Intro by lifemate





                                     Table of contents:
 1.   Intro…………………………………………………………………………………………………..2
 2.   Hosting a show at CIRO…………………………………………………………………………...4
 3.   Tips and Techniques of Hosting a CIRO show………………………………………………….4
 4.   Rules in the studio…………………………………………………………………………………..7
 5.   Production…………………………………………………………………………………………...8
 6.   Troubleshooting……………………………………………………………………………………12
Who Are We?
Welcome aboard to CIRO radio, Kelowna‘s official student radio project. We
currently are developing a student/community operated station to broadcast
on the FM band across the central Okanagan. Our programming mandate is to
provide an ALTERNATIVE to the media currently available in Kelowna (by
alternative, we don‘t mean college rock vs. pop rock, but as an
alternative to all music available via radio, television and the internet,
we‘re going for originality here folks). By alternative, our role would be
to consistently push the envelope, for example, if a band became popular
due to airplay on our station, it would no longer be alternative, and
newer, and more unconventional music would need to be found.

CIRO is a non-profit, non-commercial entity; our goal is to fill the gap
left by commercial (boring, safe and middle of the road) media. Also
important, is to add substance to our programming, giving more to our
listeners than a play list, but to also inform them of social, community,
campus issues, and other topics that are often removed from mainstream
media for the sake of trying to make everyone happy. We are here to serve
the fringes, to challenge listeners, and to give them a polar opposite to
what they‘re exposed to. You will soon discover that there is more
variation in music than you can shake a stick at, and more genres and sub
genres than you could ever remember, so discover these hidden gems for
your listeners and put them on the air!

CIRO is currently maintaining a web radio station(visit
to listen to it). The purpose of this guide is to help you produce your
own music or spoken word program in the studio (or at home) without
guidance from other CIRO members. Broadcasting serves the needs of
socially, culturally, politically, and economically disadvantaged groups
in society. Music to be broadcast over the internet by CIRO includes
compositions arranged by individuals and groups whose works are not
included in the play lists of local radio stations, such as local
musicians/dj‘s, as well as national and international artists.

CIRO prohibits material that is sexist, racist, ageist, homophobic, anti-
Semitic, or that maligns differently-abled or economically disadvantaged
peoples. ( )

At CIRO, we represent all forms of music: ska, electronica, experimental,
indie, and hip-hop - not MAINSTREAM music. We also recommend that you
incorporate spoken word recordings into your show; including: poetry,
SoundBits of speeches, old radio shows etc.
First off, you need to understand our philosophy of radio, so here‘s the
abridged version:

In many ways CIRO‘s programming resembles that of a radio station in the
days before consultant programmed formats and ―tight‖ play lists. In the
world of today‘s commercial radio, DJs and announcers (especially at music
stations) are simply talking heads with no say about the content of their
shows. Instead, commercial stations work with tight play lists based on
marketing and demographic studies designed to maximize advertising
profits, rather than quality of music, (which leaves precious little room
for innovation or experimentation). The guiding principal behind this type
of programming is ―don‘t do anything unexpected, don‘t stray from the
formula, don‘t do anything too original, don‘t experiment and just because

a song is great, innovative or local isn‘t a good reason to play it –
unless it sounds like everything you just heard on the station‖.

In the old days of radio (up to the early 60s), commercial radio was much
more adventurous. The airwaves were populated with loads of colorful and
dedicated individuals. It was the collective effort of these individuals
that made possible the rise of rock and roll and the popular breakthrough
of R&B and country artists. They played what they thought was good and
what they thought their listeners wanted to hear. It is this model that
CIRO follows.

CIRO programmers have a great deal of freedom to make what they want of
their shows. This applies to all of CIRO‘s programming from music shows to
public affairs. There are requirements by programmers to fulfill a
percentage of New Releases and Canadian Content (see: Radio and the Law).
The only other restrictions are those dictated by our guidelines and
philosophy of what non-commercial and campus/community radio is.

In News and Public Affairs, this means looking at an issue or story from a
different angle than that of the mainstream media, examining an issue that
is ignored or out-of-fashion with other media and providing a voice for
those without one.

For music shows, it means being aware of and following the Music Policy.
In short, the music policy is aimed at ensuring that the music played on
CIRO is, in fact, alternative to mainstream. The Music Policy applies 24
hours a day to all programming. There is a lot of quality music out there
that is ignored by commercial stations. Sometimes entire genres such as
electronica or world music are not even considered for play lists on
commercial radio.

We have a responsibility to our listeners to offer music that is good, if
not brilliant, and that also challenges and interest them (and this does
not just apply to music programming but to all our programming). CIRO‘s
programming whole purpose for existence is to sound innovative, original
and diverse.


