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Supporting and multiplying concern for sustainable Development


									    Supporting and multiplying concern for
   sustainable Development – Experiences of
     Kodaikanal Botanical Garden Project
         V.S. Manickam, S. Seeni, Lucy Sutherland and Julia Willison


       The publication of a book entitled a “Tragedy of the Commons” by a British
Scientist, Barry Commoner, has roused world–wide interest in protecting our
environment and conserving especially the biodiversity of the earth. Since 1969 when
the first conference on Biosphere was held in Paris, a series of international organization
such as UNESCO, IUCN, UNEP, WCS, WWF, BGCI and UNCED have had organized
international forums to discuss issue like Environmental Education at school level,
Conservation of Biodiversity, Environment and Development, renewing altitudes of
human relationship to nature at the individuals, national and international levels,
investing in nature with the aim of protecting our environment from overexploitation by
human kind and restoring the degraded ecosystems to their pristine glory. The
biodiversity convention held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, where most president, Prime
ministers and politicians of several countries and scientists took part, decided to prevent
undue use of bioresources and pollution of soil, air and water to satisfy men’s
consumeristic tendency and also emphasized sustainable utilization of bioresources on
the earth. The Biodiversity convention was hold again in Johannsberg, South Africa in
September, 2002 to assess the execution of the resolutions taken 10 years ago.

       At present only 12 percent of the plants and animal species of the earth are
named. Classified and described while every day we lose three species of plants and
animals which have not been named and described. Today, 32798 species of plants and
animals are in endangered list. In the next 2-3 decades, global extinction of plants may
average 2000 species annually. According to IUCN, 60,000 plant species may become
extinct before the middle of the present century. In India which harbours 8% of the
recorded flora of the world, 27,000 hectares of a forest are destroyed every year. In India
about 40 millions tribals and forest dwellers derive their earnings from non-wood forest
products. In 1965, the state of Kerala 41.5% the land forested but in 1992 only 11% of
the land is forested. In the East-Coast of Tamil Nadu, 70% of the 15,000 ha of mangrove
forest has been destroyed. In India 5,00,000 ha of forest has been destroyed for
construction of dams. In Nilgiris, a mountain in the Western Ghats of India, 20,000 ha
are cultivated with tea. India is poorest in the world as far as per Capita forest is
concerned. The per capita forest land is 0.10 hectare compared to the world average of
1.00 ha. During a period of 25 years, (1951-1976) India has lost 4.1 millions hectares of
forest area. India consumes nearly 170 millions tons of fire wood annually and 10–15
millions hectares of forest cover is being stripped every year to meet fuel requirements.
According to Brewbakar (1984) the total forest area of the world in 1990 was nearly 7000
m ha. By 1975 it was reduced to 2890 m ha and by 2000 it has been reduced to 2370 m
ha. The tropical rainforest originally was 1600 m ha and by 1975 it was reduced to 938
m ha. In 3000 BC, 80% of India was covered with forest but now only 16% of the land
i.e. 75.18 millions hectare is forested.

       The air pollution is ever on the increase particularly by green house effect, acid
rain and Ozone depletion. Nearly 100 years ago the Carbondioxide leave was 275 ppm.
Today it is 350 ppm and by 2040 it is expected to reach 450 ppm. Today, the earth’s
average temperature is 15C and by 2040 it would increase by 4.5C. If fleating Western
i.e. sheet could begin to melt, sea – level would increase. US will produce less grains and
India’s monsoon rains may cease altogether. Now scientists have foretold that after
another 20 years, there will be no drinking water in India. And have also foretold that the
city of Coimbatore will became a desert after 50 years. According to and estimate, if all
the ice on the earths should melt 200 feet of water would be added to the surface of all
oceans and low lying coastal cities like Bangkrak and Venice would be inundated. Due
to green House effect there may occur more hurricanes and cyclones and early snow
melts is mountain causing more floods during monsoons.
       Oxides of Sulphur and Nitrogen are important gaseous pollutants of the air
Sophuric acid and nitric acids are the two main elements which dissolve in the water in
the atmosphere and fall to the ground as acid rains. Acid rains increase soil acidity, thus
affecting land flora and fauna.     They cause acidification of lakes and streams thus
effecting aquatic life, crop productivity and human health. They corrode buildings,
bridges fences, railing etc. Thousands of lakes in USA, Canada and Norway have
become unproductive due to acidity. The fish population has decreased precipitously.
Many bacteria and blue green algae have been exterminated due to acidification, resulting
in ecological imbalance.

