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					Pest Management:
   AGRI 2013
 The “major” “offending agents” in
  livestock production in Arkansas
• An Introduction
  With animal and plant husbandry, we have selected desirable
  organisms from the natural world and placed them in unnatural
  environments designed to enhance their productivity and
  service to us. By selecting and producing these desirable
  organisms for our use (cows, sheep, chickens, dogs, horses,
  soybeans, apple trees, etc.), we have also established
  multitudinous populations of ―undesirables‖ or ―offending
  agents‖. These latter ―organisms‖ detract from optimal
  performance by our desired organisms, and therefore, we need
  to eliminate, extirpate or control them.
 The “major” “offending agents” in
  livestock production in Arkansas
• Undesirables can be loosely categorized
  depending upon the type of detriment they
  inflict.
• These categories are Pathogen, Parasite,
  Predator, Pest (kieptoparasite) and Disease
  Reservoir or Vector.
 The “major” “offending agents” in
  livestock production in Arkansas
• Pathogens are agents of disease.
• In this group we stick everything that is
  pathogenic, but generally, the smaller agents
  of disease such as the prions, viruses,
  rickettsia, bacteria and fungi.
 The “major” “offending agents” in
  livestock production in Arkansas
• Parasites are ―large‖ pathogens; living at the
  expense of their hosts.
• Parasites conduct parasitism, in that they gain
  their nutrition by consuming their live host.
 The “major” “offending agents” in
  livestock production in Arkansas
• The ―rule‖ is that parasite populations do not
  kill the host, but rather lives off it long enough
  to grow, mature, and propagate.
• Rules are meant to be broken!
• We generally call the protozoa, the
  ectoparasites, the migrating insect larvae, and
  the worms, parasites.
 The “major” “offending agents” in
  livestock production in Arkansas
• Predators gain their nutrition by killing and
  consuming our desirable animals; in essence,
  they commit predation. This action is to be
  distinguished from depredation, wherein our
  targeted animals are killed and/or maimed not
  for nutritional needs, but due to instinctive
  needs of our pet dogs.
 The “major” “offending agents” in
  livestock production in Arkansas
• Predators, parasites and pathogens partake in
  direct action upon our targeted animals.
• They consume their targets.
• Pests, and most organisms which serve as
  disease reservoirs or vectors, indirectly cause
  detriment in our schemes of husbandry.
 The “major” “offending agents” in
  livestock production in Arkansas
• Pests are kleptoparasites.
• They cause a forfeit in production by indirectly
  being injurious and/or a nuisance.
• Unlike predators, parasites and pathogens,
  pests are not metabolically or biologically
  dependent upon our targeted organisms (unless
  they consume or spoil feedstuffs e.g. birds,
  rodents, etc.).
 The “major” “offending agents” in
  livestock production in Arkansas
• They choose to live within our artificial worlds
  of husbandry and maintain a niche therein.
• Many offending species flourish on our farms,
  maintaining populations much greater than
  those seen in environments divorced of
  mankind.
 The “major” “offending agents” in
  livestock production in Arkansas
• Unfortunately, our selected/desirable
  organisms will continue to suffer detriment
  from the undesirables for the foreseeable
  future.
• In support of that conclusion, let me offer a
  few reasons:
 The “major” “offending agents” in
  livestock production in Arkansas
• Introduction of new species
  – In many instances, organisms have been ―placed‖
    into unnatural environments, either as selected
    organisms or as undesirables. The introduced
    organism might flourish (no natural checks and
    balances) or be subject to constant assault (ill
    equipped for the new environment).
 The “major” “offending agents” in
  livestock production in Arkansas
• Genetic selection (manipulation)
  – In the majority (if not all) of instances where man has
    selected a targeted animal, the domestication and
    husbandry which followed was coupled with selective
    breeding a means by which a more desirable animal was
    developed. These modified animals are refined to better
    suit our needs, but they have been sacrificed means of
    survival evolved through thousands of years of natural
    selection. Examples of these ―debilitated‖ commercial
    animals include turkeys, chickens and polled livestock.
    Cloning needs to be mentioned here as well.
