Chapter 6 Relationships II RDG081 Quote “The ability to read awoke inside me some long dormant craving to be mentally alive.” - Autobiography of Malcolm X, 1964 6 Minute Fluency http://www.timeme.com/timer- stopwatch.htm Review 2 common types of relationships: •Relationships that involve addition •Relationships that involve time 4 Types of Relationships •Relationships that involve illustration •Relationships that involve comparison and contrast •Relationships that involve cause and effect Illustration • Illustration Words: Words that indicate that an author will provide one or more examples to develop and clarify a given idea. For example Including As an One illustration For instance specifically To illustrate once Such as To be specific The definition and example pattern • Certain colors are associated with particular emotions. For instance, green represents jealousy, red stands for anger, and blue means gloomy. • When a cat’s curiosity can get it into ridiculous situations. Once, a neighbor’s cat got its head stuck in the garbage disposal. Illustration • http://www.wju.edu/arc/handouts/examp_ill ustr.pdf • http://illustration-essay.com/page/2/ • http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/fi ve_par.htm • http://www.ptc.edu/Resource/illustration_ess ay_organization.htm Comparison • Comparison words signal similarities. Authors use comparison transition to show that a second idea is like the first one in some way. (just) as Likewise In a similar manner (just) like In like manner In the same way alike similar(ly) resemble Comparison • When buying milk, my mother always takes a bottle from the back of the shelf. Similarly, when my father buys a newspaper, he usually grabs one from the middle of the pile. • The printing press greatly changed the way people learned news and ideas. In a similar manner, the Iinternet has revolutionized the way in which people obtain information. Contrast • Contrast words show that things differ in one or more ways. but instead still Even though yet In contrast As opposed to differently however On the In spite of Differs from other hand although On the despite unlike contrary nevertheless conversely Rather than while Contrast • Skunks are unpopular creatures, yet they eat lots of mice and bugs and don’t spray unless they feel threatened. • Some people look upon eating as something to be done quickly so they can get on to better things. In contrast, others think eating is one of the better things. Comparison and or contrast pattern • Comparison is • A is like B Contrast is A is different from B THE BLOCK METHOD (subject by subject) • When using this method, you state the main idea for the comparison and/or contrast in the topic sentence. The following topic sentence houses the main idea for a paragraph developed by contrast Block Method • Topic Sentence: College is quite different from high school. • BLOCK "A" • College Courses • Instructors • Activities • Transition (word or phrase): on the contrary • BLOCK "B" • High School Courses • Instructors • Activities • Concluding sentence: Even though it is more challenging, college is much more exciting. ALTERNATING METHOD (Point by Point) • Another way to develop this contrast is by structuring the supporting ideas in the body of the paragraph in an alternating fashion, alternating from (A) to (B) throughout. Note that transitions (underlined) are used to signal movement from one topic to the next. Point by Point • Topic Sentence: College is quite different from high school. • Courses College • High School • Instructors – College – High School • Activities • College • High School • Concluding sentence: Even though it is more challenging, college is much more exciting. Cause and Effect • Cause and effect words: signal that the author is explaining the reason why something happened or the result of something happening. therefore so result Because of thus As a result effect reason As a Results in cause explanation consequence consequently Leads to If…then accordingly Due to since affect Cause and Effect • My sister became a vegetarian because she doesn’t want to eat anything that had a mother. • At one time in history, birth records were not kept for ordinary people. AS a result the only birthday parties given were for kings, queens and other royalty. • If the weather gets too humid, then the wooden doors in our house swell up and begin to stick. Cause and Effect Pattern • Cause Cause Cause Cause Effect Effect Effect Effect A note on Main Ideas and Patterns of Organization • A paragraph’s main idea often indicates its pattern of organization • A passage may often be made up of more than one pattern of organization.