       The Ozone layer in the stratosphere protects us from harmful UV radiation
emanating from the sun. Though small in proportion (0.02 – 0.07) ppm has catastrophic
effects on the life systems of the planet. Over the last, few years the Ozone concentration
of the earth’s atmosphere in thinning out. Major pollutants responsible for the depletion
of Ozone are Chlorofloro carbons, Nitrogen oxides and Hydrocarbons. Supersonic
aircrafts flying through the stratosphere cause major disturbance in the Ozone level.
Since increase of temperature in the stratosphere is due to heat absorption by Ozone,
reduction in Ozone would lead to temperature changes and rainfall failures on earth. One
percent reduction in Ozone increase UV radiation on earth by two percent. This causes
melanoma, a skin cancer.

The Western Ghats of India

       The Himalayas and the Western Ghats are two of the 18 megabiodiversity centres
in the world. The Western Ghats stretching between Kanyakumari in the Southern most
part and Gujarat in the north has a length of 1600 km and an area of 1,60,000 sq. km. the
highest peak south of Himalayas is the Anamudi rising to 2695 in above sea level near
Munnar in the Idukki District of the state of Kerala. The Ghats have a 40 km wide gap
separating Nilgiris and Anamalayas. In the Western Ghats the high altitude mountains
are situated in Southern India. They are Coorg (1500 km), Nilgiris (2400 km), Anamalays
(2300 m), Palnis (2350 m) and Agasthiarmalai hills (1689 m). The Western Ghats
harbour about 4000 flowering plants and 326 pteridophytes. In the Western Ghats 58
genera including 1500 species are endemic. Nilgiris and Agasthiamalai are the two hot –
spots of endemics in the Western Ghats. The Nilgiris house about 3500 species of
higher plants and 144 pteridophytes. The Anamalai harbours about 1800 species, the
Palnis 2378 species and the Agasthiamalai has about 2000 species. In the Western Ghats
of Maharashtra 102 higher plants are endemic, in Karnataka, 96 endemics, in Nilgiris 92
endemics, in Anamalays 58 endemics, in Palni 65 endemics and in Agasthiamalai 189
endemics. Seventy five percent of the endemics of peninsular India are confined to the
Western Ghats. There are 26 pteridophytes in Gujerat, 64 pteridophytes in Maharashtra,
53 pteridophytes in Goa, 144 pteridophytes in Nilgiris 130 pteridophytes in Anamalays,
136 pteridophytes in Palnis and 176 pteridophtes in the Agasthiamalai. In the Western
Ghats, the major types of forest are the scrub – jungle (upto 600 m) the dry – deciduous
forest (upto 800 m), the moist–deciduous forest (1200 m), the wet evergreen forest (1800
m), the Shola forest above 2100 m the low – grassland and the high – altitude grassland
(above 2000 m).

       The high altitude mountains such a Coorg, Nilgiris, Anamalays and Palni are
tourist spots and heavily populated. The entire high plateaus of Nilgiris and Anamalays
are cultivated with tea and hardly any forest is left infact. In the Nilgiris alone 20,000 ha
of land is cultivated with tea. In Nilgiris and Palni, vast stretches of forest are destroyed
and exotic species of Eucalyptus, Pinus and Acacia are extensively cultivated for
commercial purposes.      Since Nilgiris and Palnis are famous tourist spots, rapidly
increasing human population and tourists have caused deforestations at large scale.
National habits have become degraded for human settlement, agriculture and
overgrazing. In the high altitude mountains like Palnis and Nilgiris there are various
tribal communities who earn their livelihood by using non-wood forest products like
medicinal plants, and wild fruits. In the Western Ghats of Kerala, Tamil Nadu and
Karnataka nearly 1,00,000 people live and bamboos and ratton. Anthropogenic pressure
for agriculture habitation and trade have caused heavy destruction of natural ecosystems
and extinction of species. The senior author has surveyed the entire Western Ghats of
South India and has enumerated 44 rare and endangered species which were published in
British Fern Gazzette in 1995. Cash crops like cadamum, rubber, banana, pepper and
fruit trees have been cultivated by clearing natural forest segments. In all hill stations,
the monsoonal rains have been gradually decreasing and as a result, scarcity of drinking
water during the summer has become an acute problem, particularly in Kodaikanal and
Ooty towns. Scientists have predicted that after 25 years the Ooty lake will disappear due
to incoming rubbish. The Kodaikanal lake, originally 11 meter in depth, has now became
only 8 m due to the rubbishes & thrown into the lake by people in nearly houses and