CIRO is not just a handful of wannabe radio hosts. Actually, that‘s mostly
what we are not. CIRO‘s behind the scenes is where the real action is.
Fundraising, Marketing, Technology, Licensing, and Promotions are the most
active departments, and until we get a FM license, they are the most
important organs. Due to the fact that the success of the programming dept
rests on top of all these other areas, DJs are required to lend a hand
when they can, to help at concerts etc. Many people work extremely hard to
set-up and pay for your broadcast, the least you can do is make their
lives a little bit less of a marathon than they are now.

Breadth of Programming

So what else is on CIRO? Last years line up included everything from music
shows (Rusty and G Stylez Underground, Shameless Shaebus etc), Spoken Word
(Democracy Now!, Bad Cop No Donut, Canadian Voices, Slave Revolt Radio),
special features from other college stations across the nation and other
wackiness (ie: slam poetry) all in between. We also provide programming
from non-profit stations all across North America covering issues of Race,
Politics, Police Brutality, Poverty, Consumerism and student issues. If
something isn‘t being talked about, we broadcast it and turn up the

                    2.Hosting a show at CIRO
On Air Etiquette and Policy

It is important to remember that CIRO is supposed to be educational. That
means that programmers must provide background information and context
for the music you play.

This includes information on the band members, who produced it and when,
historical context, stylistic innovations, connections and influences of
artists etc.

Adding information to music does several things: it makes your show
stronger and more rewarding for active listeners (who we cater to), it
provides listeners with information they won‘t be able to find elsewhere,
and it may draw them to genres and artists to which they are unfamiliar
or ambivalent about. By discussing your music, your enthusiasm and
interest will be communicated to your listeners.


   1) Avoid using terms over the air that wouldn‘t be understood by
      casual listeners
   2) Avoid inside jokes and running jokes (most people in Kelowna
      weren‘t drinking with you last Friday – thus won‘t get the joke).
   3) Avoid playing music considered mainstream because you have
      sentimental attachment to it
   4) Use a certain professionalism when you‘re on air, which means
      verifying information and pronunciations. Remember, professionalism
      DOES NOT mean that you want to sound BORING or like a commercial
      DJ. Develop your own style, personality and enthusiasm.

Music Policy

   1) Music on the station must not be mainstream (found on: Power, Sun,
      Silk, Chum (MuchMusic, MuchMoreMusic, Loud and Vibe), MTV Canada,
      CMT etc are NOT ACCEPTABLE)
   2) Local artists take priority over National and International
      artists. EVERY episode of your show should have at least several
      local songs (interior), provincial or Canadian artists. I‘m leaving
      this very open, when FM gets online, this will have way more
      procedure, so play lots of local, and enjoy less rules at CIRO, if
      you   can‘t   find    local   music,   contact   Lucy   Rodina   at or Sarah Willard at and
      you will receive ample local music at your doorstep (on loan).
   3) Don‘t get stuck in a rut sticking to the specific area of music you
      listen too, use your show to expand your own knowledge of music.

     3.Tips and Techniques of Hosting a CIRO show
Most people are nervous of how there show will turn out, so read this and
your show will sound just fine, simple as that, if not, your programmers
can help you, just email them.

Using your Voice

Your personal appearance is of no consequence while you are broadcasting.
Your voice is the only aspect of yourself that is portrayed to your

listeners and provides a personal connection. As a programmer, you want
to effectively use your voice to project yourself in a positive manner.
Here are some suggestions:

Attitudes: Your emotional state, physical condition and entire attitude
are reflected in your voice. Anxiety, fear, tension fatigue, depression,
and boredom all find their way to your voice. It is the channel for
communicating the state of your being. Remember the cardinal rule—on
radio, the voice is the person.

Overall Tone: Your overall tone is extremely important. It has to do with
your attitude, as mentioned above, and your delivery. Your speech should
be modulated and full of variety. Don‘t speak in a monotonous tone or
yell at your audience. As a listener it can be extremely boring to listen
to a voice that is slow, measured and flat in tone, while it sucks to get
yelled at. Learn to vary your delivery; change the pace and pitch by
altering speed or raising and lowering your voice. Be particularly
careful when reading material over the air as it is common to lapse into
a monotonous tone.

Breathing: Breath control is vital to singers, actors and CIRO on-air
personalities. Controlled and relaxed breathing results in clarity and
the ability to produce a wider array of variations of tone and volume.
Proper breathing helps to give you a pleasant and well-projected voice.

Vocabulary: Variety and precision are vital to good communication. Avoid
repetition and use of unnecessary words or jargon. Misused words
undermine your credibility with the listener. Increasing your facility
with words helps to improve your programming. Also, be mindful of
pronouncing your words properly.

