/up-front costs rather than to lifecycle and maintenance costs. This fourth
principle, then, stresses lifecycle cost accounting (looking at both initial and lifecycle costs),
cost-benefit analysis of four capital assets (explained later in this paragraph), and proactive
attention to managing all kinds of risk. An example of lifecycle cost accounting, in the case of a
building, might be that the capital investment cost is ten to 20 percent of total costs, while
lifetime operating and maintenance costs are 80 to 90 percent of total costs. The “four capital
assets” to be included in the cost benefit analysis are: manufactured capital (the one considered
in the business as usual case), natural capital, social capital, and human (cultural) capital. In
terms of proactively considering risks, examples of types of risks to consider are natural disasters
(such as earthquakes) and economic system risks (such as the global financial crisis).


Possible financial support from the World Bank and others: The World Bank Group can help
cities to apply for financing of infrastructure and policy support. The World Bank has a number
of financial instruments that could be used for different types of Eco2 support and also integrated
with co-financing from other donors through donor programs that the World Bank is responsible
for implementing. These could be packaged together and sequenced to support an integrated
approach to financing Eco2 Projects. Eco2 projects might be thought of as potentially having
financial support for three types of initiatives: In terms of policy and regulatory measures, these
initiatives would include: (1) adoption of policy and regulatory measures and (2) materialization
of targets such as carbon reduction. In terms of infrastructure investment, these initiatives would
include: (3) urban infrastructure. For the first type of initiative, adoption of policy and
regulatory measures, financing could come from the Bank’s IBRD DPL Phase 1 and donor
loans/grants. For the second, materialization of targets, financing could come from the Bank’s
IBRD DPL Phase 2 and Carbon Finance, as well as donor loans/grants. For the third, urban
infrastructure, investment could come from a number of World Bank instruments, including
IBRD SIL, Climate Investment Funds (CTF, SCF), GEF Finance, Carbon Finance, International
Finance Corporation (IFC), and MIGA Guarantee, as well as donor loans/grants.

Another alternative approach to financing for an Eco2 program would be, with the help of the
World Bank, the establishment of a national-level Eco2 Fund for a country. Financing might
come from multiple sources: from the capital markets and the IFC for private sector investment

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and from donors and the World Bank for public sector investment. The World Bank may also or
instead provide technical assistance. The private sector investments and public sector (“city”)
investments might both be channelled through a fund manager that channels this money into
private sector investment projects (such as ESCOs, energy service companies – efforts would be
made to find projects that are easy for the private sector to take part in) and Eco2 cities (multiple
cities could be included in the program). Each of these subprojects would make applications to
the fund manager, which would then complete appraisals and TAs for the work.


Next steps and contacts: The speakers closed by presenting information on launch plans for the
World Bank Eco2 Program. The regional launch was to take place in Singapore on June 26, 2009
at the Senior Policy Seminar on Climate Change, Housing and Liveable Cities in Africa and Asia.
The global launch was to take place in Marseille, France on July 1, 2009 in a special session of
the Urban Research Symposium. The World Bank contact persons for the program are: (a) at
Headquarters, Hiroaki Suzuki (Hsuzuki@worldbank.org) and Arish Dastru
(Adastru@worldbank.org) and, (b) in China, Shenhua Wang (Swang3@worldbank.org) and Sing
Cho (Scho1@worldbank.org).




2. Shanghai Green Expo 2010 – Green Expo Concept and Practices
Presented in Shanghai by Dr. Xu Ding, Deputy Division Chief, Bureau of Shanghai World
Expo

Dr. Xu’s presentation covered both the eco-city theme and planned eco-city content of the Expo,
as well as how Shanghai has taken a “green approach” in preparing for the Expo. His
presentation began with an introduction to the theme of the Expo and historical background. He
then went on to talk about “action” – how Shanghai has prepared for the Expo in a sustainable
way and how urban, sustainable practices will be featured at the Expo.


