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					  Chapter 6
Relationships II

“The ability to read awoke inside me
  some long dormant craving to be
           mentally alive.”
      - Autobiography of Malcolm X, 1964
   6 Minute Fluency

 2 common types of relationships:
•Relationships that involve addition
  •Relationships that involve time
  4 Types of Relationships

   •Relationships that involve illustration
•Relationships that involve comparison and
•Relationships that involve cause and effect
• Illustration Words: Words that indicate that an
  author will provide one or more examples to
  develop and clarify a given idea.

      For example    Including        As an           One
      For instance   specifically     To illustrate   once
      Such as        To be specific
The definition and example pattern
• Certain colors are associated with particular
  emotions. For instance, green represents
  jealousy, red stands for anger, and blue means
• When a cat’s curiosity can get it into ridiculous
  situations. Once, a neighbor’s cat got its head
  stuck in the garbage disposal.
• Comparison words signal similarities. Authors
  use comparison transition to show that a
  second idea is like the first one in some way.

      (just) as      Likewise         In a similar manner

      (just) like    In like manner   In the same way

      alike          similar(ly)      resemble
• When buying milk, my mother always takes a
  bottle from the back of the shelf. Similarly,
  when my father buys a newspaper, he usually
  grabs one from the middle of the pile.
• The printing press greatly changed the way
  people learned news and ideas. In a similar
  manner, the Iinternet has revolutionized the
  way in which people obtain information.
• Contrast words show that things differ in one
  or more ways.

      but            instead       still           Even though
      yet            In contrast   As opposed to   differently
      however        On the        In spite of     Differs from
                     other hand
      although       On the        despite         unlike
      nevertheless   conversely    Rather than     while
• Skunks are unpopular creatures, yet they eat
  lots of mice and bugs and don’t spray unless
  they feel threatened.
• Some people look upon eating as something
  to be done quickly so they can get on to better
  things. In contrast, others think eating is one
  of the better things.
  Comparison and or contrast pattern
• Comparison is
• A is like B

Contrast is
A is different from B
   THE BLOCK METHOD (subject by
• When using this method, you state the main
  idea for the comparison and/or contrast in the
  topic sentence. The following topic sentence
  houses the main idea for a paragraph
  developed by contrast
                    Block Method
• Topic Sentence:
  College is quite different from high school.
• College Courses
• Instructors
• Activities
• Transition (word or phrase):
  on the contrary
• High School Courses
• Instructors
• Activities
• Concluding sentence:
  Even though it is more challenging, college is much more exciting.

• Another way to develop this contrast is by
  structuring the supporting ideas in the body of
  the paragraph in an alternating fashion,
  alternating from (A) to (B) throughout. Note
  that transitions (underlined) are used to signal
  movement from one topic to the next.
                       Point by Point
• Topic Sentence:
  College is quite different from high school.
• Courses College
• High School
• Instructors
   – College
   – High School
• Activities
       • College
       • High School
• Concluding sentence:
  Even though it is more challenging, college is much more
                  Cause and Effect
• Cause and effect words: signal that the author
  is explaining the reason why something
  happened or the result of something
      therefore      so            result    Because of
      thus           As a result   effect    reason

      As a           Results in    cause     explanation
      consequently   Leads to      If…then   accordingly
      Due to         since         affect
             Cause and Effect
• My sister became a vegetarian because she
  doesn’t want to eat anything that had a mother.
• At one time in history, birth records were not
  kept for ordinary people. AS a result the only
  birthday parties given were for kings, queens and
  other royalty.
• If the weather gets too humid, then the wooden
  doors in our house swell up and begin to stick.
         Cause and Effect Pattern
•        Cause             Cause Cause Cause

Effect   Effect   Effect         Effect
 A note on Main Ideas and Patterns of
• A paragraph’s main idea often indicates its
  pattern of organization
• A passage may often be made up of more
  than one pattern of organization.