The Law and what you can say on-air

Though Canada‘s Broadcast Act does hold the value of freedom of
expression over the air, there are still many laws which restrict certain
things from being said. If an individual makes remarks on-air that are
against the law, they can be subject to legal action, and in most cases
the radio station will also be threatened

  1) Politics

     The Broadcast Act makes certain guarantees to ensure candidates for
     public office can get access to the airwaves. However, there are no
     Nothing can be said concerning a referendum or election (municipal,
     provincial and federal) either on the day of the election OR on the
     day immediately preceding the election. Fines for this violation
     are extremely stiff.

  2) Soliciting Money Over the Air

     Under the terms of the CRTC regulations, it is not permissible to
     ask for money over the air in any form unless the organization
     falls under one of the following categories: Churches or Religious
     bodies, recognized charities, a university and musical/ artistic
     non-profit societies. If a DJ wishes to ask for money on air at
     CIRO, approval from the programming dept must be obtained first.

  3) Obscene Language

   The Broadcast Act prohibits the use of ―obscene, indecent, or
   profane language‖. Usually, the use of swearing in music or radio
   is exempt from censorship. CIRO policy is that swearing and profane
   language should be avoided. If a musical selection that you play
   has obscene language, we ask that you contextualize the use of that
   manner of language before or after playback. If you suspect that a
   guest appearing on your show may use explicit language or discuss
   sexual education (i.e. a nursing student show), ensure that you
   articulate that to listeners in the form of a disclaimer before and
   during your show i.e. ―the following program may contain language
   of a sexual nature or explicit language, listener discretion is

4) Abortion, Venereal Diseases and Birth Control

   The Broadcast Regulations prevent the airing of any program on the
   subject of birth control or venereal diseases, but at the same time
   make the following exception ―unless the program is presented in a
   manner appropriate to the medium of broadcasting.‖ There are no
   specifics about how to discuss this topic on-air, but announcements
   concerning clinics and services offered, as well as opinions about
   laws or moral attitudes seem to be alright. Section 159 of the
   Canadian Criminal Code also restricts counseling over the air to
   encourage people to get an abortion.

5) Defamation (Libel and Slander)

   Defamation of character is covered by the Criminal Code of Canada.
   Not only is the person who made the ―defamatory remark‖ liable to
   be sued, the broadcast outlet can also and generally will be named
   in the legal suit. If the libel is particularly malicious, criminal
   charges, with penalties up to five years imprisonment, can be laid.

   Libel is legally defined as a comment made with the intention to
   injure the reputation of an individual by the exposure to hatred,
   contempt or ridicule. As serious as libel is, there are exceptions
   to the rule, especially if the remark is indeed true, then the
   charges usually don‘t stick. Also, the right to make ―Fair Comment‖
   is rigorously protected under federal law. You can make ―fair
   comment:‖ on the public conduct of an individual or any literary
   (artistic) production that a person has made. ―Fair Comment‖ means
   that you present the facts and base your opinions on those facts,
   and then no libel has occurred.

6) Race and Religion

   The broadcast regulations and multiple other laws prohibit
   ―abusive‖ comments directed at race and religion. Any such comment
   is strictly prohibited at CIRO and will be dealt with by the board
   of directors.

7) Anti-Government Remarks

   It is illegal to broadcast any remark, which advocates or teaches
   the use of violence to change the government of Canada (Criminal
   Code, section 60-4). This ―seditious libel‖ law has rarely been
   used in recent history with the exception of Quebec in the 1970s,
   and does not apply to any sort of criticism whatsoever of the
   existing system of law, courts, constitution or taxation etc. as
   long as a violent overthrow is not mentioned.

Interview skills

Interview skills for a live air broadcast (also useful for pre
broadcasted shows)

     - Scripts and prep work are important for a smooth show, and hence
       researching your music program or interview subject is a novel
       idea, as is writing some potential questions for the interview
     - Decent question construction can facilitate an interesting
       conversation and a good show
     - Good sources of info on the web include pitchfork, brain washed,
       tiny mix tapes, wire, dusted, excalibur and exclaim.
     - Simplify questions, ask poignant clear questions, use focused goal
       statements, clarity in voice is important, avoid commas and words
       that are triggers (keep it neutral unless you are trying to trigger
       someone, a politician for example) - -
     - Open ended questions are useful
     - Over describing a band or topic is not cool due to potential
       audience boredom, so keep to normal conversation stuff
     - Pronunciation is important; it may help to write things out
     - Sound natural and breath properly
     - Know what‘s going to be talked about so as to weed out potentially
       unacceptable material, i.e. excessive swearing isn‘t cool nor is
       discrimination based on race, sexual orientation, ableism etc. A
       pre-interview is often useful
     - Use hyperbole
There are many ways to cut off guests, i.e. pointing at your watch or a
clock, thank individuals for coming in; interruption is useful if all
else fails, as is turning their mic off.

Other useful tips:

    -      Check previously recorded voice tracks on occasion to ensure
           quality i.e. voice clarity; experiment and do what sounds good

    -      Please let your audience know that you are listening to CIRO
           student radio 3-6 times depending on your show length.

