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					                                                         Adolescent Responsibility 1


Running head: ADOLESCENT RESPONSIBILITY AND DEVELOPMENT PROBLEMS




                Adolescent Responsibility in Divorced Families:

                    Internalizing Problems and Self-Esteem

                             Shawna M. Andersen

                        The University of Puget Sound
                                                                     Adolescent Responsibility 2


                                           Introduction

       With a high rate of divorce in the United States, as well as in other countries, recent

psychological research has focused on the multiple differences and similarities between divorced

and intact families. The societal views on divorce seem to be changing from that of a negative

occurrence to that of a more normative occurrence. One of the major underlying questions of

psychologists when studying divorce is how such an occurrence may either positively or

negatively impact a child or family. Research is shifting from the search for how a specific

family structure may impact a child to the search for the underlying processes occurring in

relation to diverse families. In recent research on the changing societal views of divorce, Amato

(2001) found that even when taking into account the improvement of society‟s views on divorce,

children of divorce continue to show numerous negative outcomes. Amato discusses the changes

in outcomes of children from divorced families as compared to those from intact families. After

taking into account the more normative views of divorce during recent times, the study shows a

persistence of more negative outcomes among children of divorced parents in the 1990s than

those of earlier decades. Lower levels of success at school, poorer behavior, more emotional

problems, lower self-esteem, and more difficulties with interpersonal relationships are some of

the negative outcomes found in children of divorce from recent times. If societal views are not

responsible for differences between divorced and intact families, this brings to question what

specific factors may be contributing to the differences seen.

         Researchers of divorce have not only assessed the negative outcomes of children in

divorced families, but there has been research looking at the possible beneficial outcomes in

children of divorce as well. Weiss (1979) was one of the first researchers to assess how

responsibility levels of children from single-parent households may differ than those of dual-
                                                                      Adolescent Responsibility 3


parent households. He proposed the idea that those in divorced, single-parent households tend

to take on a higher level of responsibility than the children of two parents. Weiss found some

positive outcomes in children from divorced families, including higher self-esteem, greater

independence, and increased feelings of competence, in relation to a child‟s increased levels of

responsibility and power within the family. This model illustrates that when children are held at

a higher level of accountability they may tend to “grow up faster” than those who are held at

lower levels. The positive outcomes found in this study were limited, and some children showed

them in combination with negative outcomes, including emotional stress and behavioral

problems. However, this idea of growing up faster led to many further studies on responsibility

and children of divorce.

       Additional evidence shows support for a relationship between children of divorce who

are given more responsibility and a heightened sense of self-esteem (Barber & Eccles, 1992).

Along with a number of other outcomes, findings demonstrate that increased household

responsibility may be related to positive outcomes in children of divorce, such as rating

themselves as self-sufficient, skilled, and responsible. This study is limited in its implications

for generalizing because it did not directly examine a child‟s level of responsibility in relation to

particular outcomes. However, inconsistency in the findings between whether divorce impacts a

child positively or negatively points to the specific areas of study that require a deeper

assessment. With such a large number of factors playing into divorced families, it is difficult to

determine whether divorce per se is negative or positive for a child‟s outcome. The investigation

of specific factors, such as responsibility levels, which are related to divorced families, will lead

to more knowledge about the circumstances that may be beneficial or detrimental to a child‟s

development.
                                                                       Adolescent Responsibility 4


       Hetherington (1989) discusses numerous discrepant findings about the effects of divorce

on children‟s development. Interestingly, she also found evidence to support a relationship

between high levels of responsibility and positive outcomes in children of divorce. Within a

longitudinal study of the effects of divorce on child outcomes, Hetherington found a small

sample of girls from divorced families showing positive outcomes. This sample was composed

of girls around the age of ten who played an especially responsible role within a divorced

household and showed higher levels of independence. These girls displayed low externalizing

and high prosocial behaviors. However, it is important to take into account the longitudinal

nature of this study began with four-year-olds and followed up at the age of ten. Thus, the idea

of higher responsibility as related to positive outcomes is limited in this study to girls in early

and middle childhood.

       Hetherington and Stanley-Hagan (1999) discuss important follow-up research with the

same sample of girls who showed positive outcomes in the context of heightened levels of

responsibility. They found evidence supporting a relationship between long-term responsibility

levels and the tendency to have internalizing problems and low self-worth in late adolescence.

