CCBNews on Local Agenda 21 by taoyni


									            CCBNews on Local Agenda 21
           Volume 1, Issue 4, Early 2002

                                2            Local Agenda 21 in the BSC. The Concept
                                3-4          Green World on Sustainable Development
                                5-6          Regional Initiatives & Activities
                                6-8          Sustainable Initiatives in
                                             St. Petersburg & Leningrad Region
                                8-9          Local & National Agenda Work in Estonia
                                10-11        An Agenda 21 for Education for sustainable
                                             development in the Baltic Sea Region - Baltic 21E
                                11           Baltic 21
                                12-15        The Role of Nature, Culture, Economy and Traffic
                                             in Planning Coastal Areas: 3 Examples
                                15           Criminal News!
                                16-19        2002 Environmental Sustainability Index
                                17-18        Some Comments on Sustainability Indices
                                19           Glossary
                                20           FoE letter to WEF
                                21-22        Local & National Agenda Work in Latvia
                                22-24        Local & National Agenda Work in Lithuania
                                24-26        Local & National Agenda Work in Poland
                                27           Lomborgiana or Now Windmills Hit Below
                                             the Belt
                                28           Technology News or Will it Make a Difference

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       CCB News
                                       is in
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  Page 1                                                                                    Volume 1 Issue 4
         Local and National Agenda 21 in the Baltic Sea Countries
         By Johan Niss

         The Concept
       Local Agenda 21 as a concept was materialized in the Agenda 21                   3.       NGO involvement has been crucial, but in different ways. In some
    and defined as an activity where the adoption of a Local Agenda 21 is             countries the NGOs have been more active on the national level, while in
    developed and co-ordinated by the local authorities via a process of              others the involvement has been most notable at the local level.
    consultation “with its citizens, local organizations and private enterprises…”1
    (UN 1992, Chapter 28.3). The chapter 28 of Agenda 21, where this is                  The difference being that local involvement has been stronger where lo-
    defined, is primarily procedural and not substantive, leaving it to the           cal municipalities has had less autonomy and in greater need to form part-
    local authorities to design and implement their own interpretation of how         nerships to be able to achieve something. In the latest larger sum-up of the
    the intentions and ideas outlined in the Agenda 21 are to be materialised         process of implementing the Agenda 21, at the UNGASS4 in 1997, it was
    in the community. The overarching goal, in its more positive interpreta-          noted that more than 1800 local municipalities had started LA21 activities5
    tion, is that developing the Local Agenda 21 is supposed to be the pro-           (ICLEI 1997, III A). Also the LA21 is regarded as effective in its task to provide
    cess needed to achieve local sustainable development, integrating lo-             results, as stated in the report of the UN Secretary-General on the overall
    cal economic, social and ecological perspectives.                                 progress since UNCED: “Some of the most promising developments have
                                                                                      taken place at the level of cities and municipalities, where local Agenda 21
       As a policy instrument Local Agenda 21 can be categorized as a soft            initiatives have predominated. … Local-level strategies and plans have
    policy instrument since it builds on a process of involving all local stake-      proved far more successful than those at the national level in terms of mak-
    holders in a consensus process. It could be implemented as a negoti-              ing a direct impact.”6 (Osborn and Bigg 1998, Annex 3).
    ated, voluntary agreement between the municipality and its inhabitants
    and business. The approach differs from municipality to municipality but            _________________________________________
    in general Lafferty and Eckerberg (1998, 247-250)3 concludes that there                    1
                                                                                                   United Nations (1992). Report of the UN Conference on Environment and
    are two main determinants for the successful implementation of LA21:                         development, June 1992. Vol 1: Resolutions Adopted by the Conference. UN, New
                                                                                                  Lafferty A. William and Katarina Eckerberg eds. (1997).
      1.        Previously established environmental policy tradition on the                     From Earth Summit to Local Forum – Studies of Local Agenda 21 in Europe. Oslo:
    local level, since the LA21 work is often expanding from the environmen-                     Program for Research and Documentation for a Sustainable Society (ProSus).
                                                                                                  Lafferty A. William and Katarina Eckerberg (1998). From the Earth Summit to Local
    tal field and including other sectors into its framework                                     Agenda 21 – Working Towards Sustainable development. London: Earthscan.
                                                                                                  In this case it is the United Nations General Assembly “Earth Summit +5” Special
      2.      Local autonomy in terms of possibilities to lever taxes/revenues                   Session holding the follow-up of the adoption of Agenda 21 in Rio de Janeiro in
    for an own budget, decision-making power about spatial planning, etc.                        5
                                                                                                   International Council for Environmental Local Initiatives/ICLEI (1997). Local Agenda
                                                                                                 21 Survey – A Study of Responses by Local Authorities and Their National and
      Other important factors that determines the progress of implementing                       International Associations to Agenda 21.[Online] ICLEI in co-operation with UNDPCSD/
                                                                                                 United Nations Department for Policy Co-ordination and Sustainable Development.
    Local Agenda 21 are (Lafferty and Eckerberg 1997, 281-290):                                  Available: [June 16, 1999].
                                                                                                  Quote taken from paragraph 84 in the Report of the UN Secretary-General titled: E/
      1.      Local community networks, both at the local level as well as                       CN.17/1997/Z 31 January 1997 Overall Progress Achieved since the United Nations
                                                                                                 Conference on Environment and Development. In Earth Summit II Outcomes and
    the national and international level.                                                        Analysis by Derek Osborn and Tom Bigg, 1998.

       2.      National co-ordination and support, especially for production
    and dissemination of information and providing financial support. Na-
    tional authorities and/or local municipality associations take on this na-
    tional co-ordination.

     On following pages different chapters and
     several national reports occur in more or
     less cropped and edited versions. The
     editor is convinced, that there is no need
     to copy the whole report, though brilliant
     and thorough, on the pages of the News-
     letter. Nevertheless the report can be
     found on the official website of the CCB.

     Hereby we should like to pinpoint the fact
     that the report is made available to the
     Newsletter by Johan Niss of the SSNC.

     Materials from the online newsletter
     Green World are also used for the over-

Page 2                                                                                                                                                   Volume 1 Issue 4
    Green World on Sustainable Development, April 1997.

                                                                                           has also become a new strategic principle of Russia’s fisheries policy in order
               COAST AREAS
    OCEANS AND COASTAL AREAS                                                               to ensure the sustainable development of its fishing industry and equal
                                                                                           opportunities for use of these resources under all forms of ownership.

    Decision-Making: Legislation and Regulations                                             To this end, the Federal Programme for the Development of the Fishing
                                                                                           Industry of the Russian Federation up to 2000 (“Ryba”) sets out what are
       The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea was signed                      basically stabilization measures. This approach is essentially based on genuine
    in 1982. In July 1996 the Government of the Russian Federation                         State support (budget allocations, grants to meet additional expenditures
    approved the Convention and submitted it to the President for                          connected with higher prices of energy, fishing equipment and feedstuffs;
    transmission to the State Duma for ratification.                                       organization of preferential tax and credit terms; reduction of customs duties)
                                                                                           and on expanded foreign investment to secure an increase in marine catches
     The following are responsible for decision-making for oceans and                      of 4-4.5 million tons by 2000.
    coastal areas:
             · Ministry of Natural Resources of Russian Federation,                        Status
             · Russian Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental
             · Ministry of Science and Technology of Russian Federation ,                     Russia has been always known as a leading maritime nation. The marine
             · State Committee on the Environment of Russian Federation.                   boundary is equal to 38,8 thousand km, the shelf zone occupies 4,2 mln
                                                                                           km2, 3,9 million km2 are rich of hydrocarbons (that means that 80% of potential
      Relevant legislation for oceans and coastal areas include the
                                                                                           oil and gas is accumulated in shelf zone).
             · The Continental Shelf Law of the Russian Federation, 1995;                   Major current uses of the coastal areas in the Russian Federation are mining
             · The Law on Internal Seas, The Territorial Seas and Adjacent Zone of the
               Russian Federation, 1998.                                                   and oil exploitation.
             · The Water Code of the Russian Federation, 1995.
             · The Subsurface Law of the Russian Federation, 1992 with Amendments of          Russia’s fishing industry has been facing a period of acute crisis, with a
                                                                                           decline in catches and output of food products and, most of important of
    Programmes and Projects                                                                all, a decrease in the availability of fish products in Russia, something which
                                                                                           is unjustified given the shortage of foodstuffs in general and of animal protein
      A Federal special-purpose programme called World Ocean was                           in particular. Together with the domestic economic difficulties of Russia’s fishing
    approved in 1998 and is aimed at the comprehensive approach                            industry, serious new problems have arisen in the international situation. This is
    and co-ordination of the national ministries and agencies activities in                primarily a matter of water- resource and fisheries relations with the former
    respect of seas and oceans. It is supposed to be implemented in 3                      republics of the Soviet Union which are now sovereign States - Estonia,
    stages:                                                                                Lithuania, Latvia, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Khazakstan and Turkmenistan.
                                                                                           Russia has to solve these extremely complicated and entirely new problems
      The settlement of disputes on marine state boundaries;                               of an international legal and economic nature for the regions of the Caspian,
                                                                                           Black and Baltic Seas.
             · national security provision;
             · experimental use of marine technology;
             · adequate and proved fish and marine products catch for national                Some of the difficulties which Russia’s fishing industry is experiencing are
                                                                                           specific to itself, but there are many global reasons for the worsening of the
      Extraction of mineral resources on industrial scale;                                 situation:
             · energy supply of coastal regions;                                                    · Decline of basic stocks for valuable traditional products of the industry, together with a
             · integrated management of coastal zone;                                                 drop in catches per unit;
                                                                                                    · Overall decline in the economic indicators of the activities of the fleet and shore
      Improvement of trade relations and equal opportunities at the                                   enterprises;
    international market;                                                                           · Intensification of uncontrolled international fishing on the high seas and, in particular,
                                                                                                      in the northern Pacific Ocean and Barents Sea;
             · new technology large-scale use;                                                      · Use of unselective equipment and fishing techniques, etc. Accordingly, Russia has a
             · national integrated informational system on use of seas and oceans;                    serious interest in broad international cooperation in the rational exploitation of the
             · the expansion of the economic potential of the country through the use of              bioresources of the world’s oceans as a means of checking these negative trends.
               ocean territories;
             · stabilisation of economic, ecological and social processes as a result of   Challenges
               integrated ocean development.

      The Integrated Programme on Coastal Zone Management and                                Priority constraints include the following:
    effective use of natural resources in the region of the Black and Azov                   • changing geopolitical situation and newly established state marine
    Seas for the 1998-2010 was adopted in 1998. There is also an                           boundaries;
    Integrated Programme on Coastal Zone Management in the Region                            • aggravating economic situation;
    of the Caspian Sea.                                                                      • increasing international competition for property rights of the Ocean zones
                                                                                           and resources;
      It is assumed that the resources of the World Ocean supersede that                     • the absence of the mechanism of the interregional and interbranch co-
    of the continents and represent the main source of the future and the                  ordination in oceanic projects.
    main prerequisite of the sustainable development of coastal regions.
    The off-shore development also helms to avoid the destruction of                       Capacity-building, Education, Training and Awareness-raising
    landscapes and loss of agricultural lands as a result of mining.
                                                                                            The year 1998 was proclaimed as the International Ocean Year and was
      The Federal Programme “ World Ocean” 1998-2020 includes a                            marked by a number of events in Russia. Some of these were as follows:
    Subprogram on Mineral Resources of the Ocean, Arctic and Antarctic                               Participation in the Meeting of the NGO Advisory Committee of Protection of Seas in
    prepared by the Ministry of Natural Resources of of the Russian                                   Stockholm
    Federation. The subprogram is aimed at the exploration and the                                   Distribution and signing of individual “My Ocean Charter (Khartya)” (initiated by UNESCO)
                                                                                                      by a large number of people. On behalf of the Ministry of Natural Resources of the
    subsequent exploitation of the natural resources base of the                                      Russian Federation this Khartya has been send to regional sea committees for signing.
    continental shelf and the Ocean. It promotes development of the                                  Russia has been participated in EXPO-98 devoted to seas and oceans with exposition
    legislative, informational and technological base of the Ocean                                    on scientific research of the oceans and the history of their exploration in Russia.
                                                                                                     The International Conference “The International Law problems of the World Ocean”
    exploration. By the end of the Programme term a large scale                                       devoted to the International Ocean Year is going to take place in 2-6 November 1998
    exploitation of oceanic mineral resources will be put into practice.                              in Moscow.

             · It also stimulates the development of the state policy in respect of the      The Russian Federation has concluded the latest cycle of research under
               oceanic mineral resources, including:
             · political and judicial problems settlement;
                                                                                           the federal programme Comprehensive research in oceans and seas and
             · economic development of coastal areas;                                      in the Arctic and Antarctic, which included the following components:
             · social and unemployment problems settlement;
                                                                                                    · The physical fields of Russia’s seas and the oceans, their interaction with the atmosphere,
             · provision of coordinative and integrated management of coastal zones
                                                                                                      and the forecasting of short-range changes in the ocean climate;
               and the natural environment.
                                                                                                    · The chemical regime of Russia’s seas and the oceans, mineral and raw material
      The total costs of the programme - 190 bln. rub.                                                resources, hydrochemical bases of bioproductivity, and anthropogenic changes in
                                                                                                      the state of the waters;

      The management, conservation and optimal use of basic resources                                                                                             (Cont. on p.4)

Page 3                                                                                                                                                            Volume 1 Issue 4
      (Beginning on p. 3)

               · Ecosystem dynamics, and biological structure and resources of Russia’s seas           In cooperation with the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission
                 and the oceans;
               · The geosphere of oceans and seas; composition, structure, development,
                                                                                                     (IOC), World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Environment
                 forecasting and evaluation of mineral resources;                                    Programme (UNEP), International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) and
               · Arctic. Natural environment and its sustainability, mineral and biological          other international organizations, the Russian Federation is taking an active
                 resources, hydrometeorological forecasting, and climate;
               · Antarctic. Natural environment and global change trends;
                                                                                                     part in planning and preparing to implement the Global Ocean Observing
               · Technical ways and means of measurement, collection and processing of               System (GOOS).
                 environmental data; computer technology;
               · Russia’s seas. Natural resources and environmental situation; drafting of
                 recommendations on rational use of natural resources;                                  Together with countries bordering on the Sea of Japan (China, Republic
               · Economic, political and legal problems of scientific research on and use of the     of Korea, Japan) Russia is participating in the NEARGOOS project under
                 space and resources of the world’s oceans (especially Russia’s sea space), the      the GOOS programme. Similar activities are being developed with the
                 Arctic and Antarctic, and measures to maintain their environmental security.
                                                                                                     Black Sea countries. Russia has in operation an extensive system for the
    Information                                                                                      training of experts in marine hydrometeorology and oceanography and it
                                                                                                     is working under the programme of training, education and mutual
      At present the information is dispersed between agencies and                                   assistance (TEMA).
    ministries. (Rosgydromet of the Russian Federation, Ministry of Defence
    of the Russian Federation, Ministry of Communication of the Russian                                The Russian Federation is helping to strengthen international cooperation
    Federation, State Committee on Fishery of the Russian Federation,                                for the protection and rational use of seas and oceans. It is active in the
    Ministry of Transport of the Russian Federation, Ministry of Natural                             following programmes:
    Resources of the Russian Federation, State Committee on the                                               · The marine aspects of World Weather Watch (World Meteorological Organization
    Environment, etc) Within the framework of the Programme World Ocean                                         WMO);
    , a unified informational system is to be arranged . The system will                                                                                ,
                                                                                                              · The marine programmes of IOC, WMO, UNEP ICSU, International Maritime Organization
                                                                                                                (IMO), International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) and other
    facilitate access to the specialised information of different ministries                                    international organizations;
    and submission of the generalised information for the problems of                                         · The marine components of global systems for monitoring climate and droughts and
    comprehensive character. It will include the establishment of the bank                                      of the Global Ocean Observing System;
                                                                                                              · Marine pollution monitoring programmes.
    data on the regulative information
                                                                                                       Great importance is attached to expanding regional cooperation in the
      Under its marine research programme, new methods of marine                                     Black and Azov Seas and in the Caspian, Baltic, Japan and Bering Seas.
    forecasting have been devised and are being brought into operational                             Other matters of fundamental importance for the Russian Federation are
    use; the foundations have been laid for a modern national system for                             the forthcoming use of the northern sea route by international shipping
    processing marine data, including the use of super-computers; and                                and international cooperation in the Russian sector of the Arctic.
    marine information systems are being developed in the Arctic and
    Antarctic. Regular Antarctic research activities are continuing, together                           Fisheries cooperation with neighbouring countries with which Russia is
    with work at an extensive network of Antarctic stations located on the                           linked by long-term common interests, primarily the optimal use and
    ice continent.                                                                                   conservation of common or interlinked fish stocks (Norway, Finland, Sweden,
                                                                                                     Denmark, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Korea,
      A water quality monitoring programme has been in operation for                                 China, Japan, United States and the countries of the Black Sea and Caspian
    some time now in the territorial waters of the former USSR. In spite of the                      Sea basins), must of course be conducted under strict State control
    difficulties, this programme will be continued (at a level determined by                         regardless of the form of ownership of the vessels authorized to fish or
    available resources). A decision has been taken to establish a national                          conduct research operations. This approach is consistent with the
    reporting centre under the MARPOLMON programme.                                                  responsibility of a State for conservation of natural resources in the interests
                                                                                                     of present and future generations and its responsibility for the activities of
      Russia has a standing programme of data collection, analysis,                                  vessels flying its flag.
    evaluation and application with a view to rational resource use, including
    evaluation of the environmental impact of activities affecting coastal                             Another State responsibility is the very important aspect of international
    and marine regions. Data bases are being created for evaluation and                              activity represented by Russia’s active participation in the work of existing
    rational use of coastal regions and all seas and their resources, and                            and international fisheries organizations and others which are coming into
    measures are being carried out to support the regular monitoring of                              being. Russia welcomes in particular the adoption of two new
    the state of the environment of coastal and marine regions.                                      complementary instruments - the A greement for the Implementation of
                                                                                                     the Provisions of the United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea
      In developing the system of forecasting and other services                                     relating to the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks
    considerable attention is given to improving the components on the                               and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks, and the International Code of Conduct
    forecasting and detection of dangerous natural phenomena, such as                                for Responsible Fishing, in the drafting of which it took an active part. This
    high water levels, storm waves and tidal waves, and to an early-warning                          represents a contribution by the world ’s fishing community to the
    and response system for such phenomena.                                                          implementation of Agenda 21.