 The “major” “offending agents” in
  livestock production in Arkansas
• Management and husbandry practices
  – For the most part, commercial animal production involves a
    concentration of selected animals in small areas; witness
    chickens, turkeys, swine, feedlots, dairies, etc. By
    concentrating our animals, we aid the transmission of
    parasites and other pathogens. Concentrating sheep also
    makes for less toil on the part of the coyote. We house our
    animals as a method of sheltering them from adverse
    ambient conditions. However, housing provides new and
    optimal harborage for many pests (starlings, sparrows, rats,
    mud daubers, swallows, mice, etc.).
 The “major” “offending agents” in
  livestock production in Arkansas
• Resilience of the undesirables
  – In the majority of cases, the undesirables have
    been able to overcome the control measures we put
    in place. Rats and coyotes are innately adept at
    circumventing most physical barriers we put in
    their way. Squirrels, raccoons, deer, wrens,
    starlings and many other pests appear both
    motivated and thrilled to succeed in the face of our
    control measures.
– Not only do the undesirables defeat our physical
  methods of control, they also have an excellent
  record of resisting our various attempts at chemical
  intervention. Resistance to chemicals is common
  in fecund pest and pathogen populations.
  Chemical resistance in pathogen populations is a
  major concern today.
 The “major” “offending agents” in
  livestock production in Arkansas
• Undesirables’ omnipresence
  – Our offending agents are opportunists. They are always
    around, and ―looking‖ for a chance to infect, consume,
    reproduce, etc. Most of our undesirables are capable of
    impressive levels of reproduction or propagation;
    fulmination or fecundity. Not only do they reproduce
    well, they also gear their rates of reproduction to the
    current state of affairs (carrying capacity). If more
    offending organisms can be sustained in the environment,
    they will heed that ―signal‖ in a number of ways.
– Most of the ―true‖ pests and predators can be
  segmented into offending and reservoir
  populations. The offending individuals are the
  ones currently inflicting losses to our agriculture.
  When we curb their numbers, surrounding
  (reservoir) undesirables of the same species sense
  the ―vacuum‖ in the carrying capacity and respond
  by increased immigration, reduced competition
  and enhanced reproduction; all elements of
  compensatory responsiveness.
– A definite 7(h sense which is well developed in
  undesirables is the ability to measure and respond
  to carrying capacity in the ecosystem (i.e. the niche
  and the nidus). When more individuals are needed,
  the response is immediate. Likewise, when fewer
  individuals are dictated, change is equally as swift.
 The “major” “offending agents” in
  livestock production in Arkansas
• Targeted animals will never become
  completely, protectively resistant or
  immune to the undesirables
  – Predator incisors will forever remain lethal.
    Woodchuck holes will always break legs and
    machinery. Parasites will always be able to
    parasitize their host species. Pathogens will always
    find susceptible organisms for their populations, as
    well as develop resistance to any medication.
 The “major” “offending agents” in
  livestock production in Arkansas
• We will not develop sufficient “silver bullets”, nor can we
  completely/economically remove our targeted animals
  from all populations of undesirables.
   – Our chickens, turkeys and hogs have for the most part been
     housed away from almost all of their respective
     undesirables, save for rodents, parasites and other
     pathoens. Our herbivores, however, must remain on
     arable land, well within the realm of all undesirables.
     Gnotobiotic rearing of animals for commercial production
     is a pipe dream.
     As for the ―silver bullets‖, we haven‘t done very well.
     There have been some success stories, but for the most
     part, undesirables are doing just fine across this planet of
     ours.
 The “major” “offending agents” in
  livestock production in Arkansas
• Our appetite for agricultural goods is insatiable,
  and getting worse
   – Things are moving in the wrong direction. Our usable land
     for production is diminishing. The human population is
     expanding at exponential rates. Generally speaking, the
     human population on this earth is getting more and more
     carnivorous. Our need for animal agriculture, therefore, is
     increasing. We get more and more offending organisms
     every year, not only in our animals, but in us as well.
     Resistance in the offending organisms is out of control. It‘s
     enough to lose sleep over ! I don‘t know how many horses
     of apocalypse there are, but one thing for sure, they‘re
     being saddled!
