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                              TIMELINE [updated 20 June 2003]

World history   Polish history         Poles in Canberra   Australian           Sources /
                                                           history              Comments
1901                                                       1901 Australian
                                                           federation with
                                                           Commonwealth of
                                                           Australia
1908                                                       1908 Aug.
                                                           Canberra site
                                                           chosen for capital
1911                                                       1911 Jan. Federal
                                                           Capital Territory
                                                           established.

                                                           Federal Capital
                                                           Design
                                                           Competition
                                                           launched 24 May
                                                           1911.
1912                                                       1912, Dec. Burley
                                                           Griffin wins
                                                           design competition
                                                           for city of
                                                           Canberra
                                                           1913, Mar. 12,
                                                           Canberra formally
                                                           chosen as name for
                                                           city.

1918            Independent state                          Griffin plan for
                created after end of                       Canberra gazetted.
                War. Marshal
                Pilsudki elected
                President
1923                                                       Aug. 28 first sod
                                                           turned for
                                                           Parliament House
1924                                                       Federal Capital
                                                           Commission
                                                           established
1926                                                       Sept. 3 Canberra’s
                                                           first newspaper
                                                           The Canberra
                                                           Times issued
1927                                                       1927 May.
                                                           Canberra 's 1st
                                                           Parliament House
                                                           opened
1928                                                       1928 Albert Hall
                                                           opens
1929                                                       Sept. Canberra’s
                                                           coat of arms
                                                           granted with motto
                                                           “For the King, the
                                            2


                                                law and the
                                                people”
1931                                            1931 Federal
                                                Highway links
                                                Canberra to
                                                Goulburn, NSW.
1938                                            1938 Federal
                                                Capital Territory
                                                renamed ACT
1939 Sept. WWII        Invasion of Poland
begins                 by Germany
1939 Sept. 30          Poland surrenders
                       to Germany
1939-1940              Forced movement
                       of Poles to
                       Germany, Russia
1940                   Polish Govt in
                       Exile formed in
                       London
1941 Exodus of                                  1941 Australian
Poles from Russia                               War Memorial
under amnesty,                                  opens
protection Polish
Army
1941 Polish pilots
in the air Battle of
Britain
1942-1942              Holocaust of
                       Poles, Jews,
                       minority groups
1943 April             Warsaw Ghetto
                       uprising- capture
                       50,000 Jews
1943 April 26
Germans uncover
mass grave of
4,000 shot Polish
officers, Katyn
Forest, Soviet
Union
1944, May 17
Polish Army
victory at Monte
Cassino, Italy
1944 August-Oct.       Polish resistance
                       control Warsaw,
                       Germans recapture
                       burning city to
                       ground
1945 January           Soviet forces
                       capture Warsaw
1945 March             German forces
                       driven from
                       Poland
1945 May WWII
                                                   3


ends - Mass
movement of Poles
to/from Europe,
Russia, Africa,
India
1945 June-Dec.      Poland's borders                            1945 May
                    set by Potsdam                              1st Cmwlth Dept.
                    Conference losing,                          Immigration
                    gaining territories                         established, Arthur
                    from Soviet Union,                          Calwell its first
                    Germany resp.                               minister as part of
                                                                post-war
                                                                reconstruction
                                                                1946 ANU
                                                                established
1947                Poland becomes a
                    Communist
                    People's republic
                                                                1947 Australian        National Archives
                                                                govt agreement         of Australia series
                                                                with Intnl Refugee     notes for Series
                                                                Organization           A12013
                                                                [IRO] resettlement
                                                                of European
                                                                Displaced Persons
                                                                [DP's]. Thousands
                                                                of DPs begin
                                                                arriving.
                                                                Bonegilla
                                                                Reception and
                                                                Training Centre
                                                                opens, N. Victoria
                                          1948 August           1948 Australian        Considered to be
                                          Arrival of 28 Poles   citizenship created    first of this group.
                                                                so Australians are     15 named by
                                                                no longer British      Stefan Brozek. See
                                                                subjects.              card under same
                                                                Australia signs        date, month
                                                                with Malta first of
                                                                many international
                                                                immigration
                                                                agreements.
                                          1949 - toward end.    ACT elected its        Stefan Brozek
                                          First meeting at      first representative
                                          YMCA to organise      to Federal
                                          themselves.           Parliament
                                          1950 Feb-Polish       Plans for Fyshwick     Wodzinski, p. 17
                                          Club in Canberra      laid out
                                          formed, YMCA
                                          venue

