Miss Tesla Birnbaum Miss Kate Hoctor Mr. Sagar Raich What Are Manners? Variety of meanings in late 18th century: “character of mind” “general way of life; morals; habits” “ceremonious behavior; studied civility” (Byrne 297) Importance of Manners “Manners are key indicators of human behavior in society. They can reveal social status and its vicissitudes – a matter of great interest in Austen’s age, which was a time of rapid social mobility.” - Paula Byrne Importance of Manners "Etiquette is the barrier which society draws around itself as a protection. (It is) a shield against the intrusion of the impertinent, the improper, and the vulgar.” - Charles William Day http://janeaustensworld.wordpress.com/page/14/ Conduct Books Intended for middle class (particularly women) Often written by men, usually clergymen Instructions on how to behave during courtship and marriage; how to be dutiful daughters and wives (Byrne 297-298) Conduct Books Dr. John Gregory’s A Father’s Legacy to His Daughters (1774) very popular and influential “Wit is the most dangerous talent you can possess” “[Humor] is a great enemy to delicacy, and still a greater one to dignity of character” “Be even cautious in displaying your good sense” “[I]f you happen to have any learning, keep it a profound secret” (Gregory 220-222) Eighteenth Century Collections Online. Calling Cards “The etiquette of calling was a firmly established ritual in society, and the calling card an essential part of introductions, invitations, and visits.” - Paula Byrne “Visiting and visited is the whole of a Woman’s life in England.” (Byrne 299) Calling Cards Means of sending compliments Many purposes: Introductions Health Invitations Take leave Congratulations/condolences Gratitude (Byrne 299) Calling Cards • Make calls as soon as in town • Remain in carriage while servant presents card to mistress of house • Mistress “not at home” = rejection • On first call, leave card but do not ask • Only make calls on “At Home” days • Typically lasted 20-30 minutes • Cards placed on silver salver or bowl • Turned down corner • Return call with call, card with card within one week (Byrne 300) http://www.janeausten.co.uk/magazine/page.ihtml?pid=642&step=4 Chaperones For young women of marriageable age (Byrne 300) Never be seen in company of man without chaperone Must not walk alone (“Niceties”) Accompanied by another lady, an appropriate man, or a servant Except: walking to church or to a park in early morning Basic Etiquette: Gentlemen Gentleman always introduced to lady. In riding horseback or walking along the street, lady always has the wall. You do not speak to a lady who you know only slightly if you meet her in the street – unless she speaks to you first. In going up a flight of stairs, precede the lady; in going down, you follow. (“Niceties”) Basic Etiquette: Ladies Never call upon a gentleman alone unless consulting that gentleman in a professional or business matter. Never “cut” someone (fail to acknowledge their presence after encountering them socially) unless absolutely necessary. Do not wear pearls or diamonds in the morning. (“Niceties”) Other Everyday Manners • Letters – Unmarried men and women discouraged from writing until engaged (Byrne 301) • “Coming out” – “To be introduced to society and thus to become a commodity on the marriage market” (302) • Concerns and conversation – Gentleman: hunting, shooting, politics (302) – Ladies: Neighbors, clothing, balls, indoor activities (303) http://www.chawton.org/news/dancing.html Upon Arrival Tell the MC which dances you prefer Not too difficult Follow the music Acknowledge everyone you have eye contact with – begin with the highest rank Unless you are late – start at the top When Inactive – on or off the floor –support active dancers (details later) (Sullivan 162) Manly Manners During… If accompanied by a lady, go in first to secure a seat (Pool) Remove your hat as a gesture for the ladies (Pool) A man is always introduced to a lady through a presiding party (MC) (Pool) Use “My Ladyship” not “My Lady” with ladies of title (McLeod) “Nothing indicates a well-bred man more than a proper mode of eating his dinner.” (McLeod) No smoking in the presence of ladies (Pool) Womanly Manners During… No more than 3 dances with 1 partner! (Pool) Can’t call on a man alone (go through