Democratic Audit Framework for Democracy Assessment

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					            Democratic Audit: Framework for Democracy Assessment

            Block 4: Democracy Beyond the State



Section 14: The international dimensions of democracy

Is the country free from external subordination? And does it promote
democracy and human rights abroad?

If the core idea of democracy is that of self-government, of control by the people of the
decisions that affect their collective lives, then a democratic audit cannot ignore the ways
in which those decisions may be determined by institutions or forces external to the
state. A country might have the most perfect democracy internally, but enjoy little real
self-government if most of the decisions that matter for the life of its citizens are taken
beyond its borders. Such a situation has been called the “hollowing out” of democracy. At
the same time the quality of a country‟s democratic life is also to be gauged by how it
treats other countries and their citizens, by whether it observes the international rule of
law, and by how far its policies are supportive of democracy abroad. Thus, it is necessary
to consider first how far, if at all, a country‟s policy is determined from outside in ways
that are beyond its control; the nature of its power and influence in international bodies;
its respect for international treaties and international law; its treatment of asylum
seekers; and the consistency of its support for human rights and democracy abroad.
14.1 How free is the governance of the country from subordination to
external agencies, economic, cultural or political?

Relevant data


1 Negative indicators: examine the evidence of the subordination of government to
  external agencies in the determination of policy, legislation or government
  expenditure; the extent of aid dependency and international indebtedness; domination
  of the economy by foreign companies; foreign control of the media and other forms of
  cultural production.
See also 7.1 and 10.1

Generalised sources                                             Possible International Standards
International Monetary Fund, International Financial            OECD Criminal Law Convention on Corruption, 1999
Statistics (IMF, Washington DC, annual)
                                                                UNEP IE (1995) Technical Report No. 29, Paris (travel
IMF, Balance of Payments Manual, 5th edition (IMF,              industry/tourism and host community ‘codes of conduct’)
Washington DC, 1993)
Indirect indicator of economic dependence is net barter terms
of trade, calculated from COMTRADE database of US
Statistical Division
World Bank, World Debt Tables (annual)
Debt statistics also available from Bank for International
Settlements and OECD, Development Assistance Committee
(DAC)
World Bank, World Development Report (WDR): military
expenditure as % GDP, Table 17, p.222; official
development assistance in $ per capita and as % of GNP,
Table 21, p.230
The International Institute for Strategic Studies,
The Military Balance (Oxford University Press, Oxford),
annual handbook for comprehensive data on military
expenditure, updated at http://www.isn.ethz.ch/iiss
Global Policy Forum http://www.globalpolicy.org/
Also, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute;
Stimson Center (peacekeeping, military export policies and
arms control) http://www.stimson.org/pubs/allpubs.htm
Janes military database http://www.btg.com/janes/
Regional:
CEPAL, Economic Commission for Latin America and the
Caribbean http://www.eclac.cl/
UNESCO, International Telecommunication Union
questionnaires
Network Wizards, Menlo Park, California (on internet
accessibility)
UN International Computing Centre http://www.unicc.org
Latin America Bureau; Virtual Parliamentary Forum of the
Americas http://www.parlamericas.qc.ca/RAND
http://www.rand.org/
Books:
OECD, Development Co-operation (OECD, Paris, annual)
World Bank, Global Development Finance 1998 (World
Bank, Washington DC, 1998)
Human Rights Watch reports on Multinational Corporations
(MNCs) and host countries
US Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA), World
Military Expenditures and Arms Transfers (ACDA,
Washington DC, annual), and various country-specific
studies
Zimbabwe example of ‘best practice’ at http://campfire-
zimbabwe.org
IMF, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook (system
derivative of UN classification standards)
Sivard R L, World Military and Social Expenditure (World
Priorities, Washington DC, various years, including 1993)
O’Driscoll, Holmes and Kirkpatrick, Index of Freedom
(2000) http://www.heritage.org/index/index.html
The Fraser Institute, Economic Freedom of the World: 2000
annual report http://www.freetheworld.com/release.html
Committee for Middle East Trade (COMET)
http://www.comet.org.uk/
International Trade Division
http://www.worldbank.org/html/iecit/iecit.html
India – Opportunities in Business, Trade, the Market and
Infrastructure http://www.indiaintl.com/
Environment and Trade: a handbook at
http://iisd.ca/trade/handbook/
Country Reports on Economic Policy and Trade Practices at
http://www.tradecompass.com/library/dos/ecopol/index.html
World Trade Organisation
http://www.wto.org/wto/index.htm
IMF Working Papers Error! Bookmark not defined.
14.2 How far are government relations with international organisations
based on principles of partnership and transparency?

