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					Introduction and History of
Early Childhood Education

        Chapter 1, 2
            History of Early Childhood Education

• The Medieval period (5th thru 13th
  century)
  – Children were considered adults by
    age 7
  – High mortality rates
  – Education was gender and class
    based (Education was focused
    primarily on noble class males)

• The reformation (religious) period
  (14th thru 16th century)
  – Children are inherently evil and
    education is essential to their moral
    socialization
  – Puritan Ethics
          History of Early Childhood
                  Education
• The enlightment period (17th
  and 18th century)
  – John Comenius (1592-1670
    Czech educator)
     • Developed picture books for children
       that developed the senses and
       focused on nature

     • Children learn best by doing and
       learning follows a natural order
       (learning readiness)

     • Believed that the poor should also be
       educated
    History of Early Childhood Education
• John Locke (1632-1714) English
  Philosopher)
   – Tabula Rasa
   – Focused on the unique and individual
     needs of a child in the facilitation of learning
   – Focused on the importance of play and the
     environment towards healthy development

• Jean Rousseau (1712-1778)
   – Children are born innately good
   – Free play, autonomy, and self regulation
     are all derivatives of his ideas
           Schiller and Pestalozzi
• Friedrich von Schiller viewed play as
  excess energy from which all creative
  artistic and spiritual activity grows.

• Johan Pestalozzi (1746-1827) Swedish
  educator) purported that children were
  supposed to learn naturally from their
  encounters with real things. Learning is
  optimized by doing.
  – Emphasized the integrated curriculum
    approach to educating the whole child (i.e.,
    cognitively, socially, physically)
    Curriculum Based Programs Which
    Promote Creativity (Jackman, 2001)

• Friedrich Froebel (1782-1852).
  – Developed the first curriculum based program
    exclusively for young children.

  – Teacher focused model (effective teaching and
    curriculum development is key)

  – Froebel identified key objects/resources to
    promote learning; consequently, these resources
    continue to be used today (Developed in
    Germany).
      Shaping Rational Thought on Education


• Friedrich Froebel (1782-1852 German educator) noted
  the importance of the play-based curriculum.

   – Froebel identified gifts (objects) could be situated and
     manipulated in certain ways to optimize learning and educational
     outcomes in children.

   – Through play, children develop ideas and questions.
     Consequently, they grow into maturity….Kindergarden.

   – Froebel’s play based curriculum was seen as both rational and
     spiritual towards building children into competence.

   – Believed that both men and women should teach preschoolers
     (2-6 yrs)
                      Froebel’s Gifts and Occupations
•   First gifts. Six small yarn balls, one each in a primary or secondary color

•   Second gift. A small wood ball, wood cylinder, and wood cube

•   Third gift. A small wooden cube, composed of eight component cubes

•   Fourth gift. A small wooden cube, composed of eight rectangular blocks

•   Fifth gift. A larger wooden cube, composed of 27 cubes

•   Sixth gift. A comparably sized wooden cube, composed of 27 rectangular blocks

•   Seventh gift. Wooden tablets (squares, half-squares, triangles, half-triangles, third-triangles)

•   Eighth gift. Wooden sticks (lines) and metal curves (circles, half circles, quadrants)

•   Ninth gift. Points (beans, seeds, pebbles, holes in paper)

•   Tenth gift. Peas (or pellets) construction, with sticks


• Occupations: Plastic clay (solids), Paper folding (surfaces), Weaving
  (lines), Drawing (lines), Stringing beads (points), Painting (surfaces).
             Froebel’s Kindergarden Curriculum

• The Ball. Simulating the relationship of objects in the
  world to one another and for representing our connection
  to one another through games

• Building Blocks. Construction materials to simulate.

• Sticks. For pattern creation to simulate letters

• Pricking Sheets. Creating patterns and sewing

• Many of the basic tenants and resources utilized by
  Froebel continue to be implemented in daycares,
  preschools, and kindergardens today.
                     Reggio Emilia

• Founded in the 1970’s by Loris Malaguzzi.
• Basic Model
  – Children are viewed as active learners


  – Integrated Curriculum/Project Work.
     • Rooms are not divided into learning centers.