Offending agents according to size,
and for the most part, complexity:


   The “noncellular” agents of disease:
• Prion protein:
   – A naked, infectious, proteinaceous particle which is theorized to trigger
     disease.
   – Example diseases include BSE (bovine spongiform encephalopathy),
     Scrapie, Creutzfeldt-Jacob Disease and Kuru.
   – These diseases are also said to be in a class of diseases called wasting
     diseases (WD) and transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE).
   – Exact mechanism of disease is still not documented (there‘s a lot about
     these diseases and agents that is not documented).
   – It appears that in the central nervous tissue, the abnormal prion protein
     (PrP) ―attaches‖ to the normal prion protein in cell membranes, and
     ―induces a transformation‖ of the normal protein structure ; a
     mechanism that continues until cells die thereby leaving ―holes‖ in the
     brain (spongiform).
• Viroid:
  – A naked, RNA strand.
  – Causes plant diseases.
• Virino:
  – An RNA strand enveloped by protein.
  – Some maintain that the wasting diseases may be
    caused by virinos and not PrP.
• Virus:
  – Virion which is composed of DNA or RNA
    complement contained in a capsid. Many examples
    of disease (rabies, flu, cold, etc.).
  – Refer to figures 1 and 2.
– These organisms are for the most part extremely
  cell specific; having receptors on their capsid
  surface that are specific for structures on the
  surface of cells which they attack.
– Generally speaking, after attachment, the virus
  eventually releases it‘s nucleic acid into the cell,
  and the virus nucleic acid in turn ―controls‖ the
  cell.
– The result is cell dysfunction and/or cell death (cytocidal activity).

– Examples of the disruptive actions of viruses on cells include:
  -inhibition of cell nucleic acid action
  -damage to cell lysosomes causing the intracellular release of
  enzymes
  -alteration of plasma membrane components and correspondingly,
  cell integrity, function, antigenicity, etc (HIV, measles ,herpes)
  -inclusion body interference of cell function (Rabies and Negri
  bodies)
  -induction of neoplasm or malignancy
  -cell lysis due to virion production
  -disabling host cell and thereby allowing other damage (ex.
  Pasturella)
Offending agents according to size,
and for the most part, complexity:



     The cellular agents of disease:
                    The prokarvotes:
• Rickettsias and Chlamydophilae:
  – Same size as large viruses (pox), and also require a living cell in
    which to reproduce.
  – Unlike viruses, they have both RNA and DNA, a plasma
    membrane, ribosomes, etc.
  – Like viruses however, they are obligate, intracellular ―parasites‖.
  – The ―favorite‖ cells for rickettsia invasion and destruction are
    erythrocytes, reticuloendothelial and vascular endothelial cells.
  – Rickettsial diseases include Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
    (RMSF),
    typhus and ehrlichiosis.
  – Arthropod vectors are the norm for Rickettsiales (makes sense
    given their site of predilection i.e. nidus)
  – Chiamydophilae diseases are of epithelial cell membranes and
    include a wide array of sexually transmitted, urogenital maladies
    (urethritis, endometritis, cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease
    (PID), etc).
• Mycoplasma:
  – A gram negative bacteria (like rickettsia and
    chlamydophilae), but they are the smallest bacteria
    capable of reproduction without the ‗aid‘ of a
    living cell.
  – They cause many pneumonias in animals and man
    (very fond of respiratory and urogenital mucous
    membranes).
• Rest of the prokaryotes (gram negative &
  the gram positive bacteria):
  – An extremely diverse group of organisms that are
    classified according to their unique characteristics.
  – Some of the groups are; spirochetes (ex. Borrelia
    and Leptospira), rods (ex. Escherichia, Salmonella
    and Yersinia), cocci (ex. Staphylococcus and
    Streptococcus), endospore-forming (Bacillus and
    Clostridium), mycobacteria (ex. M. bovis and
    leprae) and the actinomycetes (ex. Streptomyces)
– The methods by which the above prokaryotic
  microbes cause harm to the host cells and tissues
  are many.
– Many methods are shared by most, and many
  methods are unique to one or a few.
