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					In this chapter you will learn about

•   Internal factors (Constraints) that affect Singapore
•   External factors (Constraints) that affect Singapore
•   8 Economic strategies for sustainable development
•   Environmental strategies for sustainable development
1. Limited land

2. Shortage of water
3. Dependence on
   imported technology

4. Racial vulnerability
5. A small and open
6. Shortage of skilled

       Possible Revision SEQs

1. The most difficult internal constraints to
   Singapore’s future growth is its small
   population. Do you agree? Explain your

Economic Slowdown in Other Countries

Socio-Political Unrest in Other Countries

Environmental Issues
      Possible Revision SEQs
1. Relying on external export markets such
   as the U.S. is damaging to Singapore’s
   economic growth in the long run. Do you
   agree? Explain your answer.

2. How important is Singapore’s concerns
   over regional security in hindering her
   sustainable development? Explain your
     Economic Slowdown in Other Countries
How it affects:
- Singapore relies on other countries for natural resources
- sells to other countries its manufactured goods
- reduction in imports and exports mean less business for
  Singapore. This affects the economy.
Examples of Key Trading Countries – USA, EU, JAPAN

- Currency Crisis in 1997 and 1998
- Slowdown in economic activities
- Trade and Manufacturing slow down
- Businesses suffered losses
- Retrenchment - Many workers lost jobs
- Singapore ran into recession
Socio-Political Unrest in Other Countries
How it affects:
- strong links among countries due to globalisation
- countries are inter-related to one another
- when one country is affected, others are involved
- Direct Effects – Tourism / Foreign Investment

- World War II and Singapore’s involvement
- Social unrest in Vietnam and refugee problems in Singapore
- Political unrest in Indonesia and Singapore’s investment
- Terrorist Threats (E.g. Bali Bombs)

     External Environmental Threats

   How it affects:
   - air, noise and land pollutions have no boundary
   - what happens in one country – impact on its neighbours

Example 1                        Example 2
- forest fires in Indonesia in   - collision of two oil tankers
  1997, 2006                       in 1997
- haze in Singapore leading      - affected people as well as
  to unhealthy living              marine life
- Drop in business - tourism

                     2. Improving
  1. Moving             Workers’
  Towards a          Employability        4. Building an
 Knowledge-                                Information
     Based                               Technology (IT)
  Economy                                 Infrastructure

  5. Going                               7. Promoting
Regional and                             Research and
   Global                                Development
                     8. Attracting
 3. Promoting       Foreign Talent
and Services as    6. Developing Local
Twin Engines      Entrepreneurship and
  of Growth        Technoprenuership                9
           Possible Revision SEQs
1.   Is Singapore’s policy of ‘Going Global’ more a help
     than a hindrance to sustaining her economic
     development? Explain your answer.

2.   ‘Singapore’s drive towards sustaining economic
     development depends largely on tapping its
     educated workforce’. How far do you agree with this
     statement? Explain your answer.

3. How far can Singapore’s local entrepreneurs help to
   promote Singapore as a strong economic player in
   the world? Explain your answer.                 10
1. Moving Towards a Knowledge-Based Economy

 What is it:
 - information and knowledge drives economy
 - need to be knowledgeable, creative and innovative
 - need to train and upgrade

  How to achieve it:
  - greater emphasis on training and upgrading
  - choose right type of training
  - e.g. no use memorising everything in this computer age
        more important to review and analyse, in coming up
        with sound suggestions to issues

    2. Improving Workers’ Employability

What is it:
- new technology and rapid changes  obsolete workers
- important to keep the workers employable

       How to achieve it:
       - upgrading of skills, eg part-time courses
         at Bukit Merah Skills Development Centre
       - retrain rather than retrench employees
       - training in new areas, eg IT

 3. Promoting Manufacturing and Services as
            Twin Engines Of Growth
What is it:
- promoting high-technological manufacturing
- at the same time promoting services

How to achieve it:
- a regional service centre (promote services)
     - centres of education and research in Singapore
     - better service eg. DBS and POSB
     - regional headquarters here
- manufacturing services (promote manufacturing)
     - import raw materials from other countries and export as
       refined products
- if one sector fails, can rely on the other sector
     4. Building an Information Technology (IT)