MC) (Pool) Acknowledge those you meet face to face (Pool) Don’t worry about Blushing – “Blushing in a man maybe a weakness, but in woman it is peculiarly engaging.” (McLeod) “The character of a toad-eater, flatterer, or sycophant is truly detestable” (McLeod) Common Manners Don’t pride on perfect dancing – unless you want to be seen as a dance-master (McLeod) Don’t kick or make noise during dancing (McLeod) Dancing is meant for hips downwards (McLeod) Retire gracefully – Don’t take the top twice (Sullivan 162) When leaving, make sure bell rings for the street door to be opened (McLeod) “Cheerfulness is becoming to all times of life, but sportiveness belongs to youth alone” (McLeod) Avoiding a Dance Partner… Problem isn’t saying no, problem is saying yes to someone else! General Tactics Avoid – Use your girlfriends for this purpose Ignore – Pretend not to hear him Hide – Undignified, but gets the job done Lie – Say dance is already promised to someone else – make sure to find someone (Sullivan 164) The Following are … Dancing with your female friends - ok If a dance is accepted, declining – not ok If you reject a man and you dance with another man – not ok (best option-sit out) Single men talking to each other – ok If not dancing – ok (best option-playing cards or supporting other dancers) (Lee-Riffe) Other General Ball Rules… Dance for fun, not to win Participation more than expertise Courteous to your partner Attention only on partner – no distractions If you need to talk – sit out dances Careful – Seem Egotistical if with a woman Careful – Suspicious if with a man (McLeod, Sullivan, Lee-Riffe) www.bookmarksmagazine.com/.../JaneAusten.gif http://theclasstrip.wordpress.com/category/books/ Yours Affectionately, J. Austen Letters: Anna, her niece, about Anna’s heroine “Remember, she is very prudent;- you must not let her act inconsistently… a woman in her situation would hardly go there, before she had been visited by other Families” (Byrne 299). “Let the Portmans go to Ireland, but as you know nothing of the Manners there, you had better not go with them. You will be in danger of giving false representations” (Byrne 299). Importance of Manners in terms of plot and character development We can guess that Austen would have used the same guidelines in her own work Yours Affectionately, J. Austen Letters: to brother, Frank, about their nieces July 3, 1813 “We have the pleasure… of hearing that they are thought very much improved at home- Harriet in health, Cassy in manners.- The latter ought to be a very nice Child- Nature has done enough for her-but Method has been wanting” (Byrne 30). Manners as Nature and Nurture How people are brought up when they are young sets the tone for them as adults. Manners in the Novel “manners and morals” The idea that novels should promote these values was new and controversial. The idea emerged out of the conduct book genre. Primary target was young women of the middle classes. (Byrne 297) Austen’s Use of Manners in Her Novels: Conduct Books “One half of the world cannot understand the pleasures of the other”- Jane Austen, Emma Emma: Emma discovers that her wit is dangerous- she hurts Miss Bates’s feelings at the picnic on Box Hill (Emma 3:7) P&P: Collins reads the Fordyce conduct book to the girls (P&P 1:14) Austen’s Use of Manners in Her Novels: Calling Cards or, “I just left my calling card…to say…I love you…” S&S: The Dashwood Sisters in London; Marianne waiting for Willoughby- (S&S 2:5) About a week after their arrival, it became certain that Willoughby was also arrived. His card was on the table when they came in from the morning's drive. "Good God!" cried Marianne, "he has been here while we were out." Elinor, rejoiced to be assured of his being in London, now ventured to say, "Depend upon it, he will call again tomorrow." But Marianne seemed hardly to hear her, and on Mrs. Jenning's entrance, escaped with the precious card. P&P: Jane waiting for Miss Bingley; when she does show up, her short visit signals the end of the friendship- (P&P 2:3) “Caroline did not return my visit till yesterday; and not a note, not a line, did I receive in the mean time. When she did come, it was very evident that she had no pleasure in it; she made a slight, formal, apology for not calling , said not a word of wishing to see me again, and was in