• A partial list of the pathogenic actions of these ―bugs‖
  follows:
   – binding to cell membranes and negating attachment site
     functions
   – inhibition of cell protein synthesis, leading to cell
     dysfunction and death
   – secretion of LPS (lipopolysaccharide) endotoxin from gram
     negative bacteria thereby causing fever, etc
   – secretion of exotoxins of specific functions (leukocidin,
     hemolysin, fibrinolysin, etc)
The eukaryotes:
. Fungi:
   Multinucleated, eukaryote with many formations.
   Corn plex aggregations and non-motile.

  Yeast form usually causes disease and mold form in the environment
  (YM Shift); action of the ―dimorphic‖ fungi.
  These organisms are primarily saprophytes (absorbing nutrients from
  dead substrate)
  These pathogens primarily cause their detrimental effects through the
  secretion and action of a wide array of toxins (eg. aflatoxins) and
  hydrolytic enzymes, causing host protein and enzyme inhibition, cell
  degeneration, tumor induction, severe allergies, etc
  All pathogens are more virulent the less immunologically capable the
  invaded organism is. But seemingly, fungi do better than most in
  AIDS patients and those on corticosteroid therapy
                         The eukaryotes:
• Fungi:
  – Multinucleated, eukaryote with many formations.
    Complex aggregations and non-motile.
  – Yeast form usually causes disease and mold form in the
    environment (YM Shift); action of the ―dimorphic‖ fungi.
    These organisms are primarily saprophytes (absorbing nutrients
    from dead substrate)
  – These pathogens primarily cause their detrimental effects through
    the secretion and action of a wide array of toxins (eg. aflatoxins)
    and hydrolytic enzymes, causing host protein and enzyme
    inhibition, cell degeneration, tumor induction, severe allergies, etc
  – All pathogens are more virulent the less immunologically capable
    the invaded organism is, but seemingly, fungi do better than most
    in AIDS patients and those on corticosteroid therapy.
• Protozoa:
   – Eukaryote also with many forms and types. One-celled, motile
     ‗animals‘. The diversity in this group is amazing, and correspondingly,
     the protozoa are subdivided according to major characteristics.
   – These subgroupings (simplified to the point of being wrong) include
     the amoeba, the flagellates (trypanosomes and Giardia), the ciliates and
     the most important when it comes to disease in our animals, the
     Apicomplexa (Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, Cryptosporidia and
     Elmeria).
   – Their means of being pathogenic are similar to those of the fungi and
     the bacteria (cell destruction, protein inhibition, toxin secretion, etc),
     but with the protozoa and the larger parasites, we seem to enter a new
     world of pathogenesis, and that is disease with direction and design.
• These more advanced bugs have more genome
  to work with as they cause disease, and they
  do us it. Some of these actions include:
  – sexual and asexual reproduction (fungi do this
    also)
  – immune response ―interaction‖ and regulation
  – many changes in stage, activity, pathogenicity, etc
  – an apparent awareness of where they are and what
    is most appropriate to do next
• Metazoans:
  – Multicellular eukaryotes.
  – The traditional parasites (endo- and ecto-).
  – First, the endoparasites:
     • Helminths:
       Nematodes (roundworms)
       Cestodes (tapeworms)
       Trematodes (flukes or flatworms)
       Acanthacephala (thorny-heads)
       Insect larvae: These, are the myiatic (myiasis) larvae

• And now, the ectoparasites:
      • The insects:
        Lice
        Flies
        Fleas
        The arachnids:
        Mites
        Ticks
• The means by which these metazoan parasites are pathogenic
  are multiple.
• Pathology / detriment is at the subcellular, cellular, tissue,
  organ and organismal level.
• Different from the smaller pathogens, these giants of the
  pathogen world inflict physical damage as well as the other
  means of damage.
• Insects and arthropods bite and suck blood.
• Helminths ―bite‖ as well, eating tissue (histophagic) and
  blood (haematophagic) at incredible rates.
• Also due to their size, the metazoan pathogens carve ―access
  routes‖ into their hosts for the smaller pathogens to follow.
• Some metazoans also actually inject other pathogens into the
  host tissue.