Relevant data
1 Laws: examine whether lender and borrower governments are party to OECD (DAC),
  World Bank, UN, economic codes of best practice in monetary transfers.
2 Positive and negative indicators: examine whether there is evidence of a lack of
  probity by either party. For example, corruption or redirection of funds; delay of
  monetary transfer for improper reason; evidence of technological lock-ins; excess fees
  that were not made apparent in the initial documentation; „small print‟ that raises the
  cost above the initial quoted figures for the transaction; undue interference in the
  management of development projects.

Generalised sources                                          Possible International Standards
OECD, Development Co-operation (OECD, Paris, annual)         OECD 1996, Shaping the 21st Century: the contribution of
                                                             development co-operation. ‘We should aim for nothing less
World Bank, Global Development Finance (World Bank,
                                                             than to assure that the entire range of industrialised country
Washington DC, 1998)
                                                             policies are consistent with and do not undermine
Economic Reconstruction and Development in South East        development objectives.’ From
Europe http://www.seerecon.org/                              http://www.oecd.org/dac/htm/stc.htm

Centre for Co-operation with the Economies in Transition     Declaration on Social Progress and Development, United
(CCET) http://www.oecd.org/sge/ccet/                         Nations General Assembly, 1969

Renewing the ACP-EU Partnership                              Declaration on the Right to Development, United Nations
http://www.idea.int/lome/welcome.html                        General Assembly, 1986

The Europa Directory of International Organisations          International IDEA, Code of Conduct: ethical and
(Europa, London, May 2000) Europa at                         professional observation of elections
www.europapublications.co.uk
                                                             World Bank, Comprehensive Development Framework [full
Relief Web Financial, Tracking Database for Complex          title: A Proposal for a Comprehensive Development
Emergencies (FTS) http://www.reliefweb.int/fts/index.html,   Framework (A Discussion Draft) 1999]
including the new ECHO 14-point donor reporting              http://www.worldbank.org
conventions and humanitarian assistance procedures
                                                             OECD DAC, 21st-Century Strategy [full title: Shaping the
Global Policy Forum http://www.globalpolicy.org/             21st Century: The Contribution of Development Co-
                                                             operation (May 1996)] http://www.oecd.org/dac
Southern African Development Community, links to all
departments and contact details from                         UN Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF)
http://www.mbendi.co.za/orsadc.htm                           Proposed 1997, developed further in 1998 following
                                                             consultations. Fullest elaboration found in country
Southern African Research and Documentation Centre           programmes, eg,
http://www.sardc.net/index.cfm                               http://www.unsystemmoz.organisation/undaf/
O’Driscoll, Holmes and Kirkpatrick, Index of Freedom         (Mozambique);
(2000) http://www.heritage.org/index/index.html              http://www.un.organisation.in/undaf/default.htm (India)

The Fraser Institute, Economic Freedom of the World: 2000    Global UNDAF Guidelines (n.d.)
annual report http://www.freetheworld.com/release.html       http://www.unsystemmoz.org/undaf/undafcca/default.asp

International Reform Monitor: Social Policy, Labour Market   The UN International Development Targets – as requested of
Policy, Industrial Relations                                 the Secretary-General, by the General Assembly in
                                                             Resolution 53/192 (1999) (para 60)
(OECD-based) http://www.reformmonitor.org
                                                             The Commonwealth, The Harare Declaration, 1991
Environment and Trade: a handbook at
http://iisd.ca/trade/handbook/                               Core ILO conventions:

Country Reports on Economic Policy and Trade Practices at    (C29, C87, C98, C100, C105, C111, C13, C182)
http://www.tradecompass.com/library/dos/ecopol/index.html    Campaigning:
IMF Working Papers                                           UN Global Compact Network
http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/CAT/wp.cfm                  http://www.unglobalcompact.org
United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM)           Agenda 21: the Rio Declaration on Environment and
http://www.unifem.undp.org/                                  Development, 1992
The Foreign Affairs Guide to International Affairs on the
Internet http://www.foreignaffairs.org/links.html
The Commission on Global Governance http://www.cgg.ch/
C2D, Direct Democracy Centre
http://c2d.unige.ch/index.msql
Global Coalition for Africa http://www.gca-
cma.org/emenu.htm
Global Economy links on the World Bank and IMF
http://www.globalexchange.org/wbimf/links.html
CEPAL, Economic Commission for Latin America and the
Caribbean http://www.eclac.cl/
Latin America Bureau; Virtual Parliamentary Forum of the
Americas http://www.parlamericas.qc.ca/RAND
http://www.rand.org/
ALADI, Latin American Integration Association
http://tips.org.uy/aladiweb/
Maren M, The Road to Hell: the ravaging effects of foreign
aid and international charity (Free Press, 1997)
AccountAbility: Institute of Social and Ethical
AccountAbility
http://www.iseaaccountability.freeserve.co.uk/
South Centre http://www.southcentre.org/
Oxfam Policy Papers
http://www.oxfam.org.uk/policy/papers/lpapers.htm
New Internationalist magazine via
http://www.oneworld.org/ni/
Macro-economic
Sources http://www-wds.worldbank.org
(South Africa) Idasa papers http://www.idasa.org.za/
Multilaterals Project
http://fletcher.tufts.edu/multilaterals.html
(texts of international multilateral conventions and other
instruments)
Global Economy links on the World Bank and IMF at
http://www.globalexchange.org/wbimf/links.html
United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia
and the Pacific (ESCAP) http://www.unescap.org
Euroguide http://www.euroguide.org/
Economic and Social Rights eThesaurus, compiled by the
American Association for the Advancement of Science, at
http://shr.aaas.org/ethesaurus.nsf/main?openframeset
14.3 How far does the government support UN human rights treaties and
respect international law?

Relevant data
1 Laws: examine the country‟s ratification of UN and regional human rights treaties, and
  its membership of UN agencies.
2 Implementation: examine the extent to which the government respects human rights
  treaty provisions and supports UN agencies in practice.
3 Negative indicators: investigate evidence of significant gaps in treaty ratification or
  agency membership; clear breaches of international law or treaty obligation; failure to
  pay financial contributions.

Generalised sources                                              Possible International standards
                                                                 Major international:
UN Treaty Database
http://www.un.org/Depts/Treaty/Amnesty International
                                                                 ICCPR: Optional Protocol to ICCPR; and Second Optional
annual reports: appendices VI and VII – ratification,
                                                                 Protocol to ICCPR – aiming at abolition of the death penalty
signatures to international (VI) and regional (VII) principal
human rights treaties; also in annual report, separate country   ICESCR: Convention against Torture and Other Cruel,
audits for incidence of violations                               Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
US State Department Country Reports at                           Convention and Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees
http://www.state.gov
                                                                 Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
Inter-America Institute for Human Rights                         Discrimination Against Women
http://www.iidh.ed.cr
                                                                 ILO Convention No. 143, 1975 Migrations in Abusive
Diplomacy and International Affairs Hypertext Information        Conditions
System, Listing of International Accords at
http://heimedac.unige.ch/doilm/grdoilm.html                      United Nations, Geneva Convention, 1951