       Efforts are being made to combat the effects of the rise in the level                                      Federation      Party
                                                                                                     The Russian F ederation is a Party to the following related
    of the Caspian Sea. A system is being developed for forecasting the                              Conventions:
    level of the Caspian over various time spans, and it will be capable of
                                                                                                              Convention on the Protection of the Baltic Sea area,Helsinki,1992 In 1992 Convention
    predicting erratic changes. For example, the latest forecast of a change                                    was ratified by Russian Government
    in the average level of the Caspian Sea for one year ahead, produced                                      Convention on the Protection of the Black Sea Against Pollution, Bucharest, 1992
    at Russia’s hydrometeorological centre in 1996, predicts a slight drop.                                     (ratified in1993)
                                                                                                              United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, Montego Bay,1982 (ratified in
    Cooperation                                                                                               International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL),
                                                                                                                London1973, as amended by Protocol, London 1978 (ratified in 1983
                                                                                                              Convention on Future Multilateral Cooperation in North-East Atlantic Fisheries,
      In connection with its marine activities and use of marine resources                                      London,1980 ( Ratified in 1982)
    Russia is extensively engaged in international work under the auspices                                    Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources. Canberra,
    of the United Nations and other international governmental and non-                                       Convention for the Conservation of Salmon in the North Atlantic Ocean, Reykjavik,
    governmental organizations, and in bilateral and multilateral                                               1982.
    cooperation. In this connection the Russian Federation:
               · Participates in scientific research on and observation of the marine environment;
               · Conducts an active exchange of data and information resulting from scientific
                 research and systematic observation through a network of world, regional and
                 national centres.

      At present the Russian Federation has several data banks of direct
    relevance to the international programmes of WMO, including the World
    Weather Watch (WWW), and of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic
    Commission (IOC), as well as to other global observation systems, and
    takes an active part in international cooperation in the exchange of
    data and information and their storage and in the creation of archives
    through world and regional data centres.

Page 4                                                                                                                                                               Volume 1 Issue 4
                                                                                      The Action Programme comprises Joint Actions (issues concerning
   Regional initiatives and activities                                              several sectors); and Sector Actions and Spatial Planning Actions. When
                                                                                    Baltic 21 was adopted, it was also the start of the implementation of the
                                                                                    Action Programme.

     Governmental initiative - Baltic 211                                              Institution-strengthening, structural changes, education, exchange of
     Governmental initiatives on the regional level for Local Agenda 21 are         experience and other non-technical initiatives are at the core of the Action
                                                                                    Programme. There is an emphasis on building a foundation for the transition
   focused on supporting local government and NGO initiatives. However              to sustainable development. However, the programme also contains
   the governmental activities sets part of the frame for the possibilities to      demonstration and pilot projects, where more concrete investments are
                                                                                    called for.
   act as a municipality or NGO. Among the more important regional
   initiatives is the Baltic 21. Baltic 21 is the regional initiative and process     The responsibility for leading sector implementation work is distributed
                                                                                    among the countries and international organisations in the Baltic 21 Steering
   that develops and implements a regional Agenda 21 for the Baltic Sea             Group (the Senior Officials Group, SOG), which monitors, contributes to
   Region (BSR). It was started already in 1996 by the heads of state in            and steers the process.
   the BSR involving the 11 countries being members of the Council of the
                                                                                      The Baltic 21 Network consists of the CBSS countries; the European
   Baltic Sea States (CBSS). In 1998 the initial phase was finalized when           Union; intergovernmental organisations; international financial institutions;
                                                                                    and non-governmental organisations and networks.
   the foreign ministers of the CBSS adopted the Agenda 21 for the Baltic
   Sea Region – Baltic 21.                                                            Each sector is to take full responsibility for the implementation of its own
                                                                                    programme for sustainable development. The sectors have one or two Lead
                                                                                    Parties, and for each Joint Action a Responsible Actor has been or is about
                                                                                    to be nominated.
     The following overall goal for the Baltic 21 was adopted:
                                                                                       Lead Parties are Poland and the Helsinki Commission (HELCOM) for
     “The essential objective of the Baltic Sea Region co-operation is the
                                                                                    agriculture; Lithuania and Sweden for education; Denmark and Estonia for
   constant improvement of the living and working conditions of their
                                                                                    energy; the International Baltic Sea Fishery Commission for fisheries;
   peoples within the framework of sustainable development, sustainable
                                                                                    Finland and Lithuania for forests; Russia and Sweden for industry; Germany
   management of natural resources and protection of the environment.
                                                                                    and Latvia for transport; and VASAB for spatial planning. There is presently
   Sustainable development includes three mutually interdependent
                                                                                    no Lead Party for the tourism sector.
   dimensions - economic social and environmental. The means for the

     - A safe and healthy life for current and future generations.
                                                                                      The importance for the Local Agenda 21 processes on national and local
                                                                                    level in the Baltic Sea Region could be seen mainly as being the power of
     - A co-operative and prosperous economy and a society for all.
                                                                                    recognition and paving the way for funding of projects focused on Local
                                                                                    Agenda 21. The process itself was also designed to be in the spirit of Agenda
     - That local and regional co-operation is based on democracy,                  21 (involvement of major groups etc), functioning as an example for other
   openness and participation.                                                      international processes.
    - That biological and ecosystem diversity and productivity are restored
   or maintained.
                                                                                      Local authorities2
     - That pollution to the atmosphere land and water does not exceed                Among the initiatives from local authorities in the Baltic Sea Region the
   the carrying capacity of nature.
                                                                                    work made by the Union of the Baltic Cities (UBC) is the more advanced
     - Those renewable resources are efficiently used and managed within            and prolonged. UBC is an organisation established to facilitate and promote
   their regeneration capacity.                                                     co-operation and exchange between cities lying by the Baltic Sea. Presently
     - That materials flow of non-renewable resources is made efficient             it has 100 member cities from all Baltic Sea countries. It has a Commission
   and cyclic, and that renewable substitutes are created and promoted.             on Environment that is responsible for the work related to Local Agenda 21

      - That awareness of the elements and processes leading to                     and Baltic 21. In 1998, the UBC, as one of the main organisers, contributed
   sustainability is high among different actors and levels of society.             strongly to the organising of the Baltic Local Agenda 21 - Health and
                                                                                    Sustainable Cities Conference that was arranged in Finland in 1998. This
    The Baltic Sea Region recognizes its interdependence with other parts
   of the world and makes its contribution to the fulfilment of sustainable         conference created prerequisites for the local level implementation of Baltic
   development goals at the global and European level.”
                                                                                    21. In addition to this, it also was the first of the four regional European
                                                                                    Sustainable Cities and Towns conferences that were arranged during 1998
                                                                                    and 1999. The conference adopted the Turku Statement, declaring a strong
      Baltic 21 has been worked out jointly by a partnership of national
   governments, regional networks of cities and regions, intergovernmental          support, commitment and participation to the implementation of the Baltic
   organisations, the business community, environmental NGOs, and                   21 and specifies a list of goals for the municipalities in the Baltic Sea Region.
   international financial institutions.

     Baltic 21 is based on seven Sector Reports (agriculture, energy, fishery,
   forestry, industry, tourism and transport) and a number of other                   UBC is actively taking part in the development of the Baltic Local Agenda
   background reports (on spatial planning, financing options, indicators           21 Forum network (BLA21F) created to use an informal network to promote
   and scenarios). A special report has been developed by Coalition Clean           Local Agenda 21 in the Baltic Sea municipalities. UBC considers Local
   Baltic (CCB), the Baltic-Nordic NGO Network for Sustainable Energy               Agenda 21 as the most efficient and integrated existing concept for
   and Taiga Rescue Network (TRN) forming the base for the positions of             sustainable development in municipalities. In a survey made 1998 it was
   the ECO’s in the region. The Baltic 21 Steering Group (the Senior Officials      found that the majority (73%) of the UBC members have an active Local
   Group, SOG) decided to include the special report “An Environmental              Agenda 21 process going on. UBC also took part in the ICLEI-project SAIL
   Citizens Organisation’s (ECO’s) Vision of an Agenda 21 for the Baltic            (see below). Within the UBC, there is also a Local Agenda 21 Action Program
   Sea Region” in the Baltic 21 Series. The Union of Baltic Cities (UBC),           2000-2002, and the Local Agenda 21 Working Group, which is a cross-
   Baltic Local Agenda 21 Forum (BLA21F) and ICLEI jointly contributed              sectoral tool for its implementation. In practice, the Commission on
   with a “Local Agenda 21 Report” (Baltic 21 Series No 11/98) covering             Environment and the working group work closely together, and the same
   the specifics for the local authorities in connection to Baltic 21.              secretariat is responsible for the facilitation of the work of both of them.

                                                                                                                                             (Cont. on p. 6)

Page 5                                                                                                                                      Volume 1 Issue 4
    (Beginning on p. 5)

       ICLEI, the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives,
    has about 35 members in the Baltic Sea Region representing cities,
    towns, counties and municipal associations. ICLEI has the mission to
    strive for tangible improvements of the global environmental conditions
    by improving local environmental management and by implementing
    local policies towards sustainability. ICLEI is now one of the five networks
    of the European Sustainable Cities & Towns Campaign and works with
    Local Agenda 21 all over Europe. In the Baltic region, ICLEI is an active
    supporter of the Baltic Local Agenda 21 Forum. The SAIL project,
    “Spreading Awareness to Foster the Implementation of Local Agenda
    21 around the Baltic Sea”, can serve as an example of ICLEI’s co-
    operation in the region. The goal of the project that was carried out
    1999-2000 was to facilitate the development of Local Agenda 21 plans
    and processes in communities in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and
    Russia. SAIL helped local authorities in the target countries to undertake
    Local Agenda 21s by producing informational and promotional materials
    in local languages. Furthermore, the project supported cooperation and
    facilitated networking for LA21 activities among local administrations,
    national, regional and local organisations and individuals involved or
    interested in LA21. Union of the Baltic Cities (UBC), Environmental
    Centre for Administration and Technology (ECAT-Lithuania), and the
    cities of Lahti (Finland), St. Petersburg (Russia), Tartu (Estonia) and
    Jurmala (Latvia) were involved as partners in the SAIL-project.

             Text and description is taken mainly from the Baltic 21 homepage:
             The information in this section is mainly taken from the UBC and
    ICLEI homepages:

      Sustainable initiatives in St.-Petersburg and Leningrad region
             by Yevgenia Makhonina, Green World
             Alexander Karpov, St.Petersburg Society of                                   carried out a contest for the best project on sustainable development of Russia.
                                                                                          Non-governmental organizations, for example the Center “Eco-Accord” (Moscow)
             Naturalists                                                                  had an opportunity to take part in it.

         Local and National Agenda 21                                                     The conception of Russia’s transition to sustainable development was prepared in
                                                                                          accordance with the Resolution of the President of the Russian Federation (1994)
                                                                                          under the supervision of the Ministry of Economy. It was actively discussed at the
                                                                                          National Environmental Congress in June of 1995, completed, approved by the
         National level
                                                                                          Federal Government and afterwards, April 1, 1996, adopted by the Presidential
    National policies concerning LA 21 could either facilitate or slow down the           Order ¹440. Basic principles of the conception were to be followed when new
    process on the local level. The situation in Russia has some specific features        legislation would be elaborated and economic and social decisions would be taken.
    to be noted. While in some other countries completely embodied within Baltic
    region Baltic Agenda 21 could strongly promote national Agenda 21                     Elaboration of the issues of sustainable development was included in the mid-
    development, in Russia BA 21 is of limited interest to the federal administration.    term governmental program for development of Russia in 1997-2000.
    It plays subordinate role compared to other interests and can serve at best as a
    “pilot” process but not much ahead of the national Agenda 21 development              In Russia the strategy of sustainable development was prepared in 1997. However,
    process. On the other hand, St.Petersburg is much more interested in direct           the activities on preparing a strategy can’t be considered successful. Since August
    participation but is deprived of it by federal authorities. The situation is slowly   of 1996 state policies of Russia have revealed several anti-ecological tendencies.
    changing now but still federal control of international contacts is limiting the      The Council on sustainable development for the President hasn’t been created,
    ability of the region to take more pro-active position.                               ecological expenses of the 1997 and 1998 budgets were cut.

    Thus national policies and attitudes are crucial for how far Baltic Russia will       Due to the fact that during the recent period Russian Government has been changing
    step in BA 21 process.                                                                constantly, the strategy has not yet been adopted. Presently its critical discussion
                                                                                          is still carried out, primarily in the city of Moscow. The Ministry of Economy
    Presently in Russia there is no national committee or another public institution      promised to provide the next draft by autumn of 1999.
    dealing with the issues of sustainable development and Agenda 21.

    The process of elaboration of national strategy was started after the UN                 Regional level
    conference in Rio-de-Janeiro in June of 1992. In August of 1992 on the Order
    of the President of the Russian Federation an inter-sectoral committee was            In Baltic Russia one can find some modest growth of awareness about Local Agenda
    created for elaboration of decisions made in Rio-de-Janeiro and particularly          21 but it is still at the very initial stage. The ideas are shared in a very limited
    concerning Russia.                                                                    group of people, mostly NGOs and environmental experts.

    In 1994 President Yeltsin (by the Order “On the strategy of environmental             The scepticism towards the actions taken by the federal authorities, as well as
    preservation and sustainable development in the Russian Federation”, ¹236)            other factors (one of the most important of which is the process of creation of
    delegated the Government to elaborate National Environmental Action Plan              regional management systems, isolation from the international community) for a
    for 1994-1995. This marked a start of the discussion on the issue of transition       long time have been slowing down the perception of ideas of sustainable
    of Russia to sustainable development. In 1994 the Ministry of Environment
                                                                                                                                                      (Cont. in p. 7)

Page 6                                                                                                                                               Volume 1 Issue 4
   (Beginning in p. 6)

    development and Agenda 21 in the region. Nowadays in St.-Petersburg this             (one in the city and one in the Oblast). This pilot project aims to test new
    process can be considered to be in the initial phase, considering that:              environmental concepts in the Russian Gulf of Finland and thereby links Russia to
                                                                                         two major international activities: the establishment of a European network of
    • Initiatives mostly come from the Western partners,
                                                                                         protected areas, Natura 2000, and Local Agenda 21 process, Baltic Agenda 21 in
      supported by Western projects and financing; within
                                                                                         particular. The project is financed by the EU Life Foundation and partly by the different
      the region active promoters of the LA 21 and BA 21
                                                                                         authorities in Finland, Sweden, Holland, Germany and Russia.
      are few;
    • Information on principles and mechanisms of
                                                                                         St.-Petersburg was also included in the sphere of interest of Baltic Agenda 21,
      sustainable development are insufficient and not
                                                                                         although the City didn’t participate in the preparation of documents and their
      adapted for Russia;
                                                                                         signing in June of 1998.
    • Motivation for participation of different groups in
      the process is either lacking or under development;
                                                                                         Despite the fact that the majority of decision-makers are not familiar with the
    • There’s no consensus between the involved groups on
                                                                                         process of Agenda 21, some of them who have heard something about it tend to
      the contents and mechanisms of the LA 21
                                                                                         associate this process with “ecology” and thus consider it opposing the “economic
         implementation.                                                                 development”. Many key ideas of the Agenda 21 are either ignored by the
                                                                                         participants of the process in Russia (for example, the necessity of public
                                                                                         participation) or are distorted due to association with the Soviet period (e.g.,
                                                                                         strategic planning). However, the biggest problem is that there are resources neither
    There are several initiatives being developed in St.-Petersburg which could be
                                                                                         for social participation nor for strategic planning. The lack of reliable and up-to-
    related to the LA 21 for the region such as:
                                                                                         date information on socio-economic processes and state of environment, trained
    • Strategic plan for St.-Petersburg;                                                 personnel, management technologies is particularly felt at the level of district and
    • LA 21 for St.-Petersburg;                                                          newly created local self-government authorities.
    • LA 21 for certain districts of the City and Oblast.
                                                                                         There is no consensus of what sustainable development could mean for Russia.
                                                                                         The problem itself is very young and discussion goes in a small circle limited by
                                                                                         the access to English-language information. More national experience is needed.
    Strategic plan was the first attempt to set the goals for the development in an      The experience that is coming from the Western countries (the ones that have
    innovative way — involving major groups, business and NGOs. About 1800               money for its transfer) are obviously irrelevant and cannot be implemented without
    people contributed to the plan. It was published in 1997 and is used by the          great effort of mutual learning between donors and recipients. At the same time
    administration to set the priorities for the city development. The project was       the experience from Russia itself and CEE countries that is much more relevant
    supported by TACIS. Formally the plan has mechanisms for the correction —            can hardly be accessed and spread due to the problems of funding.
    sectoral commissions responsible for monitoring and critique. In practice this
    mechanism is very closed for the public if at all exists.
                                                                                            City level
    In 1998 city’s administration hired a group of scholars from St.Petersburg
    State University and Russian Academy of Science to draft a plan for the              On the city level there are different actors that are now taking stake at LA 21 process.
    implementation of Agenda 21 for the city authorities. That initiative was taken      The approaches and motivations are different as well. Those differences come out
    by the city administration to follow the expectations of international (Baltic)      from the availability of the resources, traditions and attitudes (see Table 1 below).
    partners. This project has a modest support from the city budget, but has no         Thus, in the nearest future we would be able to see several different “LAs” that will be
    structures that would allow public consultations and involvement.                    hardly compatible. The situation will gradually change towards compromise and mutual
                                                                                         understanding only with the development of local self-government in the city.
    Started in 1997, “Coastal conservation and Local Agenda 21 - the Pilot Project
    for Russia” is now succeeding in elaborating Local Agenda 21 for two districts

