Democratic Audit: Framework for Democracy Assessment Block 4: Democracy Beyond the State Section 14: The international dimensions of democracy Is the country free from external subordination? And does it promote democracy and human rights abroad? If the core idea of democracy is that of self-government, of control by the people of the decisions that affect their collective lives, then a democratic audit cannot ignore the ways in which those decisions may be determined by institutions or forces external to the state. A country might have the most perfect democracy internally, but enjoy little real self-government if most of the decisions that matter for the life of its citizens are taken beyond its borders. Such a situation has been called the “hollowing out” of democracy. At the same time the quality of a country‟s democratic life is also to be gauged by how it treats other countries and their citizens, by whether it observes the international rule of law, and by how far its policies are supportive of democracy abroad. Thus, it is necessary to consider first how far, if at all, a country‟s policy is determined from outside in ways that are beyond its control; the nature of its power and influence in international bodies; its respect for international treaties and international law; its treatment of asylum seekers; and the consistency of its support for human rights and democracy abroad. 14.1 How free is the governance of the country from subordination to external agencies, economic, cultural or political? Relevant data 1 Negative indicators: examine the evidence of the subordination of government to external agencies in the determination of policy, legislation or government expenditure; the extent of aid dependency and international indebtedness; domination of the economy by foreign companies; foreign control of the media and other forms of cultural production. See also 7.1 and 10.1 Generalised sources Possible International Standards International Monetary Fund, International Financial OECD Criminal Law Convention on Corruption, 1999 Statistics (IMF, Washington DC, annual) UNEP IE (1995) Technical Report No. 29, Paris (travel IMF, Balance of Payments Manual, 5th edition (IMF, industry/tourism and host community ‘codes of conduct’) Washington DC, 1993) Indirect indicator of economic dependence is net barter terms of trade, calculated from COMTRADE database of US Statistical Division World Bank, World Debt Tables (annual) Debt statistics also available from Bank for International Settlements and OECD, Development Assistance Committee (DAC) World Bank, World Development Report (WDR): military expenditure as % GDP, Table 17, p.222; official development assistance in $ per capita and as % of GNP, Table 21, p.230 The International Institute for Strategic Studies, The Military Balance (Oxford University Press, Oxford), annual handbook for comprehensive data on military expenditure, updated at http://www.isn.ethz.ch/iiss Global Policy Forum http://www.globalpolicy.org/ Also, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute; Stimson Center (peacekeeping, military export policies and arms control) http://www.stimson.org/pubs/allpubs.htm Janes military database http://www.btg.com/janes/ Regional: CEPAL, Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean http://www.eclac.cl/ UNESCO, International Telecommunication Union questionnaires Network Wizards, Menlo Park, California (on internet accessibility) UN International Computing Centre http://www.unicc.org Latin America Bureau; Virtual Parliamentary Forum of the Americas http://www.parlamericas.qc.ca/RAND http://www.rand.org/ Books: OECD, Development Co-operation (OECD, Paris, annual) World Bank, Global Development Finance 1998 (World Bank, Washington DC, 1998) Human Rights Watch reports on Multinational Corporations (MNCs) and host countries US Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA), World Military Expenditures and Arms Transfers (ACDA, Washington DC, annual), and various country-specific studies Zimbabwe example of ‘best practice’ at http://campfire- zimbabwe.org IMF, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook (system derivative of UN classification standards) Sivard R L, World Military and Social Expenditure (World Priorities, Washington DC, various years, including 1993) O’Driscoll, Holmes and Kirkpatrick, Index of Freedom (2000) http://www.heritage.org/index/index.html The Fraser Institute, Economic Freedom of the World: 2000 annual report http://www.freetheworld.com/release.html Committee for Middle East Trade (COMET) http://www.comet.org.uk/ International Trade Division http://www.worldbank.org/html/iecit/iecit.html India – Opportunities in Business, Trade, the Market and Infrastructure http://www.indiaintl.com/ Environment and Trade: a handbook at http://iisd.ca/trade/handbook/ Country Reports on Economic Policy and Trade Practices at http://www.tradecompass.com/library/dos/ecopol/index.html World Trade Organisation http://www.wto.org/wto/index.htm IMF Working Papers Error! Bookmark not defined. 