Political Institutions and Global Environmental Change           Declaration on the Protection of Women and Children in
website produced by the Consortium for International Earth       Emergency and Armed Conflict, United Nations General
Science Information Network (CIESIN) at                          Assembly, 1974
http://www.ciesin.org/tg/pi/pi-home.html                         Declaration on Social Progress and Development, United
‘Footprint’ ranking of environmental impact at                   Nations General Assembly, 1969
http://www.ecouncil.ac.cr/rio/focus/report/english/footprint/r   Declaration on the Right to Development, United Nations
anking.htm                                                       General Assembly, 1986
Stokke H and Tostensen A (eds), Human Rights in                  United Nations General Assembly, Declaration on the Use of
Development Yearbook (Kluwer Law International)                  Scientific and Technological Progress in the Interests of
Cook R J (ed.), Human Rights of Women (Pennsylvania              Peace and for the Benefit of Mankind, November 1975
Press, 1994), appendix A on ratifications of covenants and       Strong Action by National Parliaments in the Year of the
treaties affecting women                                         50th Anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human
Directory to the Subject Bibliographies in Environmental         Rights to ensure the Promotion and Protection of all Human
Ethics http://ecoethics.net/bib/                                 Rights in the 21st Century, Resolution adopted by the 100th
                                                                 Inter-Parliamentary Conference (Moscow, 11 September
World Resources Institute                                        1998)
http://www.wri.org/wr2000/index.html
                                                                 Regional:
Environmental Information Networking at
http://www.unep.org/unep/eia/ein/grid/web/document/ein.ht        OAU African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights, 1981
m                                                                Human Rights Treaties and International Law, possible
United Nations System-Wide Website on National                   international standards and examples of good practice
Implementation of the Rio Commitments                            Regional:
http://www.un.org/esa/agenda21/natlinfo/ (statistics on
social and ecological balances)                                  Organisation of American States (OAS), American
                                                                 Convention on Human Rights, 1969
Earth Council Ombudsman
http://www.ecouncil.ac.cr/ecombud.htm                            Inter-American Convention to Prevent and Punish Torture,
                                                                 1985
Criminal Organisations and Crimes Against the Environment
http://www.unicri.it/html/cocae.htm                              Inter-American Convention on the Forced Disappearance of
                                                          Persons, 1994
South African Crime Research Guide: Environmental Crime
http://www.crimeresearch.org.za/environmentcrime.html     Council of Europe, European Convention for the Protection
                                                          of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, 1950; Article
Environmental Investigation Agency
                                                          25 thereof recognising competence of European Commission
http://www.eia-international.org/                         to consider violations; Article 46 thereof, recognising the
                                                          jurisdiction of the European Court of Human Rights;
UN Second World Water Forum and Ministerial Conference,   Protocol No. 6 concerning the abolition of the death penalty,
The Hague (March 2000)                                    1983
http://www.worldwatercommission.org/
                                                          OECD Criminal Law Convention on Corruption, 1999
UN Commission on Sustainable Development
http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/csd.htm                     Council of Europe, European Convention for the Prevention
                                                          of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or
Transnational Foundation for Peace and Future Research    Punishment, 1987
http://www.transnational.org/publica/index.html
                                                          OAU, Inter-African Convention Establishing an African
                                                          Technical Co-operation Programme
                                                          OAU, Constitution of the Association of African Trade
                                                          Promotion Organisations
                                                          OAU, Cultural Charter for Africa
                                                          OAU, Agreement for the Establishment of the African
                                                          Rehabilitation Institute
                                                          Environment:
                                                          Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, United
                                                          Nations Conference on Environment and Development, 12
                                                          August 1992
                                                          Framework Convention on Climate Change, United Nations,
                                                          and the subsequent 1997 Kyoto Protocol
                                                          Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary
                                                          Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal, United
                                                          Nations Environment Programme
                                                          Convention on Biological Diversity, 5 June 1992
                                                          The 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the
                                                          Ozone Layer
                                                          Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer,
                                                          1985, UNEP Doc. IG.53/5; UKTS 1, 1990
                                                          Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of
                                                          Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)
                                                          http://www.wcmc.org.uk/CITES/eng/index.shtml
                                                          OAU, Bamako Convention on the Ban of the Import into
                                                          Africa and the Control of Transboundary Movement and
                                                          Management of Hazardous Wastes within Africa
                                                          OAU, The African Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone Treaty (the
                                                          Treaty of PELINDABA)
                                                          OAU, Convention on Conservation of Nature and Natural
                                                          Resources
                                                          UNEP IE, 1995, Technical Report No. 29, Paris (travel
                                                          industry/tourism and host community ‘codes of conduct’)
                                                          Conference for Security and
                                                          Co-operation in Europe (CSCE); Meeting on the Protection
                                                          of the Environment, Sofia, November 1989
                                                          Maastricht Treaty on European Union, 1992, provides EU
                                                          citizens with a basis for prosecution of member governments
                                                          for breach of European environmental laws
                                                          Non-legally Binding Authoritative Statement of Principles
                                                          for a Global Consensus on the Management, Conservation
and Sustainable Development of All Types of Forests, 1992,
adopted at the United Nations Conference on Environment
and Development, Rio de Janeiro (the ‘Forest Principles’)
UN Convention to Combat Desertification, 1994
UN Convention on Biological Diversity, 1992
Mar del Plata Action Plan adopted by the United Nations
Water Conference, 1977
Agenda 21 (especially Section II)
Refugees, stateless persons and the rights of migrants:
United Nations General Assembly, Statute of the Office of
the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees,
December 1950
United Nations Conference of Plenipotentiaries on the Status
of Refugees and Stateless Persons, Convention Relating to
the Status of Refugees, April 1954
United Nations Conference of Plenipotentiaries, Convention
Relating to the Status of Stateless Persons, June 1960
United Nations General Assembly, Convention on the
Reduction of Statelessness, December 1975
United Nations General Assembly, Declaration on Territorial
Asylum, December 1967
United Nations, Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees,
October 1967
United Nations, Migrations in Abusive Conditions
United Nations, Promotion of Equality of Opportunity and
Treatment of Migrant Workers
Support of Parliaments for the Rights of Refugees and
Persons Displaced by War and Occupation, and Assistance
with a view to their Repatriation, and for International Co-
operation to Develop and Implement Strategies to Combat
the Criminal Activity of People-Smuggling, Resolution of
103rd Inter-Parliamentary Conference, Amman, 5 May 2000
OAU, Convention Governing Specific Aspects of Refugee
Problems in Africa
Military:
Genocide Convention, 1948
Geneva Conventions, 1949
Convention on the Prohibition of the Development,
Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological)
and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction (Biological
Weapons Convention), 1972
Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of
Certain Conventional Weapons which may be Deemed to be
Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects
(Convention on Conventional Weapons), 1980, and Four
Protocols (voluntary)
United Nations Register on Conventional Arms, 1992
Convention on the Prohibition of the Development,
Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and
on Their Destruction, (The Chemical Weapons Convention)
1993; Monitor: The Organisation for the Prohibition of
Chemical Weapons (OPCW)
Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls for
Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies
1996
EU Programme for Preventing and Combating Illicit
Trafficking in Conventional Arms, adopted by
EU Council working group COARM, 1997
Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling,
Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on
Their Destruction (The Mine Ban Treaty), 1997, also est.
Landmine Monitor, a global reporting network
Contribution of Parliaments to ensuring Respect for and
Promoting International Humanitarian Law on the Occasion
of the 50th Anniversary of the Geneva Conventions,
Resolution by the 102nd Inter-Parliamentary Conference
(Berlin, 15 October 1999)
The Need to Revise the Current Global Financial and
Economic Model, Resolution of the 102nd Inter-
Parliamentary Conference (Berlin, 15 October 1999)
Regional (arms):
Inter-American Convention Against the Illicit Production of
and Trafficking in Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and
Other Related Materials of the Organisation of American
States, 1997
EU European Code of Conduct on Arms Transfers, 1998
OAU, Mechanism for Conflict Prevention, Management and
Resolution, June 1993
OCSE, Istanbul Summit Declaration, Charter for European
Security, 1999
(NGO-initiated)
International Action Network on Small Arms (IANSA)
14.4 How far does the government respect its international obligations in
its treatment of refugees and asylum seekers, and how free from
arbitrary discrimination is its immigration policy?