         NGO activities and possibilities to act

    Non-governmental organizations play an active role in                                Another organization that actively promotes the ideas of sustainable development
    the promotion of sustainable development and LA 21.                                  is Ecological Policy Center (EPC, Moscow), with Mr. A.V.Yablokov at the head.
    Basically, however, their activity is yet limited to                                 Now EPC publishes a journal in Russian and English entitled “Towards Sustainable
    raising population’s awareness, dissemination of                                     Russia” and other analytical materials.
    information and creation of contacts for the
    cooperation.   It is necessary to obtain a certain                                   In 1998 Coordination and Information Center of Socio-Ecological Union (SEU)
    number of supporters of this idea in order to initiate                               has translated the text of Agenda 21 into Russian. The SEU supports projects on
    pilot projects and participate in the existing ones.                                 alternative settlements, ecological dwelling, participation of the public in
                                                                                         ecologically significant decision-making and many other projects, promoting the
    At the level of the Russian Federation there are already several organizations       idea of the Agenda 21. At the same time, there’s still a suspicious attitude towards
    which promote ideas of sustainable development, national and local Agenda            the idea of sustainable development as a “smoke curtain covering the real inactivity
    21. NGO Center “Eco-Accord” (Moscow) is one of the most active supporters            and rule of transnational corporations”. The SEU stimulates discussions devoted
    of the idea at the national level. The Center took part in the development of        to the search of alternative ways of social development.
    the Conception of sustainable development, in the organization of discussion
    around the National Environmental Action Plan and creation of an alternative         In St.-Petersburg ideas of sustainable development and LA 21 have united
    plan by NGOs. In September 1998 with the support of the Earth Council it             representatives of different non-governmental organizations into a coalition for
    had organized regional consultations on sustainable development for the of           the support of public participation - “Dialog 21”. One of the group’s goals is to
    NIS region. 84 representatives of state, public and academic structures as           disseminate information on what is Agenda 21 and what it could be if general
    well as business community from all the NIS countries took part in the               ideas of the UN Conference on environment and development could be more
    consultations. At the meeting it was stressed that despite the fact that in the      specified for local level.
    majority of countries sustainable development is still a political slogan, but
    not a development principle, nevertheless, the ideas of sustainable development
                                                                                         In 1998 this group organized first workshops for NGOs, where the representatives
    play bigger and bigger role not only at the national, but also at the local level.
                                                                                         of different parts of the spectrum of the “green” movement had a chance to learn
    Final materials of the consultations were presented at the seventh session of
                                                                                         what Agenda 21 and LA 21 were. In July of 1998 on the basis of the results of the
    the UN Commission on Sustainable Development (April 1999).
                                                                                         workshops a conference was organized. The participants of this conference were
                                                                                         represented not only by the third sector, but also by regional and district
    Earlier the Center “Eco-Accord” has organized the Russian national                   administrations and business community. In April of 1999 this group took an
    consultations “Rio+5” (January 1997). The results of this meeting were               active part in the organization of the conference “Sustainable development of the
    presented at the regional consultations in Tallinn (February 1997) and later at
    the meeting “Rio+5” and meeting of the Commission for Sustainable
    Development in New York. The Center was responsible for a chapter on
                                                                                                                                                               (Cont. in p. 8)
    participation of the major groups for the national report “Rio+5”.

Page 7                                                                                                                                                 Volume 1 Issue 4
    (Beginning. in p. 7)

    region. How to do it. Role of NGOs” together with NGO Development Center.
    Its audience consisted not only of ecological and “social”2 NGOs, but also
    local self-government representatives. In 1999 the workshops were organized
    on public participation in environmental impact assessment, as well as a round-
    table discussion in the Legislative Assembly of St.-Petersburg on the
    consideration of social opinion when developing spatial planning objects. The
    campaign on public participation in the project “Integrated Strategic Policies
    for St.-Petersburg and Leningrad Oblast” is being currently implemented.

    International cooperation is being developed successfully in this field,
    particularly with Baltic NGOs. During several years already the projects of
    non-governmental ecological organizations in St.-Petersburg are implemented
    with the support of Swedish, Norwegian and Finnish Societies for Nature
    Conservation, Coalition Clean Baltic (CCB), WWF, etc. Since 1998 new
    partners, such as ANPED, The Northern Alliance for Sustainability (formerly,
    Alliance of Northern People for Environment and Development) has appeared.
    All these aspects facilitate the interconnection and coordination of efforts on
    promotion of ideas of sustainable development and LA 21 in the region.

             The ones that provide social support of different kind for social minorities
                                                                                             Nature Conservation Areas of the Leningrad Oblast
    and various socially/economically/politically disadvantaged groups.
                                                                                             (From the Green World)

      Local and National Agenda 21 work in Estonia
      by SEI-Tallinn and Estonian Green Movement
                                                                                                     · Mid-Long Term Development Strategy for the Economy Sector 1998-
      Introduction                                                                                    2002 (approved by Parliament in 1998);
                                                                                                     · Development Plan for the Transport Sector until the year 2006
       By signing and ratifying the Rio agreements, Estonia has made a                                (approved by Parliament 1999);
                                                                                                     · Development concept for the Tourism Sector until the year 2000.
    commitment to fulfil all related obligations. Estonia has formalized its
    aspiration to implement sustainable development as a basic principle                     Policy and development plan for the fishery sector is under work. The imple-
    in its future development by adopting the Act on Sustainable Develop-                   mentation of the state regional policy is currently in the transition stage.
    ment in February 1995, being among the first countries in the world to
    do so. The Aarhus Convention on Public Participation in Environmental                     In the course of VASAB (Visions And Strategies Around the Baltic Sea) project
    Decision-making was signed by Estonia in 1998. The ratification of the                  a state spatial planning strategy “Estonia 2010” was compiled. Four devel-
    Convention is under preparation in Parliament.                                          opment scenarios were envisioned by five working teams (environment,
                                                                                            economy, social, history, technology) and expert opinion. These four sce-
      The Act on Sustainable Development, as a basis for legislative frame-                 narios serve as basis for specific plans such as an educational system and
    work, covers the first stage of sustainable development in Estonia and                  Agenda 21. Estonia has also been actively involved in the Baltic Agenda 21
    regulates natural resources management. Additional work is needed                       process since its initiating in 1996, being the lead party in energy and tour-
    on the legislation of development focusing on sustainable economic                      ism sector.
    growth and social issues to guarantee successful integration of sustain-
    able human development into sectoral strategies and development                           Estonian National Agenda 21
                                                                                              The process of elaborating the National Agenda 21 started in December
       For the implementation of the Act and principles of Agenda 21, the                   1997 within the framework of the project “Capacity 21 in Estonia”, funded
    National Commission on Sustainable Development (NCSD) with 28                           by United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and runned by Stockholm
    members including the Prime Minister as Chair and the Minister of the                   Environment Institute Tallinn Center (SEI-Tallinn). The overall objective of the
    Environment and the Minister of the Economy as Vice-Chairs was es-                      project is to build capacity at all levels of government and relevant sectors
    tablished in 1996. Its role is to advice the government on sustainable                  for implementing the sustainable development principles in Estonia. The
    development in general, sector specific issues, project and                             main output is the Estonian Agenda 21 (EA21) as the Estonian National Long
    programmes, and the initiation of sustainable development legisla-                      Term Sustainable Human Development Strategy for the 21st century. The
    tion.                                                                                   compiling process of EA21 consists of two phases:

       Sustainable development principles in Estonia are more deeply taken                           · compilation of the public draft version;
                                                                                                     · compilation of the EA21 as the Estonian Sustainable Development
    root in the environmental field. The basic document for environmental
                                                                                                       State Strategy.
    policy in Estonia, the National Environmental Strategy (NES, approved
    by Parliament 1997) was elaborated on the bases of main interna-                          First phase was concluded with the resolution of National Commission on
    tional environmental documents and internationally accepted sustain-                    Sustainable Development which approved the EA21 draft version in Janu-
    able development principles. It specifies the trends and priority goals                 ary 1999. The public version is a more popular one and it includes besides
    of environmental management and protection and sets the main short-                     the texts of experts from ministries, universities, academic communities, NGOs
    term and long-term tasks to be achieved by 2000 and 2010 respec-                        and local communities, also development visions drafted by interested
    tively. The National Environmental Action Plan (NEAP), adopted by the                   people who were involved into the process as public. The purpose of the
    Government in May 1998, followed the Environmental Strategy. NEAP’s                     public draft version is to initiate the national discussion on the development
    main principle is the integration of environmental concerns into other                  priorities and to receive public input. Texts of the draft version are available
    sectors.                                                                                for discussion and comments via Internet on the Estonian Sustainable De-
                                                                                            velopment Network (ESDN) web site, the printed version of the material will
      In the economy and social fields various sectors have worked out                      be available in fall 1999.
    their strategies and development plans which consider the sustain-
    able development principles:                                                               For the second phase the commission will be formed and on the basis of
                                                                                            the draft version and taking into consideration the results of the public dis-
                  · Long-term Strategy for Sustainable Development of the
                   Agricultural Sector (project 1997);                                      cussion Estonian Sustainable Development State Strategy will be compiled.
                  · National Forest Policy (approved by Parliament in 1997);                It will be completed and presented to Parliament by the end of 1999.
                  · Long-term State Strategy for the Fuel and Energy Management
                   (approved by Parliament in 1998);
                                                                                                                                              (Cont. on p. 9)

Page 8                                                                                                                                              Volume 1 Issue 4
                                         (Beginning on p. 8)
                                                                                                                                  the local level.
                                           Local Agenda 21 work
                                                                                                                                    The Law on Planning and Building requires every county to prepare a land
                                            The National Agenda can only be developed and adopted with the                        use plan. Initially the vision of a county’s future must be agreed upon and
                                         contribution and support by different levels of the society. Local level is              then spatial planning can be implemented according to these objectives.
                                         of crucial importance as the place where international and national                      Several regional governments (counties) have actively integrated the prin-
                                         policies and strategies is turned into concrete actions and implications.                ciples of sustainable development into their long-term development strate-
                                         Therefore local agendas should be compiled and implemented taking                        gies. Sustainability issues are different from county to county. For example,
                                         into account current local circumstances and tools, not to handle them                   Ida-Virumaa is a leading industrial region with a mainly Russian-speaking
                                         as a completely new planning system.                                                     population. The main sustainable development issues here are environmental
                                                                                                                                  protection and ethnic tensions. While on the island of Hiiumaa, the main
                                            It is obvious that the understanding on the relevance of agenda work                  sustainable development issue is eco-tourism. Ida-Virumaa is also one of
                                         is to be generated at first. This is one of the most important preconditions             the participants in Estonian-Finnish joint programme which was initiated in
                                         for successful agenda work. On local level principles of sustainable de-                 the beginning of May 1998. Three provinces from southern Finland and
                                         velopment and relevant information are distributed by the Home-site                      three counties from eastern Estonia (Lääne-Virumaa, Ida-Virumaa,
                                         Movement and Information Centres formed in 50 municipalities. Long-                      Jõgevamaa) take part in the project, and one of the main themes is Local
                                         term programs are carried out to support the idea (“Hiiumaa 2010”,                       Agenda 21.
                                         “Capacity 21”) to promote local community planning and Local Agenda
                                         21 development processes by enhancing public awareness, offering                           According to the Act on Local Self-Governments (1993) every local gov-
                                         training, generating and supporting local initiative groups, developing                  ernment is obliged to prepare a development plan. There are a number of
                                         social-communicative tools (workshops, information materials etc.). For                  municipalities in Estonia, who have had outstanding success in preparing
                                         integration of principles of sustainable development in local, state and                 local agendas. Several municipalities have incorporated sustainable de-
                                         sectoral strategies and development plans, also for improving commu-                     velopment into their development plans or are intending to do so. Kuressaare
                                         nication and co-ordination between key persons and institutions the Es-                  Agenda 21 was the first adopted Local Agenda 21 in Estonia, approved by
                                         tonian Sustainable Development Network web site is developed and                         the City Council in July 1997. Kuressaare was followed by Tartu. Tartu Agenda
                                         maintained by SEI-Tallinn. The web site provides quality information and                 21 was approved by the City Council in December 1998. Town councils
                                         international experiences, guidelines for local communities for creating                 have recently adopted local Sustainable Development Plans in Mustvee
                                         Local Agenda 21, an e-mail discussion list, training materials and reports               and Kallaste; the projects were coordinated by the NGO “Lake Peipsi Project”,
                                         on regional experiences.                                                                 1997-1999. The towns of Pärnu, Valga and Narva are on their ways to de-
                                                                                                                                  velop the Local Agendas. The capital city Tallinn has not yet developed its
                                            The first handbook introducing the idea of Agenda 21 and giving gen-                  own Agenda, but it has the environmental strategy and has performed an
                                         eral guidelines for local authorities on compiling Local Agenda 21 was                   environmental audit as a pilot project in 1996-97. Another municipal envi-
                                         issued in 1996 by SEI-Tallinn, being the first written source on Agenda 21               ronmental auditing was carried out in Pärnu. The concept of Municipal Envi-
                                         in Estonian. The second part of the book including best practices, prob-                 ronmental Audit was developed by the Union of the Baltic Cities and the
                                         lems identified, possible solutions and a practical model that helps to                  Estonian cities Tallinn and Pärnu were acting as pioneers.
                                         compile Local Agenda step by step is intended to be published in the
                                         near future. The aim is to encourage people to participate more ac-                         Still many other municipalities are lagging behind in their implementation
                                         tively in Agenda work; to improve public understanding of the necessity                  of sustainable development. Some are just in the beginning of planning
                                         of the long-term strategic planning that follows the principles of Agenda                their activities, whereas others have no concept of sustainable develop-
                                         21 and to disseminate knowledge on sustainable development issues in                     ment. Those municipalities who have incorporated sustainable develop-
                                         Estonia. In many local communities where interest groups and societies                   ment principles into their planning have formed a union of eco-municipali-
                                         are actively participating in social life, a common vision for future on the             ties called the Estonian Union of Municipalities. Among the most promising
                                         basis of knowledge, experience, ideas and wishes of the local popula-                    outcomes of the eco-municipalities movement are the adult public schools
                                         tion has been discussed and action plan established, but it is not yet                   and the local sustainable development communication centres (tele-cot-
                                         formulated as an Agenda document.                                                        tages). Eco-municipalities communicate with each other and with munici-
                                                                                                                                  palities from abroad (mainly in Scandinavian countries), sharing information
                                           Special attention in Estonia is to be paid at the balanced handling of                 and mutually improving their performance. As a result, the number of eco-
                                         different development aspects (ecological, economic and social as-                       municipalities has tripled over the past years, and now includes more than
                                         pects) since sustainable development has been understood primarily                       30 municipalities. In spite of this positive and rapid growth, the total number
                                         as the environmental problem, ignoring the social and economic side.                     of eco-municipalities is still low considering that there are about 250 munici-
                                         Among different ways of approaching to the local Agenda work (region                     palities in Estonia. Fulfilment of the Agenda 21 requirement that each local
                                         oriented, topic oriented, target group oriented) the regional approach                   government should have a sustainable development plan was not met by
                                         enables most of all to integrate environmental, economic and social                      the deadline in 1996. Sustainable development processes on local level
                                         policy aspects, as well as the implementation tools that are prioritised on              are inconsistent and the activity to draw up local agendas depends mainly
                                                                                                                                  on initiative of local authorities and non-governmental organisations, con-
                                                                                                                                  cern and involvement rate on the grass-root level. Many non-governmental
                                                                                                                                  organisations that deal with environmental and local development issues
                                                                                                                                  are actively participating in sustainable development. For example, the Es-
                                                                                                                                  tonian Green Movement has introduced sustainable development issues to
                                                                                                                                  the general public, especially youth. The Green Movement also intervenes
                                                                                                                                  in the strategic planning processes for the forestry and agricultural sectors.

                                                                                                                                    In order to improve linkages and collaboration between different levels
                                                                                                                                                    and local community developers, a number of seminars
                                                                                                                                                    on LA21 have been held in the frame of “Capacity 21”
                                                                                                                                                    project at different locations while each hosting commu-
                                                                                                                                                    nity serves as a case study. Those seminars are aimed at
                                                                                                                                                    supporting local initiatives and sharing the experiences
                                                                                                                                                    gained in implementation of sustainable development
                                                                                                                                                    and Local Agendas - Tartu Agenda 21 was discussed in
                                                                                                                                                    Pühajärve, in December 1997, the experience of Kabli
                                                                                                                                                    community in May 1998 and initiatives in Lääne county
                                                                                                                                                                             in June 1999 in Metsküla. One of
  Nature Conservation Objects in Tartu

                                                                                                                                                                             the purposes is also to encourage
                                                                                                   Archaelogical excavations in                                              to formulate the common vision
                                                                                                   Tartu city center.                                                        of local community as an Agenda
                                                                                                   Project leader Rünno Vissak
                                                                                                   Photo: P. Vissak                                                          document.