Please use the „CIRO Program log‟ sheets. Just follow the example in the
box beside the blank program log sheets. Document the songs you played
from the respective album. The Music Director will use that info to

                            4.Rules in the Studio
o       No food or drinks in the studio.

o       If you alter the setup in the studio, return everything       back    to   its
        initial place. This refers to software settings as well.

o       Sign in the “log book” every time you visit the studio.

o       Keep the studio clean and tidy.


-Yamaha mixing console MG 10/2

 USB Audiophile
 -a compact audio and MIDI interface

 Production computer

 -This the computer on which all the programming software is installed. Hosts
 and DJs who will produce their shows in the studio will use this computer.
 After you produce your show, place the file in ―WEB SHOWS‖ on the Desktop.

Production Software
Nuendo 2


1. Turn on :
   o The production computer
   o The mixer
   o The Audiophile
   o The Speakers

 Ensure that the mixer microphone, and master volume dials are at the 8 setting.
 Ensure that when speaking into the microphone the soundboard levels are not in
 the ―peak‖ (red) zone.

   Music file format
 For production purposes convert non-mp3 files into mp3 ones. The conversion can
 be done using Free Rip
   o How to use Free Rip
   Double click the ―Free Rip‖ icon (on the desktop). Select the files that will
   be incorporated into your show by left clicking the appropriate track #. Be
   sure to add the artist, and track name if that info is not automatically
   displayed. Select ‗Rip‘  to Mp3. All ripped files should appear on the
   desktop, when you are finished producing your show please remove the files
   from the desktop and place them in the CIRO music folder, which is also on
   the desktop.

   Production (basics)
      Open Nuendo

   o     To start a project: Click File  New Project  Empty    OK CIRO shows

   o     To add tracks: Click Project  Add Track  Audio  Stereo ( note: adding
         more tracks makes it easier to organize more songs/recordings)

o   To record your voice: Select the ‗record enable‘ button on the left hand
    side of the screen. Next, select the ‗Record‘ button on the Transport

     o       To import music: file  import  audio file. Determine the location
             of your files, select your file click open (or double click your

     o       The imported song or the voice recording will appear as a bar which
             you can drag with the mouse and change its position in the mix.

    How to finalize your show

         o    When your show is finished and all the songs and recordings are
              placed properly, set your cursor to the beginning of your show.
              Click on the bar above your track until a pencil appears. Drag the
              white triangle from the beginning to the end of your show. Blue
              should encompass your entire show.

    o   Go to file export  audio mixdown.

o   Save your show in the CIRO shows folder (it is recommended that you
    create your own folder in the ―CIRO shows‖ folder, especially if you
    have a regularly show). Put your name, date, and the name of your show
    in the ‗File name‘ spot. In the ‗Files of type:‟ SELECT WAV FILE (mp3
    sounds horrible). ‗Coding‘: select PCM / uncompressed waves. Stereo
    Interleaved should be selected in ‗Channels:‘ ‗Resolution:‘ should
    already be set at 16 Bit. Sample rate should be 44.100 kHz. The outputs
       section should read Stereo out (stereo). After this is done, you will
       not be able to make changes in the wav file.

  o    Select ‗Save‘. An export audio box will appear with a blue bar that
       moves from left to right, which signifies that your show is being
       transformed into a wav file

  o    Ensure that your show works by playing it.

  o    Put your completed show in the ―Shared       shows‖   folder,   which   is
       networked with the broadcast computer

      Note: Nuendo is a powerful software. It allows a number of specific
      sounds and quality modulations. This guide gives you the basics on how
      to record a simple show.

                    !!!   AFTER YOU FINISH YOUR SHOW !!!
1.Use FreeRIP (the icon is on the the dektop) :
Open FreeRIP by double clicking on the icon  Tools  Convert Single Audio
File  chose the .wav file that corresponds to the show you just recorded 
in Output Path find the /web shows/mp3/ directory. When it is done, double
check if the mp3 file is in the proper folder (web shows/mp3).

2.Make sure you provide a short description of the show: what it is about,
what genre of music are you playing, how do you want to be presented as a
host (for example: Bobby G, 1 hour of Canadian hip hop and an interview with
a hip-hop artist). You can save it as a .doc file in the /web shows/ folder.
This information will be posted on the website along with your show.


Ensure that the mixer is on, the audiophile is on and that the speakers are
on too. Ensure that the speakers are plugged into the audiophile and make
sure the volume is up on the speakers. Remember to check the dials on the
mixer that correspond to the microphone volume and the master power. If you
have recorded your voice but are not getting sound try clicking on Devices-->
device set up --> reset all---> ok.

Also, you might try turning off or shutting down or restarting the computer,
and remember to turn off the audiophile, the mixer, and the speakers.


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