What is it:
- invisible network linking different parts of Singapore
- links Singapore with rest of the world
- good IT structure would encourage more investment

How to achieve it:
- IT 2000 Plan (1992)
       - prepare Singapore for the IT age through use of
         computers in workplaces, public places and schools
- Singapore ONE (1996)
        - world’s first nation-wide network
         5. Going Regional and Global

 What is it:
 - limited land and labour resources
 - need to look beyond Singapore for investment

How to achieve it:
i. Go Regional
- invest in countries that have abundant land, lower labour
  costs and new markets
- provide infrastructure, expertise and money; in return, host
  country would provide land and labour for Singapore’s
- this leads to mutual benefit e.g. investment in Bangalore,
  India                                                          15
5. Going Regional and Global (II)

How to achieve it:

ii. Go   Global
- 1997 and 1998 recession in Southeast Asia
- global investment e.g. Africa and Latin America

- EDB: business opportunities in region and tax incentive
  schemes for companies which set up factories overseas

- TDB: grants for companies to move to new markets;
  contacts authorities for overseas investment

- government: provides opportunities eg. setting up of
  Southern Africa Investment Fund of US$100 million      16
6. Developing Local Entrepreneurs and Technopreneurs

What is it:
- ensuring entrepreneurs are highly skillful
- need to transform entrepreneurs into technopreneurs

How to achieve it:
- role played by government
        - established one-stop centre to assist technopreneurs
        - allows for changes in law to accommodate risk taking
          e.g. change in bankruptcy law
- educational opportunities
        - technopreneurial skills taught in NUS and NTU
What is it:
- development of own talent pool and own technologies
- importance of successful R&D

How to achieve it:
- encourage local enterprises to partner with universities and
  national research institutions
- encourage international partnerships to promote science and
  technology exchanges eg. joint projects with countries like
  China, Germany and India

What is it:
- recruit more foreigners in areas where talent is inadequate
- learn from foreign talent to improve own labour force

How to achieve it:
- more foreigners in fields like petrochemicals and wafer
- Research Scientists and Engineers
- information centres overseas e.g. London and Hong Kong
- foreigners in local universities
- foreign talent could provide avenue for more business
  opportunities overseas
 1. Improving                    5. Promoting
      the                        Regional and
Infrastructure                   International
   for Waste                     Co-operation

     2. Using                    4. Increasing
    Improved                         Public
                 3. Preserving
   Technology                     Awareness
                 Nature Sites
      Possible Revision SEQs

1. As an environmental strategy for
   sustainable development, is promoting
   regional and international cooperation
   more crucial then increasing public
   awareness? Explain your answer.

1. Improving the Infrastructure for Waste Disposal

   What is it:
   - improve on present system of waste disposal
     e.g. six existing plants to dispose of human waste too big
     and emit foul smells

   How to achieve it:
   - upgrading of sewage treatment plants
   - compact, covered structures
   - burning of collected garbage at incineration plants
               2. Using Improved Technology

What is it:
- adapting to changes and ensuring use of most suitable
- ensuring personal responsibility for taking care of environment

 How to achieve it:
 - natural gas used in power stations to produce electricity to
   reduce pollution
 - monetary rewards to industries for cutting on pollution
 - monetary rewards to industries which install pollution-control
 - energy saving form of transportation e.g. green cars
3. Preserving Nature Sites

What is it:
- nature sites represent a wide range of natural habitats
- grounds for recreation, education and scientific research

How to achieve it:
- 5% of Singapore’s total land area set aside to be
  preserved as nature sites

        4. Increasing Public Awareness
What is it:
- In order for environment to be taken care of, citizens must
  adopt environmental-friendly ways and be instilled with a
  responsibility to keep environment clean

How to achieve it:
- public education e.g. Clean & Green Week
- sponsorship for green activities by private companies
- environment-friendly products used by private companies
     5. Promoting Regional and International

What is it:
- environmental cleanliness important in all countries
- Singapore has provided help in these areas for several regions

How to achieve it:
- Singapore’s contribution in reducing haze problem
- signing of international agreement to do away with ozone
  depleting substances in products produced