  – Teacher/Child Relationships


  – Documentation of Student Learning
             Key Points & Benefits to Reggio Emilia
                           Approach
•   Teachers possess a greater knowledge of the children they work with

•   Able to document more observations and experiences

•   Stronger bond and greater support between teacher and children

•   Teachers create an environment that stimulates learning
     – Teachers focus on children’s development of symbolic language and
       expression (drawing, sculpture, dramatic play, and writing).
     – Children’s projects (art, poems, etc.) are displayed on the walls throughout
       the facility.
     – There is no hurry to cover a particular lesson. Structure is provided but
       freedom of expression sets the pace
     – Plenty of time for spontaneous play with abundant resources

•   Teachers value the importance of children being confused and working through
    difficult tasks with limited information
      Developing Healthy Sense of Identity

• Provide children with experiences that promotes
  more successes than failures.

• Stable interaction and relationships in
  education/learning based settings are vital.

   – Based on the Reggio Emilia models, children and teachers
     progress to different learning settings at the same time
     (Infant/toddler centers and preschools).
                  Maria Montessori
• The second to develop a curriculum based
  program exclusively for young children.
  – 1st female physician in Italy

• Montessori’s ideas initially came from working
  with impoverished children in Italy.

• Key Points to Model:
  – Children learn best from child-sized environments that
    are stimulating and inviting.

  – Children copy their environment rather than construct it.
    Consequently, by observing and later practicing what
    they have witnessed, children begin to internalize the
    properties of their environment.
                 Montessori Continued
• Key Points                         • Features of Montessori

   – Complex tasks can be taught        – Adapt school work to the
     to young children by breaking        child rather than molding the
     the task into simple                 child to fit a curriculum
     sequences
                                        – Freedom of expression
   – Employed the usage of self           regarding the selection of
     correcting material                  resources and activities

   – Healthy cognitive
                                        – Development of the senses
     development is a function of
                                          and a focus on practical (life-
     one’s ability to employ
                                          skill) learning
     multiple senses to stimulate
     growth
     Waldorf School of Education
• Rudolf Steiner (German educator)
   – Focus on holistic learning
   – The environment must be carefully planned to protect
     and nurture the child
   – Promote innate self-motivation
   – Learn a child’s temperament and work within that
     framework
   – Television is eliminated


• Childhood is a phase of life in itself
   – The Will (0-7 years)
   – The Heart Feelings (7-14years)
   – The Head Fusion (14 years on)
                 Head Start

• The largest publicly funded educational
  program for young children

• Since 1965, Head Start has provided
  curriculum/classroom based learning to
  children in low income families.

• Head Start has been effective in providing
  family center education in an effort to
  improve upon the lives of young children.
                  High/Scope

• Developed in the 1960s under the leadership of
  David Weikert.

• Key Points:
  – Children learn best through active experiences
    with people, materials, events, and ideas.

  – Autonomy is fostered in children as teachers
    facilitate a daily ―plan-do-review‖ process.
                         Bank Street
• Founded in 1916 by Lucy S. Mitchell

• Key Points:
   – Focus on holistic approach to developmental-interaction programs
     (development and learning).

   – Cognitive growth cannot be separated from the growth of personal
     and social processes.

   – Classrooms are arranged into distinct learning centers. Learning is
     encouraged by bridging play, choice management, taking risks, and
     accepting help.

   – The Bank Street approach employs an open education which
     believes that children are capable of selecting and learning from
     appropriate activities. The goal is not to teach new concepts but
     to better employ the skills already obtained.
 Continuity of Child Care Relationships are Not
            Always the Central Goal


• Some directors of child care centers promote the
  moving of children every 6 months.

   – Premise. Some parents prefer this as a means of limiting
     attachment of their children to other people.

   – Criticism. This practice prohibits professionals from
     appropriately getting to know the child and their families.
        Differences Between Families and Teachers on
                       Child Practices
• What happens when parents expect teachers to do things that contradict
  their principles.
    – Issues of corporal punishment…Scenario…Parents condone/teachers
      prohibited.