• In addition, these larger pathogens are very adept at negating
  or evading the immune response of the host, not only aiding
  themselves, but the little pathogens that are there as
  opportunists.
• It‘s one big party of pathology; this bug that bug, this tissue
  that tissue, this drug that doesn‘t work and that drug that
  doesn‘t work, etc. and to make it more interesting; there‘s new
  bugs coming every year.
• The pests: Whatever ―indirectly‖ gets in the
  way of the producer being efficient
  economically and timely of / from his animals.
• The predators: Whatever, without our
  permission, eats, or tries to eat (or destroy) the
  animals we are producing.
THE BEEF INDUSTRY IN THE USA
•   The segments:
     – Purebred/ Seedstock Producers — produce high quality bulls (and some
       cows) that are used for breeding at commercial operations.
       - some pens, but primarily pasture
       - very high quality — control
     – Cow-calf producers — produce the cattle that are destined for the table.
       - consists of mother cows that are either pregnant and/or nursing their calves.
       - fall or spring calving operations.
       - all on pasture.
     – Yearling or stocker operations — get their calves from cow-calf producers,
       and grow
       the calves until they are ready for the feedlot.
       - all on pasture.
       - production phase of most disease potential due to the constant influx of
       new/stressed animals.
     – Feedlot or finishing phase — getting the cattle ready for slaughter.
       - animals in feedlot usually for 120 -150 days.
       - basically, animals in confinement (high density with all feed in bunks).
       - very high quality control.
• The major offenders (plus, some which bear mentioning):
• Prions:
  - Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (B SE)
  - Mad cow disease
  - One of several chronic wasting diseases (CWD)
  - Surveillance, testing, quarantine, eradication, major economic losses.
  A country
  buster.
  - England> Canada> USA.
  - No cure or medical intervention
• Viruses:
  - Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR)
  - Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD)
  - Parainfluenza Three (P13)
  - Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus (BRSV)
  - The above viruses controlled by proper management and vaccination
  - FMD. Foot and Mouth Disease. Surveillance/monitoring, testing,
  quarantine,
  eradication. Not in the USA, but close.
• Bacteria:
  - Leptospira (leptospirosis) — abortion
  - Campylobacter fetus — abortion
  - Moraxella bovis pinkeye (with flies)
  - Pasture/la and Mannheimia — shipping fever
  - Brucella abortus (brucellosis, undulant fever)
  - Control by vaccination, antibiotics, culling, quarantine, proper
  husbandry, etc.
• Fungus:
  - Trichophyton (ringworm; figure 3)
  - Controlled by topicals and proper husbandry
• Protozoa:
  - Eimeria causes diarrhea (figure 4)
  - Giardia as a zoonotic potential (figure 5)
  - Cryptosporidia as a zoonotic potential (figure 6)
  - Toxoplasma as a zoonotic potential (figure 7)
  - Controlled by anti-protozoals and husbandry
• Helminths:
   – Nematodes (roundworms):
     - Ostertagia (brown stomach worm; figure 8)
     - Cooperia (figure 9)
     - Haemonchus (barber-poled worm; figure 10)
– Trematodes(flukes):
  - Fasciola and Fascioloides (figure 11)
– Cestodes (tapeworms):
  - none that are really important, but figure 12
  anyway. Helminths ―controlled‖ with
  anthelmintics (nematocides, flukacides,
  endectocides, etc.), and to some degree, by
  management.