The Kodaikanal Botanic Garden

          The garden comprising 100 acres is situated at 1500 m in a place celled
Eetipallam 11 kms down the Kodaikanal town. About an areas of 20 acres was under
cultivated several years ago and in this cultivated land there still scattered natural trees.
The major part of the garden contains undisturbed subtropical forest with dense trees
shrubs and ground flora. A survey of the species in the undisturbed forest has been made
by the senior author and a list of about 200 species of trees, shrubs and herbs is prepared.
The ministry of Environment and forest, Government of India financed to fence this area
with a circumference of 11000 feet and also to set up a polyhouse and shade house for
cultivated and conservation of about 200 pteriophytes, orchids and cacti.               The
pteridophytes being conserved in these house were collected by the senior author from
the Western Ghats, especially Palnis, Nilgiris and Agasthiamalai. Besides the ministry of
Environment and forest, financed also a project an the micropropagation and
reintroduction of 12 endangered ferns of the Western Ghats. The ferns were
micropropagated in the Centre for Biodiversity and Biotechnology, St. Xavier’s College,
Palayamkottai and the in-vitro multiplied ferns are now being cultivated and conserved in
the poly house and shade house. The micropropagated ferns were also distributed to
Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute, Thiruvanthapuram, Gurukula Botanic
Garden, Kerala and Calicut University Botanic Garden. The plants in the poly house and
shade house are irrigated with bore–well water. College students, school children
scientist, research scholars and tourists are delighted to see 175 ferns of the Western
Ghats just in one locality in the garden. The garden is managed by the senior author who
is also the director of Centre for Biodiversity and Biotechnology, St. Xavier’s College,

The Darwin Project
            People and Plant: Training Darwin Mentors

       The main target group of the project is school children via their teachers. It is
based on the surmise that children in the age groups of 5-12 are most receptive to newer
ideas and easily motivated to develop concern for others and lead an environment
friendly life in future. The primary and middle level teachers other wise equipped with
training and newly gained knowledge in EE under the project will certainly influence
children to adopt new life skills and awareness and this will no doubt have influence on
their parents. As such, the project contributes to development of a younger generation
which refrains from and exploitative made of life and looks upon the plants as precious
resources of immense wealth which need to be preserved and judiciously and
scientifically utilized for the very survival and prosperity of fellow countryman. Thus,
the project will have a real and lasting impact on the capacity of India to meet its
obligations under the previsions of the CBD.


   1. To train teachers in environmental education and for than to use the Kodaikanal
       Botanic Garden (KBG) as a teaching resource.
   2. To promote the KBG as a model for the development of community and school
       Botanic garden throughout Tamil Nadu
   3. To develop an education and interpretation strategy for the KBG.
   4. To highlight the value of native flora and habitats to support sustainable
       development for example, by drawing particular attention to plants valuable for
       fuel wood, medicine, timber, wild foods and fruits, fodder, tourism and other
       used and promoting models and practices for the wise and sustainable
       management of such plant species.
   5. To organize a number of workshops and training courses.
   6. To develop teachers kits and posters useful in environmental education and

               The primary level training for 180 school teachers from 50 unions in five
districts (Tirunelveli, Madurai, Theni, Dindigul, Coimbatore) started in March 2002. The
selection of a fairly large numbers of teachers from the Palni hills area in Theni and
Dindigul Districts was facilitated by roping in such NGOs as Literates welfare society,
Theni, Ideal Trust, Ganguvarpatti, Palni hills Conservation Council, Kodaikanal, Primary
school teachers Society in Dindigul. The Sacred Heart College, Shenbaganur was also a
well meaning and a host to the training courses. Since the training courses comprised
visits to forest segments the officials of state Forest Departments had to be contacted for
necessary permission and assistance from forest guards. The project officer played a
catalytic role in establishing contacts and networking.