    – How do teachers respond to children’s play with violent themes (toys or
      imaginary)


• In problem-solving, educators bear the responsibility of being open-
  minded and objective. Antonia Lopez notes 4 guiding questions:

    –   Are the concepts clear
    –   Can they be restated for better clarity
    –   How are they related to the child’s overall wellbeing
    –   What are the cultural implications (is it a matter of culture, opinion, or
        information)
     John Dewey (1859-1952) and Pragmatism

• Child centered and child focused educational
  approach

• Play provides a more generalized internalizing of
  knowledge in young children.

• Play is the free, intrinsically interesting exploration
  of society and nature. According to Dewey, to
  practice freedom, one must experience freedom.

• Play is also seen as experimental and experiential.
  Consequently, we are learning skills of
  socialization (political, religious, or economic).
             Vytgotsky’s View of Play

• Play is seen as a developmental mechanism that
  allows children to turn actions into meanings and to
  internalize those meanings.

• For the preschool and early school years, play
  becomes a means by which children internalize the
  knowledge and expectations of culture.
         21st Century Education
• Early childhood education
   – Learning settings that
     promote positive change
     and growth in children

   – Bridge the gap between
     play, learning, and
     education

   – Promotes holistic learning
     and heightened adaptability
  The Challenge Before Us as Early Educators

• Jackman (2001) cites research findings from the
  Children’s Defense Fund regarding the changing
  trends impacting early educators:

  – In 1973 approximately 30 % of mothers with children
    under age 6 were in the workforce, as were more
    than 50 % of mothers of school-age children.

  – By 1997, the percentages had grown to 65% and
    77% respectively

  – Everyday, 13 million children—including 6 million
    infants and toddlers—are in child care.
   Child Development Associate Credentials
                  (CDA)
• Competencies:
  – Organizing the physical environment
  – Promoting children’s social, physical, and
    intellectual competence

  – Building personal strength in children
  – Facilitating group interaction

  – Working with parents, colleagues, and community
    for policy and curriculum development
      DEVELOPMENTALLY APPROPRIATE
               PRACTICE
• The following lecture notes comprise of chapters 1,2,& 4
  of the DAP. The noted information represent
  fundamental principles which begin to define teacher and
  organizational commitments to children and children’s
  commitment to self development.
     NAEYC POSITION ON DEVELOPMENTALLY
         APPROPRIATE PRACTICE (DAP)

  DAP in Early Childhood Programs      • Early Childhood Programs
  Serving from Birth through Age 8

• Identify principles of DAP for         – Child care centers
  professionals who make decision
  about the care and education of
  young children.                        – Family child care homes

• ECE professionals are                  – Private and Public
  responsible for establishing:
                                           Preschools
    – Standards of high-quality
                                         – Kindergartens
    – Professional practice in early
      programs
                                         – Primary-grade schools
    The current context of early childhood programs
•   ECE Programs continue to increase due in part to the growing demand for out-of-
    home child care but also in recognition of the critical importance of educational
    experiences during early years.

•   Welfare reforms also reflect a significant increased demand for child care
    services for even the youngest children from very low-income families.

     – There is an increased movement toward multiculturalism and diversity.

•   The American with Disabilities Act and the Individuals with Disabilities Education
    Act requires that all ECE programs make reasonable accommodations to provide
    access for children with disabilities or developmental delays.

•   Increase in enrollment with children at younger ages

•   Length of the program day for all ages of children has been extended in response
    to the need for extended hours of care for employed families.

•   Corporate America has become a more visible sponsor of child care programs.
                   Key Points for Consideration
•   The increased demand for early childhood education services is due in part
     – To increased recognition of the crucial importance of experiences during the
       earliest years of life.

     – Research clearly demonstrate that early and/or high-quality programs produce
       short- and long-term positive effects on children’s cognitive and social
       development.

