The case study of Chennai _India by fjzhangweiqun

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									              International Workshop
Governance of peri-urban Water & Sanitation services:
       The role of external support agencies
    Cape Town, South Africa, 17-19 October 2005

      The Chennai Case Study

    Chennai Metropolitan Area (CMA)
    Settlements         Character    Extent in Sq.kms               Population

                                                          1991                   2001
     Municipal                                                              4,343,645
                        Core City
   Corporation (1)                        172.00        3,795,028         Decadal growth

                          Urban                                             1,290,177
  Municipalities (8)                      154.43        994,110
                          (CUA)                                             DG 29.7%

  Town Panchayats       Peri-Urban                                           676,067
                                          201.40        460,928
(27) + Cantonment (1)     (CUA)                                             DG 46.6%

                        Peri-Urban                                           269,787
 Census Towns (18)                        61.45         166,924
                          (CUA)                                             DG 61.6%

 Village Panchayats        Rural                                             483,536
                                          587.72        381,064
         (196)            (CMA)                                             DG 26.9%

  CMA population                                                            DG 21.8%
   CUA population                        1177.00        5,800,045           6,425,000
 CUA slum population                                                        1,361,500
Chennai Metropolitan Area
                        Defining PUI
• The peri-urban interface is created by urban development. As urban
activities grow and spread, links or impacts upon rural activities in the
countryside are created. These cause changes to existing production
systems and create new ones that can affect the poor in both urban and
rural areas. Opportunities arise from easier access to urban markets,
services and jobs, and the re-use of urban wastes. Problems arise from the
conversion of land, urban pollutants, farm labour shortages and the loss of
natural resource based means of livelihood.
                  Chennai PUI – A Profile
•   With 46 settlements in CUA within the direct influence of the core City, Chennai
    PUI is in near-perfect consonance with the above definition.
•   Chennai PUI includes statutory Town Panchayats and Census Towns having
    population of over 5000 with 75% male working population non-agricultural
•   Exponential growth spurred by liberalisation in real estate investment (FI), rapid
    road infrastructure, and service / industry / institution boom.
•   Urban expansion severely stressing city resources - scarcity of land, pollution,
    lack of adequate drinking water and sanitation, degradation of coastal ecology
    and seawater intrusion – leading to heavy overflow in the PUI
•   Frenzied construction activity in the PUI aided by high FSI has led to soaring
    land prices, at places exceeding core city levels. Rapid decrease in rural primary
    activities. Poor are affected both in rural and urban areas.
•   Most PUI in the overexploited / critical groundwater zone. Also dumping ground
    for City‟s solid and liquid waste. Marsh/Wetlands (Pallikaranai) bear the brunt.
•   Overlapping between the political and geographical boundaries of Urban/PUI
    Administrative Areas – Municipality, Town Panchayat, Census Town, Village
    Panchayat. PUI areas are rapidly expanding beyond CUA and CMA.
                         Case Study areas
WSS case studies were carried out in two localities, selected because of their
proximity to the City boundary and comparatively intense PUI features. These

•   Valasaravakkam Group (inland) consisting of the five administrative areas of
    Valasaravakkam (Town Panchayat turned Municipality) Ramapuram (Census
    Town) Porur (TP) Karambakkam (CT) and Manapakkam (CT). Area 15.03; Population (2001) 112, 479; Decadal Growth 124.66%