                                          Unnamed month-                               Wodzinski, p.17
                                          Exhibition of Art
                                          & Craft by New
                                          Australians
                                  4


                         organised bv Dept.
                         Immigration,
                         Albert Hall - first
                         attempt to organise
1951                     1951 March-           1951 IRO            National Archives
                         Opening of Klub       activities wound    of Australia series
                         Polski                up with Aust.       notes for Series
                                               Govt. accepting     A12013
                         Unnamed month-        DP's until 1954
                         2nd New Australian                        Wodzinski, p. 17
                         Art & Craft
                         Exhibition.

                         1951 Oct. 17 1st                          Kronika Polonii,
                         meeting Klub                              Dec. 2001, p. 7, 10
                         Polskiego w. im.
                         T. Kosziuszki w
                         Queanbeayan

195?                     Fr. Godlewski,
                         Tas., came for few
                         months
1952/53                  1953 or 2?- 1st                           Wodzinski, p.18
                         Saturday Ethnic
                         School,
                         Queanbeyan

                         1953, June 26         No building         Klim's 40th
                         Opening SPK                               anniversary SPK,
                         Branch no.5                               p. 8-9
1954                     1954?- Napad          Australian-         Wodzinski, p. 19
                         Sports Club           American
                         formed within         memorial
                         Polish Club in        completed
                         Canberra

                         Unnamed month-                            Wodzinski, p.19
                         1st Ethnic School,
                         Braddon

                         Fr. Wolak arrived                         Wodzinski, p.19
                         as Pastor
1954/55                  1955 or 4?- Polish                        Wodzinski, p.20
                         Club in Canberra
                         formed United
                         Migrant Council
                         from Countries
                         under Communist
                         Domination
1955      Poland joins                         Number of post-
          Warsaw Pact                          war immigrants to
          defence                              Australia reaches
          organisation                         one million.

                                               Senate inquiry
                                               recommends
                                             5


                                                          Commission to
                                                          develop Canberra.
1955                                1955 Feb-HQ of        1955 Feb.22
                                    SPK transferred to    Maitland floods
                                    Canberra which        killing several,
                                    also collected        leaving thousands
                                    money for victims     homeless
                                    of Maitland flood
1955/56                             1955/6-2nd and 3rd                          Wodzinski, p.20
                                    Polish Ethnic
                                    Schools in
                                    Yarralumla and
                                    Narrabundah
1955/56                             1955/6-Echo choir                           Wodzinski, p.20
                                    formed , with ABC
                                    broadcasting
                                    Polish carols on
                                    Christmas Eve

                                    Mr. Kacprzak's                              Wodzinski, p. 21
                                    dancing group
                                    Kujawiak wins 1st
                                    prize International
                                    Dance Festival
                                    organised YMCA
1956 June 28   Poznan food riots-                         1956 Sept?
               50+ people killed                          Melbourne
               over demands for                           Olympics
               greater freedom
1957                                                      National Capital
                                                          Development
                                                          Commission
                                                          [NCDC]
                                                          established
1958                                1958 April began      1958 Migration        Gajewski, p. 2
                                    building Polski       Act abolishes the
                                    Dom Orla Bialego      Dictation Test and
                                                          introduces an entry
                                                          permit system
1959                                                      Population of
                                                          Canberra reaches
                                                          50,000
1960                                1960 Kolo Polek,      1960 the 250,000th
                                    Canberra formed       post-war refugee
                                                          arrives.

                                                          Urban areas
                                                          expaned to Woden.

                                                          First intake
                                                          undergraduates at
                                                          ANU

1960                                1960 Dec. 3           First TV station      Gajewski, p.2
                                    opening of            opens – CTC7
                                                6


                                       building Polski
                                       Dom Orla Bialego
1961 Aug.
Berlin Wall built
to stem refugees
entering W. Berlin
1962                                                        1962 Kings
                                                            Avenue Bridge
                                                            opens
1963                                                        1963.
                                                            Commonwealth
                                                            Avenue Bridge
                                                            opened.