• Arthropods:
   – Insecta:
       • Adult Diptera (flies):
         - Stomoxys calcitrans (stable fly; figure 13)
         - Haematobia irritans (horn fly; figure 14)
         - Aedes,Anopheles & Culex (mosquito; figure 15)
         - Tabunus & Chrysops (horse fly, deer fly; figure 16)
         - Musca autumnalis (face fly; figure 17)
         - Controlled by insecticides on premises or the animals (pyrethroids,
         organophosphates, etc)
   – Fly larvae (myiasis)
     - Hypoderma (warble or cattle grub; figure 18)
     - Controlled by endectocides usually
     - Cochliomyia horn inovorax (primary screwworm; figure 19)
     - Eradicated from the US
   – Filth flies:
     - Musca dornestica (house fly) and S calcitrans (stable fly)
     - Controlled by insecticides on premise or animals and. sanitary
     practices
     - Some biological control available (parasitic wasps)
   – Lice:
     - Mallophaga (Chewing lice)
     - Bovicola bovis (cattle biting louse; figure 20))
     - Anoplura (Sucking lice; figure 21))
     - Linognathus vitulli (long nose sucking louse)
     - Solenoptes cap illatus (little blue sucking louse)
     - Controlled by insecticides & endectocides
• Arachinda:
  – Ticks:
    - Argasidae (soft ticks)
    - Otobius megnini (spinose ear tick) — ―Gotch ear‖(fig 22)
    - Ixodidae (hard ticks)
    - Amblyomma americanum (lone star tick; fig 23))
    - Dermacentor variabilis (dog tick; fig 24))
    - Controlled by pasture / brush management and
    insecticides.
  – Mites:
    - Sarcoptic is the oniy one in Arkansas (fig 25)
    - Controlled by husbandry, endectocides, topical insecticides, etc.
     • Pests:
       - A touch of gopher, woodchuck, mole and beaver (figure 26)
       - Controlled by lethal extraction
     • Predators (figure 27)
       a. Vulture
       b. Coyote
       c. Dog
       - controlled by oversight (management / husbandry), dogs, bullets, trapping
       etc
 THE DAIRY COW INDUSTRY IN
          THE USA
• A characterization of the industry:
  - historically, family-owned and operated.
  - very, very, very labor intensive.
  - 24 by 7, every week of the year!
  - Tendency for fewer farms, and many more animals per farm:
  • 42% decrease in # of farms in last 20 years.
  • Only 10% decrease in animal #‗s in last 20 years.
  • Cows are walking, cud-chewing milk factories.
  • Average cows now produce about 20,000 Lbs/305 days.
  - Housing is a major element:
  • Huts or lots for calves.
  • Restricted pasture for replacements and dry cattle.
  • Free-stall and parlor for milkers
• The Major Offenders of dairy animals (and some
  of note):
  – Prions:
    - BSE of major concern here because all cull cows are
    old enough for ―presentation‖
  – Viruses:
    - IBR and BVD
    - Rotavirus and coronavirus for scours
    - control via husbandry and vaccination
  – Bacteria:
    - Leptospira for leptospirosis abortions
    - Esherichia coil for diarrhea, etc.
    - Streptococcus and Staphylococcus for mastitis
    - Bruce/ia (brucellosis)
    - Myco bacterium (TB)
    - control by husbandry, antibiotics, vaccinations, etc.
• Fungi:
  - Trichophyton (ringworm or dermatophytosis)
  - control by husbandry and topicals
• Protozoa:
  - Eimeria for intestinal coccidiosis
  - Ciyptosporidia of zoonotic potential
  - Giardia of zoonotic potential
• Helminths:
      Nematodes:
     - Ostertagia
     - Cooperia
     - Nematodirus
     Trematodes:
     - Fasciola and Fasciolo ides
     - Cestodes:
     - none of real importance
• Arthropods (relative to disease)
  - Basically, same as with beef cattle
• Pests (on the premises):
  – Birds:
    - Starlings
    - Swallows
    - Pigeons
    - English sparrows
    - Figure 28
  – Rodents:
    - House mice
    - Brown rats
    - Figure 29
    Anthropods:
    - House flies, stable flies
    - Mud daubers
    - Brown wasps
• Predators:
  - Not really a problem due to confinement
  nature of most dairy animals.
PIG PRODUCTION IN THE USA
• Segments of the industry:
   – Feeder pig production: Pigs weaned at an early age (about 3 wks), or a bit
     older (6 wks), and then sold/moved to feeder pig operations. Same as (c)
     below, minus the growing pigs.
   – Feeder pig finishing operations: Pigs acquired from (a) above and grown to
     slaughter weight of approx. 260 lbs.
   – Farrow-to-finish operation: On-farm segregation of breeding animals (sows
     plus boars or Al), farrowing animals, nursery, ―resting‖ females in some phase
     of gestation, and growing pigs.