The girls who displayed these negative outcomes were not only overburdened with household

responsibility, but also the emotional support of their divorced, single-parent mothers during

adolescence. Many studies may not have recognized this pattern of outcomes due to their largely

internal nature (e.g., internalized emotions and levels of self-worth). This study, along with the

earlier studies by Hetherington (1989) and Barber and Eccles (1992), bring up an interesting

question about the impact of both household responsibility levels and emotional responsibility

levels of adolescents from divorced families.

       Levels of responsibility for children of divorce have been studied in terms of household
                                                                      Adolescent Responsibility 5


chores (e.g., Barber & Eccles,1992) but also as the emotional support of a parent (e.g.,

Hetherington & Stanley-Hagan, 1999). It is important to assess both the emotional as well as the

physical responsibilities of a child from a divorced family. There have been more recent studies

regarding the effects of increased maternal disclosure to children after a divorce. Silverberg,

Wallace, Lehman, and Raymond (2002) investigated some of the risk factors in child outcomes

in relation to divorced, single-mothers who showed an increased level of disclosure to their

daughters about sensitive topics. The results of this study provided evidence to support that a

heightened level of mother-to-daughter disclosure about difficult topics is related to an increased

level of the daughter‟s worrying about these issues and psychological distress.

       Another study about maternal disclosure examined both male and female adolescents

from divorced, single-mother households (Silverberg, Wallace, & Lee, 2004). Silverberg et al.

suggest that there may be initial short-term positive outcomes in children who experience

increased maternal disclosure, such as feelings of importance. Disclosure may also help with

development of coping strategies post-divorce. However, the researchers describe many long-

term negative outcomes of especially high levels of disclosure to adolescents, such as mother-

child role-reversal and adolescents showing psychological distress or anxiety. These findings, in

concordance with the findings about increased household responsibility in divorce, point to the

same underlying question regarding the specific long-term effects of overall responsibility on

children from divorced families. Specifically, there is a lack of research that looks directly at the

effects of different levels of both emotional and physical responsibilities of children from

divorced families. An overburden of responsibilities of children in divorced families may

indicate that these children are being treated as adults.

       To add to the previous research, the proposed study will evaluate the level of
                                                                     Adolescent Responsibility 6


responsibility as a specific factor that may influence the outcome of a child from a divorced

family. However, the proposed study will analyze responsibility under different terms than

much of the previous research. The proposed study suggests the necessity of assessing overall

responsibility, in both physical and emotional terms. Increased maternal disclosure about

sensitive topics has been described as an adolescent‟s increased emotional support of their

mother, in studies by Silverberg et al. (2002, 2004). Therefore, emotional responsibility will be

examined through parental disclosure to an adolescent. Furthermore, general household

responsibility will be included in order to assess the more physical aspects of responsibility. In

combining both household responsibility and parental disclosure, the proposed study will be able

to tap into the same underlying construct. These aspects of responsibility are conceptually

similar and will be combined to assess a type of global responsibility for children of divorce.

       The proposed study will assess the relations of long-term levels of overall responsibility,

including household responsibility and parental disclosure, to internalizing problems and self-

esteem levels in adolescents of divorced, single parents. The levels of each measure will be

taken in terms of the adolescent‟s perceptions. Results are expected to reveal a curvilinear

relationship, such that heightened levels of both household responsibility and parental disclosure

to adolescents about sensitive topics will be related to more internalizing problems and lower

self-esteem, moderate levels will be related to fewer internalizing problems and higher self-

esteem, and very low levels of responsibility and disclosure will be related to more internalizing

problems and lower self-esteem. Of particular interest are the effects of very high and very low

levels of responsibility and disclosure over a period of time. These curvilinear results are

expected for a number of reasons.

       As previously discussed studies by Weiss (1979) and Barber and Eccles (1992) show,
                                                                     Adolescent Responsibility 7


some level of household responsibility may be beneficial in fostering a positive image of one‟s

self and feelings of self-worth within a family structure. It may be important to give children a

certain level of responsibility in order to help them to learn about being responsible and

developing feelings of independence. The proposed study suggests that the ideal level of

household responsibility that is most beneficial for children of divorce is one that is moderate.

Too much responsibility may overburden a child and show negative outcomes of more

internalizing problems and lower self-esteem.