                                                            Sept. Lake Burley
                                                            Griffin begins
                                                            filling (completed
                                                            1964)
1965 Opening of                                             1965 Labor Party's
Polish Catholic                                             commitment to
Church ,                                                    'White Australia
Marayong                                                    Policy' removed
                                                            from party
                                                            platform.
                                                            'Assimilation' loses
                                                            political favour,
                                                            'integration'
                                                            becomes accepted
                                                            description for
                                                            preferred
                                                            settlement
                                                            behaviour

                                                            Anzac Parade
                                                            officially opened,
                                                            25 April
                                                            coinciding with
                                                            50th anniversary of
                                                            Gallipoli landing
1966                 966-1966          Various activities
                     Millenium of      by White Eagle
                     Christianity in   Club ;
                     Poland
1967                                                        1967 Referendum ,
                                                            Aboriginal people
                                                            are to be governed
                                                            by federal
                                                            legislation, given
                                                            compulsory voting
                                                            rights, included in
                                                            Australian census.

                                                            Population reaches
                                                            100,000 in ACT.
                                                            Belconnen
                                                            development
                                    7


                                                 commences
1968                       1968 March -visit     National Library of   Gajewski, p. 21
                           of Bishop Rubin       Australian opens
                           (in charge of         on its current site
                           pastoral affairs of
                           Polish emigres)

                           1968 May project                            Gajewski, p.3
                           to build Klub Orla
                           Bialego/White
                           Eagle Club
1970   Food price riots,                         National Botanic
       Gdansk, hundreds                          Gardens opens.
       killed.                                   Carillion built.
                                                 Captain Cook
                                                 Memorial Jet
                                                 fountain
                                                 inaugurated
1971                       1971- White Eagle     1971 Bonegilla        Klim's 40th
                           Club moved out of     closes.               anniversary
                           Dom Kombatanta                              Gajewski, p.3
                           into its own          Population in ACT
                           building              reaches 150,000
1972                       1972 Feb-Visit of     Woden Plaza           Gajewski, 21
                           Fr. Kani director     opens
                           General of Society
                           of Christ to White
                           Eagle Club
1973                       1973 Jan-15th         Tuggeranong           Gajewski, p.22
                           meet. Rada            development
                           Naczelna,             commences
                           Canberra, White
                           Eagle Club
1973                       1973 Feb Cardinal                           Gajewski, p. 21
                           Karol Wojtyla
                           visits Canberra and
                           Polish community
1974                                             Capital Hill to be
                                                 site of permanent
                                                 Parliament House.

                                                 Federal
                                                 representation
                                                 increased to two,
                                                 Fraser and
                                                 Canberra divisions
1975                       1975 Oct- Visit of    1975 Racial           Gajewski, p. 21
                           Mr Urbanski, 5th      Discrimination Act
                           Prime Minister of     prohibits
                           the Polish            discrimination on
                           Government in         grounds of race,
                           Exile                 religion, colour,
                                                 descent, ethnicity.

                                                 1975 Nov. 11
                         8


                                      Constitutional
                                      crisis when
                                      Governor-General
                                      sacks PM Whitlam
                                      over deadlocked
                                      Senate.

                                      Two ACT
                                      Senators elected to
                                      Federal Parliament
1976             1976 SASP            Federal govt. set     Stowarzyszenie
                 formed.              up self-govt task     Absolwentow I
                                      force.                Studentow
                                                            Polskich
                 1976 Sept-Visit of   Population of ACT
                 Bishop Wesoly in     reaches 200,000
                 charge of pastoral
                 affairs of Polish                          Gajewski, p. 24
                 emigres
1977             1977 Oct-Visit of    National Athletics    Gajewski, p. 24
                 Mr Soboniewski,      Stadium completed
                 President of World   (Bruce Stadium)
                 Federation of
                 Polish Ex-
                 Servicemen
1978                                  1978 Galbally
                                      Report formalises
                                      use of term
                                      'multiculturalism'.
                                      Numerial
                                      Multifactor
                                      Assessment
                                      System (NUMAS)
                                      new immigrant
                                      selection system
                                      introduced, with
                                      points tallied
                                      against preferred
                                      criteria

                                      Referendum 25
                                      Nov. rejected by
                                      ACT residents for
                                      self-govt.