•   Children who experience high-quality, stable child care engage in
     – More complex play
     – Demonstrate more secure attachment to adults and other children
     – Score higher on measure of thinking ability and language development

•   High-quality child care programs have been found to predict
     – Future academic success
     – Adjustment to school
     – Reduced behavioral problems for children in first grades.

•   High quality child care facilities are not the norm in our society.
     – This is due to the need for uniform standards of high quality.
Pro-social & Developmental Outcome Goals
• Goals for children toward the development of pro-social
  outcomes:

   – Communicate well
   – Respect others
   – Engage with them to work through the differences of opinions
   – Function well as members of a team
   – Analyze situation
   – Make reasoned judgments
   – Solve new problems as they emerge.
   – Access information through various modes, including spoken
     and written language
   – Intelligently employ complex tools and technologies as they are
     developed.
   – Continue to learn new approaches, skills, and knowledge as
     conditions and needs change.
 Empirical principles of child development that guide
        developmentally appropriate practice


1. Development in one domain influences and is influenced by
   development in other domains.

2. Development occurs in a relatively orderly sequence, with later
   abilities, skills, and knowledge building on those already acquired.

3. Development proceeds at varying rated from child to child as well as
   unevenly within different areas of each child’s functioning.

4. Early experiences have both cumulative and delayed effect on
   individual children’s development. Optimal periods exist for certain
   types of development and learning.

5. Development and learning are influenced by multiple social and
   cultural contexts. Children are actively constructing their knowledge
   and understanding of the world around them
 Empirical principles of child development that guide
        developmentally appropriate practice


6. Development and learning result from interaction of biological
   maturation and the environment, which includes both the physical
   and social worlds that children live in.

7. Play is an important vehicle for children’s social, emotional, and
   cognitive development, as well as a reflection of their development.

8. Development advances when children have opportunities to practice
   newly acquired skills as well as when they experience a challenge
   just beyond the level of their present mastery. Learning and
   intelligence is multidimensional.

9. Children develop and learn best in the context of a community where
   they are safe and valued, their physical needs are met, and they feel
   psychologically secure
     Guidelines for Decision About DAP

1.    Creating a caring community of learners.

2.    Teaching to enhance development and learning.

3.    Constructing appropriate curriculum

4.    Assessing children's learning and development

5.    Establishing reciprocal relationships with families
    Policies essential for achieving DAP in early
                childhood programs
•        NAEYC recommendations to policymaking groups

    1.         A comprehensive professional preparation and development system is in place to ensure that
               ECE programs are staffed with qualified personnel.

           •       Ensure that funding is provided to ensure adequate staffing of early childhood programs

           •       Ensure fair staff compensation to minimize attrition and promote continuity between adults
                   and children.

    1.         Resources and expertise are available to provide safe, stimulating learning environments with a
               sufficient variety of appropriate materials and equipment.

           •       Adequate systems for regulating and monitoring the quality of early childhood programs are
                   in place

           •       Community resources are available and used to support the comprehensive needs of
                   children and families.

    1.         Alternative methods are employed when children do not make expected learning process (i.e.,
               focused time, individualized instruction, tutoring).

    1.         Early childhood programs use multiple indicators to chart progress in children's development and
               learning and regularly report children’s progress to parents.
THE EARLY CHILDHOOD
     TEACHER AS
   DECISIONMAKER
         Assessing Developmentally Appropriate
                       Practice
• DAP. The process of professionals making decisions about the well-
  being and education of children based on at least three important kinds
  of information or knowledge:

   – What is known about a child’s development and learning
       • Age related characteristics
       • Safe and appropriate resources
       • Knowledge of appropriate interactions and task competencies

   – What is known about the strengths, interests, and needs of each child.
     Otherwise, it is difficult to develop an appropriate curriculum.

   – Knowledge of the social and cultural contexts in which the children reside.
       • By accommodating a curriculum in this manner, we ensure relevance an
         adaptation to their community and family.