                                                                                                                                                                             Pärnu city center motif
                                                                                                                                                                             Photo: P. Vissak

Page 9                                                                                                                                                                                      Volume 1 Issue 4
         An Agenda 21 for Education for
    sustainable development in the Baltic Sea
              Region — Baltic 21E.

  The Agenda 21 for the Baltic Sea Region – Baltic 21 -
  was adopted by the Foreign Ministers at the meeting of
  the Council of the Baltic Sea States on 22-23 June, 1998
  (Nyborg, Denmark).

  In March 2000 education ministers from the Baltic Sea
  region met at Haga Palace to discuss an education sector       Photo 2 Network meeting in Vilnius. Representatives of Lead
  network within the framework of Baltic 21. It was decided      Parties
  to build a sector network for education for sustainable
  development (ESD), and this was formulated in the Haga
  Declaration. The Haga Declaration states among other
  things that the creation of knowledge on and awareness         The second Education Sector Network meeting took place at
  of sustainable development must include all levels of          marine museum of Karlskrona, Sweden in June 2001. The
  education, formal as well as informal and non-formal. It       meeting concluded by approving the draft Format for the
  also says that ESD demands an educational culture              Sector Report and the draft format for the Agenda 21 E and
  directed towards a more integrative, process-oriented          Action program.
  and dynamic mode emphasising the importance of critical
  thinking and of social learning and a democratic process.

  The network within the framework of Baltic 21 covered
  three areas: formal education below university and college
  level; higher education; and informal education (liberal
  adult education) and three working groups (WG) were
  set up The sector network was headed by two Lead Parties
  -Lithuania and Sweden.. Different countries chaired
  different working groups. The main goal was to present
  a report on the current status in the respective countries
  with respect to education for sustainable development
  and to present an action plan, an Agenda 21 for education
  for sustainable development.

  All Baltic 21 countries and the following organizations:
  Baltic Local Agenda 21 Forum, Coalition Clean Baltic, Keep
  Baltic Tidy, Nordic Folk Academy, Union of the Baltic Cities
  and WWF International Baltic Program participated in this
  work.                                                          Photo 3 Marine museum in Karlskrona
  The first meeting of the education sector network - within
  the framework of the Baltic 21 activities - was held in        The third Education Sector Network meeting was held in
  September 2000 in Vilnius. The Baltic 21 Education Sector      Gdansk, Poland in October 2001. The meeting adopted the
  Network as well as working groups’ mandate and terms           second draft Sector Report, Annexes 2-5 to the Report, the
  of reference was introduced at the meeting. Sweden was         first draft Agenda 21E and Action Programme. This meeting
  appointed as chair of WG 1, Finland - as chair of WG 2         was the last meeting of the Education Sector Network that
  and later reported Denmark as chair of WG 3.
                                                                 included participants in the three working groups.

                                                                 Photo 4 Network meeting in Gdansk
  Photo 1 Working group 1 in Vilnius

Page 10                                                                                                   Volume 1 Issue 4
                                                                                                      The Ministers of Education from the countries of the Baltic
                                                                                                      Sea Region ( Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Latvia,
                                                                                                      Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Russia and Sweden) met at Haga
                                                                                                      Palace in Stockholm for their second meeting. The mission
                                                                                                      of this meeting was:

                                                                                                      ·        to examine the results of the work done by the Baltic
                                                                                                               21 Education Sector network and its three working
                                                                                                               groups in accordance with the task given at the first
                                                                                                               ministerial meeting at Haga Palace in March 2000

                                                                                                      ·        to adopt an Agenda 21 for Education for sustainable
                                                                                                               development in the BSR— Baltic 21E.

                                                                                                      The ministers noted that the Education Sector Report
   Photo 5 Participants in Gdansk                                                                     (including its annexes) is very informative and valuable
                                                                                                      document for future steps in developing a sustainable Baltic
                                                                                                      Sea Region. They endorsed the major commitments, goals
   The work was finalized in the end of 2001. The last                                                and the action program in Baltic 21E and resolve to ensure
   meeting devoted to the preparation of final documents                                              an efficient implementation process of Baltic 21E. All
   for the meeting of Ministers of Education from the Baltic                                          countries have to pursue the overall goal for education for
   21 Region was held in November in Vilnius. It was a                                                sustainable development (ESD) and the specific goals for
   meeting of Lead Parties, chairs and secretaries of the                                             ESD in formal education, higher education and non-formal
   three working groups and representatives of the                                                    education and to ensure the implementation process.
   Ministers of Education in the BSR.

                                                                                                      Lithuania and Sweden will continue as Lead parties in the
   The report with an action plan for implementing Agenda                                             implementation of the Baltic21E and Action program.
   21 for the Education sector in the Baltic Sea Region
   ( was adopted by the Ministers
   of Education in the CBSS countries the 24 January 2002.
                                                                                                      Education for sustainable development is a complex cross-
                                                                                                      sector undertaking and a challenge for educators and
                                                                                                      teachers at all levels. Education for Sustainability has the
                                                                                                      potential to serve as a tool for building bridges between
                                                                                                      the classroom and business, between schools and
                                                                                                      communities and as a tool for moving towards the
                                                                                                      sustainable future.

                                                                                                                                             Imbi Henno

                                                                                                                                             Chief Expert

                                                                                                              National Examination and Qualification Centre


   Photo 6 Ministers or Ministers’ representatives and
   accompanying staff at Haga Palace

    BALTIC 21:

    Seven economic sectors, spatial planning and education                                                The Education Sector was entered to the Baltic 21 process in spring 2000. An Agenda 21 on
                                                                                                          Education for Sustainable Development will be finalised in autumn 2001, complementing the
    The work of Baltic 21 is focused on eight economic sectors of crucial importance for                  existing Agenda 21 for the Baltic Sea Region document.
    achieving sustainable development within the Baltic Sea Region, as well as on spatial
    planning and on education. The Baltic 21 sector networks consist of representatives of the            For each sector one finds information about:
    national governments, the EU commission, international governmental organisations, regional
    networks of local communities and cities, the business community, regional environmental              ·   the sector’s goal and focus of its action programme;
    organisations and international financing institutions.                                               ·   sector publications (including the Final Sector Report);
                                                                                                          ·   meetings and meeting documents;
    All seven economic sectors and spatial planning, have produced consensus reports                      ·   the sector’s involvement in Baltic 21 Joint Actions; and
    containing, inter alia, goals and action programmes for sustainable development within                ·   contact persons for that sector in each country.
    each sector. These action programs are now being implemented by the sectors and progress
    is regularly reported to SOG as well as to the Sector and Environment Ministers and to the            · · Agriculture (Lead Parties: Poland and Helsinki Commission, HELCOM)
    Prime Ministers. The first Baltic 21 Biennial Report - Baltic 21 Series No 1/2000 - presents          · · Education (Lead Parties: Lithuania and Sweden)
    the progress in implementing the Baltic 21 Action Program and gives an assessment of the              · · Energy (Lead Parties: Denmark and Estonia)
    development in the Baltic Sea Region in relation to the Baltic 21 Goals. Since the Biennial           · · Fisheries (Lead Party: International Baltic Sea Fishery Commission, IBSFC)
    Report does not include all the Baltic 21 indicators, a Baltic 21 Indicator Report - Baltic 21        · · Forests (Lead Parties: Finland and Lithuania)
    Series No 2/2000 - has been produced, providing a full presentation of the selected indicators.       · · Industry (Lead Parties: Sweden and Russia)
    The work within the Baltic 21 Sectors and the Spatial Planning is led by the Lead Parties             · · Tourism (Lead Party: Sweden)
    whose role is to initiate, co-ordinate and report on the implementation of the sector actions.        · · Transport (Lead Parties: Germany and Latvia)
    To further strengthen and streamline the Sector Lead Parties and Responsible Actors                   · · Spatial planning (Lead Party: Vision and Strategies around the Baltic Sea 2010, VASAB
    leadership services, SOG has approved the Guidelines on role and responsibilities of the              2010)
    Lead Party and Responsible Actor.

Page 11                                                                                                                                                                  Volume 1 Issue 4
                                    THE ROLE OF NATURE, CULTURE, ECONOMY
                                    AND TRAFFIC IN PLANNING COASTAL AREAS:
                                               THREE EXAMPLES
                                                      by Andri Ksenofontov

    The Agenda 21 web page shows that the official paradigm of sustainable development includes environmental and
    economic questions, but cultural issues are left aside. At the same time the classical planning paradigm of the
    Western world, with such theoreticians as Patrick Geddes from Scotland, Lewis Mumford from the United States
    and Edgar Kant from Estonia, are highly to culture. The concepts of environment, economy and culture overlap
    often to such an extent that it is possible to build a development model for an environment leaving out culture. In
    some landscapes the natural, economic and cultural aspects are clearly distinguishable.

    The coastal areas are full of contrasts:

          1) landscape is divided into elements, water and earth;

          2) coasts are borders and contact zones for different cultures and communities;

          3) coasts separate and connect the sea-bound and earth-bound occupations;

          4) traffic forms a grid of parallel and perpendicular movements to the coast.

    These contrasts create contradictions and tensions which can serve sustainable development of coastal landscapes.
    The same tensions can also destroy coastal landscapes both as natural and cultural entities.

    CINQUE TERRE (Italy).

          1) Cinque Terre is located between the Ligurian
             mountains and the sea. The steep slopes of
             low mountains descend into water, leaving
             some naturally plain land for construction only
             in the valleys of river mouths Both the wild
             growth on slopes and the sea are abundang
             with species.

          2) The local centre is Riomaggiore. The
             mountains have always protected the
             population from raiders from inland. The local
             people associated the sea with pirates. Even
             now the authorities are reluctant to build yacht
             ports, because.

          3) For about thousand years Cinque Terre has grown grapes and olives on terraces. By now most of land is
             covered by artificial terraces. Because of the competition with more feasible plainland agriculture, many
             terraces ara abandoned. Without maintenance the terraces collapse and cause the destruction of the terraces
             above and below them. The exploitation of sea resources have started to intensify only recently. Local
             authorities support eco-tourism both on earth and in the sea: bird watching, botanic routes, scubba diving.
                                                                                                               (Cont. on p. 13)

Page 12                                                                                                      Volume 1 Issue 4
             Tourists arrive mainly by train. This arrangement appeals to local people because it makes it possible to
             regulate the number of tourists with timetables. Popular are the Cinque Terre walking routes. The economic
             depression and the xenophobia of the ancient community are some of the reasons for high unimployment
             although the percentage of people with academic degrees is relatively high.

          4) In 1870-s the railway was laid parellel to the coast. In 1960-s and 1970-s local volunteers built walking
             routes along the scenic coastline connecting the five towns of Cinque Terre and the slopes of botanic
             interest. Following the example of the Alpian communities the farmers started to build monorails, connecting
             the terraces with each other and creating shortcuts from terraces to the towns and villages. The sea traffic
             is relatively low.

    The local authorities plan the future of the region following the principles of sustainability, compensating the
    weakness of the traditional agriculture with the status of the UNESCO World Heritage Cultural Landscape and
    National Park. Local businesses see their chance in the exclusivity of their products. The touris industry is set up
    and marketed for nature and culture tourists.

    LIIVIRAND (Latvia)                                                  

          1) Liivirand is a 10 km wide and 90 km long dune between the limestone cliff
             of Kurzeme and the sea. The 20 m wide beach streches along all the shore,
             the rest of the territory are swamps and forests. Littel rivers, making their
             way through the sandy dunes, draw an elaborate winding pattern. The
             Northern territory of Liivirand is mostly covered by a Natural Reservation.

          2) The ancestors of the aborigional Livs arrived at the empty shore in the 18th century escaping from plague
             from the Sigulda area. While the connection with the mainland was blocked by the cliff, Livs used to visit
             the Estonian island Saaremaa, 27 km from Ire (Latv. Mazirbe). Ire was kind of a central village with a stone
             church which served also as a good seasign. Volunteers, supported by the Finno-Ugric charity from Estonia,
             Finland and Hungary, built the Liv community centre in Ire in 1939. After II World War the local people
             were deported to Siberia, the access to the sea was forbidden. Liivirand became a military border zone. In
             Perestroika time, when the sea was opened again, the revival of human settlements were somehow hindered
             by the regulations of the Nature Reservation, which officially represented the national interests in Liivirand.

          3) The main trade in Liivirand is fishing. Traditionally grain and animals were grown to cover the families’
             own needs. In the Soviet time it was allowed for fishermen to go to the sea only in the collective farms of
             two villages. The forests are also rich with berries.

          4) The beach is a natural connection line between seaside villages. The sand is hard enough not only for
             walking, but also for travelling with a horse cart or bisycle. The roads are also parallel to the sea, only in
             few places road goes up the cliff. During the I World War a railway was built along Liivirand. It was
             dismantled in the Soviet time. The only seaside traffic in the Soviet time was the patrolling of borderguard
             cars along the beach. Every village was designated by a row of poles of abandoned quays descending into
             the sea.

    The 90 km long clean and sandy shore at the side of pine forest would be an ideal environment for both nature and
    beach tourism. The sea depth is good for swimming. The development preferences of the local authorities at the
    moment are not known to the writer of this article.
                                                                                                       (Cont. on p. 14)

Page 13                                                                                                         Volume 1 Issue 4
    TALLINN (Estonia).

          1) The oldest Tallinn suburb Kalamaja is located
             on a steep coast. It is still in touch with the sea,
             while the mediaeval old town has receded from
             the flat shore of the port. The second oldest
             seaside suburb Kadriorg, founded in the
             beginning of the 18th century, has also receded
             from its flat shore. Kopli with its pre I World
             War development sites is located on Kopli
             peninsula. Pirita is located in the mouth of Pirita
             river and spreads along the Pirita beach. Until the 1980-s the river valley, the beach wood and the forest
             were not touched by development. The whole of Pelgurand is created in the Soviet time on the coast of
             Kopli bay on a wet seaside meadow. Pelgurand resort areas are the Stroomi beach and wood. Kakumäe is
             located on the limestone cliff in the pine wood of the Kakumäe peninsula. Tallinn centre with Kalamaja
             and Kadriorg is squeezed between the limestone cliff and Ülemiste lake in the South and the sea in the
             North. This has caused the stretched out shape of Tallinn in the East-West direction.

          2) The Tallinn seaside residential districts are (from East to West): Pirita, Kadriorg, Kalamaja, Kopli, Pelgurand
             and Kakumäe. Pirita is mainly a family house area from the 1950-s and 1980-s and it has got the most
             popular Tallinn beach. Kadriorg was created around the Catherine II palace and park in the beginning of
             the 18th century. Originally it was the district of the palace servants, villas and seaside resort buildings.
             Kadriorg is also the place of the Presidents residence. Being one of the most valuable wooden heritage
             areas, it has also become a popular highrise development scene. Kalamaja is another historical wooden
             district with houses from 1870-s to 1930-s. The Sustainable Renovation Information Centre is located in
             Kalamaja. Kopli is the third, the most proletarian and the most abandoned historical wooden seaside
             district in Tallinn. Kalamaja and Kopli are also important industrial heritage sites. Pelgurand was built as
             an extension to the Kopli shipyards living district after II World War. It is another popular beach area in
             Tallinn. Kakumäe has become the living area of the Tallinn new rich recently.

          3) Pirita became the yachting and health centre in Tallinn after it was chosen to be the location of sea sports
              events of the Moscow Olympic games in 1980. Kadriorg lost its resort function after it lost its beach.
              Now it is the most popular walking area with its park, green streets and several art galleries. Kalamaja
              and Kopli are the most important port and industrial areas in Tallinn. The industrial development doesn’t
              disturb the living quarters because there is enough development space on the territories of the old czarist
              factories. Pelgurand is only a residential and beach area. Kakumäe is also just a living area.

          4) Pedestrian traffic. Whereever it is possible, pedestrian traffic starts between coast and local living houses
              or walking streets. There is also a demand for yacht quays in all the seaside districts. Fishermen go to the
              sea only in winter on ice. In the Soviet time the seaside was warded off by the military. Now the port areas
              are guarded by private security companies. In Kakumäe one can encounter signs “Trespassers will be
              shot!”. Tram and railway. Historically Kadriorg, Kalamaja and Kopli are connected by tram and railway.
              In 1980-s the Kadriorg railway station was dismantled. The Kalamaja and Pelgurand industrial railways
              have lost their importance. Only the railway leading to the oil terminals at the Kopli peninsula is in active
              use. Car transport. The main difficulty of Tallinn traffic issues is caused by its location on a narrow strip
              of land between the cliff and Ülemiste lake on one hand and the sea on the other hand. The transit traffic
              going through the centre tend to jam the streets. The Soviet time Narva and Pirita roads have successfully
              cut Pirita and Kadriorg off the seaside. A large part of the Kakumäe cliff was recently demolished in order
              to create an asphalt car road to the beach.
                                                                                                               (Cont. on p. 15)

Page 14                                                                                                     Volume 1 Issue 4
    Although there are many alternative urban development concepts for Tallinn seaside districts, some of them have
    won public architectural competitions, the local authorities still seem to keep to old insensitive development plans.
    For example the abandoned industrial and military railways, rich with different plant and animal species, could
    become the green corridors of Tallinn. This also agrees with the roads plan which, according to computer simulations,
    is supposed to solve Tallinn traffic problems. Instead of this a new highway will mmost likely cut Kalamaja off the
    sea and dissect the Stroomi wood in Pelgurand. The local authorities’ plans for business, residential, tourism and
    culture development are not co-ordinated with each other.

    OF THE THREE CASES Cinque Terre seems to face the most difficult problems. At the same time the local
    authorities with their energy and determination seem to succeed in securingsustainable development for their regions.
    The development of Liivirand and Tallinn might cause the loss of urban resources and repopulation. Being largely
    the result of the lack of development decisions, it also gives some hope that there is still as good chance for sustainable
    development as for the darker scenarious.