       Since the proposed study suggests that household responsibility and parental disclosure

tap into the same concept of overall responsibility, there may also be an ideal moderate level of

parental disclosure. As research by Silverberg et al. (2002, 2004) indicates, too much maternal

disclosure can be detrimental. However, these researchers also discuss the importance of some

recognition of the existence of sensitive divorce issues and the necessity to discuss these issues.

If there is a moderate level of discussion about divorce and sensitive issues, the child may not

show negative outcomes of low self-esteem and more internalizing problems.

       Of particular interest is how adolescents respond to excessive levels of responsibility, in

terms of household responsibility and parental disclosure about these issues over a period of

time. The expectation is to find that extremely low or high levels of overall responsibility will

show a negative impact on the adolescent. According to the previous discussion of research,

including Silverberg et al. (2002, 2004) and Weiss (1979), very low levels are expected to

possibly prohibit an adolescent from developing normally. Under these circumstances, a

divorced parent may be shielding an adolescent and treating him or her as a child. The proposed

study anticipates these adolescents to show lower self-esteem and more internalizing problems.

Extremely high levels of overall responsibility are expected to be related to similar outcomes.
                                                                         Adolescent Responsibility 8


An adolescent with very high levels of responsibility may develop low self-esteem and more

internalizing problems through being held accountable for a burdensome load of responsibility.

The proposed study suggests that when divorced parents treat an adolescent as an adult, through

expecting extremely high levels of responsibility, there may be negative outcomes in the

adolescent. These issues are important to assess for a number of reasons.

           Unlike much of the previous research, the proposed study will look at both male and

female adolescents in maternal and paternal single-parent households. With our changing

society, there is reason to believe that there may be an increasing number of single fathers. This

is why it is important to assess both fathers and mothers in single-parent households. As

Silverberg et al. (2004) illustrates, boys may also be affected by parental disclosure, therefore,

indicating why the proposed study includes both male and female adolescents. Since studies by

Hetherington (1989, 1999) show that responsibility may have different effects on the outcomes

of children than on late adolescents, the proposed study will assess late adolescents. The

proposed study will attempt to find not merely an initial impact of divorce, but the longer-term

effects.

           In order to assess overall responsibility as it relates to the long-term development of

adolescents, the proposed study will only take into account adolescents who have been living

with their divorced, single-parent for at least two years. If research concerning adolescents‟

responsibility were to be taken too soon after divorce, there would be a possibility for the results

indicating initial levels of self-esteem and internalizing problems. The participants will be asked

to fill out surveys in order to assess their levels of household responsibility, their parent‟s

disclosure to them, their internalizing problems, and their self-esteem. It is expected that the

evidence from this study will support a statistically significant curvilinear relationship between
                                                                      Adolescent Responsibility 9


overall responsibility and internalizing problems, and between overall responsibility and self-

esteem. This evidence will help to identify another important factor as to why there are so many

differences in outcomes of adolescents from divorced families. It will add to the research on

divorce and show how the structure of a family may not affect a child as much as the underlying

factors of divorced families.

                                              Method

Participants

       This study will include data from a sample of 200 adolescents in divorced, single-parent

households. The participants will range in age from 16 through 18 years old. The participants

will be used in the study only if they have been living in a divorced, single-parent household for

at least two years. The study will be between-family in nature, by only assessing one child from

a given family. However, descriptive data will be collected on the total number of children in

the family. The number of male and female children will be approximately equal. The number

of father-child versus mother-child dyads will be as equivalent as possible, given that the number

of divorced, single-mother-child dyads in the United States is much greater than that of father-

child dyads. The sample of adolescents will be a random, nationally representative sample of

divorced, single-parent households in terms of parental education, ethnicity, household income,

and family size.

Procedure

       The participants will be contacted by telephone and asked to participant in the proposed

study. After agreeing to participate in this study, each participant will be mailed a packet of all

four surveys. The participants will be asked to complete each survey thoughtfully and fully.

With the parent‟s consent, each adolescent will be asked to have no help or outside influence on
                                                                     Adolescent Responsibility 10


completing the surveys. An envelope with postage will be included for the participants to return

the completed surveys by mail.

Measures

       Participants will first be asked a set of descriptive questions. These will include

questions about the participant‟s gender, age, amount of time living in a single-parent household,

gender of single-parent, and number of siblings. Four constructs are of primary interest in the

proposed study: (a) the level of parental disclosure as perceived by the adolescent; (b) the

adolescent‟s level of perceived household responsibility; (c) the adolescent‟s level of

internalizing problems; and (d) the adolescent‟s level of self-esteem.

