Sustainable Packaging by fjzhangweiqun

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									SUSTAINABLE PACKAGING:

An Initial Exploration of Metrics, Standards and
Best Practices for the Plastic Film Industry
TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE PACKAGING OUTLINE:
METRICS, STANDARDS AND BEST PRACTICES FOR THE PLASTIC FILM INDUSTRY

       I.      Why Focus on the Sustainability of Packaging?
       II.     Conceptual Background
       III.    Project Goals
       IV.     Present State of Packaging
       V.      Present State of Plastics Packaging and Manufacturing
       VI.     Project Focus: Plastic Film
       VII.    Addressing the Ecological Impacts of Plastics Packaging Manufacturing
       VIII.   Addressing the Ecological Impacts of Other Packaging Manufacturing
       IX.     Primary Challenges for Change
       X.      Towards Sustainable Packaging
INTRODUCTION
   The focus of this research project
    is to determine the best methods
    for improving the sustainability
    of the packaging industry. Of
    particular interest is the
    establishment of measure for
    sustainable manufacturing
    (metrics, best practices,
    standards/performance
    measures), and manufacturing
    processes (resource reduction,
    material
    improvement/substitution).
   Work will be carried out by defining metrics for sustainable
    manufacturing, analyzing manufacturing processes, and ascertaining
    policy and standardization issues. Finding will be assessed, and put into
    practice on the extruding and converting industry, which is responsible
    for the manufacturing of plastic film and bags. It is anticipated that the
    results of this work will be pertinent to the production of packaging as a
    whole, and will extend beyond into related industries.
                             I
     WHY FOCUS ON THE
SUSTAINABILITY OF PACKAGING?
   Increasing public concern over packaging
      Issues with packaging
      Focus by industry
      Environmental laws/regulations focusing on packaging
      NGOs campaigns with implications for packaging
   Benefits of packaging will lead to continued use
   There are business advantages to making
    packaging sustainable
    ISSUES WITH PACKAGING
   Climate Change
        Associated with the green
         house gas intensity of product
         manufacturing
   Natural Resource Depletion
        Scarcity of raw materials, many of which are
         used in the production of plastics, such as oil,
         natural gas, coal, and agriculture.
   Waste Creation
        Issues of capacity for garbage disposal

   Pollution
        With decreasing capacity for
         waste disposal, trash ends up
         contaminating ecosystems, such
         as waterways.
   Dangers to Human Health
        Concerns over the toxicity of
         different source materials
       FOCUS BY INDUSTRY TO MAKE PACKAGING
                        MORE SUSTAINABLE
   Packaging Industry Organizations with Concerns for sustainability:
        Sustainable Packaging Coalition
        The Sustainable Packaging Alliance

        Beverage Packaging Environment Council (BPEC)

        The Association of Postconsumer Plastic Recyclers

        National Association for PET Container Resources

        Flexible Packaging Association

        Glass Packaging Institute

        The Packaging Association of Canada

        The European Organization for Packaging and the Environment

         (EUROPEN)
   Packaging Purchasers Pressure for Greener Packaging
        Many producers are expressing increased interest in making all
         aspects of their products more eco-friendly
        Retailers such as Wal-Mart score card
    NGOS CAMPAIGNS WITH IMPLICATIONS FOR
                PACKAGING:
   Studies on the impact of plastics on the environment
   Measures to protect certain species or habitats
   Advocating against waste generation
   Partnerships with producers and retailers to green their business
   Demanding the restriction of the use of certain materials in
    packaging
    PACKAGING USE WILL CONTINUE TO GROW, BECAUSE
                 OF ITS ADVANTAGES
    Packaging can decrease waste by providing protection to increase products
    usefulness, and decreasing the disposal of merchandise not fit for consumption.
Packaging protects products to increase their lifespan, and decrease
  disposal due to spoilage.
     products protected from exposure to air, moisture, tampering,
       contamination, corrosion, pest infestation, and extreme
       temperatures
   Packaging increases appeal of items to consumer resulting in less stock going
      unsold.
         items are perceived to be “protected,” “fresher,” “newer,” or just generally
            more aesthetically appealing to the buyer
           Packaging protect products during transport thus minimizing disposal due
               to damage.
                  bundling products decreases mishandling during shipping, while
                    padding shields products that are subjected to rough conditions
Packaging increases the lifespan of items, thereby reducing long-term disposal rates
     tradeoff of increased short-term investments (monetary, environmental,
       etc.) may increase the reuse of materials, resulting in less disposed over the
       long run.
    Packaging provides information to the consumer about the product.
          labels convey important information about items being sold,
             including proper use, warnings and restrictions, expiration
             date, and the appropriate disposal options
BUSINESS MOTIVATIONS:
ADVANTAGES     OF A   SUSTAINABLE INDUSTRY
                                Communications
                                      Improves company image
                                      Voluntary action may mitigate some
                                       political and regulatory costs
                                Finance
                                        Attract investors interested in industries
                                         with reduced risk or those that will be
                                         advantageous in carbon markets.
                                Human Resources
                                        Attract and retain the best employees.
                                         Improve health, moral and productivity.
Marketing
    Improve the company/brand image
    Increase customer satisfaction and support