    One of the urban planning paradoxes is, that people live both in sustainable and in badly planned communities.
    Only history will be the ultimate judge weather a settlement was created to survive and prosper, or it was left at the
    mercy of elements. Something we still can do is to model the possible development and the living standards of a
    community after the planning decisions will be made.

      Criminal news!

                                                                     concussion of the brain. Surgeons put five stitches in Oleg’s
      Non-governmental Charity Environmental Organisation;
                                                                     occiput, and one - in his temple.
      member of International Socio-Ecological Union; member of
      Coalition Clean Baltic                                         In spite of proposals by militia to hush up the incident, Oleg
                                                                     insists on starting a criminal case. Without any doubts, this
      P.O. Box 93/7, 188544, Sosnovy Bor, Leningrad Oblast,
                                                                     assault was undertaken in response to the Green World
                                                                     activities on protection of legal procedures connected with
      Phone/fax: +7 81269 72991; E-mail:;             environmentally hazardous projects.
                                                                     Presently, Green World and personally Oleg Bodrov are active
                                                                     in revealing violations of the Russian legislation at the
      Press release                                                  Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant, illegal operation of Ecomet-S
                                                                     plant on remelting radioactive scrap metal, and threats to the
      19 February, 2002
                                                                     environment from new ports on the shores of the Finnish Gulf,
      On 18 February, 2002, in Sosnovy Bor, Leningrad Oblast, an     and the Baltic Pipeline System.
      unknown criminal has assaulted Oleg Bodrov, the Green          For more details please see Green World web site:
      World Council chairman, member of the Coalition Clean
      Baltic Board. This happened at about 8 p. m., when Oleg was
      walking home from the Green World office. The criminal hit
      Oleg twice in his head with some heavy object, and Oleg
      fainted and lied unconscious for some time.

      The purpose of the attack was not robbery, because the
      assaulter took no of Oleg’s belongings, also leaving all the
      money and the mobile phone untouched. After regaining
      consciousness, Oleg reached the nearest militia office and
      informed about the attack. From his home, Oleg called
      ambulance, and was hospitalised to the trauma department of
      the Sosnovy Bor hospital No. 38 with the diagnosis:
                                                                                                     CCB Board Meeting ‘2001

Page 15                                                                                                              Volume 1 Issue 4
          2002 Environmental            An excerpt from
          Sustainability Index          ‘2002 Environmental Sustainability Index’
          Main Report
                                        An Initiative of the Global Leaders of Tomorrow
          Table 1. 2002 Environmental   Environment Task Force
          Sustainability Index (ESI)    World Economic Forum

          Rank Countr y ESI
                  Country               Rank Countr y ESI
                                                 Country                   Rank Countr y ESI
           1 Finland       73.9         58 Cuba         51.2               115 Burundi      41.6
           2 Norway        73.0         59 Mozambique 51.1                 116 India        41.6
           3 Sweden        72.6         60 Greece       50.9               117 Philippines 41.6
           4 Canada        70.6         61 Tunisia      50.8               118 Uzbekistan 41.3
           5 Switzerland 66.5           62 Turkey       50.8               119 Rwanda       40.6
           6 Uruguay       66.0         63 Israel       50.4               120 Oman         40.2
           7 Austria       64.2         64 Czech Republic 50.2             121 Trinidad and Tob. 40.1
           8 Iceland       63.9         65 Ghana        50.2               122 Jamaica      40.1
           9 Costa Rica 63.2            66 Romania      50.0               123 Niger        39.4
          10 Latvia        63.0         67 Guatemala 49.6                  124 Libya        39.3
          11 Hungary       62.7         68 Malaysia     49.5               125 Belgium      39.1
          12 Croatia       62.5         69 Zambia       49.5               126 Mauritania 38.9
          13 Botswana      61.8         70 Algeria      49.4               127 Guinea-Bissau 38.8
          14 Slovakia      61.6         71 Bulgaria     49.3               128 Madagascar 38.8
          15 Argentina     61.5         72 Russia       49.1               129 China        38.5
          16 Australia     60.3         73 Morocco      49.1               130 Liberia      37.7
          17 Panama        60.0         74 Egypt        48.8               131 Turkmenistan 37.3
          18 Estonia       60.0         75 El Salvador 48.7                132 Somalia      37.1
          19 New Zealand 59.9           76 Uganda       48.7               133 Nigeria      36.7
          20 Brazil        59.6         77 South Africa 48.7               134 Sierra Leone 36.5
          21 Bolivia       59.4         78 Japan        48.6               135 South Korea 35.9
          22 Colombia      59.1         79 Dominican Rep. 48.4             136 Ukraine      35.0
          23 Slovenia      58.8         80 Tanzania     48.1               137 Haiti        34.8
          24 Albania       57.9         81 Senegal      47.6               138 Saudi Arabia 34.2
          25 Paraguay      57.8         82 Malawi       47.3               139 Iraq         33.2
          26 Namibia       57.4         83 Macedonia 47.2                  140 North Korea 32.3
          27 Lithuania     57.2         84 Italy        47.2               141 United Arab Em. 25.7
          28 Portugal      57.1         85 Mali         47.1               142 Kuwait       23.9
          29 Peru          56.5         86 Bangladesh 46.9
          30 Bhutan        56.3         87 Poland       46.7               Note: 2002 ESI scores are
          31 Denmark       56.2         88 Kazakhstan 46.5                 not directly comparable to
          32 Laos          56.2         89 Kenya        46.3               the 2001 ESI scores. See
          33 France        55.5         90 Myanmar (Burma) 46.2            page 21, “Evolution of the
          34 Netherlands 55.4           91 United Kingdom 46.1             ESI Methodology,” and
          35 Chile         55.1         92 Mexico       45.9               Annex 2 for details.
          36 Gabon         54.9         93 Cameroon     45.9
          37 Ireland       54.8         94 Vietnam      45.7
          38 Armenia       54.8         95 Benin        45.7
          39 Moldova       54.5         96 Chad         45.7
          40 Congo         54.3         97 Cambodia     45.6
          41 Ecuador       54.3         98 Guinea       45.3
          42 Mongolia      54.2         99 Nepal        45.2
          43 Central Af. Rep. 54.1      100 Indonesia 45.1
          44 Spain         54.1         101 Burkina Faso 45.0
          45 United States 53.2         102 Sudan       44.7
          46 Zimbabwe      53.2         103 Gambia      44.7
          47 Honduras      53.1         104 Iran        44.5
          48 Venezuela     53.0         105 Togo        44.3
          49 Byelarus      52.8         106 Lebanon     43.8
          50 Germany       52.5         107 Syria       43.6
          51 Papua N G 51.8             108 Ivory Coast 43.4
          52 Nicaragua     51.8         109 Zaire       43.3
          53 Jordan        51.7         110 Tajikistan  42.4
          54 Thailand      51.6         111 Angola      42.4
          55 Sri Lanka     51.3         112 Pakistan    42.1
          56 Kyrgyzstan 51.3            113 Ethiopia    41.8
          57 Bosnia and Herze. 51.3     114 Azerbaijan 41.8

Page 16                                                                                            Volume 1 Issue 4
     Some Comments on Sustainability Indices (based on SI 2001)
     AhtoOja (02.15.2001)

     There are several different ways and methods to measure or calculate ecological sustainability,
     e.g. Living Planet Index, Environmental Space, Ecological Footprint, Primary Net Production
     et al. For Estonia Environmental Space (Lahtvee, 1995) and Environmental Footprint (Living
     Planet Report, 2000) have been calculated recently. For instance the Living Planet Index
     is calculated as the average of three ecosyastems (forest, fresh water and sea water),
     according to the extinction of species, in comparison with 1970, as the ‘100% level’. By
     1999 the index had decreased to 67%.

     Ecological deficit is defined as the difference of ecological footprint (pressure to the

Page 17                                                          (Cont. on p. 18)      Volume 1 Issue 4
  environment) and biological accumulation (capacity). Ecological deficit of a country measures the amount by
  which their footprint exceeds the locally available ecological capacity

  Estonia holds the 14th rank, but unfortunately calculated downside up among 152 countries.
  This is the championship tabulation of ecological footprint or ‘sustain-inability’ among all
  the countries with population exceeding 1 million. Higher rank means higher pressure to the
  environment, that may be considered as sustain-inability.

  Estonia holds ‘higher’ rank than Germany, GB, Benelux, Greece, Italy, Spain, Austria and
  Portugal, but ‘loses’ to Denmark, Ireland, Finland, Sweden and France. In this tabulation
  Estonia is equal to Hong Kong. From the ecologically sustainable point of view we shouldn’t
  catch up with Nordic countries or Ireland. This tabulation demonstrates the real cost of
  development, oriented to monetary profit. Implementing the idea of Sustainable Estonia we
  could offer the example to some traditional welfare country, believing in profit.

  The Man needs in average 2.18 square units. Estonian footprint is 7.12 square units and
  ecological deficit is -3.1. Only 14 countries in the World have larger carbon dioxide
  footprint, than Estonia, mainly due to the oil shale.

  NB! Estonia does have currently an alternative to oil shale. You can read it
  from the next issue of the CCB Newsletter.
Page 18                                                                                      Volume 1 Issue 4
       appropriated carr ying capacity is another name for the ecological footprint. “Appropriated” signifies captured, claimed or occupied. Ecological
    footprints remind us that we appropriate ecological capacity for food, fibres, energy, waste absorption etc. In industrial regions, a large part of these
    flows is imported.

      biological capacity refers to the total of the biologically productive areas. See also “biologically productive areas”.

     biologically productive areas are those areas of a country with quantitatively significant plant and animal productivity. We summarise the biologi-
    cally productive areas of a country as its biological capacity. Arable land is the potentially most productive area.

      ecological deficit of a country measures the amount by which their footprint exceeds the locally available ecological capacity.

      ecological footprint is the land and water area that is required to support indefinitely the material standard of living of a given human population,
    using prevailing technology.

      ecological remainder or remaining ecological capacity. Countries with footprints smaller than their locally available ecological capacity are
    endowed with an ecological remainder — the difference between capacity and footprint. Today in many cases, this remainder is occupied by the
    footprints of other countries (through export production). See also “ecological deficit”.

      embodied energy of a commodity is the energy used during its entire life cycle for manufacturing, transporting, using and disposing.

      locally available capacity is the part of the locally existing ecological capacity that is available for human use. The remaining part should be left
    untouched for preserving biological diversity. In this report, we calculate the available capacity by subtracting 12 percent from the existing capacity,
    as suggested by the Brundtland Report.

      locally existing capacity refers to the total ecological production that is found with in the country’s territories. It is expressed in hectares with world
    average productivity.

      natural capital refers to the stock of natural assets that yield goods and services on a continuous basis. Main functions include resource production
    (such as fish, timber or cereals), waste assimilation (such as CO2 absorption, sewage decomposition) and life support services (UV protection,
    biodiversity, water cleansing, climate stability).

      overshoot according to William Catton, is “growth beyond an area’s carrying capacity, leading to crash.”

     productivity is measured in biological production per year and hectare. A typical indicator of biological productivity is the biomass accumulation of
    an ecosystem.

      waste factors (used in the round wood calculations) give the ratio of cubic meter of round wood used per cubic meter (or tonne) of product.

      yield adjusted area refers to the biologically productive space expressed in world average productivity. It is calculated by multiplying the physically
    existing space by the yield factors.

      yield factor is the factor by which the country’s ecosystems are more productive than world average. A yield factor of 0.5 indicates that local
    productivity is only half of the global average. The footnotes in “ef-world.xls” explain how each is calculated.

Page 19                                                                                                                                       Volume 1 Issue 4
                                                                              Friday, February 1, 2002
      World Economic Forum Participant
      Corporation, USA
      c/o The World Economic Forum
      The Waldorf-Astoria Hotel
      301 Park Avenue
      New York, NY 10022-6897
Dear World Economic Forum Participant

Re: Is your company really “Committed to Improving the State of the World”?

Recognise that phrase? It’s the slogan for the World Economic Forum.

We are writing to you, as a fellow participant of this year’s meeting, to assess whether your company
really is committed to “improving the state of the world”. We’re requesting that you respond to the
challenge detailed in this letter by April 24, 2002 since we will be publishing the results in the
international media on May 1, 2002 .

Friends of the Earth International is the world’s most effective environmental network with almost one
million supporters across five continents. We consist of 60 national organisations worldwide, most of
which are based in “the global south” (otherwise known as “the developing countries”).

As such, we have widespread experience of corporate behaviour. We are aware of too many shocking
examples of where corporations have put their short-term profit interests before those of people and
their environment. But there are also some corporations that claim they are serious about reducing (or
eliminating) their negative impacts on society, and maximising their positive impacts.


We believe the time has come for an effective, legally binding international framework on corporate
accountability and liability. This binding agreement would apply for publically traded companies, and
would include:

- legal rights for citizens and communities affected by the activities of damaging corporations

- duties on corporations with respect to social and environmental matters

- and rules to ensure high standards of behaviour wherever corporations operate

Friends of the Earth International is calling on governments to commit to the launch of a negotiation
on a corporate accountability convention, at the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) or
“Earth Summit” in Johannesburg, in September. Please find a flyer enclosed, with more information.

Clearly, if your company is already “committed to improving the state of the world”, you have nothing
to fear from our proposals and everything to gain.

If you are taking all measures reasonably foreseeable to eliminate the negative social and
environmental impacts of your company’s activities, then you will already be convinced of the sound
business case behind good corporate behaviour.

But we imagine you must also get very frustrated when your competitors get way with pursuing profits
regardless of other considerations. The failure of world’s governments to take action against such
firms, means that poor corporate behaviour is effectively rewarded while good corporate behaviour is
penalised. And you will, no doubt, understand why the public mood in so many countries is turning
against “corporate-globalisation”.

If this is the case, we hope very much that you will support our campaign by making a public statement
in support of a legally binding international framework on corporate accountability and liability.
Perhaps you might also want to come to the Earth Summit in Johannesburg later this year, and campaign
alongside Friends of the Earth?

But we want to know you thoughts, either way.

Please find a simple fax back form enclosed, for your convenience. We would be most grateful if you
could send your completed form back to me no later than April 24, 2002.

If you have any questions, please do not hesitate to contact us. We look forward to your response.

Yours sincerely

Friends of the Earth International

Page 20                                                                                              Volume 1 Issue 4
  Local and National Agenda 21 work in Latvia                                          • Integration of environmental protection policy in all
                                                                                         fields and sectors setting the base for sustainable
    by Valdis Kudinš DIVIC (Nature Studies and Environmental Education Centre)           development of state and society.

       Janis Brizga, CCB/Latvia
                                                                                       Several points with ideas mentioned above are included in Concept of Regional
     Introduction                                                                      Development Policy of Latvia as well. Like one of basic standpoints of regional
                                                                                       development policy in Latvia is following: the regional development of Latvia
  Long time is gone when there at the United Nations
                                                                                       must take place in the context of united Baltic region, European Union and global
  Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) at
                                                                                       social development. It must be in line with program ‘Agenda 21’, passed by UNCED
  Rio de Janeiro in June 1992 was Earth’s Action Plan
                                                                                       conference at Rio, the Ålborg Charter, passed by European local authorities on
  adopted and nations understood importance of this document
                                                                                       Direction of European Towns and Cities towards Sustainable Development, the
  that is now as one of corner stones in process of
                                                                                       EU program ‘Direction towards Sustainable Development’ and the EU regional
  development, sustainable development. It was the first
                                                                                       development policy.
  international action program that established connection
  between concern of the environment and realisation.
  This document came out with agreement that sustainability                            Agenda 21-development process on national level is going rather slow and still
  is almost impossible when population of planet Earth is                              there are a lot of documents that should be adjusted with Rio document. This is
  trapped in ill health, hunger, thirst, lack of knowledge                             not an easy process because sometimes interests of fast economical development
  and power to improve situation without destroying                                    are confronting with basic principles of sustainable development and new
  resources that unfortunately are not recoverable. This                               developing countries are tended to use quick unsustainable way.
  un-recoverability makes to think about possible solutions
  globally and to act locally. That is one of tasks - to                                  Local and regional attitudes, activities, processes
  implement Agenda 21 nationally and locally by attracting
  as much people as possible.                                                          If there are some activities done on national level,
                                                                                       then attitude to sustainable development from side of
  The given task is hard to implement, because it has to do with changes in attitude   regions is rather different. ‘Local Agenda 21’ is new
  and in behaviour. That can take even generations. Main problem in our behaviour      topic for regional and local authorities.
  is culture of consumer that is especially developed in territory of former Soviet
  Union. There was policy that leaded to total disposing of nature resources. To       Many problems and solutions that are mentioned in Agenda 21 have roots on local
  avoid disaster that can be raised by lack of nature resources we should start now    level that’s why local authorities should play important role in implementing
  to change us and we have to start from changing our own houses, life styles.         sustainable development. Progress of local authorities towards sustainable
                                                                                       development can be reflected as coincident development of economic, social and
  Following the activities on local levels that are concerned to Agenda 21 we can      environmental spheres. Looking from long-term point of view development should
  observe difference in development process of implementation Agenda 21. This          be in all spheres without prioritising ones interests. Of course some of spheres can
  process towards sustainability is different in different parts of world. Somewhere   temporary dominate according to needs and opinion of certain local authority.
  especially in Western Europe Local Agenda 21 implementation process is
  developing rather quickly and Eastern and Central Europe countries are a little      Look like in current situation of Latvian market economy development policy
  back in process mentioned above, but the way of development the Local Agenda         local authorities outworking development plans are more focusing on economic
  21 can be explained with economical and social development in these countries        development without considering environmental aspects. That’s why independent
  because of changing processes in political systems.                                  institutions that will not allow dominance one of spheres should monitor process
                                                                                       of developing local development strategies. Environmental problems do not have
  Still Agenda 21 with its environmental aspects plays big role in development         administrative borders that’s why as very important point of sustainability is co-
  process of countries. And as explanation of these hypothesis will be report about    operation between local authorities. Such co-operation will influence processes of
  Local Agenda 21 development process in Latvia as whole and in regions.               development on regional and national levels.