14.2 How far are government relations with international organisations based on principles of partnership and transparency? Relevant data 1 Laws: examine whether lender and borrower governments are party to OECD (DAC), World Bank, UN, economic codes of best practice in monetary transfers. 2 Positive and negative indicators: examine whether there is evidence of a lack of probity by either party. For example, corruption or redirection of funds; delay of monetary transfer for improper reason; evidence of technological lock-ins; excess fees that were not made apparent in the initial documentation; „small print‟ that raises the cost above the initial quoted figures for the transaction; undue interference in the management of development projects. Generalised sources Possible International Standards OECD, Development Co-operation (OECD, Paris, annual) OECD 1996, Shaping the 21st Century: the contribution of development co-operation. ‘We should aim for nothing less World Bank, Global Development Finance (World Bank, than to assure that the entire range of industrialised country Washington DC, 1998) policies are consistent with and do not undermine Economic Reconstruction and Development in South East development objectives.’ From Europe http://www.seerecon.org/ http://www.oecd.org/dac/htm/stc.htm Centre for Co-operation with the Economies in Transition Declaration on Social Progress and Development, United (CCET) http://www.oecd.org/sge/ccet/ Nations General Assembly, 1969 Renewing the ACP-EU Partnership Declaration on the Right to Development, United Nations http://www.idea.int/lome/welcome.html General Assembly, 1986 The Europa Directory of International Organisations International IDEA, Code of Conduct: ethical and (Europa, London, May 2000) Europa at professional observation of elections www.europapublications.co.uk World Bank, Comprehensive Development Framework [full Relief Web Financial, Tracking Database for Complex title: A Proposal for a Comprehensive Development Emergencies (FTS) http://www.reliefweb.int/fts/index.html, Framework (A Discussion Draft) 1999] including the new ECHO 14-point donor reporting http://www.worldbank.org conventions and humanitarian assistance procedures OECD DAC, 21st-Century Strategy [full title: Shaping the Global Policy Forum http://www.globalpolicy.org/ 21st Century: The Contribution of Development Co- operation (May 1996)] http://www.oecd.org/dac Southern African Development Community, links to all departments and contact details from UN Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF) http://www.mbendi.co.za/orsadc.htm Proposed 1997, developed further in 1998 following consultations. Fullest elaboration found in country Southern African Research and Documentation Centre programmes, eg, http://www.sardc.net/index.cfm http://www.unsystemmoz.organisation/undaf/ O’Driscoll, Holmes and Kirkpatrick, Index of Freedom (Mozambique); (2000) http://www.heritage.org/index/index.html http://www.un.organisation.in/undaf/default.htm (India) The Fraser Institute, Economic Freedom of the World: 2000 Global UNDAF Guidelines (n.d.) annual report http://www.freetheworld.com/release.html http://www.unsystemmoz.org/undaf/undafcca/default.asp International Reform Monitor: Social Policy, Labour Market The UN International Development Targets – as requested of Policy, Industrial Relations the Secretary-General, by the General Assembly in Resolution 53/192 (1999) (para 60) (OECD-based) http://www.reformmonitor.org The Commonwealth, The Harare Declaration, 1991 Environment and Trade: a handbook at http://iisd.ca/trade/handbook/ Core ILO conventions: Country Reports on Economic Policy and Trade Practices at (C29, C87, C98, C100, C105, C111, C13, C182) http://www.tradecompass.com/library/dos/ecopol/index.html Campaigning: IMF Working Papers UN Global Compact Network http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/CAT/wp.cfm http://www.unglobalcompact.org United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM) Agenda 21: the Rio Declaration on Environment and http://www.unifem.undp.org/ Development, 1992 The Foreign Affairs Guide to International Affairs on the Internet