Environmental Education and Training for Capacity Building:

       Altogether there were eight training courses, each offered to a batch of 20-30
teachers. The programme was tight schedule and consisted of presentations on global and
regional environmental problems, EE definitions, areas and types of EE, the role of
botanic gardens in furthering the cause of EE, the interactive discussions explorative and
creative components, activities and games and self–evaluation of the conservation of rare
plant species, promotion of community education and sustainable horticultural practices
and development of plant based activities were practically new to the Indian school
teachers. So also, the types of EE and creativity and social parameters for sustainable
living (Education for sustainability), biodiversity conservation, management and
sustainable utilization (Biodiversity education) nature and quality of men – induced
development activities including the power centre and provision of skill and different
thinking (Development Education) and inducing the student to explore alternative cause
of their future (Future Education) were not known to the teachers at all. The teachers
found the objectives of EE is generating awareness, knowledge, skill, attitude and
participatory tendenary very instructive. At the end of the day, the participant teachers
were obviously convinced of the need for renovating the present education process and
basing on a broader understanding of the environmental problems today and socio –
economics and developmental need and aspirations of present and future generations.

       Unlike the stereotypic me way flow of bookish information currently in practice,
these activities and games by their very nature helped the teachers /children learn through
participation and interactive discussions.      While the games (Photosynthesis game,
indicators of successful city, seed survival race, Island biodiversity game, food web and
food chain) enabled the participants either to understand the natural sequence of event in
a process or anthropogen – induced irreversable changes including extinction of species
of sustainable living. The activities (Botanical Bazar, Global trampling, Compass Rose,
Sambar making. How many plants have you used today) greatly helped them to
understand the structure, function and value of biodiversity and make the creative while
discussing them. The activities and games were an eye-opener to the teachers as the
examples used were all local and few resources were needed to complete them so as to
suit the school environment in developing countries like India. The teachers were, for
example, astonished when they learnt that the ingredients used in the South Indian
Sambar preparations were essentially of plant origin from different parts of the world. In
yet another activity the teachers were given option to prepare layouts for herbal,
ornamental and rock gardens and select the types of bed and plant species to suit them.
The teachers were also taken to see the interior of a evergreen forest at 1200 m level and
note the different kinds of stories in the forest, the various kinds of plants at different
habitats. In this forest the dynamic functioning of ecosystem, the food chain, food web
and the biogeochemical cycle going on the forest ecosystem were also explained to them
similarly likewise they were also taken to see a Shola forest at 2200 m level and observe
the different types of plants and their habitats. The differences between evergreen forest
a low altitude and the Shola forest at the high altitude were also pointed out.
Follow up of training in capacity building

        The secondary level training and associated activities, as our experience shows,
have truly galvanized the support of the public for the EE related activities of the teachers
and the school children in various unions of the districts. Since such localized efforts
have attracted to attention of the prominent members of the local communities including
municipal chairmen and president of the village          panchayat, vaidyas, forest range
officers, NGOs and Devaswom Board members and above all organized under the
guidance of the respective AEEOs, In the district of Tirunelveli, Madurai, Dindigul and
Coimbatore, 53 mentors have given secondary level training to 396 teachers. It should be
noted that a single lady teacher from Vasudevanallur union in Tirunelveli District
organized training for 16 other teachers and 6 teachers in Dindigul District offered
training 150 teachers of the union. In order to encourage the school groups to establish
herbal gardens, medicinal plants were freely distribute by the project staff during all the
secondary level training programmes. Altogether, medicinal plants were supplied to 45
schools in the five districts. A good number of gardens are maintained by the teachers
with great interest.

        Apart from the training, the mentors had also taken up several other related
activities to spread the environmental message across the public further. Both the ICC
Convent and St. Andrews School at Coimbatore and RC school at Tenkasi have now
established school gardens with the help of school children. Overwhelmed with the
excellent training he received in early March, Mr. Chellappa, a Headmaster and Manager
of an Hindu Middle School at Thirukkurungudi in Tirunelveli district organised a visit of
his school children to the KBG. The children replayed the environmental games in the
lawns of the Sacred Heart College.        He had also implemented a novel scheme of
providing a plant to each house in his village and the plant is being watered and reared by
a student from his school. This has motivated the public to raise greenery in the vacant
places available in the village.        Mrs. Sivakami of S.M.M. Middle School in
Vasudevanalloor union had not only planted trees in the school yard but also organised
school visits to the nearby Sivagiri forests. She had also organised an Environmental
Campaign on World Environment Day on June 5 when the school children went on
procession carrying placards and raising slogans through the streets of the village (Fig.
3). Yet another lady teacher Mrs. Santhakala, along with other mentors from Palni town
had successfully influenced the AEEOs, Municipal authorities and Devaswom Board
officials to organise meetings, debates and cultural events to impress upon them, the need
for curbing use of plastics in this pilgrimage centre. Henceforth the plastics are banned in
the town and the shop owners and hotelics now pack up the articles sold in used
newspaper. In response to their repeated appeals, the municipal authorities have also
arranged trucks to clean the rubbish collected in all the schools of the town every day.