                                                                                       First municipalities that initiated process of developing Local Agenda 21 were
     National government attitude, activities, processes                               Jurmala, Liepja, Jelgava and Riga. So we can consider these authorities as leading
  Latvia has signed agreement on participation in Agenda                               in Local Agenda 21 development process. Now number of municipalities that are
  21 development process. Since that time and nowadays                                 dealing with Local Agenda 21 is grown. Municipalities in R–zekne, C–sis, Talsi,
  there already has been some activities toward sustainable                            Rkjiena and small union of local authorities “Brtava” are developing local
  development in Latvia. These activities provided by                                  sustainable development plans. These plans have been developed with close co-
  government and governmental organisations show attitude                              operation with similar municipalities in other countries who have already old
  of these institutions to Agenda 21 implementation process                            traditions on work with LA21. Strength of such co-operation is experience gained
  in Latvia. By influence of other countries policies, by                              from places where Local Agenda 21 implementing processes are already on higher
  activity of public organisations there has been a growing                            stage of development. A lot of experience is gained from Swedish authorities
  understanding of importance to implement Agenda 21.
  Unfortunately we cannot be proud with national document of Agenda 21 because
  we do not have any. And national government hasn’t showed special support or           As progressive co-operative projects can be mentioned:
  positive attitude to process of implementing Agenda 21. That can be approved         • Riga (Latvia) and Norrköping (Sweden) Co-operation
  by absence of national political documents, laws and accepted financing for            Project ‘City of Riga Environment Center AGENDA 21’;
  promoting implementation of Agenda 21.                                               • Daugavpils (Latvia) and Motala (Sweden) Co-operation
                                                                                         Project ‘DaMoFu - 2010 - AGENDA 21’ is passing 1st
  Looking from the other side it is worth to mention that government has integrated      phase.
  some principles of Agenda 21 into national legislation. As good example how
  these principles are integrated is National Strategy for Nature Protection and
  some programs of state investments.                                                  Situation concerned to Local Agenda 21 in local municipalities is different as
                                                                                       well. But activities are growing and there are in process of realisation several
                                                                                       projects providing ideas of Local Agenda 21 importance. Projects are on different
                                                                                       stages of development - beginning with announcement on Local Agenda 21 ideas
  National Strategy for Nature Protection defines four long-term goals of nature       and until setting up Agenda 21 centres.
  protection policy:
  • To get through improvement of environment quality in                               As one of successes considering implementation of Local Agenda 21 on regional
    areas that are endangered for people health and balance                            level can be mentioned “Latgale region sustainable development plan” as pilot
    of ecosystems and in the same time prevent decline of                              project realised on regional level taking in account conditions of Agenda 21. This
    environment quality in other areas;                                                project can be presented as successful case for other regions of Latvia.
  • To preserve existing level of bio-diversity and for
    Latvia characteristic landscapes;                                                  Process of developing Local Agenda 21 can be started in direction “down to up”,
  • Sustainable consumption of natural resources;                                      that is usually initiated by some NGOs or schools. That can be process started in

                                                                                                                                                  (Cont. on p. 22)
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   direction “up to down” as well, when idea is created in administration of local       Local and National Agenda 21 work in Lithuania
   authority.                                                                            By Lina Semetulskyte and Jurate Morkvenaite,
                                                                                         EnvironmentalClub Zvejone/Lithuanian Green Movement
   Current experience shows that process should have political support and if
   initiative comes from administration of local authority or other institution             Introduction
   subordinated to mentioned institution it is more easy to transform idea into
   political document.                                                                   Lithuania together with Latvia and Estonia are the
                                                                                         countries considered to be a part of the common Baltic
                                                                                         Sea Region. These countries share similar economical
      NGO activities and possibilities to act                                            and political situation formed in the course of history
                                                                                         during the Soviet occupation. All three East Baltic
   Non-governmental organisations are the basic
                                                                                         States are currently undergoing remarkable political,
   institutions for development of civil society and
                                                                                         economical, socio-cultural changes which started after
   participatory democracy. Therefore they have to be
                                                                                         the Independence has been regained.
   recognised as important partners in the process of
   Local Agenda 21 development. During last ten years                                    Although Local Agenda 21 has already been developed for a large number of
   Latvia has seen a significant development in non-                                     cities in the Baltic Sea Region, Lithuania hasn’t Agenda 21 strategy at the national
   governmental sector. Many formal and informal                                         level and its experience with implementation of Agenda 21 is very limited. For
   organisations, as well as grass root organisations                                    the most part the implementation of the Agenda 21 in Lithuania is ongoing at the
   have been set up since then. Most of them are involved                                local level and is done by several municipalities, public organisations and NGOs.
   in building sustainable development in Latvia and are
   very open to process of changes and are interested in                                 After intensive work the project ”Agenda XXI in Lithuania” within the framework
   changing attitudes towards sustainability.                                            of Coalition Clean Baltic (CCB) project ”Local and National Agenda 21 in the
   Projects carried out by government and local municipalities are mostly of             Baltic Sea Countries” has been completed.
   legislative character, while the NGO projects are oriented towards public
   awareness raising and changing lifestyles into more sustainable patterns. Some        CCB has already participated, contributed and it is still continuing the activities
   of the projects are action oriented with main task to raise people’s attention,       for the development of an Agenda 21 for the Baltic Sea Region (BSR) – Baltic
   which could have significant impact on future generations. Or there are projects      21. Local Agenda 21 was adopted as a priority activity at the CCB Annual Meeting
   that have educational task to tell public about necessity of sustainable lifestyle.   in Stockholm 1998. The project ”Local and National Agenda 21 in the Baltic
                                                                                         Sea Countries” is based on the ideas and proposals outlined in the ”ECO Vision
   As Latvia has no national strategy on Sustainable Development the initiative          of an Agenda 21 for the Baltic Sea Region” (ECO – Environmental Citizens
   to implement LA21 on local level comes mostly from NGOs and environmental             Organisation). Funding for this project has been received from Nordic Council
   movements. Thanks to co-operation between Latvian and foreign NGOs there              of Ministers to produce five national reports (Poland, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia
   has been transfer of knowledge and information on Sustainable Development             and the Baltic Russia) and a joint report reflecting the whole Baltic Sea Region.
   issues to Latvian NGOs. This co-operation has resulted in series of local projects    The reports emphasise the role and possibilities of the NGOs to work with the
   and activities.                                                                       Local Agenda 21 and give good examples on how the work can be done, especially
                                                                                         in connection to the Baltic 21 sectors (agriculture, energy, fishery, forests, industry,
                                                                                         tourism, transport) and CCB more important areas (nature conservation, ecological
   The co-operation between NGOs in Latvia and in Scandinavian countries has
                                                                                         engineering, environmental education).
   been most successful in promoting sustainable development on local level.
   For example in co-operation between Baltic Center (Latvia), Cooperation for
   Peace, q2000 (Sweden) series of seminars and summer camps were organised              The project ”Agenda XXI in Lithuania”, carried out by Environmental Club
   for youth from all Baltic states and co-operation gave possibility to participate     Zvejone/Lithuanian Green Movement aimed at evaluating the existing situation,
   at the CSD Sessions and Rio +5 Summit and Latvian government wasn’t                   conditions and possibilities for working with Local Agenda 21 in Lithuania as
   participating at these Sessions at all. This is not the only example, there are a     well as give representative extract of good examples on environmental projects
   lot of other good examples.                                                           and strategies.

   There has been established networks of environmental NGOs in Latvia that              Community Atgaja and Lithuanian Green Movement already took active part in
   are working on local issues (e.g. nuclear power) and functioning like information     international and national meetings within the frame of the Baltic Agenda 21
   spreading (e.g. genetic engineering, biological diversity) tool instead of strong     since 1998. Atgaja was serving as a national focal point for Lithuanian
   lobbying group to national government and acting as watch-dogs. Nevertheless          environmental NGOs and representing their views and positions in discussions
   NGOs can be seen as strong environmental issue raisers and are active in public       and preparations of Baltic Agenda 21 documents, spreading out information to
   awareness rising.                                                                     general public, lobbying of relevant officials concerning various aspects of NGO’s
                                                                                         position about principles and implementation of Baltic Agenda 21. One of the
                                                                                         most important aspects of the international project Baltic 21 Activities in
   There are many educational and practical projects on LA21 issues organised
                                                                                         Lithuania, carried out by Lithuanian Green Movement in 1998 as integrated
   by local NGOs, but environmental NGOs are lacking in influence over national
                                                                                         part of participation of CCB and other interested NGOs in Baltic Agenda 21
   policies and long term planning related to sustainable development.
                                                                                         process, work is: ECO Vision of an Agenda 21 for the BSR was presented and
                                                                                         discussed with target groups as important contribution of joint international
   Rio +10 is coming in less than two years so it is time to show attitude and
                                                                                         NGO’s efforts to regional process for sustainable development in the BSR
   interest to Rio processes as countdown has started. NGOs have understood
                                                                                         (Vainius, L. 1998.).
   their role and place in preparation process for Rio +10 in accordance with UN
   guidelines. NGOs are the first who raised discussions and started preparation
                                                                                         The activities of Environmental Club Zvejone (the part of Lithuanian Green
   works on sustainable development implementation issues.
                                                                                         Movement), are related to the conservation and sustainable use of the natural
                                                                                         resources of the Lithuanian Baltic Sea coast, promotion of bicycles as mean of
                                                                                         transport and sustainable tourism, sustainable use of energy and water resources
                                                                                         and environmental education. Lately, since 1998, Zvejone is executing CCB
                                                                                         project “Comprehensive information package on sustainable uses of water
                                                                                         resources in the Baltic sea catchment area” which aim is to prepare Comprehensive
                                                                                         Information Package to give a comprehensive set of successfully implemented
               Strix uralensis in Teici Reserve

                                                                                         examples of sustainable uses of water resources in different fields of human
                                                                                         activities as well as to demonstrate how a vision of sustainable development of
                                                                                         societies depicted in the Baltic Agenda 21 is actually being translated from words
                                                                                         to actions (Marcinkenaite, H. 1997.)

                                                                                         Recently, since May, 1999, Zvejone has started to execute the above - mentioned
                                                                                         project ”Agenda XXI in Lithuania” whose report on Lithuanian local and national
                                                                                         Agenda 21 was based on a general review of materials and documents in Agenda
                                                                                         21. The documents facilitated an analysis of current status of how far the
                                                                                         Lithuanian situation complies the requirements of Agenda 21. Following the
                                                                                         collection of materials, interviews with environmental officials and experts were
                                                                                         conducted. These two mentioned processes have been done in parallel in order
   sgf_rpts_latvia1_annex.htm                                                                                                    (Cont. on p. 23)
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   to examine the collected information deeper and to investigate several aspects      reduction of discharges; air pollution reduction; hazardous waste management;
   of Agenda 21. General information concerning the Agenda 21’s implementation         domestic and other non-hazardous waste management; optimisation of land use
   in Lithuania was found in several NGO offices including Environmental club          and forest structure; prevention of further natural landscape degradation; protection
   Zvejone, Community Atgaja, Regional Environmental Centre for Lithuania,             of ecologically sensitive and natural areas; rehabilitation of abandoned quarries
   Environmental Centre for Administration and Technology (ECAT - Lithuania)           and rational use of natural resources. (Environmental performance reviews.
   and the Ministry of Environment. Interviews with the Ministry of Transportation     Lithuania 1999. p. 12.)
   and Communication, the State Tourism Department, Fishery Department,
   Department of Forestry and Protective areas, Foreign Relation Department of         The Ministry of Environment is the leading institution for the enforcement of
   the Ministry of Environment, Municipalities of Klaipeda, Kaunas, Siauliai,          National Environmental Strategy and its Action Program for environmental
   the Ministry of Environment as well as from public organisations Zvejone,           education.
   Atgaja, ECAT, REC, EUCC Baltic office, Aukuras, Lithuanian Fund for Nature,
   Gaja, the Centre of Alternative Energy, Vilnius Society for Nature Conservation     The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development took part in
   were done. The final stage of the work includes analysis and interpretation of      Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) in 1992 were sustainable development was put on the very
   the collected information and the selected examples from the “List of Criteria”     top of the international agenda. The Rio Declaration and action plan, which is
   and “Description Scheme” (Annex 1) proposed by St Petersburg                        called Agenda 21, were adopted by more than 170 countries, including Lithuania.
   environmentalists. These examples were analysed with their assistance.              The 172 governments represented in Rio agreed also on principles for conservation
                                                                                       and sustainable development, and signed two significant global environmental
     The biggest barrier in the report’s preparation was
                                                                                       conventions combating climate change and the loss of biological diversity. (Vebra,
   on disagreement with concepts such as Agenda 21,
                                                                                       E. and Sulkinoja, M. 1999.)
   sustainability, ecology, environment protection and
   others. Most of NGO knew about Agenda 21 but they did
   not associate their environmental activities with its                               Sustainable development principles and the global Agenda 21 were adopted at the
   requirements. At the beginning it took time for people                              governmental level in the Lithuanian Environmental Policy (1996). The inter-
   to distinguish between similar concepts such as                                     governmental process to develop Agenda 21 for the Baltic Sea Region (Baltic 21)
   sustainability and Agenda 21. For this reason the                                   was started in 1996. In September 1996 the Ministry of the Environment issued
   selection of examples was delayed. The workshop on                                  reports on the implementation of Agenda 21 in Lithuania to the UN Commission
   Agenda 21 in Tallinn and CCB Annual Meeting in Pärnu                                for Sustainable Development. They led to the report on environment and sustainable
   (both in May 1999), where the draft report was presented,                           development in the Republic of Lithuania at the end of the year. In 1996 the
   helped with the process of selecting good examples. It                              Ministers of the Environment of the Baltic Sea region decided at their informal
   was concluded that examples which meet requirements                                 meeting in Saltsjöbaden (Sweden) to develop an Agenda 21 for the Baltic Sea
   of Agenda 21 (Annex 1) would be included in the report.                             region (called Baltic Agenda 21).
   For this reason the questions used to select examples
   were formulated as follows: “Have you any environmental                             Seven economic sectors were identified as being crucial for sustainable development
   protection project with successful results”. After                                  in the region: agriculture, energy, fisheries, forestry, industry and transportation.
   this, “List of Criteria” (Annex 1) was applied to                                   Lithuania became lead party (together with Finland) in the integration of forest
   choose projects.                                                                    policy into general economic transition programs and sustainable development.
                                                                                       (Environmental performance reviews. Lithuania 1999. p. 68)
   Interviews with authorities from State departments were time consuming. They
   gave a lot of documentation of laws and resolutions and other material, however,    The leading institution is the Ministry of Environment, obliged by national law to
   the majority of this information was left on paper. During the seminar “The         document the main policy trends in environmental protection, safety and natural
   ideas of sustainable development in Lithuania”, organised by Lithuanian Green       resource use and to co-ordinate generation, analysis and dissemination of
   Movement in Kaunas in May 1999, it was concluded that more time for                 environmental information. After Parliament approved the National Environmental
   discussions with NGOs and Municipalities had to be allotted. Heated debates         Strategy in 1996, a proposal was made to create the Lithuanian National Council
   among representatives of different NGOs regarding the role of NGOs in               for Sustainable Development (NCSD). It should consist of senior governmental
   sustainable activities came to light during this seminar. This strengthened the     officials from key ministries, other governmental bodies, scientific organisations
   conclusion to expand investigation of NGO and Municipal environmental               and NGOs, and aims to integrate environmental activity and development at the
   protection activities.                                                              country level (Environmental performance reviews. Lithuania 1999. p. 68. The
                                                                                       Statute of NCSD. Project. 1999.). NCSD would take care of the implementation
                                                                                       of both the global Agenda 21 and Baltic 21.
     Environmental Legislation and Agenda 21 at the
   National Level
                                                                                       Legal act for the establishment of the Lithuanian NCSD are prepared and waiting
   The Law of Environmental Protection dated 21 January                                to be decided by the Lithuanian Government. At this moment the establishing of
   1992 lays down the basic principles of environmental                                the Council has come to a stop because of changes of States authorities in the
   protection. Its main objective is to achieve an                                     Government and Ministries (the Ministry of Environment was newly formed from
   ecologically sound and healthy environment on which                                 the Ministry of Environment Protection and the Ministry of Construction and
   human activities have little negative impact and which                              Urbanistic, as well as due to recently elected Prime Minister new Minister Cabinet
   can maintain Lithuania’s typical landscape as well as                               was created which condition other more primary importance tasks and activities)
   its diversity of biological systems. The Law foresees                               and the initiators of the Council are waiting for more stable situation. In conclusion,
   environmental impact assessments and prescribes the                                 one of the problems of the passive national Agenda is non-existence of a responsible
   “polluter-pays” principle. It also encourages citizens                              State body. The Department of Foreign Relations is the executive for the
   and public organisations to participate in environmental                            implementation of Agenda 21 but that is not its primary responsibility. There are
   protection. (Environmental performance reviews.                                     many governmental resolutions, decrees and other regulatory measures, different
   Lithuania 1999. p. 11.)                                                             strategies, action plans for various environmental programs as well. All these
   The Law of Environmental Protection is a framework law and forms the legal          resolutions look quite good on paper, but not much is being done about their
   basis for the enactment of all laws and administrative acts that regulate the use   implementation. Unfortunately, they are left at the theoretical level without
   of natural resources and protect the environment. It establishes the Ministry of    implementation.
   the Environment, which initiates laws on environment protection and, generally,
   sees to that the Government also protects the environment. (Environmental           Interviews with officials from Fishery Department, Department of Foreign Relation,
   performance reviews. Lithuania 1999. p. 11.)                                        Ministry of Transportation, Department of Tourism have shown that many officials
                                                                                       do not understand the principles of Agenda 21 in full. They look at the Agenda
   The first National Environmental Protection Program (NEPP) was drawn up             only from the environmental point of view leaving political and economical aspects
   in 1992. It addressed the major environmental problems in priority order. In        far behind. Most officials have said that their institutions cannot work with Agenda
   1994, the EU PHARE program helped Lithuania to develop its National                 21 because of financial problems. They have mentioned that principles of the
   Environmental Strategy (NES) which was adopted by the Parliament of the             Agenda are not fully understandable, institutions are missing specific action plans
   Republic of Lithuania in 1996. It is in full agreement with principles of           which would help to put into practice concrete actions. It was also noted that there
   sustainable development. Lithuania’s NES includes an Action Program which           is no big interest in Agenda 21 among officials, some of them use it as nice and
   aims to achieve sustainable development to be able to preserve a clean and          fashionable declaration.
   healthy natural environment, biological and landscape diversity and ensure
   optimal use of natural resources. (Environmental performance reviews.               The conclusion was that despite various documents, resolutions, and action plans
   Lithuania 1999. p. 12.)                                                             for implementation of Agenda 21 in Lithuania, almost nothing concrete is done at
                                                                                       the national level and there is no national policy on Agenda 21 in Lithuania.
   The following priorities for environmental policy and management are identified
   in NEPP (1995) and environmental legislation: waste-water treatment and
                                                                                                                                           (Cont. on p. 24)
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       Local Agenda XXI Activities
   Local Agenda 21 has already been developed for a large
   number of cities in the Baltic Sea Region, but Lithuania                                                                      Aukstaitija
   has limited experience with its implementation.
   Interviews with the representatives of public
   organisations such as environmental NGOs, municipalities
                                                                                                                                 National Park
   and others have shown lack of trust in national
   authorities and their promises regarding Agenda 21.
   “Nice ideas are left to be nice ideas.”        For this
   reason it is difficult to put the principles of Agenda
   21 in practice at the local level. Also, there is no
   Agenda 21 strategy at the national level. On the other
   hand implementation of local Agenda 21 is most conducive
   to existing conditions in Lithuania. According to Laima
   Galkute, one of the initiators and authors of Agenda
   21 for the Kaunas city, individuals at the local level
   make decisions. Thus, the strategy must be well
   considered and understood. Implementation of the Agenda
   21 in Lithuania is possible only at the local level
   and could be done by public organisations. Local public
   organisations implementing their environmental
   activities formulate very specific aims which are easier
   to reach than governmental institutions try to do with
   extensive more strategic plans (Vainius, L. & Galkute,
   L. 1999.).
   After analysing the situation regarding implementation of local Agenda 21 the
   following was concluded: municipalities, schools and environmental NGOs
   should put the local Agenda in practice.                                aukstaitija.html
   Only two cities in Lithuania, Kaunas and Klaipeda, are participating in
   international co-operation projects and preparing, together with international
   partners, Local Agenda 21 for their cities.