every respect so altered a creature, that when she went away, I was perfectly resolved to continue the acquaintance no longer.” Basic manners vs. what is really meant http://cache.boston.com/resize/bonzai- fba/Globe_Photo/2008/03/28/1206750773_0819/539w.jpg Austen’s Use of Manners in Her Novels: Chaperones “The chaperone's job is to make sure no one else has any fun. But nobody chaperones the chaperone.” –Jane Rusell S&S: Mrs. Jennings accompanies the Dashwood sisters in London NA: Catherine Morland is accompanied by Mrs. Allen in Bath http://www.jimandellen.org/ellen/MrsAllen07NA.jpg Austen’s Use of Manners in Her Novels: Carriage Rides “The Carriage held but just Ourselves— And Immortality.”- Emily Dickinson NA: General Tilney “acted neither honourably nor feelingly– neither as a gentleman nor as a parent” when he sends Catherine Morland home alone in a carriage (NA 2:13). Emma: Emma and Mr. Elton in the carriage together- the awkward proposal (Emma 1:15) Austen’s Use of Manners in Her Novels: Letter Writing “A letter does not blush.”- Marcus Tulius Cicero • MP: “Mary Crawford and Edmund Bertram do not correspond with one another, as this would be a breach of propriety, so they use Fanny Price as a conduit” (Byrne 301). • S&S: Marianne Dashwood and Willoughby- Elinor says, “if we find they correspond, every fear of mine will be removed” (S&S 1:15) • S&S: letter between Edward and Lucy Steele: “a correspondence between them by letter, could subsist only under a positive engagement, could be authorized by nothing else” (S&S 1:22). http://www.nzetc.org/etexts/JCB-039/JCB- 039i.jpg Austen’s Use of Manners in Her Novels: “Coming Out” (or, Get This Party Started) Lady Catherine’s comment to Elizabeth in P&P (2:6) "All! -- What, all five out at once? Very odd! -- And you only the second. The younger ones out before the elder are married! Your younger sisters must be very young?" "Yes, my youngest is not sixteen. Perhaps she is full young to be much in company. But really, ma'am, I think it would be very hard upon younger sisters, that they should not have their share of society and amusement, because the elder may not have the means or inclination to marry early. The last- born has as good a right to the pleasures of youth as the first. And to be kept back on such a motive! I think it would not be very likely to promote sisterly affection or delicacy of mind." Mary Crawford’s confusion about Fanny (MP 2:10) “So often as she had heard them wish for a ball at home as the greatest of all felicities! And to have them away when it was given—and for her to be opening the ball—and with Mr. Crawford too! … The ball began. It was rather honour than happiness to Fanny, for the first dance at least…” Austen’s Use of Manners in Her Novels: Dancing “The gap between” being unmarried and married “is mediated not directly– not by a simple offer of marriage– but through a provisional and playful domain of conventionalized attentions, of which dancing is one of the most prominent” (H&S 92). - P&P: “to be fond of dancing was a certain step towards falling in love” (1:3). - MP: (about Maria and Rushworth’s engagement ) – “after dancing with each other at the proper number of balls… an engagement…was entered into” (1:4). Austen’s Use of Manners in Her Novels “We seek the ability of Jane Austen’s complex, multivocal narratives to help us understand a world that is partially foreign and partially familiar… in doing so we locate Austen’s texts as a form of social action which communicates with and about its constitutive principles of meaning” (H&S 150). Remember, It’s the Rule-Breakers we love! (just as long as they don’t go tooooo far…) http://thebeautyofitall-suzanne.blogspot.com/ Some tips for guests… Young women – remain accompanied as often as possible Gentlemen – treat ladies with utmost respect Maybe enforce the stairs rule? Waive the rule about pearls/diamonds in the morning? http://farm1.static.flickr.com/243/461928049_f 2b3c472cb.jpg?v=0 Some tips for guests… Three dances with 1 person - unless romantically involved Don't necessarily have to go through MC Recognize MC - pay attention, talk to him, etc. Dancing - Don't have to be a master Respect other dancers Dance or Mingle- Don’t be a Mr. Darcy! (Sullivan, McLeod, and Pool) Some tips for guests… But most importantly… Enjoy!