       Parental disclosure. The instrument that will be used to measure the level of parental

disclosure to the adolescent will assess various sensitive issues surrounding divorce. This

instrument is a revised version of the scale used to measure mother-to-adolescent disclosure in

the study by Silverberg et al. (2004). This scale was originally taken from the Parents‟

Disclosure Questionnaire and Parent Disclosure Survey, and adapted to focus only on items that

would relate to sensitive issues discussed in divorced families. The topic areas of parental

disclosure in this survey are finances, ex-husband, job ups-and-downs, parenting challenges, and

personal concerns. The scale lists 26 items and response choices are as follows: 0= “My mother

never says anything to me about this topic”; 1= “This topic has accidentally „popped out‟ a

couple of times, when my mother didn‟t really mean it to”; 2= “My mother has talked with me

about this topic, but without giving any details”; 3= “My mother has talked with me about this

topic, giving a few details”; 4= “My mother has talked with me about this topic, going into quite

a bit of detail”; and a choice that the topic does not apply to the participant. This scale will be

revised for the proposed study, in order to address father-disclosure as well. Since the topics are
                                                                    Adolescent Responsibility 11


relatively gender neutral, the revisions made will be minimal, in exchanging “mother/father” for

“mother” and “ex-husband/ex-wife” for “ex-husband”. After completion, the items that do not

apply to the participant will first be removed. The ratings from the rest of the 26 items will be

averaged in order to have a single score for parental disclosure. Higher scores indicate a higher

level of parental disclosure about these topics.

       Household responsibility. The level of an adolescent‟s perceived household

responsibility will be measured with a modified version of the Family Responsibility Index

(FRI); (Bjorkquist, 2000). This is a 53-item instrument that is used to measure behaviors in

family role responsibilities. The specific behaviors include yard work, laundry, house care and

upkeep, kitchen clean-up, family business, housecleaning, car care, heavy housecleaning, family

care, and preparing meals. The FRI is typically used to measure a spouse‟s level of

responsibility in these tasks. Statements such as, “Mow lawn”, “Wash clothes”, “Put dishes

away”, and “Care for family pets” are rated on a scale from 1 to 5, including 0= “Does not

apply”. The instrument will be revised in order to assess an adolescent‟s level of responsibility

in the same tasks that would be expected of an adult. The participant will be given options from

1= “Never participate in this task” to 5= “Always participate in this task” for each statement.

Upon completion, the items that are responded with “Does not apply” will first be removed. The

ratings from the rest of the 53 items will be averaged in order to have one score for household

responsibility. Higher numbers represent a greater amount of household responsibility.

       Internalizing problems. In order to measure the level of an adolescent‟s internalizing

problems, participants will complete the emotional tone subscale from the Self-Image

Questionnaire (Galambos, Barker, & Almeida, 2003). This subscale is an 11-item instrument

that was used by Galambos et al. to assess internalizing problems in adolescents over a period of
                                                                     Adolescent Responsibility 12


time. The questions pertain to depressive and anxious affect and include items such as, “I

frequently feel sad” and “I am so very nervous”. Answers range from: 1= “Does not describe me

at all” to 6= “Describes me very well”. The ratings from all of the 11 items will be averaged in

order to have one score for internalizing problems. Higher scores are meant to indicate higher

levels of internalizing problems.

       Self-esteem. Finally, the State-Self Esteem Scale will be used to measure the

participants‟ levels of self-esteem (Polivy & Heatherton, 1991). This is a 20-item instrument

used to assess self-esteem in terms of performance, social relations, and appearance. The scale is

validated to measure the level of self-esteem as a state of being, instead of as an unchanging

characteristic. Participants rate themselves on a scale of: 1= “Not at all” to 5= “Extremely”, on

statements such as, “I am pleased with my appearance right now”, “I feel confident about my

abilities”, and “I am worried what other people think of me”. The ratings from all 20 items will

be averaged in order to have one score for self-esteem. Higher numbers indicate a lower level of

self-esteem. These numbers will be inverted so that higher numbers indicated a higher level of

self-esteem.