•   Kottivakkam Group (coastal) consisting of four administrative areas of
    Kottivakkam, Palavakkam, Neelangarai and Injambakkam (all CT). Area 12.4; Population 55,055; Decadal Growth 45%
Case Study Areas Map
                       Case Study Findings-Water
•   Quantity of water supplied through the public system in the PUI (10 – 35 lpcd) is just adequate
    for drinking and cooking.
•   Poor draw water from street taps. Tap to population ratio – highest 1/258 in Valasaravakkom;
    lowest 1/31 in Nilangarai. Average 1/52
•   Water quality varies from acceptable to unsatisfactory. Needs boiling before drinking.
•   Boiling of water is fuel and time consuming and costs money. Taste differs on boiling. Most of
    the households do not boil water before drinking leading to chronic health problems.
•   To address their health problems the poor go to free hospital facilities or go to private Doctors.
    On an average a household spend Rs. 200/- a month and some up to Rs.1000/-
•   Poor gets water for cleaning, washing and hygiene from shallow wells and ponds. Due to poor
    quality of water clothes become yellow and vessels get corroded. Adds to expenses.
•   Women / girls are the main procurers and spend 30 minutes to two hours in fetching water.
    Some of them have to travel more than a km to fetch water. Men procuring water go late for
    work losing wages. School going children suffer interruptions in their studies.
•   Middle class with piped connection cope with the situation by buying water from private vendors
    that costs 5-6 paise/litre. In times of crisis poor also buy water from this source.
•   Extraction from aquifer (virtually mining) is intensive to cater to the ever increasing urban and
    peri-urban demand. METROWATER themselves indulge in 24-hour water extraction for supply
    to the City for drinking, institutional and industrial purposes.
               Case Study Findings-Sanitation
•   Public toilets are virtually absent and where available unfit to be used because
    public on the whole do not have a sense of ownership of these facilities. Most of
    the poor residents have to use open fields, beach and canal banks for their daily
    ablution. Women are the most affected.
•   Due to open field defecation and sullage flow from houses, sanitation is affected
    severely. This is compounded during rainy season.
•   General attitude towards solid waste is apathetic and littered waste is collected
    by the panchayat irregularly (many times at a periodicity of one week) and this
    adds further to the sanitation problem.
•   Provision for sanitation take a lower priority to water supply and solid waste
    clearance. Final disposal is a serious problem due to non-availability of landfill
•   There is no under ground sewer systems at present except in Valasaravakkam
    where an underground system was constructed by taking loan from TNUDP-
    WB. Local body was burdened with interest even while construction was on.
    Scheme cannot be effective unless increased water supply becomes available.
•   In recent times sanitation problems have increased due to hectic construction
    activities and faulty arrangements for debris / solid waste / waste water removal.
               Case Study Findings-Institutional
•   TWAD Board which earlier had the responsibility of designing and constructing
    water supply and sewerage systems in the PUI has given it up.
•   In 1978 CMWSSB (METROWATER) took over the responsibility for construction,
    operation and maintenance of WSS in the CMA that includes PUI
•   In practice, METROWATER is confined to the City and a small AUA (10
    but has future plans to build centralised water supply distribution system for a
    length of 898 kms to AUAs and DUAs after finalising funding arrangements!
•   Chennai PUI comprise mostly of independent municipal and village panchayats
    at the lowest end of the LG system who are mandated to provide water, health
    and sanitation.
•   LG entities do not have technical, financial and managerial assets / resources to
    carryout this important function and cannot by themselves be expected to provide
    satisfactory WSS service to their residents especially the poor.
•   Private players extract water from the PUI and through tankers supply to
    affordable groups at high cost. While depleting the PUI water resource, private
    operators do not serve the needs of the poor. This is leading to serious conflicts.
•   Community / NGO sectors confine their function to regulating water distribution
    from public tankers to ensure equitable share among the poor.
            Status quo WSS practices in Chennai PUI
                 •Piped network provided by Panchayats
                  (Household connections in some areas and public standpipes)
                 •Wells & Borewells
                 •Provision by tankers
Public Sector    •Sewage connections to select areas leading to centralized
                  treatment (small proportion)
 (State/LG)      •Community Latrines
                 •Providing garbage collection in select areas

                  •Buying from licensed tankers
                  •Buying packaged water (cans, bottles, sachets)
Private Sector    •Private builders/suppliers own water supply systems (RO Plants-recent trend)
                  • Household Septic tanks / soak pits
                  •Dumping of garbage in roads