    Local and National Agenda 21 work in Poland
      By Janusz Mikula and Waldemar Wolniakowsk                                     European and global environment protection problems, regionalisation and
                                                                                    selection of priorities.
      Polish Ecological Club/Gdansk
                                                                                      Agenda 21 adopted in June 1992 at the Earth Summit correlated fully with
      Introduction                                                                  the “Ecological Policy of the State” accepted in 1991. However, in order to
                                                                                    achieve an effective and stable improvement in the environment condition
       The “Environment and Development” United Nations Conference                  in Poland, the ecological policy of the state required the establishment of
    (UNCED) convened to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil by UN between 3 and 14               instruments for its execution. Unfortunately, no program and schedule of
    June 1992 resulted among others in accepting the “Rio de Janeiro Dec-           legislation concerning environment protection, taking into account the in-
    laration” specifying the rights and duties of the states in the process of      teraction among the elements of the environment, land development and
    implementing the basic principles of ecodevelopment (the so-called              economic and social strategy, was created.
    Agenda 21). In order to coordinate the provisions and recommenda-
    tions included in AGENDA 21, the Earth Summit of the General Assembly              As a result, in the period between 1991-97, the positive effects of eco-
    of the United Nations set up the UN Committee of Sustainable Develop-           nomic and system changes manifested themselves quite naturally and
    ment (UNCSD). Poland has participated in the works of UNCSD since its           automatically. This period, however, was not used for a more determined
    establishment.                                                                  promotion of pro-ecological activities creating a society of ecodevelopment
                                                                                    in accord with the stipulations included in the “Ecological Policy of the State”
      The implementation of Agenda 21 in Poland has coincided with the              passed by the Parliament in May 1991 and to the provisions adopted at the
    period of deep political, social and economic reforms lasting continu-          conference in Rio in 1992. Moreover, the “Ecological Policy of the State”,
    ously since 1989 to the present day, and with the period of accommo-            apart from actions within the competence of the government department
    dating Poland to the access to the European Union entering a decisive           of environment protection, was not transformed into execution programs in
    phase.                                                                          other departments, and did not become basis for a creation of strategic
                                                                                    documents concerning the development of the country. This means that
       The system, social and economic changes have awoken in Polish so-            ecodevelopment did not become the foundation for social and economic
    ciety the hope for a fast and substantial improvement in living condi-          development of Poland. This period should, thus, be deemed wasted from
    tions. This hope concerns the financial, social as well as environmental        the point of view of the realisation of the goals of ecodevelopment in our
    spheres. The economic crisis in the beginning of the 1990s, and then            country.
    the dynamic pace of economic growth, numerous social tensions ob-
    served during the 1990s and up to now as well as the lack of under-                Non-governmental ecological organisations several times made appraisals
    standing on the part of the governing circles of the essence of the prin-       of the implementation of Agenda 21 in Poland in the 1990s. A fairly full
    ciples of sustainable development have a decisive impact on the scope           insight into the public opinion was presented by the Institute for
    and form of the implementation of Agenda 21 in Poland.                          Ecodevelopment in the report entitled “Agenda of unfulfilled hopes”, pub-
                                                                                    lished in 1997. The main theses included in this report are the following:
      The years 1991-97
                                                                                      · Polish economy undergoing dynamic development in the 1990s effected
       On 10th May 1991 i.e. a year before the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro,      changes with a relatively smaller pressure on the environment. The use of
    the Parliament of the Polish Republic adopted the “Ecological Policy of         energy remained at a constant level with a simultaneous fast economic
    the State” resolution. This document was an attempt to take a new ap-           growth. The use of water in industry was two times more effective than be-
    proach towards environment protection in the conditions of deep sys-            fore the changes, and the amount of pollutants released into the environ-
    tem transformations. The basic goal of the ecological policy was to             ment calculated per production or service unit was smaller. This does not,
    accept the principle of a stable sustainable development concerning             however, mean restraining the processes of environment degradation but
    the whole sphere of social and economic activity, including the recog-          their attenuation. The propaganda of success concerning environment pro-
    nition of such principles as the principle of law-abidance, disposal of
    pollutants at their source, socialisation, economisation, joint solving of                                                                  (Cont. on p. 25)

Page 24                                                                                                                                     Volume 1 Issue 4
      tection spread virtually in the whole period of the 1990s by the govern-         Schrodowiska (Environment Protection Bank).
      ment department of environment protection resulted in a situation where
      the society is assured of a significant improvement in the condition of             · In Poland, a serious crisis in the legal system of environment protection is
      the environment and does not notice old and new threats. Another con-            noticeable. First of all, there is no modern act on environment protection in
      sequence of this propaganda of success is an isolation from ecological           the new system situation and philosophically related to the principles of
      movements, unwillingness to cooperate with them, reduction of inde-              ecodevelopment, and corresponding to the legislation in the European
      pendence in public advisory bodies both on central and local self-gov-           Union. Virtually, throughout the whole period of the last seven years, Poland
      ernment levels.                                                                  uses the act on environment protection and shaping in its basic form of the
                                                                                       end of the 1970s. A similar situation applies to law on use and conservation
         · After the collapse of socialism, there appeared a model of con-             of inland waters. Due to those shortages concerning the fundamental legal
      sumption based on traditional western models and leading to the cre-             construction, other detailed acts concerning environment protection remain
      ation of over-consumptive society, a model broadly accepted by the               in vacuum and are not of very high quality, e.g. the act on waste materials
      society and promoted by the Government and entrepreneurs. This con-              does not fully correspond to the growing very serious threat. At the same
      stitutes the gravest, unnoticed and disrespected by the state authorities,       time, other acts are prepared on other economic and social spheres which,
      threat to the environment. Such a model of consumption is constantly             due to the lack of this general legal construction concerning modern envi-
      promoted by the media and system of commercials which, for the pur-              ronment protection, are often anti-ecological.
      poses of promoting goods of consumption destructive to the environ-
      ment, overuse the beauty of nature. This phenomenon has such a mass                  · The period 1992-96 was used to solve traditional problems of environ-
      scale that, despite the increased number of television programs de-               ment protection and not to implement ecodevelopment and the stipula-
      voted to wildlife and environment protection, they are not capable of                                                                        tions included in Agenda 21.
      influencing the bulk of the society, the more so since they are broadcast                                                                    The opportunities to use the
      during the less popular watching hours.                                                                                                      period of transformations for
                                                                                                                                                   a deep pro-ecological re-
         On the whole, quite a sad picture of the lack of understanding of the                                                                     structuring of the economy
      need for any state policy in that respect arises. A pro-consumptive living                                                                   and society are being
      style imitating the western countries is by far prevailing, which strongly                                                                   wasted all the time, and the
      contradicts the principles of ecodevelopment.                                                                                                possibilities offered by
                                                                                                                                                   Agenda 21 are to a large
        · The pace of limiting pollution is decreasing, which means exhaustion                                                                     degree not exploited. De-
      of the simple reserves and may threaten with exceeding the levels of           EUCC Project Manager handing over                             spite the Rio Conference,
      1990. This would be a return to the previous situation.                        contract and information stand. Czarnocin village, Odra delta Poland is still following the
                                                                                     Photo: P. Vissak
                                                                                                                                                   path typical of the western
        · The new phenomena with a substantial impact on the condition of                                                                          countries i.e. building market
      the environment are mass motorization, transformations in agriculture             economy only marginally taking into consideration the interest of the next
      and growing problems with waste, especially packaging.                            generations and protection of the biological diversity, and creating an over-
                                                                                        consumptive society.
         · The state aims to build an effective, from the market point of view,
      economy almost without considering external costs, without protecting              · The government virtually did not use the stipulation of Agenda 21 treat-
      the biological diversity, without taking into account the needs of next          ing of the need for preparing local Agendas 21 by the end of 1995. This
      generations and the necessity to search for a sustainable development            idea was not propagated, information and subject matter materials were
      in a global sense. The loss of political significance by ecological issues       lacking. The fact that such agendas were prepared only for 11 communes,
      still increases the problem. It may be stated with full responsibility that      with the total number of 2500 communes, speaks for itself.
      despite the achieved progress in environment protection, Poland has
      not entered the way of ecodevelopment.                                              The years 1997-99

        · The period of transformations brings new problems related to the               On 6th April 1997 new Constitution of the Polish Republic came into force.
      development of housing estates. Such phenomena as: an increased                  Article 5 of the Constitution stipulates that:
      mobility of society, collapse of PGR (State Farms), willingness on the part
      of the richer class of society to live in detached houses, capital growth          The Republic of Poland guards the independence and integrity of her
      resulting in increased investing, new working places, many old and de-           territory, ensures human and citizen freedom and rights and the safety of
      serted buildings, growth in local self-government, changes in legislation        citizens, guards the national heritage and ensures environment protection
      concerning land development, pauperisation of a part of the society              accepting the principle of sustainable development.
      resulting in a lack of means to improve the housing situation, the home-
      less, crime - have a general impact on the possibility of implementing a           Unfortunately, up to now, no legal mechanisms of implementing the prin-
      sustainable development of housing areas.                                        ciple of sustainable development mentioned in the Constitution have been
         · No attention was paid to the basic processes which take place in the
      rural areas in Poland. Agriculture and rural areas are about to face a             With full responsibility, it can be stated that between 1997-99 no significant
      thorough restructuring connected to the access to the European Union.            changes hastening the implementation of Agenda 21 in Poland took place.
      A change in the picture of Polish country should be expected. We may
      lose a significant advantage of the “non-fatigue” of soil and a substan-           This was confirmed extremely strongly by the ecological debate which
      tial part of the fragmentariness of landscape and thus a base for bio-           took place in the Parliament on 19th February 1999. The Parliament ac-
      logical diversity, and waste the tourist advantages in the rural areas.          knowledged that the materials and information presented during the de-
      Healthy products and agriculture are an important chance for the rural           bate prove that a significant decrease in the emission of basic pollutants
      areas.                                                                           has occurred, which allows for commencing the process of improving the
                                                                                       condition of the natural environment. An important role in this process was
         · It should be emphasised that it is to a very small degree that the          played by the implementation of the “Ecological Policy of the State”. How-
                                                  authorities employ ecologi-          ever, together with the civilisation progress taking place in Poland, there
                                                  cal and social groups in             appear new ecological threats and the means so far employed by the
                                                  implementing Agenda 21.              state to counteract them may be deemed insufficient. The threat include
                                                                                       the domination of material consumption, arising by imitation of the devel-
                                                      · Poland has devised an          oped countries, with a decreasing role of spiritual values; uncontrolled mass
                                                   original system of financing        motorization, degradation of the cultural and natural space and a rapid
                                                   investments on environment          growth of the amount of waste.
                                                   protection and assigns con-
                                                   siderable means for this pur-         Throughout the period of the social and economic changes taking place
                                                   pose. The key role in this sys-     in Poland, these issues were pinpointed by non-governmental ecological
                                                   tem is assumed by ecologi-          organisations, among others in the report on the implementation of Agenda
                                                   cal funds (state, provincial        21.
                                                   and communal funds) as
                                                   well as Ekofundusz (Ecofund)           As a result of the ecological debate, the Parliament summoned the Council
EUCC Secretariat visiting Odra delta               and       Bank     Ochrony
Photo: P. Vissak
                                                                                                                                                           (Cont. on p. 26)

Page 25                                                                                                                                               Volume 1 Issue 4
   of Ministers to present by 30 June 2000 a “Strategy of sustainable devel-                  tection of atmospheric air, since the crucial investments, from this point of
   opment of Poland to 2025”.                                                                 view, will be decided upon on the level of provinces without an analysis of
                                                                                              emission conditions for the whole country. It is strange that in these condi-
     It was, moreover, stated that:                                                           tions, at least an attempt to introduce strategic appraisals has not been
      The term “sustainable development” mentioned in the Constitution of
   the Republic of Poland denotes such a model of development in which                          Due to these changes, the influence of non-governmental ecological
   fulfilling the current social needs and the needs of next generations are                  organisations on the procedure of concurring on the appraisals of the im-
   treated equally. The Parliament expects that the “Strategy” presented by                   pact on the environment of especially harmful investments at the stage of
   the Government will harmoniously combine the care for the protection                       building development and land development conditions has decreased
   of the natural and cultural heritage of the nation with the civilisation and               substantially.
   economic progress shared by all social groups. The Parliament expects
   that the preparation of the “Strategy” will be preceded by wide consul-                      To the end of 1998 the judgement of appraisals of impact on the environ-
   tations enabling all interested social organisations and groups join in the                ment and concurring on especially harmful investments on behalf of the
   works on this “Strategy”.                                                                  Minister of Environment Protection was the responsibility of the Committee
                                                                                              for Appraisals of Impact on Environment appointed by the Minister. The larg-
      It should be emphasised that this is not the first resolution of Polish Par-            est non-governmental ecological organisations had their representatives in
   liament on this subject. In January 1995, the Parliament passed a resolu-                  this Committee. They could, thus, influence the process of concurring and
   tion requesting the Government to streamline the interdisciplinary and                     present their opinions before the issue of the first administrative decisions.
   diversified actions in the economic and foreign policy in compliance                       Under the pressure of ecological organisations, the Presidium of the Com-
   with the principle of sustainable development. In March 1997, the Parlia-                  mittee undertook attempts at consultations and public negotiations inviting
   ment passed a resolution on instantiation of the government actions for                    to the meetings of the Committee representatives of local self-governments
   the execution of the policy of sustainable development. Also the Senate                    and of inhabitants of the zones of a potential impact of the investments. As
   of the Polish Republic dealt with this issue. Despite such a frequent pres-                a result of these actions, in the years 1997 and 98, some of the investors
   ence of the issues of sustainable development in Polish Parliament, the                    made attempts at consultations and public negotiations already at the stage
   Ministry of Environment Protection, Natural Resources and Forestry re-                     of appraisal of impact on the environment.
   mains deserted in bearing the responsibility for the implementation of
   the ecological policy of the state. This is certified by the fact that indi-                  This positive process was interrupted on 1st January 1999. By June 1999
   vidual departments prepare their own long-term strategies of the sus-                      no head of province appointed a provincial Appraisal Committee. Thus, the
   tainable development of the country before preparing the strategy of                       non-governmental ecological organisations do not have any influence on
   the sustainable development of the country (even after the resolution of                   the process of investment concurrence. This virtually precludes taking deci-
   the Parliament on the “Strategy of Sustainable Development”). This con-                    sions together with the state authorities and forces the organisations to act in
   cerns the Ministry of Finance and Ministry of Economy and others. An-                      the localisation procedure as a party according to the Code of Administra-
   other example of disregard towards the resolutions of the Parliament is                    tive Procedure, which only intensifies conflicts and hampers or even makes
   the fact of establishing a Committee of the Cabinet for Regional Policy                    the process of consultation and negotiation impossible. These conflicts have
   and Sustainable Development with the head being the Minister of                            their negative effect on the cooperation between local (self-government)
   Economy (and not Minister of Environment Protection), and the goal of                      authorities and ecological organisations in other matters related to environ-
   the committee has been defined as a sustainable development of re-                         ment protection and implementation of the principles of sustainable devel-
   gions.                                                                                     opment in a broad sense.