                                           Data Analysis

       The analyses that will be conducted in the proposed study will test the following

hypotheses: Adolescents from divorced, single-parent households will display a curvilinear

relationship between their levels of overall responsibility and internalizing problems, and

between their levels of overall responsibility and self-esteem. Analyses will begin by obtaining

an averaged rating for each instrument. A primary set of data analyses will be conducted in

order to assess the descriptive statistics of the participant population and their responses to the

surveys. The means and standard deviations will be calculated for the following items: (a) age
                                                                      Adolescent Responsibility 13


of participants, (b) amount of time living in a divorced, single-parent household, (c) number of

siblings, (d) level of parental disclosure, (e) level of household responsibility, (f) level of

internalizing problems, and (g) level of self-esteem. The frequency of male and female

participants, as well as of paternal and maternal single-parent households will be calculated. All

of these descriptive statistics will be conducted in order to assess whether the data set resembles

that of a normal distribution.

        Before beginning the next set of analyses, the predictor variable of overall responsibility

will be created. The averaged ratings for household responsibility and parental disclosure will be

transformed to create a composite score that indicates the level of overall responsibility for each

participant. Since the measures for household responsibility and parental disclosure are based

off of different scales, each averaged rating will be first standardized. After the z-scores are

computed they will be averaged together to create an overall responsibility score. This new

variable, of overall responsibility, will be used in all of the subsequent analyses.

        A set of multiple regression analyses will be conducted in order to determine whether a

curvilinear relationship exists between the level of one‟s overall responsibility and internalizing

problems, and between the level of one‟s overall responsibility and self-esteem. To determine

whether a statistically significant curvilinear relationship exists, the analyses will follow two

steps. First, the variable of overall responsibility will be entered into the analysis as a linear

component in the prediction of the outcomes. Second, a new variable will be constructed by

squaring the level of overall responsibility, in order to create a quadratic predictor. This statistic

will be entered as the curvilinear component. The squared and non-squared predictor variables

will be used in a multiple regression analysis to determine whether they predict the level of one‟s

internalizing problems. If the hypothesis is supported, the quadratic predictor will significantly
                                                                    Adolescent Responsibility 14


predict internalizing problems; such that the results will form a U-shaped trend (see Figure 1). If

the results do not show a pure U-shape with the multiple regression analysis, a scatterplot of the

data will also be assessed. This will help in determining whether a curvilinear trend exists.

       The same sequence of analyses will be used in determining whether a curvilinear

relationship exists between the level of one‟s overall responsibility and self-esteem. The squared

and non-squared predictor variables of overall responsibility will be used in a multiple regression

analysis to determine whether they predict the level of one‟s self-esteem. If the hypothesis is

supported, the results will form a U-shaped trend (see Figure 2). A scatterplot of the data will

also be assessed with overall responsibility and self-esteem. Significant results of a curvilinear

relationship are expected for both sets of analyses.

                                            Conclusions

       Since there has been discrepancy in previous research about the effects of responsibility

on children from divorced families, the proposed study attempts to connect some of the gaps. In

doing so, it is expected that a curvilinear relationship exists between overall responsibility and

internalizing problems, as well as between overall responsibility and self-esteem. Specifically,

the hypothesis is that extremely high and low levels of overall responsibility will be related to

high levels of internalizing problems and low levels of self-esteem, and that moderate

responsibility will be ideally related to lower internalizing problems and higher self-esteem.

This research will contribute to the growing research on divorce. The most recent research is

shifting to show that the underlying factors that are related to divorced families may have more

of an impact on children than the actual structure of a divorced family.

       This research could be useful in advising parents of divorce about inappropriate versus

appropriate behaviors and expectations of their children. It is expected that the results will
                                                                       Adolescent Responsibility 15


illustrate another circumstance where divorce is not necessarily detrimental, if parents know

where to draw the line in levels of responsibility and disclosure. If this research is made

accessible to parents, they may realize that it is beneficial to discuss a moderate level of issues

surrounding divorce with children, as well as hold a child accountable for a moderate level of

help around the house. However, results would also show that relying too much on a child to

take on the tasks of an adult and emotionally support a single-parent may lead to detrimental

effects.

           There are a few limitations of the proposed study. First of all, the design of the study

uses measures that needed to be modified in order to assess the necessary constructs. The levels

of one‟s household responsibility and parental disclosure are difficult constructs to measure, and

may be more accurately assessed with observation and personal interviews. This type of design

would take much more time and be very costly in conducting. Also, the study will be limited to

adolescents from divorced, single-parent households. Therefore, the results cannot be

generalized to children of other ages or types of households.