http://www.foreignaffairs.org/links.html The Commission on Global Governance http://www.cgg.ch/ C2D, Direct Democracy Centre http://c2d.unige.ch/index.msql Global Coalition for Africa http://www.gca- cma.org/emenu.htm Global Economy links on the World Bank and IMF http://www.globalexchange.org/wbimf/links.html CEPAL, Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean http://www.eclac.cl/ Latin America Bureau; Virtual Parliamentary Forum of the Americas http://www.parlamericas.qc.ca/RAND http://www.rand.org/ ALADI, Latin American Integration Association http://tips.org.uy/aladiweb/ Maren M, The Road to Hell: the ravaging effects of foreign aid and international charity (Free Press, 1997) AccountAbility: Institute of Social and Ethical AccountAbility http://www.iseaaccountability.freeserve.co.uk/ South Centre http://www.southcentre.org/ Oxfam Policy Papers http://www.oxfam.org.uk/policy/papers/lpapers.htm New Internationalist magazine via http://www.oneworld.org/ni/ Macro-economic Sources http://www-wds.worldbank.org (South Africa) Idasa papers http://www.idasa.org.za/ Multilaterals Project http://fletcher.tufts.edu/multilaterals.html (texts of international multilateral conventions and other instruments) Global Economy links on the World Bank and IMF at http://www.globalexchange.org/wbimf/links.html United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) http://www.unescap.org Euroguide http://www.euroguide.org/ Economic and Social Rights eThesaurus, compiled by the American Association for the Advancement of Science, at http://shr.aaas.org/ethesaurus.nsf/main?openframeset 14.3 How far does the government support UN human rights treaties and respect international law? Relevant data 1 Laws: examine the country‟s ratification of UN and regional human rights treaties, and its membership of UN agencies. 2 Implementation: examine the extent to which the government respects human rights treaty provisions and supports UN agencies in practice. 3 Negative indicators: investigate evidence of significant gaps in treaty ratification or agency membership; clear breaches of international law or treaty obligation; failure to pay financial contributions. Generalised sources Possible International standards Major international: UN Treaty Database http://www.un.org/Depts/Treaty/Amnesty International ICCPR: Optional Protocol to ICCPR; and Second Optional annual reports: appendices VI and VII – ratification, Protocol to ICCPR – aiming at abolition of the death penalty signatures to international (VI) and regional (VII) principal human rights treaties; also in annual report, separate country ICESCR: Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, audits for incidence of violations Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment US State Department Country Reports at Convention and Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees http://www.state.gov Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Inter-America Institute for Human Rights Discrimination Against Women http://www.iidh.ed.cr ILO Convention No. 143, 1975 Migrations in Abusive Diplomacy and International Affairs Hypertext Information Conditions System, Listing of International Accords at http://heimedac.unige.ch/doilm/grdoilm.html United Nations, Geneva Convention, 1951 Political Institutions and Global Environmental Change Declaration on the Protection of Women and Children in website produced by the Consortium for International Earth Emergency and Armed Conflict, United Nations General Science Information Network (CIESIN) at Assembly, 1974 http://www.ciesin.org/tg/pi/pi-home.html Declaration on Social Progress and Development, United ‘Footprint’ ranking of environmental impact at Nations General Assembly, 1969 http://www.ecouncil.ac.cr/rio/focus/report/english/footprint/r Declaration on the Right to Development, United Nations anking.htm General Assembly, 1986 Stokke H and Tostensen A (eds), Human Rights in United Nations General Assembly, Declaration on the Use of Development Yearbook (Kluwer Law International) Scientific and Technological Progress in the Interests of Cook R J (ed.), Human Rights of Women (Pennsylvania Peace and for the Benefit of Mankind, November 1975 Press, 1994), appendix A on ratifications of covenants and Strong Action by National Parliaments in the Year of the treaties affecting women 50th Anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Directory to the Subject Bibliographies in Environmental Rights to ensure the Promotion and Protection of all Human Ethics http://ecoethics.net/bib/ Rights in the 21st Century, Resolution adopted by the 100th Inter-Parliamentary