                  •Individual wells & borewells; Rainwater harvesting
                  •Unauthorized connections / procurement
  Community       •Community lavatories by NGO’s
                  •Community SW collection by NGO’s in select areas.
                  •Open defecation and pollution of surface water streams
          PUI-WSS Policy Implications

•   Conflict Resolution
•   Pro-poor Focus
•   Sustainability
•   System & Structure
•   Governance
                     Conflict Resolution
•   Between the opulent consumer (gated communities) and the deprived poor
•   Between prosperous water sellers and working villagers losing their livelihood
    because of ground water depletion
•   Between METROWATER claiming to extract water only from abundant areas
    where farmers are ready to sell and the ecosystem suffering irreparable damage
    due to aquifer drying, salinity, seawater intrusion and soil degradation.
•   Villagers who sold water till recently now purchasing water.
•   Rural – Urban divide on water rights and entitlements.
•   PUI as urban „environment sink‟. Loss of wetlands and green cover
•   The housing crisis for the poor
•   Public vs. Private toilets.
                          Pro-poor Focus
•   WSS system and structure in the PUI should be designed so as to provide the
    basic level of services to the poor without interruption.
•   This cannot be achieved through charity approach, but by a conscientious drive
    for physical infrastructure service improvement on priority basis.
•   This is because for the poor communities in PUI the pressing problem is not
    income but affordable access to basic WSS infrastructure.
•   It is the responsibility of the LG to provide for this infrastructure because they
    are the ones who have been mandated. Central/State Governments who have
    the resources should provide the same.
•   Poor cannot be served through the capital intensive, supply-driven WSS network
    because such formal systems have severe spatial and non-spatial limitations.
•   Alternative is to have a decentralised, non-formal system that is cost-effective
    and amenable to participatory development and management through
    community mobilisation.
                        Sustainability Issues
•   Water resource base within the PUI and water mining
•   External sources and their limitations
•   Aquifer / ground water depletion and recharge
•   Restoration of of silted reservoirs, abandoned/encroached water bodies,
    polluted water courses and disappearing wetlands
•   Water harvesting, waste-water recycling and reuse.
•   Quality of water – pollution, salinity, sea-water intrusion
•   Land use - compatibility with water resources
•   The „urbanisation‟ model. Concentrated „corridor‟ concept with high FSI. Huge
    commercial complexes and rich gated communities with unlimited water use.
•   Present water management system – centralised, capital intensive sourcing and
    long pipelines / thousands of diesel guzzling lorries for distribution.
•   Desalination – groundwater and seawater – emerging as alternative!
•   WSS accessibility for resident and migrating poor.
•   Public vs. private toilet provisioning – open defecation
                  Planning for Sustainability
•   Resource mapping of the entire PUI
•   Accounting complete entities & population covered- industries/companies,
    commercial establishments, apartment complexes, colleges, hospitals, individual
•   Estimation of current & projected population including permanent & floating with
    emphasis on the poor who cannot buy water.
•   Inventory of the available water resource – natural, harvested, storm water,
    waste water to be recycled / reused – and protective mechanism like marsh /
•   Preparation of complete Water “Mass Balance” – Total water requirement
    categorizing the break-up quantity & quality of water required depending on the
    intended usage (for Class 1 & 2). Adopt reasonable norms.
•   Sanitation strategy – public and private
•   Evolving decentralised & participatory WSS system & structure
•   Networking the stakeholders - Government bodies, private sector, community,
    industry, NGO – and strategizing their roles to make the system / structure work.
WSS System….
                                                  SOURCE OF

                                                 EXTRACTION /

                                                 TREATMENT &

           GROUND   SURFACE      OTHER
            WATER    WATER    (Technological)