Operations
      Reduces operating costs by minimizing the waste of
       inputs (such as materials, labor, and energy) . These
       strategies can be applied to buildings, manufacturing
       or everyday travel.
                 II
        CONCEPTUAL BACKGROUND

   Sustainability
   Sustainable Packaging
   Sustainable Packaging Lifecycle
CONCEPTUAL BACKGROUND: SUSTAINABILITY
                                               “able to be maintained”




                   [GreenCityBlueLake http://www.gcbl.org/system/files/sustainability-venn-sm.jpg]
CONCEPTUAL BACKGROUND: SUSTAINABLE PACKAGING

                                              In North America, the Sustainable
                                               Packaging Coalition’s definition has
                                               gained wide acceptance.
                                              This definition:
                                                   Was created with stakeholder input
                                                   Examines packing performance over its
                                                    full lifecycle (rather than emphasizing
                                                    certain segments of the process)
                                                   Addresses packaging’s function and
                                                    purpose
                                              Sustainable Biomaterials
                                               Collaborative also created a definition
                                                   This definition places greater emphasis on
                                                    the packaging material’s state at the end
                                                    of its life.
                                              Still another definition is available
                                               from the Australian Sustainable
                                               Packaging Alliance.
                                                   This definition is more suggestive than the
                                                    SPC’s definition. Some critics feel that this
                                                    is an advantage because focusing on the
                                                    use of renewable energy as one of many
                                                    potential optimization strategy does more
                                                    to encourage innovation than the SPC’s
                                                    more prescriptive approach [Five Winds].


       [Sustainable Packaging Coalition]
The Packaging Lifecycle                                                Disposal to Land,
                                   Natural                             Water or Air
                                   Resources
      Product
    Requirements
                                                  Compost
                                                                           EOL
                             Extraction
                             Mining &             Recycle
                             Harvesting
                                                              Reuse or
                                                              Return
      Design
                                                                                           Use &
                                                                                           Maintenance


                   Materials
                   Production &
                   Supplier Ops




                                                                                           Retail

Inputs
• Fixtures, Tools &
  Equipment                       Manufacturing
• Consumables (Energy             (Production &
  Raw Materials,                  Assembly)                                          Transportation,
  Chemical etc.)                                            Filling &                Handling & Storage
Outputs                                                     Distribution
• Waste
    Sustainable
  ThevPackaging Lifecycle                                                                  Disposal to Land,
                                                                                                             (Only if safe and
                                         Natural                                                             beneficial for the
                                                                                           Water or Air
                                         Resources                                                           ecosystem)
           Product
         Requirements                            Minimized
                                                                    Compost
                                                                                               EOL
                                   Extraction
                                   Mining &                         Recycle
                                   Harvesting
                                                                                Reuse or
                                                                These processes Return
           Design                                               are maximized
                                                                                                             Use &
                                                                                                             Maintenance


                         Materials
                         Production &
                         Supplier Ops



                                                  All processes are designed to optimize the
Inputs                                                                                                       Retail
                                                  inputs and outputs in order to benefit the
include clean environments,
                                                  needs of the environment, communities,
production techniques, and
                                                  individuals and businesses
consumables (renewable
energy and non toxic materials).
                                        Manufacturing
                                        (Production &
Outputs
                                        Assembly)                                                        Transportation,
Include safe & healthy
                                                                                Filling &                Handling & Storage
biproducts
                                                                                Distribution
                            III
                           GOALS

   Presentation Goals
   Future Project Goals
PRESENTATION GOALS
   This presentation aims to provide an initial review of existing
    methodologies and metrics associated with the manufacture of plastics
    packaging and the industry's strives to address the ecological issues
    associated with the current industrial state.
   It begins by examining the present state of plastics packaging and
    manufacturing, and compares the metrics and methodologies associated
    with the manufacturing of plastics packaging with those of other
    manufacturing sectors (e.g. paper, oil, glass, metals).
   Finally, an explanation of why the current measures are not sufficient is
    provided, and available principles, methods, and metrics are briefly
    explored.
   This study is meant to support the search for suitable metrics towards a
    workable measure of sustainable manufacturing.


Some Key Information Needs for Evaluating the Sustainability Attributes of Packaging
     PROJECT GOALS
   Determine effective and appropriate metrics for sustainable manufacturing by:
       Determining the goal of the assessment, that is, which sustainability concerns are of
        importance and should serve as a basis for metric selection;
       Determining the scope of the assessment and whether the focus should be on the processing
        machine scale, line scale, factory scale, or supply chain scale;
       Determining the geographic scope of the assessment by determining criteria for metric
        selection (for instance greenhouse gas emissions are global in impact whereas electricity supply
        is scarce in one location);
       Choosing a metric type from the categories of sustainable measure, namely, basic
        environmental impact, comparative environmental impact, sustainable use of renewable
        resources, and the sustainable use of non-renewable resources.


   Analysis of manufacturing processes
       Define a standardized life cycle assessment methodology for the packaging industry by
        determining what aspects make a significant impact, and thus are of importance.


   Policy and standardization issues
       In addition to technical standards, our research will consider the inducements and barriers to
        the take-up of these practices within business. The focus on policy will be directed at the
        effectiveness of “voluntary environmental programs” (VEP), in particular the accreditation
        program of the California Film Extruders and Converters Association (CFECA), known as the
        “Environmentally-Preferred Rating” (EPR),

								
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