Conference (Moscow, 11 September World Resources Institute 1998) http://www.wri.org/wr2000/index.html Regional: Environmental Information Networking at http://www.unep.org/unep/eia/ein/grid/web/document/ein.ht OAU African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights, 1981 m Human Rights Treaties and International Law, possible United Nations System-Wide Website on National international standards and examples of good practice Implementation of the Rio Commitments Regional: http://www.un.org/esa/agenda21/natlinfo/ (statistics on social and ecological balances) Organisation of American States (OAS), American Convention on Human Rights, 1969 Earth Council Ombudsman http://www.ecouncil.ac.cr/ecombud.htm Inter-American Convention to Prevent and Punish Torture, 1985 Criminal Organisations and Crimes Against the Environment http://www.unicri.it/html/cocae.htm Inter-American Convention on the Forced Disappearance of Persons, 1994 South African Crime Research Guide: Environmental Crime http://www.crimeresearch.org.za/environmentcrime.html Council of Europe, European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, 1950; Article Environmental Investigation Agency 25 thereof recognising competence of European Commission http://www.eia-international.org/ to consider violations; Article 46 thereof, recognising the jurisdiction of the European Court of Human Rights; UN Second World Water Forum and Ministerial Conference, Protocol No. 6 concerning the abolition of the death penalty, The Hague (March 2000) 1983 http://www.worldwatercommission.org/ OECD Criminal Law Convention on Corruption, 1999 UN Commission on Sustainable Development http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/csd.htm Council of Europe, European Convention for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Transnational Foundation for Peace and Future Research Punishment, 1987 http://www.transnational.org/publica/index.html OAU, Inter-African Convention Establishing an African Technical Co-operation Programme OAU, Constitution of the Association of African Trade Promotion Organisations OAU, Cultural Charter for Africa OAU, Agreement for the Establishment of the African Rehabilitation Institute Environment: Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, 12 August 1992 Framework Convention on Climate Change, United Nations, and the subsequent 1997 Kyoto Protocol Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal, United Nations Environment Programme Convention on Biological Diversity, 5 June 1992 The 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, 1985, UNEP Doc. IG.53/5; UKTS 1, 1990 Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) http://www.wcmc.org.uk/CITES/eng/index.shtml OAU, Bamako Convention on the Ban of the Import into Africa and the Control of Transboundary Movement and Management of Hazardous Wastes within Africa OAU, The African Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone Treaty (the Treaty of PELINDABA) OAU, Convention on Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources UNEP IE, 1995, Technical Report No. 29, Paris (travel industry/tourism and host community ‘codes of conduct’) Conference for Security and Co-operation in Europe (CSCE); Meeting on the Protection of the Environment, Sofia, November 1989 Maastricht Treaty on European Union, 1992, provides EU citizens with a basis for prosecution of member governments for breach of European environmental laws Non-legally Binding Authoritative Statement of Principles for a Global Consensus on the Management, Conservation and Sustainable Development of All Types of Forests, 1992, adopted at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, Rio de Janeiro (the ‘Forest Principles’) UN Convention to Combat Desertification, 1994 UN Convention on Biological Diversity, 1992 Mar del Plata Action Plan adopted by the United Nations Water Conference, 1977 Agenda 21 (especially Section II) Refugees, stateless persons and the rights of migrants: United Nations General Assembly, Statute of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, December 1950 United Nations Conference of Plenipotentiaries on the Status of Refugees and Stateless Persons, Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, April 1954 United Nations Conference of Plenipotentiaries, Convention Relating to the Status of Stateless Persons, June 1960 United Nations General Assembly, Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness, December 1975 United Nations General Assembly, Declaration on Territorial Asylum, December 1967 United Nations, Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees, October 