Relevant data
1 Laws: examine legislation on immigrants, refugees and asylum seekers, and its
  conformity to relevant treaty standards, including rights of appeal.
2 Implementation: examine whether procedures for the treatment of applic-ants are fair,
  impartial and independent, and whether practice conforms to international obligations.
3 Negative indicators: investigate incidence of discriminatory treatment of immigrants or
  refugees on grounds of race, gender or other non-relevant characteristic; of detention
  without due process; of maltreatment; of other denial of human rights.

Generalised sources                                            Possible International standards
UNHCR, RefWorld, information on refugees worldwide             United Nations General Assembly, Statute of the Office of
available from http://www.unhcr.ch/refworld/welcome.htm        the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees,
                                                               December 1950
Amnesty International annual report: appendix VI,
signatories and ratifications of Convention relating to the    United Nations Conference of Plenipotentiaries on the Status
Status of Refugees, 1951; Protocol relating to the Status of   of Refugees and Stateless Persons, Convention Relating to
Refugees, 1967 (pp382-390)                                     the Status of Refugees, April 1954
Human Rights Watch country reports on refugee treatment        United Nations Conference of Plenipotentiaries, Convention
and status, and book: Uncertain Refuge: international          Relating to the Status of Stateless Persons, June 1960
failures to protect refugees, United Nations High
                                                               United Nations General Assembly, Convention on the
Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) at
                                                               Reduction of Statelessness, December 1975
http://www.unhcr.ch
                                                               United Nations General Assembly, Declaration on Territorial
UNHCR, The State of the World’s Refugees 1997-98: a
                                                               Asylum, December 1967
humanitarian agenda (Oxford University Press, UNHCR,
1997), especially tables pp286-292, on numbers of refugees     United Nations, Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees,
and asylum applications and admissions to the industrialised   October 1967
states 1987-96, also p.258, States parties to the 1954 and
1961                                                           ILO Convention No. 143, 1975 Migrations in Abusive
                                                               Conditions
The State of the World’s Refugees: in search of solutions
(OUP/UNHCR, 1995) at                                           UN Convention on the Protection of the Rights of all
http://www.unhcr.ch/refworld/pub/state/95/contents.htm         Migrant Workers and Members of their Families, 1990