       Mention should also be made of the excellent work done by Mr. Veerapathra
Babu of Chanarpatti union and Mr. Dhanapal of Reddiar Chatram union both in Dindigul
district. On 14th March, Mr. Babu organised an afforestation programme in association
with Malappuram Cricket Club where the Panchayat President, Mrs. Dhanajayarani,
school student and village communities participated and 225 tree saplings were planted in
barren lands of Guziliamparai village with the help of the students (Fig.4). On this
occasion the Panchayat President liberally donated Rs.1000 towards providing irrigation
facility to the planted area. Regular maintenance is being looked after by his students.
Mr. Babu is overflowing with infectious interest and confidence to pursue his pet
afforestation activity in other parts of the union with the saplings provided free of cost by
the State Forest Department and the Palni Hills Conservation Council.                On the
Independence Day (August 14) he organised another function in which 2 tree saplings
were supplied for each school in the union. He was largely responsible for organising the
secondary level training to 25 teachers in his union. Apart from developing a herbal
garden in his school, he is currently preparing a book on EE with details of water
harvesting, organic farming, ozone generation and environmental games for distribution
to other schools. Mr. Dhanapal of the Panchayat Primary School at Gurusanapatti is a
similar cup of tea who not only organised a school visit to the KBG but also imparted EE
to his school children through cultural events including dance, songs and drama. In one
such dance organised in presence of the BGCI's Education Officer, Ms. Lucy Sutherland
his children worshipped a tree with devotional songs. In addition, with the help of his
fellow teachers including the Headmaster, and the students, he has planted 30 saplings of
goosberry, Pongamia and neem in the school yard for which a barbed wire fencing is
provided with the assistance received from the local AEEOs and an youth club. Enthused
with the support received from the Community, he is optimistic that within 2-3 years the
entire will develop into a greenery and the school children and village folk alike will
escape from scorching sun in the summer.

       To cap them all, the mentors from Tenkasi union organised a meeting on 15th
August at Kattu Bava School, Tenkasi where a decision to register a Darwin
Environmental Education Society was unanimously taken with the objectives of
networking of school groups in all the five districts, organising model genetic gardens for
medicinal plants for demonstration and training and promoting organic farming and
greenhealth. The mentors from Palni, Natham, Udamalpet and Reddiar Chatram unions
have already lent support to this idea, with the initial establishment of the societies in
their own unions before on networking all the societies of the unions in different districts.

       The last of these training camps was organised at the Panchayat Middle School in
the Pannaipatti village at the foothills of the Palnis by the mentors of Reddiar Chatram
union in Dindigul district where partnership was displayed at its best. The mentors
together with the school Headmaster and teachers had worked for at least 2 weeks to give
a facelift to the school and prepare beds and planting materials to raise a small garden in
the school premises before the one-day training for fellow teachers could be organised on
18th September. This camp was qualitatively different from others as the local village
community leaders, Panchayat President, Chairman of a welfare group (Annai Trust), and
the AEEOs not only contributed to organise the training but also participated in the brief
inaugural function and a tree planting programme where the need for environmental
preservation and sustainable uses of plant resources of the Palni hills were emphasized
again and again.    It was a grand event by any standard as 37 participant teachers
including the mentors, community leaders, officials from the Education Department and
about 300 school children took an oath that they will preserve forests and trees and never
resort to injudicious exploitation of the Palni hill flora. A mark of respect for Mother
Nature and a shining example of partnership indeed!           And inspiring an younger
generation to play responsible role to build a better tomorrow too. Besides, the grassroots
support was readily available or asking! On this occasion the children themselves had
prepared placards bearing messages on environmental preservation including importance
of the ozone layer and top soil, tree planting, hygiene and sanitation in the villages and
the need for using local medicinal plants for primary health care. An Headmaster from
the nearby village read out the songs he had composed in appreciation of the diverse uses
of easily available medicinal plants.      The mentors had also organised a poster
presentation with newspaper clippings on local environmental problems, eradication of
illiteracy in the area; relationship between local people and plants and strengthening of
local health traditions.   There were also writings on the black board projecting the
importance of Palni hills and local trees and herbs. Both the Project Coordinator and
Project Officer participated in the tree planting event and distributed tree saplings and
medicinal plants gifted by the State Forest Department to the villagers and school
children.   They also addressed the audience assembled in the school on global
environmental problems as gainst the background of the just concluded Earth Summit at