The Expo’s eco-city theme and historical background: Shanghai 2010 is the first time a
World Expo will take cities and urban development as its theme and has gotten a very good
response for this. Shanghai won the bid to host the World Expo on Dec. 3, 2002. The Expo is
expected to have 70 million person-visits in total and an average of 400,000 persons visiting per
day. With the “city” theme for the Expo, participants will be led to seek to answer the following
three questions: (1) What kind of cities make life better? (2) What kind of life concepts and
practices make cities better? (3) What kind of urban development models make the Earth better
for mankind and all its inhabitants?


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The inspiration for a “Green Expo” was initiated some years ago in the 1960s when books like
Silent Spring and Limits to Growth (written by the Club of Rome) brought wide attention from
international society to environmental problems. In 1987, the World Commission on
Environment and Development (WCED) published Our Common Future, a report to the United
Nations, which for the first time formally put forth to international society the concept of
“sustainable development.” As a result of these works and their impacts, the themes of the
Expos during the period in which the works were written (the 60s to the 80s) also reflect
international society’s increasing attention to sustainable development. These include the
following Expo themes: 1967 – Man and His World (Montreal); 1970 – Progress and Harmony
for Mankind (Osaka); 1982 – Energy Makes the World Go Round (Knoxville, Tennessee, USA);
1984- The World of Rivers – Fresh Waters as a Source of Life (New Orleans, Louisiana, USA);
1985 – Dwellings and Surroundings – Science and Technology for Man at Home (Tsukuba,
Japan); and 1986 – Transportation and Communication: World in Motion – World in Touch
(Vancouver, Canada). A strength of the world expos has been their focus on innovation. They
have become a platform to examine how to resolve environmental issues. In 2000, in Hanover,
Germany, the theme was “Technology: A New World Arising.” At this Expo, the Dutch
Pavilion, with its innovative ecological design, was one of the most popular buildings. The Japan
Pavilion was made of paper tubes that were all recycled to make notebooks afterwards. The
2005 Expo in Aichi, Japan, had the theme of “Nature’s Wisdom.” At this Expo, the Toyota
Pavilion, which was 30 m tall, had an exterior wall made of recycled paperboard and a reusable
steel frame. The interior walls were made of plant materials that could absorb carbon dioxide.
The Japan Pavilion at this Expo was composed of 30,000 woven bamboo strips and utilized
hanging greenery and wood to reduce energy consumption.

Dr. Xu further explained the concept of the Shanghai Expo. He explained hat with regard to the
relationship between urban economic development and the environment, mankind has
experienced three progressive models. The first is that of the traditional economy. The second is
the “end of the pipe” model (cleaning up pollution in the production process). The third and most
advanced is the “recyclable economy.” The work for the Shanghai Expo is based on the
following principle: The three organic systems – man, city, and earth – are linked and need
harmonious coexistence and interaction.


How Shanghai has prepared for the Expo in a sustainable way and how it will feature
sustainable practices: The site of the Expo within Shanghai was chosen to reflect sustainability
concepts. In order to accelerate sustainable development along the two shores of the city’s
Huangpu River and in order to have the river and its two shores progress from being industrial to
being service sector in nature, the decision was made to locate the Expo Park on the two shores
of the Huangpu, in the Binshui District. The Huangpu at the end of the 19th century was home to



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one of the first batches of factories built in China. The total planned area for the Expo is 5.28
km2; and the enclosed area 3.28 km2.

The preparatory work for the Shanghai Expo was based on the 3R principles: reducing, reusing,
and recycling. These “recyclable economy” principles were used from overall planning and
planning of the parks all the way through to operations.

The Shanghai Expo will display the latest achievements in urban development from around the
world. This will include ideas and technologies in the environment, energy,
construction/buildings, exhibiting, operations, safety, etc. The purpose will be to explore the
best practices of green cities. The hope is through this means to promote transformation and
innovation in building technology and stimulate development of relevant sectors in China.