1967 United Nations, Migrations in Abusive Conditions United Nations, Promotion of Equality of Opportunity and Treatment of Migrant Workers Support of Parliaments for the Rights of Refugees and Persons Displaced by War and Occupation, and Assistance with a view to their Repatriation, and for International Co- operation to Develop and Implement Strategies to Combat the Criminal Activity of People-Smuggling, Resolution of 103rd Inter-Parliamentary Conference, Amman, 5 May 2000 OAU, Convention Governing Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa Military: Genocide Convention, 1948 Geneva Conventions, 1949 Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction (Biological Weapons Convention), 1972 Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons which may be Deemed to be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects (Convention on Conventional Weapons), 1980, and Four Protocols (voluntary) United Nations Register on Conventional Arms, 1992 Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction, (The Chemical Weapons Convention) 1993; Monitor: The Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls for Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies 1996 EU Programme for Preventing and Combating Illicit Trafficking in Conventional Arms, adopted by EU Council working group COARM, 1997 Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on Their Destruction (The Mine Ban Treaty), 1997, also est. Landmine Monitor, a global reporting network Contribution of Parliaments to ensuring Respect for and Promoting International Humanitarian Law on the Occasion of the 50th Anniversary of the Geneva Conventions, Resolution by the 102nd Inter-Parliamentary Conference (Berlin, 15 October 1999) The Need to Revise the Current Global Financial and Economic Model, Resolution of the 102nd Inter- Parliamentary Conference (Berlin, 15 October 1999) Regional (arms): Inter-American Convention Against the Illicit Production of and Trafficking in Firearms, Ammunition, Explosives and Other Related Materials of the Organisation of American States, 1997 EU European Code of Conduct on Arms Transfers, 1998 OAU, Mechanism for Conflict Prevention, Management and Resolution, June 1993 OCSE, Istanbul Summit Declaration, Charter for European Security, 1999 (NGO-initiated) International Action Network on Small Arms (IANSA) 14.4 How far does the government respect its international obligations in its treatment of refugees and asylum seekers, and how free from arbitrary discrimination is its immigration policy? Relevant data 1 Laws: examine legislation on immigrants, refugees and asylum seekers, and its conformity to relevant treaty standards, including rights of appeal. 2 Implementation: examine whether procedures for the treatment of applic-ants are fair, impartial and independent, and whether practice conforms to international obligations. 3 Negative indicators: investigate incidence of discriminatory treatment of immigrants or refugees on grounds of race, gender or other non-relevant characteristic; of detention without due process; of maltreatment; of other denial of human rights. Generalised sources Possible International standards UNHCR, RefWorld, information on refugees worldwide United Nations General Assembly, Statute of the Office of available from http://www.unhcr.ch/refworld/welcome.htm the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, December 1950 Amnesty International annual report: appendix VI, signatories and ratifications of Convention relating to the United Nations Conference of Plenipotentiaries on the Status Status of Refugees, 1951; Protocol relating to the Status of of Refugees and Stateless Persons, Convention Relating to Refugees, 1967 (pp382-390) the Status of Refugees, April 1954 Human Rights Watch country reports on refugee treatment United Nations Conference of Plenipotentiaries, Convention and status, and book: Uncertain Refuge: international Relating to the Status of Stateless Persons, June 1960 failures to protect refugees, United Nations High United Nations General Assembly, Convention on the Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) at Reduction of Statelessness, December 1975 http://www.unhcr.ch United Nations General Assembly, Declaration on Territorial UNHCR, The State of the World’s Refugees 1997-98: a Asylum, December 1967 humanitarian agenda (Oxford University Press, UNHCR, 1997), especially tables pp286-292, on numbers of refugees United Nations, Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees, and asylum applications and admissions to the