                                                  USAGE &


                                                RECYCLE / REUSE /
WSS Structure….
                                          Raw Water
                                     Treatment & Storage
                                  • Level of treatment
             Source of Water                                          Distribution & Usage
                                  • Mode- insitu / centralized
         • Adequacy of Quantity – • Storage Planning
           population, usage                                     • Distance of the source to
           pattern… etc.                                           usage point
         • Recharging pattern &              Sanitation          • Mode – Pipe / truck / others
           rate                                                  • Usage – Domestic, Industrial,
         • Quality                  • Public/Community toilets     Commercial, Agricultural
         Collection                 • Open defecation            • Cost Benefit Analysis
                                     • Solid waste               • Access to the poor
• Quantity of municipal                                          Stakeholders
  wastewater / effluent          Treatment &
• Sewage system &                 Disposal
                                                        • Public – State / LG
  Capacity                • Quantity                    • Private Service Providers
• Source Segregation      • Mode- Centralized / at
  strategy                                              • Community Sector NGO -
• Method of collection                                     CBO – SHG
                          • Cost                        • Consuming Institutions /
• Collection efficiency   • Disposal Method               Industries
                                                        • Households / Individuals

                                                            THE MATRIX……….>
                      WSS in PUI – Stakeholder Matrix for Networking
        Sector              Public – State /            Private Sector             Community Sector               Individual HH
                           Local Government            (WSS Providers)             NGO - CBO - SHG               Affordable / Non-
                                                                                     Institutions /                 Affordable
WATER SUPPLY              State Govt.                •Decentralised Sea water
                          •Aquifer recharge          desalination in coastal      •Community Bore wells        Affordable Groups
Source Development        •Reservoirs                location (class-I water)     •Piped Kiosks, Ownership     • Get access to water
                          •Outside Sources           •Decentralised recycling     management,                  supply from public and
                                                     from City/PUI Sewage         •Water purchase and          private systems (both
                          •Local Government          (class-II water)
                                                                                  distribution – Corporate /   class I & II water)
                          •Tanks/Ponds Restoration
                                                                                  Non-Corporate                •Individual bore wells to
                          •Wells and Bore wells                                                                be phased out
                                                                                  •Tanker filled kiosks
                                                                                  •Monitoring Public/Private   •Rain water Harvesting
Treatment & Storage       •Underground water         •Storage or direct           sector water supply,
                          (chlorination)             pumping                      quality and waste-
                          •Others (Appropriate                                    prevention through pre-
                          treatment)                                              agreed MOUs
                                                                                                               Non Affordable Group
                          •Overhead                                               •Rain water Harvesting
                                                                                                               •Help & maintain
                          reservoirs/sumps                                        •Community toilets and
                                                                                                               public/private facilities
                                                                                  sanitation linked to         meant for their use. Pay
                                                                                  recycling and reuse          nominally for water/toilet
Distribution & Delivery   Affordable Groups          -Piped House                 •Ensuring proper disposal
                                                     connections for affordable                                & bath facilities
                          •House connections                                      of sewage.
                          Non-affordable Group       •Tanker supply to            •Awareness of WSS
                          •Piped water at            households                   issues and advocacy
                          Community Kiosks           •Packaged water
                          •Tankers delivering at     •Water vending- buckets,
                          community kiosks.          push-carts, cycles (Micro-

Maintenance               •May be out sourced        Operation & Maintenance
                                                     by the concerned firm
Sector                           Public                  Private Sector          Community Sector           Individual HH
                                                                                                            Affordable / Non-

SANITATION                •Encourage low- water use-     •Decentralised          •Build, Own and Operate    Affordable
                          low cost toilets for poor      recycling from          community toilets
Toilet provisioning       households where space         City/PUI Sewage         •Encourage household       •Connect to private
                          available.                     (class II water)        and shared use toilets     sewage decentralised
                          •Community toilets & baths     •Sanitation as micro-   •Discourage open           system
                          (combined) to allow bath       business                defecation                 •Individual septic tanks to
                          water for flushing.                                                               be converted to Eco
                          •Wastewater recycling                                                             friendly systems if not
                                                                                                            connected to
                                                                                                            decentralised system