Conventions on Statelessness (country-specific and others),    Support of Parliaments for the Rights of Refugees and
HRW, at http://www.hrw.org/hrw/pubweb/Webcat-40htm             Persons Displaced by War and Occupation, and Assistance
                                                               with a view to their Repatriation, and for International Co-
International Red Cross and Red Crescent                       operation to Develop and Implement Strategies to Combat
http://www.icrc.org                                            the Criminal Activity of People-Smuggling, Resolution of
                                                               103rd Inter-Parliamentary Conference, Amman, 5 May 2000
Migrants and Refugees: a world on the move at
http://www.oneworld.org/guides/migration/index.html            OAU, Convention Governing Specific Aspects of Refugee
                                                               Problems in Africa, 1974
Refugees Daily http://www.unhcr.ch/news/media/daily.htm
The Forced Migration Monitor (former USSR)
http://www.soros.org/fmp2/html/fmmonitor.html
United States Committee for Refugees, World Refugee
Survey (Washington DC, annual)
IMER Norway/Bergen, International Migration and Ethnic
Research centre at
http://www.svf.uib.no/sefos/IMER/welcomeeng.html
State of Albania – International Crisis Group, 1999, at
http://www.crisisweb.org/projects/sbalkans/reports/alb05mai
.htm
Earth Council Ombudsman Error! Bookmark not defined.
14.5 How consistent is the government in its support for human rights
and democracy abroad?

Relevant data
1 Positive and negative indicators: examine evidence for the consistency of government
  support, including financial support, for human rights and democracy a) in other
  countries b) in the operation of international and regional institutions of which it is a
  member.

Generalised sources                                          Possible International standards
UN Treaty Database http://www.un.org/Depts/Treaty/           Genocide Convention, 1948
The Europa Directory of International Organisations          Geneva Conventions, 1949
(Europa, London, May 2000) Europa at
                                                             Convention on the Prohibition of the Development,
www.europapublications.co.uk
                                                             Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological)
International Peace Academy http://www.ipacademy.org/        and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction (Biological
                                                             Weapons Convention), 1972
Stimson Center (foreign and military policy and
peacekeeping) http://www.stimson.org/pubs/allpubs.htm        Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of
                                                             Certain Conventional Weapons which may be Deemed to be
Global Policy Forum http://www.globalpolicy.org/
                                                             Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects
The Foreign Affairs Guide to International Affairs on the    (Convention on Conventional Weapons), 1980, and Four
Internet http://www.foreignaffairs.org/links.html            Protocols (voluntary)

The Commission on Global Governance http://www.cgg.ch/       United Nations Register on Conventional Arms, 1992

C2D, Direct Democracy Centre                                 Convention on the Prohibition of the Development,
http://c2d.unige.ch/index.msql                               Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and
                                                             on Their Destruction, (The Chemical Weapons Convention)
IPU, Handbook for Parliamentarians: respect for              1993; Monitor: The Organisation for the Prohibition of
international law (Geneva, 1999)                             Chemical Weapons (OPCW)
IPU, Democracy: its principles and achievement (Geneva,      Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls for
1998)                                                        Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies,
Regional:                                                    1996

ALADI, Latin American Integration Association                EU Programme for Preventing and Combating Illicit
http://tips.org.uy/aladiweb/                                 Trafficking in Conventional Arms, adopted by EU Council
                                                             working group COARM, 1997
Maren M, The Road to Hell: the ravaging effects of foreign
aid and international charity (Free Press, 1997)             Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling,
                                                             Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on
Demilitarisation for Democracy at                            Their Destruction (The Mine Ban Treaty), 1997, also est.
http://www.fas.org/pub/gen/pdd/index.html                    Landmine Monitor, a global reporting network
                                                             Contribution of Parliaments to ensuring Respect for and
                                                             Promoting International Humanitarian Law on the Occasion
                                                             of the 50th Anniversary of the Geneva Conventions;
                                                             Resolution by the 102nd Inter-Parliamentary Conference
                                                             (Berlin, 15 October 1999)
                                                             See annex at 14.3




14.6 What measures, if any, are being taken to remedy publicly identified
problems in this field, and what degree of political priority and public support do
they have?

				
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