• Perhaps the greatest challenge of DAP is knowing the characteristics of
  your audience (cultural practices, developmental stage, significant
  handicaps or delays).
   Challenge to Developing Curriculum Purely on
              Developmental Norms
• While consistent developmental outcomes in children
  occur within similar time frames, many decisions of
  developmental competency are based on identified ―norm
  or average.‖
   – These statistical categories often fail to reflect a considerable
     proportion of children in general settings.

   – Range tells a better story than central tendency.

• Much of our knowledge of developmental norms is based
  on dominant culture norms
   – This fails to recognize developmental equivalences across other
     cultures.

   – Future models and curriculums must incorporate a greater diversity
     of cultures.
          Why Focus on Culture?

• 20% of Head Start’s population come from
  non-English dominant homes.

• 50% of all kindergarten students in Texas
  are Hispanic.
                                    More on Culture
•   In the past, we have used culture more as a political tool to divide people—stressing
    differences and ignoring commonalities.
           • Discuss studies on culture, intelligence, and socioeconomic status

•   Culture   consists of a set of rules or expectations for the behavior of group members that are
    passed    on from one generation to the next.
          •    Culture is not just rituals and celebrations.
          •    Culture is rules that influence behavior, give meaning to events and experiences in
               families and communities.

•   Cultures are not stagnant. Cultures borrow customs and traditions from each other.

•   The congruence of culture, preschools, and educational settings create an ease for learning
    for children. The reverse often forces children to decide between their culture and their
    learning setting. Ex.
           • Latino father teaches child to respect teacher by looking down when the teacher is
              talking. The teacher purports that she cannot reach the child because he want
              even look her in the eyes when she is talking.

•   Everyone is influenced by culture (even teachers). We must be certain that our own
    beliefs and values do not hinder our ability to effectively work with children of
    different values.
           • What happens when the values and beliefs of teachers significantly
             contradict the values and beliefs of families in which the children reside?
                 Key Points of Consideration
• Our knowledge of child development and learning allows
  us to make general predictions about the kinds of activities
  and experiences that will effectively engage children given
  their competences.

• Understanding child success and competency as both
  developmental and experiential/interactive. Ex.
   – (Bike example). Most 6 & 7 yr olds possess the developmental
     skills to ride a bike, however, the range of learning is 4-21yrs of
     age.

   – Given proper exposure to instruction and resources, many children
     are able to read by age 6 or 7, however, some learn as early as 4
     yrs or as late as 9 yrs. (What determines these differences).
           Why Such Large Ranges??????
• Developmentally Inappropriate Expectations.
  Sometimes adults values and beliefs supercede
  children’s actual competencies and capabilities.

   – Adult expectations should be realistic

   – Individual differences among children—greatly
     acknowledged/widely ignored when developing curriculum
      Developing Healthy Sense of Identity

• Provide children with experiences that promotes
  more successes than failures.

• Stable interaction and relationships in
  education/learning based settings are vital.

   – Based on the Reggio Emilia models, children and teachers
     progress to different learning settings at the same time
     (Infant/toddler centers and preschools).
                     Reggio Emilia

• Founded in the 1970’s by Loris Malaguzzi.
• Basic Model
  – Children are viewed as active learners


  – Integrated Curriculum/Project Work.
     • Rooms are not divided into learning centers.


  – Teacher/Child Relationships


  – Documentation of Student Learning
             Key Points & Benefits to Reggio Emilia
                           Approach
•   Teachers possess a greater knowledge of the children they work with

•   Able to document more observations and experiences

•   Stronger bond and greater support between teacher and children

•   Teachers create an environment that stimulates learning
     – Teachers focus on children’s development of symbolic language and
       expression (drawing, sculpture, dramatic play, and writing).
     – Children’s projects (art, poems, etc.) are displayed on the walls throughout
       the facility.
     – There is no hurry to cover a particular lesson. Structure is provided but
       freedom of expression sets the pace
     – Plenty of time for spontaneous play with abundant resources

•   Teachers value the importance of children being confused and working through
    difficult tasks with limited information
  Curriculum Based Programs Which
  Promote Creativity (Jackman, 2001)

• Friedrich Froebel.
  – Developed the first curriculum based
    program exclusively for young children.