       On 1 January 1999, the conditions of implementing the policy of sus-                      A slightly different situation occurs in these few Polish communes which in
   tainable development in Poland changed as a result of introducing the                      the previous years introduced Agenda 21. An example of such a com-
   local self-government reform. With the introduction of the new adminis-                    mune is Gdañsk, where the cooperation between the self-government and
   trative division of the country (provinces, districts and communes), the                   ecological organisations with respect to concurring on localisation deci-
   new structures (provinces and districts) were given the responsibility for                 sions may be deemed satisfactory, which does not mean that this is an
   regional and strategic planning, thus including environment protection.                    easy process for the commune and organisations.
   It is unclear how the “Strategy of Sustainable Development of Poland to
   2025” will be implemented on the level of provinces, districts or com-                        There are many signs which suggest that the process of public consulta-
   munes, since the date of preparing a strategy of development and                           tions at the stage of preparing the strategy of sustainable development in
   study of spatial conditions for provinces, districts and communes was                      the great majority of provinces, districts and communes will have a strictly
   fixed for the end of this year, and the “Strategy of Sustainable Develop-                  formal character. This is a bad sign for the process of decision taking with
   ment of Poland” is to be ready only in June 2000.                                          respect to the matters most crucial to society.

       Moreover, the provincial level has been presented with the most ef-                       Thus, the basic barriers hampering the implementation of Agenda 21 and
   fective mechanism of creating control over the execution of the eco-                       the principles of the sustainable development in Poland in the present pe-
   logical policy of the state i.e. concurring the appraisals of the impact on                riod should be seen in the lack of understanding of these problems on the
   the environment of investments specially harmful to the environment                        part of the governing circles both on the central and local levels and a
   and human health, and simultaneously the Ministry of Environment Pro-                      typical of young democracies understanding power in tenure terms.
   tection resigned from maintaining lists of experts authorised to perform
   these appraisals and passed them to the heads of provinces together
   with the mechanism of verification of experts (deleting experts from the
   list as a result of dismissal procedure). By handing over these competen-
   cies, the Government, which undertakes numerous international obliga-
   tions, has not secured for itself mechanisms of influencing the policy with
   respect to environment protection within this new regional planning. It is,
   thus, not clear how the Government intends to execute at least the al-
   ready signed and ratified by Poland conventions concerning the pro-

                                                                                                                                                Flooded meadow in Odra delta
                                                                                                                                                Photo: P. Vissak

    EUCC Secretariat in Odra delta                                    Cormorants on small sandy islets in Odra delta
    Photo: P. Vissak                                                  Photo: P. Vissak

Page 26                                                                                                                                                Volume 1 Issue 4
   Lomborgiana or Windmills Now Hit Below the Belt
                                                                                          Anecdotal science can become biased science or lead to wrong conclusions. The
   Editor’s remarks
                                                                                          magnifying glass of crisis-focused media, the scramble for competitive grants funding
     “In The Skeptical Environmentalist Bjsrn Lomborg challenges widely held              among scientists, and the need for pressure groups to sustain themselves, obscure
   beliefs that the global environment is progressively getting worse. Using              less obvious and often less dramatic trends. And in particular the obscure a great
   statistical information from internationally recognized research institutes,           deal of good news for the poor.
   Lomborg systematically examines a range of major environmental issues
   and documents that the global environment has actually improved. He                    The concern for the environment and for the global food situation is honorable. We
   supports his argument with over 2900 footnotes, allowing discerning readers            are all for a better environment and high biodiversity, and against food insecurity.
   to check his sources.” -- everybody can read those words from the dedicated            There is a general consensus against pollution of the environment, wasteful food
   homesite of the by now notorious book and its author Bjorn Lomborg, professor          production methods, inequalities in access to food. There is a growing awareness of
   of AarhusUniversity. Surfing a little round in that site one can readily find, that    the dangers of global climate change. Lomborg does not argue against these legitimate
   instead of promised scent of argumentation and facts lots of promotional material      concerns. He argues against lax and biased use of data, particularly of time series. He
   can be found. Attention should be paid to the superlatives:                            warns that it is degrading science by allowing bits to be picked out of context. He is
                                                                                          afraid that pompous statements based on flimsy evidence that also attract the media
      “The Skeptical Environmentalist is the most significant work on the                 and the politicians constitute a threat to the integrity of science itself. If, in the long
   environment since the appearance of its polar opposite, Rachel Carson’s Silent         run, opportunistic behavior of scientists leads to disregard of some of the basic tools
   Spring, in 1962. It’s a magnificent achievement.” -- review in Washington Post         of science – and statistical analysis is certainly one of them – then science itself will
   Book World, 21-10-01                                                                   ultimately be the loser. . . .

     “The Skeptical Environmentalist marks a critical environmental moment. . . .         Lomborg questions most of our common views about the environment, the global
   We can forget those dreary old idols: Paul Ehrlich, Lester Brown with his              food situation, and strategies for development assistance to the poor. He may not be
   Worldwatch Institute, Greenpeace and all the others. They have been exiled             right on all issues, but his plea for scientific stringency in analysis, and his exposure
   into the darkness. Eco-optimism can begin to rise over the Earth. After Lomborg,       of false environmental prophets, are all very credible.”
   the environmental movement will begin to wither.” — National Post
                                                                                          – Stein W. Bie, Director General, International Service for National Agriculture
   That’s even more than a review, that’s a mantra, that’s a cornerstone of a religion.   Research

      “Something’s rotten in Denmark,” said Valdur Lahtvee of the CCB and                 “Based on facts and figures that are common ground to all sides of the ecological
                                                                                                                                          Bjorn Lomborg
   Estonian Green Movement, “And something is equally rotten in any country               debate, this book will change forever the way you think about the state of the world.
   where serious naturalists start to promote Lomborg in their pages or lists.” He        It is a remarkable, no, an extraordinary achievement.”
   does not stay with bare words, he also attaches an excerpt of a letter from
   Denmark, where one of his acquaintances, who is working for Danish                     – Tøger Seidenfaden, Executive Editor-in-Chief, Politiken
   environmental education, pinpoints on a really serious problem:
                                                                                          One may ask why and how the questionable and arguable theory, that already starts
     “I don´t know how much you know about the recent situation in Denmark,               to possess some features of worldview, could spread so rapidly and now hold firmly
   but the new right-winged government has stopped a lot of our environmental             its own. The success comes from human nature. What a relief it is to realize, that the
   activities. They have just decided to build up a new environmental institut under      world doesn’t fall into pieces yet. And it probably never will. There have been decades
   Bjoern Lomborg who has been known for telling “there are no environmental              of frightening and fatal threats. People need something more optimistic.
   problem - it is only a political one !” they have decided to stop a lot of
   environmental projects and the Mifesta and Dancee money will be cut down.              The book had just recently reached the bookstores, when the 9.11 happened . The
   Our Naturvejleder system is under de-construction, and our political backing           Mighty and the Powerful started to wield their giant spiny clubs and something
   group has been stopped - and our office in the Agency for Forrest and Nature           comforting was desperately needed. Then -- voila! -- everybody was assured, that
   will soon be closed. More than 200 persons will be taking out of work in that          there is still a sure thing to rely on -- our environment, our self-healing nature, our
   Agency. Totally more than 1000 public service persons will have to leave there         common warranted future. And the humankind was ready, literally ripe to clutch that
   work!”                                                                                 straw. What straw? Just wait -- there is serious scientific methodology, statistical
                                                                                          analysis techniques and thousands of real life references! Contemporary people was
   Now, that is already dangerous. We can see how the efforts of environmentalists        ready to accept contemporary religion. That was what they wanted to believe and
   collapse within some moments. If a religion serves the interests of a powerful         needed to read.
   social or political power, it may be even more dangerous. If that religion
   substitutes critical thinking and free argumentation, it’s disastrous. But if we       Lomborg, being a very well informed and wise politician and scientist, has
   have to deal with statistics, huge datamatrices, large databanks, then it’s easier     extraordinarily good touch of conjuncture. The religion he created, possesses some
   to believe than check it up and check it over. Especially if that’s the truth, what    visibly paramount advantages. It seems as if his interpretation is considering all
   everybody has secretly expected. ‘Now, beware you, all greens and other people,        available data, in contrast to the biased clique of greens and naturalists, who only
   who have threatened the mankind with cataclysms and whatsoever -- don’t                manipulate with data.
   consume, don’t litter, don’t produce -- now these days are gone forever!’
                                                                                          Lomborg -- a politician -- does not only surf on the wave of media. That fame is too
   Let’s read some more hype:                                                             ephemeral. He is injecting false doctrine and errors that have the fatal tendency to
                                                                                          amplify and multiply. This progression is extremely hard to control.
   “The well-publicized, but failed doomsday predictions made by some well-
   known environmentalist writers have inspired a number of rejoinders. This is           Just stop for a second and reconsider -- we all have done our statistical calculations,
   the best one, by a wide margin. Its author teaches statistics in the Department        we all know that with selection, suitable statistical technique and interpretation we
   of Political Science at Aarhus University in Denmark. He has marshaled an              can influence the uninformed ones. Even if people plant more forests, than they
   extremely impressive array of data to buttress his optimism about long-term            clear, the growth rates are extremely slow. Even if the growth rates weren’t so slow, it
   and current trends in environment and development. On the environmental side,          would take enormous time when the successions would
   the book covers traditional problems like food, energy, water, and pollution,          go their route (if ever) and the forests would reach the
   but also future problems like biodiversity and the greenhouse effect. In each of       climax stadium. Even if the biomass grows it doesn’t
   these areas, he argues that environmental problems can be managed (and in              guarantee that the diversity would remain. Who is so
   many cases have been managed already), and that trying to turn the clock back          powerful to fight back against the thermodynamical
                                                                                                                                                                                 a scientific messiah?

   will be costlier in economic as well as human terms. On the development side,          laws?
                                                                                                                                                                                 Bjorn Lomborg --

   Lomborg points to encouraging trends in life expectancy, welfare, the decline
   of population growth, and the reduction of hunger. While he may occasionally           One can manipulate with politics and even statistics,
   make things difficult for himself by insisting that the world is making progress       but one cannot manipulate with physical and biological
   in virtually every area, this is also what makes the book such an impressive tour      laws. One may close the eyes and ignore the inner voice
   de force. . . . ”                                                                      (that one which is always telling the truth, but almost
                                                                                          never is listened to) and leap back to the past and start
   – Nils Petter Gleditsch, Editor, Journal of Peace Research, Research Professor,        over again that painful Sisyphian path of understanding
   International Peace Research Institute, Oslo, Professor of International Relations,    our limited possibilities on the Earth. We cannot do these days barely with clever
   Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim                              self-promotions and silly optimism!

   “. . . . Lomborg’s book is a warning to scientist who have abandoned statistical        The discussion forum is opened. Reply, if You need to.
   prudence in their work.
                                                                                           Use the e-mail address of the editor!
Page 27                                                                                                                                                   Volume 1 Issue 4
                 TECHNOLOGY                        NEWS OR ‘WILL IT MAKE A DIFFERENCE?’

                                                                             Planes, Trains, And Automobiles (Digest)
                                                                             By Carl Zetie Jan. 28, 2002 (From INFORMATIONWEEK.COM)

                                                                             Judging by manufacturer announcements, car and airline executives
 Expert: MS Should Be Careful of Lindows Suit -                 have suddenly discovered the Internet. They want to get you online, — the alternative operating system (OS) firm created by         no matter where you are or what you’re doing. Everybody, from Boeing
                                                                             to Volvo, is promising access to E-mail and the Internet in planes and founder Michael Robertson — Tuesday filed a motion to
                                                                             automobiles, and it looks likely to be a train wreck.
 dismiss a pending trademark lawsuit filed by Microsoft Corp.
 (NASDAQ:MSFT), defending itself against the very firm it is trying to       The most recent announcements look set to repeat the expensive
 compete with.                                                               mistakes by companies that tried to persuade consumers to pay for
                                                                             mobile information access. Fortunately for everybody else in the mobile
                                                                             economy, this is a great opportunity to watch and learn from the
  Media Links:                                                               highly funded, technology-led initiatives of the likes of Ford, Boeing, - Clint Boulton - Jan 15, 2002                                 and General Motors.

 The Lindows Conundrum - PC Magazine                                         Despite disappointing results to date, business-to-consumer mobile
 Lindows, ( has a name that in itself is genius. It’s        technologies can be successful, as long as they’re designed for the
 software that combines Linux and Windows without violating any              user’s needs, desires, and constraints, rather than the generic
 trademark or copyright—although I bet Microsoft will sue at some point.     mobilization of the Internet. In the last few months, car manufacturers
 The concept is to make a cheap OS that runs both Linux and Windows          seem to have lost sight of what makes current telematics systems
                                                                             appealing. Instead, they’re loudly announcing plans to add services
 code, but that looks and runs like Windows. The Lindows concept was         such as E-mail, Internet browsing, and even E-commerce transactions.
 dreamed up by entrepreneur Michael Robertson, and is                Meanwhile, Boeing is pressing ahead with its plans for in-flight Internet
 encountering skepticism. Nobody is taking it too seriously except me.       access, although all but one of its airline partners in this project
 I think Lindows might fly if it can conquer one simple roadblock, and       (Lufthansa) have dropped out. Most recently, Accenture and Microsoft
 that’s running Microsoft Office 97, 2000, and XP. If Lindows can run        revealed a partnership to bring .Net to the car dashboard, stating
 these versions of Office, then look out below. Bombs away.                  that “the future of auto computing is one where your home and work
                                                                             PCs are synched up with your car PC. You will be able to surf the Net,
 Media Links:                                                                pull stock quotes, and get E-mail and instant messages via voice
 PC Magazine - John C. Dvorak - October 26, 2001
                                                                             Stock Answers mastermind resigns - San Diego Union Tribune                        What this latest round of announcements misses is that the telematics
 Michael Robertson has stepped down as head of, the company          services that have been popular to date—and the services that,
 that taught millions of music lovers to view the Internet as a customized   according to surveys, consumers remain willing to pay for—are ones
 jukebox. His next venture could be more ambitious than the last: making     that are specifically related to the task at hand. In the case of drivers,
 a big splash in a personal computer industry dominated by Microsoft.        that means systems related to safety, security, navigation, and
 Over the past several months, Robertson has quietly put together a new      perhaps entertainment—not generic, purposeless Internet or E-mail
                                                                             access. On the other hand, this proposal does highlight one extremely
 company called, recruited executives and opened an office
                                                                             useful rule of thumb: Any technology that’s promoted with the promise
 near’s University City headquarters. The new company will           that a primary benefit is the ability to track or trade stocks is almost
 focus on Linux, an operating system used in only a fraction of personal     certainly doomed. That’s a sure red flag that the backers haven’t
 computers. Such operating systems, of which Microsoft Windows is            thought of a single genuinely useful role for the technology.
 by far the most popular, essentially help a computer work with its
 software.                                                                   This isn’t just an exercise in criticism, though. These proposals throw
                                                                             into relief the kinds of mobile services that are likely to succeed.
 Media Links:                                                                Here’s the key criteria: offer the right content; choose the right
                                                                             channel; use the right technology; leverage what exists already.
 San Diego Union Tribune – Kim Peterson – 30 August, 2001
                                                                             Designing For The Users. Remember Them?

 Global mobile devices to 2006:                                              To create compelling mobile services, designers need to replace a
                                                                             technology-centric approach (and an obsession with mobile stock
 A saturated world?                                                          trading) with a user-centric approach.

 There were 531.3 million shipments of mobile phones across                  The first step in doing so is to identify the different types of users and
 the world in 2001. This will rise at a CAGR of 16% to 1.1 billion           their roles. When you think about drivers’ primary responsibilities,
                                                                             and study drivers to see how they work, it’s not hard to realize the
 in 2006. Hand-held mobile device shipments will reach 300.9                 value of the hazard warning system that’s often integrated in radar
 million in 2006, rising from 67.7 million in 2001 at a CAGR of              detectors. Now imagine that this system were tied into the in-car
 35%.                                                                        navigation system, which automatically revised your route when
                                                                             alerted to an accident ahead. Go one step further and imagine that
                                                                             the system checks your calendar, sees that you’re going to be late
                                                                             for your flight as a result of the delay, and automatically rebooks you
                                                                             on the next flight while sending an instant message to the person
 Apple OS X Upgrade Delivers Fast,                                           who was supposed to meet you at the other end. None of this is
                                                                             beyond the realm of current technology.
 User-Friendly Unix OS
                                                                             As usual, poor design is more often caused by a lack of imagination
 Apple Computer's Mac OS X 10.1 is what Linux-on-the-desktop                 than a lack of technology. We’ll probably see a year or two of
 people crave: a Unix-based OS with an interface even a novice               disappointingly generic “in-car information systems” whose value will
 can handle. Although it contains some quirky parts, this free               mostly be to serve as design lessons for the rest of us, as well as
                                                                             knocking technology bugs out of complex, integrated wireless systems.
 update for OS X users delivers a much needed speed increase,                After that, I firmly expect the car manufacturers to get back to what
 CD- and DVD-burning capabilities and some interface tweaks.                 they—in normal times—excel at: identifying, understanding, and
                                                                             meeting the needs of the car user.

Page 28                                                                                                                           Volume 1 Issue 4

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