The Expo uses and will feature for guests green technologies in its main exhibition halls and
areas. These include the Expo Center, the Theme Pavilion, the Expo Performance Center, the
China Pavilion, and the Expo Boulevard. Construction of the Expo Center began in June of 2007.
As the first permanent building to be constructed for the Expo, the Expo Center uses a large
amount of green, environmental technology and renewable energy technology, thus very
appropriately conveying the “better city, better life” theme of the Expo. The two key
technologies used are: (1) building integrated photo-voltaics and (2) geothermal heat pump with
its source in the river. The Theme Pavilion, on which construction began on Nov. 11, 2007 and
is expected to be completed in Sept. 2009, uses in its construction special Shanghai
“neighborhood” concepts. In terms of both the arrangement of space and materials used, a lot of
attention has been paid to energy efficiency and other environmentally friendly methods. The
key technologies used include: (1) natural lighting and ventilation, (2) vertical greening, and (3)
building-integrated photo-voltaics. The Expo Performance Center, on which construction was
begun on Dec. 30, 2007, uses a cooling system with its source in the river, pneumatic (air)
garbage recycling system, air conditioning condensate and rainwater collection system, semi-
conductor (LED) energy-efficient lights and other energy efficient environmental technologies,
and recyclable construction materials. The goal is for this building to be a “green eco-building.”
The key strategy for this building is choice of building design and materials. The key
technologies are the LED lights and the rain water collection system. The China Pavilion, on
which construction was begun on Dec. 18, 2007 and will be completed in Sept. 2009, uses solar
energy technology, rainwater collection system, ice storage system for cooling, and other eco-
technologies. The pavilion is also known as the “Oriental Crown.” The key strategy for this
building is the shape, which creates a shadow for itself. The key technologies are the greened
roof and solar energy. The Expo Boulevard, on which construction began on Dec. 28, 2006 and
will be completed at the end of 2009, with its underground space, integrates commercial and
transportation functions. It is the largest single construction project in the Expo Park. The
Boulevard is environmental friendly and resource-use efficient and achieves this through its use

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of natural sunlight and geothermal heat pump (based in the river). Key technologies used are the
“Sun Valley” approach (use of natural sunlight), the heat pump, and the large-span cable-
membrane structure.

The Urban Best Practices Area (UBPA) of the Expo will feature sustainable urban practices for
visitors to observe. The UBPA is a model area covering urban life, work, leisure, transport, etc. It
can serve as a pilot/model for future urban development based on already tested technologies and
successful cases. It will allow visitors to experience in advance the living style of the future. In
terms of layout, the UBPA has a South Section and a North Section. The South Section consists
of the transformtion of the Nanshi Power Plant into themed exhibition halls and a street area. It
will become a key area for displaying a collection of green building technologies/architecture.
The North Section will include the Shanghai Eco-Home and several other case studies. The
Shanghai Eco-Home will have four main areas, with ten “highlights” and 30 technologies
displayed. Other case studies/displays will be: “Hamburg Home” (new, durable building);
BEDZED – London (zero energy consumption home); “WaterSkin House” – Alsace (“water
curtain” solar building); RHONES-ALPES (bioenergy and sustainable housing in an urban
environment); Madrid – “air tree” (new horizons for public housing); Makkah – The Tents City
of Mina, Saudi Arabia (best urban practice for extreme conditions); Macao (restoration and use
of the historical “Tak Seng On” Pawnshop in Macao); Odense, Denmark (the revival of the
bicycle); and Chengdu (living water park of Chengdu).

In closing, Dr. Xu emphasized that the Expo is, in a sense, the Olympics of economy, culture,
and technology. The Shanghai Expo is the opportunity and the stage for displaying eco-
buildings and green technologies. The Expo Bureau hopes that by concentrating and promoting
green buildings a strong demonstration effect can be made to stimulate innovation worldwide.




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