  – Froebel identified key objects/resources to
    promote learning; consequently, these
    resources continue to be used today
    (Developed in Germany).
                Maria Montessori
• The second to develop a curriculum based
  program exclusively for young children.

• Montessori’s ideas initially came from working
  with impoverished children in Italy.

• Key Points to Model:
  – Children learn best from child-sized environments that
    are stimulating and inviting.

  – Children copy their environment rather than construct it.
    Consequently, by observing and later practicing what
    they have witnessed, children begin to internalize the
    properties of their environment.
                 Head Start

• The largest publicly funded educational
  program for young children

• Since 1965, Head Start has provided
  curriculum/classroom based learning to
  children in low income families.

• Head Start has been effective in providing
  family center education in an effort to
  improve upon the lives of young children.
                  High/Scope

• Developed in the 1960s under the leadership of
  David Weikert.

• Key Points:
  – Children learn best through active experiences
    with people, materials, events, and ideas.

  – Autonomy is fostered in children as teachers
    facilitate a daily ―plan-do-review‖ process.
                         Bank Street
• Founded in 1916 by Lucy S. Mitchell

• Key Points:
   – Focus on holistic approach to developmental-interaction programs
     (development and learning).

   – Cognitive growth cannot be separated from the growth of personal
     and social processes.

   – Classrooms are arranged into distinct learning centers. Learning is
     encouraged by bridging play, choice management, taking risks, and
     accepting help.

   – The Bank Street approach employs an open education which
     believes that children are capable of selecting and learning from
     appropriate activities. The goal is not to teach new concepts but
     to better employ the skills already obtained.
 Continuity of Child Care Relationships are Not
            Always the Central Goal


• Some directors of child care centers promote the
  moving of children every 6 months.

   – Premise. Some parents prefer this as a means of limiting
     attachment of their children to other people.

   – Criticism. This practice prohibits professionals from
     appropriately getting to know the child and their families.
        Differences Between Families and Teachers on
                       Child Practices
• What happens when parents expect teachers to do things that contradict
  their principles.
    – Issues of corporal punishment…Scenario…Parents condone/teachers
      prohibited.

    – How do teachers respond to children’s play with violent themes (toys or
      imaginary)


• In problem-solving, educators bear the responsibility of being open-
  minded and objective. Antonia Lopez notes 4 guiding questions:

    –   Are the concepts clear
    –   Can they be restated for better clarity
    –   How are they related to the child’s overall wellbeing
    –   What are the cultural implications (is it a matter of culture, opinion, or
        information)
       Theory & Research behind the Creative
                   Curriculum
• Abraham Maslow. There is a hierarchy of needs common
  to all human beings. Basic needs must be met before
  children are able to focus on learning.

  – Physiological Needs. Basic needs such as hunger, thirst, and
    bodily comfort. For this reason, many early childhood programs
    provide breakfast, snacks, and lunches.

  – Safety. When children feel safe they are open to greater exploration
    and learning.

  – Belongingness. The sense of being comfortable with and
    connected to others that results from receiving acceptance, respect,
    and love.

  – Esteem. Self-value/respect and respect from others.
        Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial Development
• Trust vs. Mistrust (infancy). Children who receive consistent and
  loving care learn trust. Teachers establish a reliable, safe atmosphere
  that reinforces the trust children learn at home and helps children who
  mistrust because of difficult experiences.
    – Teachers must know and develop a positive relationship with each child
    – Follow a consistent schedule
    – Carry through on announced plans and promises

• Autonomy vs. Shame/doubt (1-3 yrs). Autonomy is acting willingly
  and by free choice. Children develop autonomy when adults give them
  a chance to do things on their own.
    – Teachers can set up an environment where children can find and return
      materials on their own
    – Provide play materials that support and challenge children’s abilities
    – Help children express their feelings in constructive ways
    – Provide appropriate real-world responsibilities and jobs
    – Encourage children to see tasks through to completion
         Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial Development
                         Continued
• Initiative vs. Guilt. An interest towards making things. Children with
  initiative are purposeful and and eager to try out new materials and
  ideas.