Evaluation and Resource Workshops
       The success of the EE training in capacity building held in March was evaluated
through a second series of workshops in late August. Altogether 99 teachers comprising
22 mentors and their trainees, with more women than men, participated in four
workshops of two days each. The evaluation based on a questionnaire prepared for the
occasion revealed that the impact of the EE training at school level as evident from such
attributes as maintenance of cleanliness in the classrooms and school premises, planting
activity within the school campus, transfer of newly acquired knowledge to the students,
generation of new knowledge about local plant resources and exhibition of native plant
species of medicinal and economic important was considerable. In certain cases it was a
two way learning as teachers found new uses of local plants with the help of the children
and their parents. However, by and large, the impact of the training at community level
was only marginal considering a period of examinations, summer vacation and new
school admissions that followed the training courses and relatively longer period needed
for interaction with local communities.

       The teachers of these workshops evaluated the contents of a resource book on
medicinal plants as well. Each batch of teachers was divided into 4-5 groups and each
group evaluated certain activity of the draft resource book through interactive
discussions. The objective was to improve the quality of the presentation of each activity
by addition or deletion which was readily accomplished to make the book acceptable to
primary / middle school level teaching. Since most of the teacher participants in the first
series of evinced interest in medicinal plants, it was only natural that a resource book on
medicinal plants containing lessons, activities and role plays was compiled in local
language and evaluated keeping in mind the needs of the school children. Most of the
teachers are now busy with the ensuing quarterly examinations and therefore additional
evaluation workshops could not be organised in September. This book is expected to be
published in its final form in January 2003.

       We have distribute two books and medicinal plants, one used during the
evaluation workshop and another (150 pages) to be used by school teachers as a
handbook. These two books deal with the kinds of medicinal plants, identifying
medicinal plants, making dichotomous keys for identifying the species, different kinds of
gardening methods, preparing the land far cultivation, common medicinal plants of South
India, medicinal plants is daily use, rearing medicinal plants different conventional
methods to propagate medicinal plants, preparing compost pit, establishing seed banks,
medicinal plants, folklore, proverbs, stories, songs about medicinal plants.
       We have also prepared a poster with photograph of medicinal plants in daily use.
For each picture, the parts used for medicine, method of preparations, how to use than etc
are given. The poster gives a lot of data regarding how to use them. The books and
posters were released during the closing ceremony held in St. Mary’s Hr. Sec. School.

       Sustainable utilization of bioresources is the key-concept in all forums related to
environmental conservation. The Darwin project entitled People and Plants – Training
Darwin Mentors in India, has concentrated on giving awareness, knowledge, skill attitude
and participation in environmental education through various biodiversity related
workshops, discussions group-sharing, and lectures on the role of botanic garden in
education and conservation. School teachers and children had shown personal interest
and involvement in the environment – related issues and activities. School children have
also played a key-role in spreading environmental awareness to their parents, gained
through the teachers who used various means of communication such as writing articles,
poems, stories, drawings and playing skits. The medicinal plants distributed to nearly 45
schools has definitely given both the teachers and children the importance of using
traditional medicines based on plants and has stimulated them to take active efforts
towards conservation of not only medicinally useful plants but also all rare and
endangered plant species. The environment-related games of different kinds and various
other individual and group activities have enabled both the teachers and students to come
closer to nature, appreciate and conserve them. The key-idea imparted to the target
groups of the Darwin project namely taking urgent measures to reduce over-exploitation
of bioresources has resulted in taking prompt steps towards conservation of biodiversity
around them. The target groups have also imbibed the idea that continued survival of
human race on the mother earth is department on how people today use the available
boresources. The end – results of the project as mentioned in the foregoing pages clearly
indicate that the project is a success and if it is extended to cover other districts in the
State of Tamil Nadu, there will be an astounding result.

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