industrialised October 1967 states 1987-96, also p.258, States parties to the 1954 and 1961 ILO Convention No. 143, 1975 Migrations in Abusive Conditions The State of the World’s Refugees: in search of solutions (OUP/UNHCR, 1995) at UN Convention on the Protection of the Rights of all http://www.unhcr.ch/refworld/pub/state/95/contents.htm Migrant Workers and Members of their Families, 1990 Conventions on Statelessness (country-specific and others), Support of Parliaments for the Rights of Refugees and HRW, at http://www.hrw.org/hrw/pubweb/Webcat-40htm Persons Displaced by War and Occupation, and Assistance with a view to their Repatriation, and for International Co- International Red Cross and Red Crescent operation to Develop and Implement Strategies to Combat http://www.icrc.org the Criminal Activity of People-Smuggling, Resolution of 103rd Inter-Parliamentary Conference, Amman, 5 May 2000 Migrants and Refugees: a world on the move at http://www.oneworld.org/guides/migration/index.html OAU, Convention Governing Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa, 1974 Refugees Daily http://www.unhcr.ch/news/media/daily.htm The Forced Migration Monitor (former USSR) http://www.soros.org/fmp2/html/fmmonitor.html United States Committee for Refugees, World Refugee Survey (Washington DC, annual) IMER Norway/Bergen, International Migration and Ethnic Research centre at http://www.svf.uib.no/sefos/IMER/welcomeeng.html State of Albania – International Crisis Group, 1999, at http://www.crisisweb.org/projects/sbalkans/reports/alb05mai .htm Earth Council Ombudsman Error! Bookmark not defined. 14.5 How consistent is the government in its support for human rights and democracy abroad? Relevant data 1 Positive and negative indicators: examine evidence for the consistency of government support, including financial support, for human rights and democracy a) in other countries b) in the operation of international and regional institutions of which it is a member. Generalised sources Possible International standards UN Treaty Database http://www.un.org/Depts/Treaty/ Genocide Convention, 1948 The Europa Directory of International Organisations Geneva Conventions, 1949 (Europa, London, May 2000) Europa at Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, www.europapublications.co.uk Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) International Peace Academy http://www.ipacademy.org/ and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction (Biological Weapons Convention), 1972 Stimson Center (foreign and military policy and peacekeeping) http://www.stimson.org/pubs/allpubs.htm Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons which may be Deemed to be Global Policy Forum http://www.globalpolicy.org/ Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects The Foreign Affairs Guide to International Affairs on the (Convention on Conventional Weapons), 1980, and Four Internet http://www.foreignaffairs.org/links.html Protocols (voluntary) The Commission on Global Governance http://www.cgg.ch/ United Nations Register on Conventional Arms, 1992 C2D, Direct Democracy Centre Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, http://c2d.unige.ch/index.msql Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction, (The Chemical Weapons Convention) IPU, Handbook for Parliamentarians: respect for 1993; Monitor: The Organisation for the Prohibition of international law (Geneva, 1999) Chemical Weapons (OPCW) IPU, Democracy: its principles and achievement (Geneva, Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls for 1998) Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies, Regional: 1996 ALADI, Latin American Integration Association EU Programme for Preventing and Combating Illicit http://tips.org.uy/aladiweb/ Trafficking in Conventional Arms, adopted by EU Council working group COARM, 1997 Maren M, The Road to Hell: the ravaging effects of foreign aid and international charity (Free Press, 1997) Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on Demilitarisation for Democracy at Their Destruction (The Mine Ban Treaty), 1997, also est. http://www.fas.org/pub/gen/pdd/index.html Landmine Monitor, a global reporting network Contribution of Parliaments to ensuring Respect for and Promoting International Humanitarian Law on the Occasion of the 50th Anniversary of the Geneva Conventions; Resolution by the 102nd Inter-Parliamentary Conference (Berlin, 15 October 1999) See annex at 14.3 14.6 What measures, if any, are being taken to remedy publicly identified problems in this field, and what degree of political priority and public support do they have?