                                      Belconnen Mall
                                      opened
1978             1978 Aug-visit of
                 Fr. Kaminski
                 Director General
                 of Society of
                 Christ
1978 Oct. 24
Election of
Cardinal Karol
Wojtyla, Pope
                                                     9


John Paul II, first
Polish Pope in
history
1978/79               1978-79?                                   1979 ACT House
                      Formation of                               of Assembly
                      Solidarnosc as                             consists of 18
                      formal opposition                          members
                      to govt.
1980                  Disturbances at                            1980s. Main
                      Gdansk shipyard -                          reason for
                      emergence of                               immigration is
                      Solidarity trade                           family reunion
                      union leader Lech                          followed by
                      Walesa                                     refugees,
                                                                 humanitarian need.
                                                                 1980 June.

                                                                 Design winners for
                                                                 second Parliament
                                                                 House announced
                                                                 (Mitchell,
                                                                 Giurgola, Thorpe).

                                                                 Telecom Tower
                                                                 opens
1981                                        1981 June - 7th      National Indoor        Gajewski, p.25
                                            meeting of KOPA      Sports Centre
                                            Komisja              opens
                                            Oswiatowa Polonii
                                            Australijskiej
1981                  1981 Dec. 13
                      Martial law
                      declared many
                      Solidarity leaders,
                      Walesa imprisoned
1982                                        Demonstrations       1982 Help Poland       Stefan Brozek
                                            Charity activities   Live aid non-govt      Zubrzycki tb
                                            by Kolo Polek        organisation           contacted re aid
                                                                 formed with some       organ.
                                                                 federal aid
1982                                        1982 Sept-           Royal bluebell         Gajewski, p. 25
                                            Formation of         (Wahlenbergia
                                            Council of Polish    gloriosa) becomes
                                            Organisations in     floral emblem of
                                            ACT                  ACT.

                                                                 Aust. National
                                                                 Gallery opens
1983                                                             1983 Amendments
                                                                 to Migration Act
                                                                 replace term 'alien'
                                                                 with 'non-citizen'
                                                                 and end favoured
                                                                 treatment of
                                                                 British nationals.
                           10



                                        Nov. Second task
                                        force on self-govt
                                        established.
1984               1984 Polish          1984 Comments         Klim 5/11/02
                   Community            by Australian
                   Information          historian Geoffrey
                   Bureau formed as     Blainey spark
                   semi-lobby group     national debate
                   of Rada Naczelna.    over immigration,
                                        govt. multicultural
                   1984 Registration    policies.
                   of Council of
                   Polish               Report of self-govt
                   Organisations in     task force
                   ACT                  recommends ACT
                                        governing body be
                                        a single house LA
1985               1985 April. First    Population of ACT     Klim 5/11/02
                   issue of Kronica     reaches 250,000
                   Polonii published.

                   1985 Aug. 31 SPK                           Gajewski, p. 26
                   evacuated for
                   rebuilding multi-
                   storied building.

                   1985 Sept. 25th
                   anniversary of
                   Kolo Polek
1985               1985 Dec. Visit of   Govt announces 13
                   Wanda Pilsudska,     member ACT
                   daughter of          Council
                   Marshal Pilsudski
1986 Oct.-Nov.     1986 Nov- Pope       Aust. Defence
Pope tours         visits Canberra.     Force Academy
Australia for                           commences as
Eucemenical        Polish Canberrans    academic centre
Conference         to Melbourne for     for Navy, Army,
                   special meeting      Air Force
                   with Pope
1987                                    Tuggeranong
                                        Hyperdome opens
1988 Australia's   1988 April –         1988 Bicentenary      Gajewski, p. 28
bicentenary        opening of new       of British
                   SPK building on      settlement marked
                   same site            by official
                                        celebrations and
                                        Aboriginal
                                        mourning.             Gajewski, p. 29

                   1988 May -           1988 May. Second
                   Exhibition (1        Parliament House
                   week) Dorobku        opens.
                   Polonii
                   Kanberskiej          Legislation
                                                    11