           Because of the nature of the proposed study, if a significant curvilinear relationship is

found between overall responsibility and internalizing problems or between overall responsibility

and self-esteem it would not imply that a cause-and-effect relationship exists. The design of this

study, being that of an assessment of the adolescents‟ perceptions of each construct, limits the

study to only indicate a relationship between the variables. Other possible factors could account

for the internalizing problems and self-esteem of participants. For instance, a lack of time that an

adolescent has could be related to overall responsibility and vary with the levels of self-esteem

and internalizing problems of participants. For instance, too much or too little available time

could be detrimental. There could also be an inverted time-order relationship, such that
                                                                   Adolescent Responsibility 16


adolescents with high self-esteem and low internalizing problems could be taking on a moderate

level of overall responsibility.

        If the proposed study finds support of a curvilinear relationship between overall

responsibility and adolescent outcomes, there are numerous other areas where a similar model

could be examined. For instance, a similar pattern may be seen in non-divorced, single-parent

households. This relationship could also be looked at in families where remarriages or multiple

remarriages are impacting a child‟s level of responsibility. This curvilinear model is not only

limited to the context of divorce and single-parents, but could be researched in families with

parents that are more dependent on their children because of drug abuse or handicaps.

        In conclusion, it is expected that the proposed study will add to the growing knowledge

of the underlying processes that may occur in families of divorce. It will connect some of the

discrepant findings and provide a more complete picture of how responsibility levels may affect

an adolescent from a divorced family. The proposed study will provide numerous practical

applications for advising divorced, single-parents in how much responsibility to give to and

expect from their children.
                                                                  Adolescent Responsibility 17


                                           References

Amato, P. (2001). Children of divorce in the 1990s: An update of the Amato and Keith (1991)

         meta-analysis. Journal of Family Psychology, 15, 355-370.

Barber, B. L., & Eccles, J. S. (1992). Long-term influence of divorce and single parenting on

         adolescent family and work-related values, behaviors, and aspirations. Psychological

         Bulletin, 111, 108-126.

Bjorkquist, P. M. (2000). Family Responsibility Index. In K. Corcoran & J. Fischer, Measures

         for clinical practice: a sourcebook (pp. 308-313). New York: Free Press.

Galambos, N. L., Barker, E. T., & Almeida, D. M. (2003). Parents do matter: Trajectories of

         change in externalizing and internalizing problems in early adolescence. Child

         Development, 74, 578-594.

Hetherington, E. M. (1989). Coping with family transitions: Winners, losers, and survivors.

         Child Development, 60, 1-14.

Hetherington, E. M., & Stanley-Hagan, M. (1999). The adjustment of children with divorced

         parents: A risk and resiliency perspective. Journal of Child Psychology and

         Psychiatry, 40, 129-140.

Polivy, J., & Heatherton, T. F. (1991). Development and validation of a scale for measuring

         state self-esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 6, 895-910.

Silverberg, S. B., Wallace, S., & Lee, S. A. (2004). Sensitive mother-to-adolescent

         disclosures after divorce: Is the experience of sons different from that of daughters?

         Journal of Family Psychology, 18, 46-57.
                                                                 Adolescent Responsibility 18


Silverberg, S. B., Wallace, S., Lehman, S. J., & Raymond, M. (2002). Mother-to-daughter

         disclosure after divorce: Are there costs and benefits? Journal of Child and Family

         Studies, 11, 469-483.

Weiss, R. S. (1979). Growing up a little faster: The experience of growing up in a single-parent

         household. Journal of Social Issues, 35, 97-111.
                                                              Adolescent Responsibility 19


                                       Figure Caption

Figure 1. Hypothesized Relations between Overall Responsibility and Internalizing Problems
                                                                                          Adolescent Responsibility 20




                          6.0


                          5.0
Internalizing Problems




                          4.0


                          3.0


                          2.0


                          1.0

                                     -1.0                               0                                     1.0
                                                              Overall Responsibility


                         Note. Higher numbers of internalizing problems indicate a higher level of internalizing

                         problems.
                                                              Adolescent Responsibility 21


                                      Figure Caption

Figure 2. Hypothesized Relations between Overall Responsibility and Self-Esteem
                                                                               Adolescent Responsibility 22




               5.0



               4.0
Self-Esteem




               3.0



               2.0



               1.0

                        -1.0                                 0                                  1.0
                                                   Overall Responsibility


              Note. Higher numbers of self-esteem indicate higher levels of self-esteem.

				
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