    – Teachers need to provide an environment that promotes
      experimentation and exploration

    – Offer children opportunities to make choices

    – Provide children with opportunities for creative expression

    – Permit children to get messy during play

    – Encourage children to work independently

    – Value children’s ideas

    – Promote problem-solving and appropriate risk taking
                      Learning and the Brain
• The human brain grows as a result of learning and experience.
  Learning changes the physical structure of the brain (Increased
  knowledge yields increased synaptic connections).

• Learning needs to be reinforced over and over to maintain synaptic
  connections.
    – During the first five years, trillions of synapses are formed in response to
      learning experiences.

• Children’s emotional well-being is important. Stress can destroy brain
  cells and make learning more difficult.

• Brain formation has sensitive periods. During the early years,
  children are most receptive to learning emotional control, forming
  attachments to others, and acquiring language and music skills.
 DEVELOPMENTALLY
   APPROPRIATE
PRACTICE:3-5 year olds
        Developmentally Appropriate Practice for 3-5 Yrs.

• There are increasing numbers of children between 2 and 6 years of
  age (preschoolers) who are involved in out-of-home programs.

• Challenge for working with Preschoolers
    – 3yr. olds is to maintain constancy in their daily routines.

    – Develop holistic preschool programs

    – Developing programs that challenge children and consists of diverse
      learning environments

• Research findings have noted several effective teaching practices that
  support children’s development (intellectual, social, emotional).

    –    Project work
    –    Play
    –    Small-group learning experiences
    –    Engagement in real-life tasks (cooking, woodworking)
A Sketch of Physical Development (3-5 yrs)
– Physical growth is slow and steady during this
  time period (3 to 5 years)

– Growth occurs mostly in trunk and legs

– On average, children gain 5 to 6 pounds and 2 to
  3 inches per year during the period of 3 to 6 years.

– Growth varies between children

   • Changes in body composition in consort with developing
     gross motor skills creates an environment of mishaps
     and accidents.
                              Maturation
• The brain grows from 75% to 90% of its adult size during
  these years.

• Coordination improves due to brain lateralization and
  myelinization (process of insulating the nervous system with
  fat)

• All 20 baby teeth have erupted by age 3

                     • Sensation and Perception

• Children’s senses are generally developed, however, preschoolers tend
  to be farsighted and have not yet developed their binocular vision

• 2 to 3yr olds demonstrate improved ability to perceive patterns and
  discriminate various forms. Thus the increasing interest in art, puzzles,
  constructions, and letter and words
                Language and Communication
• Children’s vocabulary
   – Around age 2, about 50 words
   – Between 3 and 5, children learn about 50 new words per month
   – The typical vocabulary of a 6 yr old is between 8-14 thousand words
   – Fragmented statements transform into rolling sentences and complex
     conversations
   – Increasing awareness of scripts for communicating (set of actions and
     language that are conventionally used in a range of situations)


• Private speech. The tendency for preschoolers to think out loud or
  control their own behavior by literally talking to themselves
   – Young children use it to announce completion of a task
   – Many children use this as a means of problem-solving and cognitive
     organization


• The early childhood years are optimal for fluency in a second language
  (before age 12)
                           Cognition
• Among preschoolers, children’s increasing cognitive
  capacity enables them to engage in more sophisticated
  learning activities and social relationships
   – Extended memory is also an important milestone


• Piaget’s position is emphasized
   – Young children are constructing their understanding of the world
   – Young children are egocentric
   – Lack conservation reasoning
   – Children are demonstrating a more rapid growth than once
     projected by Piaget
   – According to studies, when young children are given sorting,
     classifying, and ordering tasks that are simplified and highly
     relevant to their experience, they perform more successfully than
     once thought
                  Symbolic Thought

• Increased symbolic thought leads to greater use of
  language and other mental representations.
  Consequently,

  – Preschoolers can think ahead and anticipate
    consequences to their actions
  – Preschoolers can make plans
  – Their activities becomes more purposeful and goal-
    directed

• The use of symbolic thought is indicative of make-
  believe play which is becoming more elaborate
  and more cooperative
  Egocentrism, Centration, and Concreteness

• Preschoolers continue to be influenced by
  egocentrism and centration

   – Egocentrism. The tendency to take into account only their
     own point of view

   – Centration. The focusing of attention on one element of a
     situation and ignoring of all others
         Information Processing in 3-5 yrs

• Compared to primary-school children, preschoolers
  have difficulty focusing on details and are more
  distractible, especially when required to listen
  passively or work on a specific task.