Recycling & Disposal of   Sewage Treatment Plants        Sewage as Industrial    Common (Community          •Help maintain public
Sewerage                                                 Raw material            owned) Treatment Plants    facilities meant for their
MONITORING                •Monitoring of groundwater,    •Regular open house     •Monitoring of public      •Contribute to public
                          quality & quantity supplied.   of WSS systems          private WSS delivery &     expenses to the extent
                                                                                 environmental              possible
                          •Facilitate private/NGO,                               sustainability.            •Avoid open defecation
                          CBO, SHG initiatives in WSS                            •Training and awareness
                          systems.                                               programmes in WSS
                                                                                 Governance, Skill &
                                                                                 Enterprises Development,
                                                                                 Community Participation
                          • Establishing Regulatory                              and Development of
REGULATION                Authority and enacting                                 Youth and Women
                          legislation (common to CMA)
                    Governance Imperatives
1. Distinguish sourcing, supply, distribution and delivery functions.
2. Separate regulatory-executive roles and establish regulatory mechanism.
3. Enforce laws to prevent indiscriminate water mining
4. Decentralise and devolve authority and responsibility to LG, Communities, NGOs
    and private enterprises in accordance with the WSS system / structure
5. Appropriate legal / institutional mechanism to link the multitude of local
   bodies with supporting managerial/technical expertise
6. Build and sustain LG capacity for effective WSS delivery
7. Subsidise the poor while achieving full cost recovery for the WSS through
   user charges in the long run.
8. Human Resource Development leading to more effective institutions.
9. Use of Technologies more appropriate to local conditions.
10. Determine water rights and entitlements in an equitable manner
                    Regulatory Mechanism
Suggested functions of the Regulator are:
• Adjudicate on water rights and entitlements
• Licensing all WSS providers defining the service area and cost of service
• Monitor service standards, quality, customer protection and imposing
   sanctions for failure to meet agreed standards.
Aspects to be considered while setting up the Regulatory mechanism:
• Water supply and sanitation sector has functions across several
   Government departments and Community organisations. Its regulatory function
   should therefore give all stakeholders an opportunity to participate in the
   decision making process.
• Potable water and sanitation being a basic need with health, economic and
   social implications its administration should be apolitical.
• Independent and professional decision-making is essential to foster financial
   and technical efficiency in the sector.
• Pricing, cost recovery & subsidy issues need to be addressed.
Sustainable Resource Management Plan as Governance Tool

•   Compile and evaluate results from case studies
•   Undertake planning and technical studies, surveys and other research activities
    as follow up
•   Investigate existing regional and local mechanisms for Sustainable Resource
    Management (SRM)
•   Formulate Sustainable Resource Management Plan for the PUI focusing on land
    use, water and sanitation.
•   Integrate Supply and Demand Side Management.
•   Consider water resource based zoning for land use and building activities
•   Build in decentralised WSS options capable of stakeholder implementation.
•   Make WSS access to the poor an important component of SRMP.
•   Develop guidelines for implementing SRMP through regional and local planning /
    governance instruments
•   Provide SRM awareness and training to all stakeholders, particularly LG
•   Distribute and disseminate information
                 Role of External Support Agencies
•   The PUI WSS crisis is real and imminent
•   Technology, methodology and solutions are available to resolve the crisis
•   What is lacking is appropriate Policy, Institutional frame-work and effective
    system of governance. Also absent is a resource planning and management tool
    for ensuring sustainable WSS governance in the PUI
•   External Support Agencies can play a facilitating and supportive role in
    formulating policies, designing PUI-WSS systems, structuring institutions and
    instruments, preparing SRMP, evolving management tools for sustainable WSS
    governance and building LG capacity to implement and manage WSS projects.
•   Chennai PUI could be the starting point. Tamil Nadu has a special funding
    vehicle (TNUDP - WB) for mobilizing resources for basic urban infrastructure
    investments. Institutional development and capacity building in ULBs are the key
    components of this Project.
•   Most of Chennai PUI is also covered under GoI‟s Megacity Programme with
    special emphasis on „slum improvement‟ and water supply.
•   All cities/towns in India (numbering 28 at present) with IT and service industry
    potential are facing similar PUI crisis. They also need special attention.

                              Thank You

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