                                                                  establishing self-
                                            1988 Sept- visit of   govt passes in both
                                            Mr Sabata             Houses of federal
                                            President, Polish     parliament.
                                            government in
                                            exile
1989                  Talks between         1989 July. 30th       1989. Dissolution
                      Solidarity,           anniversary Kolo      of the NCDC and
                      Communists,           Polek                 election of first
                      Church sees partial                         ACT Legislative
                      free elections with                         Assembly
                      success for
                      Solidarity helping
                      form coalition govt
1989 Oct-Nov. 10
Fall of Berlin Wall
& collapse of Iron
Curtain
precipitated by
events in Poland,
Hungary, E.
Germany
1990                  Walesa elected
                      President of
                      Poland
1991?                                       Opening of John       Built by Society of
                                            Paul II, Catholic     Jesus with funds
                                            Centre with           and labour from
                                            Chapel,               Canberra Poles
                                            Narrabundah
1992                  Soviet troops start                         1992 High Court
                      to leave Poland                             rules in favour of
                                                                  Native Title
                                                                  recognising prior
                                                                  ownership of land
                                                                  by Aboriginal
                                                                  people.

                                                                  Referendum
                                                                  passed in ACT
                                                                  changing electoral
                                                                  system to Hare-
                                                                  Clark.
1993                                        Poland sends first    From 1949-1993
                                            non-communist         Canberra Poles
                                            Ambassador, Dr.       had boycotted the
                                            Agnieszka             Embassy. Cordial
                                            Morawinska            relations begin
1994                                        1994 Nov-visit of     Population of ACT
                                            Cardinal              reaches 300,000
                                            Gulbinowicz
1995                                                              1995 Stolen
                                                                  Generation report
                                                                  acknowledges
                                                                  decades of govt-
                                                  12


                                                                approved removal
                                                                of Aboriginal
                                                                children from
                                                                families.
1996                                       1996 June Special    Work on
                                           general meeting      Gungahlin Town
                                           passes name          Centre commenced
                                           change to Polish-
                                           Australian White
                                           Eagle Club
1997                   Polish Parliament                        Royal Canberra
                       adopts new                               Hospital implosion
                       constitution
1998 EU opens                                                   Canberra Museum
talks on Polish                                                 and Gallery opens
membership
1999                   Poland joins                             Completion of
                       NATO                                     Bruce Stadium
                                                                redevelopement
2000                                                            2000 Sept. Sydney
                                                                Olympics
2001 Dec. EU                               2001, Oct. 50th      Centenary of
summit includes                            anniversary Klub     federation.
Poland on list of                          Polski im. T.
10 countries to join                       Kosciuszki,          National Museum
Jan. 2004                                  Queanbeyan           opens
2002                                       2002 May. Last                            Klim 5/11/02
                                           issue of Kronika
                                           Polonii issued.

                                           Polish Women’s
                                           Assoc. , Canberra
                                           hosts Conference
                                           of Polish Women’s
                                           Assoc for
                                           Australia & NZ.

                                           Council of Polish
                                           Organisations in
                                           ACT hosts Annual
                                           Meeting of Polish
                                           Community
                                           Council of
                                           Australia.
2003                                       Jerzy Wieclaw, 3rd   Jan. 18 Canberra
                                           Ambassador for       firestorms ravage
                                           the Republic of      southern suburbs
                                           Poland commences     of Duffy, Holt,
                                           duties               Chapman
                                                                destroying 508
                                                                homes incl. Some
                                                                in outlying rural
                                                                areas
                                                     13


BIBLIOGRAPHY

Australian Capital Territory in focus, 2002. Canberra : Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2002.

Australian people : an encyclopaedia of the nation, its people and their origins. Cambridge : Cambridge
University Press, 2001.

Gajewski, Jacek. Polsko-Australijski Klub Orla Bialego = Polish Australian White Eagle Club : praca
polroczna : organis\zacje polonijne. Unpublished, 1996.

Klim, Jerzy. 40-lecie Kola Nr.5 Stowarzyszenie Polskich Kombatantow : Kolo Nr.5 - canberra I Okolica
Rej. 1953-1993 = 40th anniversary Polish Ex-Servicemen's Association: sub-Branch no.5 - Canberra &
District Inc.

National Archives of Australia. www.naa.gov.au . Series A12013 Migration selection documents for
displaced [persons who travelled to Australia per General Langfitt departing Mombassa, Kenya, 3 February
1950.

[Wodzinski, Roman] Polacy w Kanberze = Poles in Canberra, 1951-1956. Unpublished, [195?]

				
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