• Young children have relatively poor recall of list-like
  information that is not embedded in meaningful
  contexts
                Socio-emotional Development
• Peers become important agents of socialization and provide important
  learning opportunities
   – Positive ways of dealing with others
   – Pro-social behavior
   – More social play –including Rough-and-tumble play
   – Psychological trait development (self-concept, self-esteem, initiative,
      etc.)

• Children become inundated with the emotion of fear with the influence
  of greater cognitive development, life experiences, and fantasy
   – Educators must help children to appropriately deal with their
      emotions and cope with fears
   – Educators must help children learn internal self-regulation
   – Educators must help children deal with an increasing society of
      violence, crime, and dangers

• Self-regulation, emotional expression, and positive social relationships
  are all essential skills for later schooling and life and key goals of
  programs that serve children from 3 through 5.
                  Additional Sources Integrated in Lecture Notes


•   Gordon, A. M. and Williams-Browne, K. (2000). Beginnings and Beyond (5th
    ed.). Delmar Thomson Learning: Africa.
•   Jackman, H. (2001). Early Education Curriculum—A Child’s Connection to the
    World (2nd ed.). Delmar Thomson Learning: Africa.
                      Group Process
• Become specialists of your                    •   Montessori
  designated program
   – A large grant has been secured to          •   Head Start
     start a comprehensive early childhood
     program, you are invited to a board        •   High/Scope
     meeting where you are to provide a 2
     min. persuasive pitch for the              •   Reggio Emilia
     implementation of your program
                                                •   Bank Street
   – Now that you have heard
     presentations from your professional
     peers, identify the following and state
     reationale:
       • Which program is most similar
       • Which program is most dissimilar
       • Which program would you like to work
         for
      Curriculum Activity --Theme: ____________________

•   Develop a curriculum and play based activity that promotes learning and development in the noted domains.
    Each activity must promote at least 10 competencies.

•   The Activity Will Developmentally Promote:
    ________________________________________________________________________________________________
    ________________________________________________________________________________________________
    ________________________________________________________________________________________________


•   Major Purpose of Lesson (Content Learning Standards):
    ________________________________________________________________________________________________
    ________________________________________________________________________________________________
    ________________________________________________________________________________________________


•   Materials:   Note the type of materials or play resources needed to implement this activity.
    ________________________________________________________________________________________________
    ________________________________________________________________________________________________
    ________________________________________________________________________________________________
    ________________________________________________________________________________________________


•   Lesson Presentation Procedure:        Explain how you would facilitate this activity from beginning to end.
    ________________________________________________________________________________________________
    ________________________________________________________________________________________________
    ________________________________________________________________________________________________
    ________________________________________________________________________________________________
    ________________________________________________________________________________________________
    ________________________________________________________________________________________________
                     Review of COK I
• Key Thinkers                   • Programs (Ch. 1 & 2)
   –   Schiller                     – Montessori
   –   Pestalozzi                   – Head Start
   –   Rousseau                     – High/Scope
   –   Froebel & Kindergardens
   –   Dewey
                                    – Reggio Emilia
   –   Comenius                     – Bank Street
   –   Vytgosky                     – Waldorf

• Key Periods                    • The challenge of 21st
                                   century educators
   –   Medieval Period
   –   Reformation Period
   –   Enlightment Period
   –   Scientific Period
        Review of COK I, Cont.
• Theory (Stages and   • Practice
  Concepts)              – What is
  –   Freud                developmentally
  –   Erikson              appropriate practice?
  –   Piaget
  –   Vygotsky

				
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