   – Purebred breeders and breeding stock providers: Operations where boars
     and gilts of superior and / or ―defined‖ genetics are developed, evaluated, and
     supplied to the industry. ―Hybrid‖ or crossbred animals developed as well.
     Crossbreeding is jg in all animal productions.
   – The integrated, multi-site, all phase pig operations: These operations have
     all phases; purebred herds, gestating/farrowing herds with nursery, feeder pig
     growing facility and finishing facility. Total control of animals at all times
     lends to greater coordination and less animal stress.
• Common to all swine operations (above) are:
  – Total or near total confinement on concrete and within
    metal.
  – Completely processed feed that is fed with automation.
  – Waste containment.
  – Quality control (genetics, waste, feed, environment, health,
    pests, etc).
  – An animal of unique personality.
  – Pecking orders, high anxiety, easily stressed, escape artists,
    etc.
• Some of the more “important” swine diseases:
  – Viral:
     • Porcine Reproductive & Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS):
       - the most costly disease currently
       - depopulate
       - didn‘t even exist before 1991
     • Pseudorabies:
       - Mad itch or Aujesky‘s disease
       - reportable disease
       - Arkansas is free, so no vaccinations are permitted
     • Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD)
       - USA is free
       - Quarantine, slaughter, carcass burning
       - Vesicular exanthema and stomatitis consideration
     • Transmissible Gastroenteritis (TGE):
       - High mortality in young pigs
       - ―Controlled‖ through sow immunization and passive
       immunity in the pigs
• Bacterial:
  – Mycoplasma Pneumonia
  – Colibacillosis (E coil)
    - baby pig scours
  – Atrophic rhinitis
  – Brucellosis (B suis)
    - test and remove reactors
  – Erysipelas (Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae)
    - extensive reservoirs (rats, birds, etc)
    - vaccination
  – Greasy Pig Syndrome (Staphylococcus hyicus)
    - antibiotics and needle teeth clipping
• Protozoa:
  – Coccidiosis (enteric)
  – Toxoplasmosis (somatic)
  POULTRY INDUSTRIES IN THE
            USA
• Introduction:
  – Poultry means chickens, turkeys, geese, ducks, pigeons,
    peafowl, guineas, etc.
  – In the USA, chickens and turkeys are our major poultry.
  – In the course of a year‘s time in the USA, we produce
    approximately 330 million turkeys, 330 million laying hens
    (for ―eating‖ eggs), 8 billion broilers and 80 billion eggs
    (here again, for eating).
  – Needless to say, the size of the industry is immense, and
    getting bigger all the time.
  – Poultry consumption is increasing worldwide whereas most
    other animal productions have plateaued.
– As to housing, ―all‖ commercial chickens and turkeys are
  produced in confinement, with an environment that is
  almost totally sealed and controlled.
– Recently, a trend for ―organic‖ and ―natural‖ production
  has taken hold; foremost in poultry but to a lesser extent
  with the other forms of animal production.
– Foremost also in Europe, but being driven to some degree
  in the USA This is probably because commercial poultry
  production is most removed from the natural and hence has
  captured the attention of those who focus on such things
  (food ―wholesomeness‖ and ―humane‖ animal production).
• Segments of the industries:
  – The chicken side:
    a. Egg production
    - breeding hens and roosters on litter (with nests) for eggs
    - eggs collected, and incubated as well as hatched at the
    hatchery

    b. Meat production
    - breeding hens and roosters on litter (with nests) for eggs
    - eggs collected, and incubated as well as hatched at the
    hatchery
    - all chicks to the broiler house (on litter)
    - chickens to processing plant
• The turkey side:
  a. Egg production.
  — Males (on litter) ―collected‖
  - Females (on litter) artificially inseminated (Al)
  - Eggs collected, and removed to hatchery for
  incubation and hatching
  - Poults are ―sexed‖
  b. Meat production.
  - Birds placed in grower barns
  - Birds processed
• Some of the diseases of most concern to the
  chicken and turkey industries in the USA:
  – Viral and Bacterial Diseases of Chickens:
  – Respiratory diseases:
    a. Avian influenza:
    • ―Bird flu‖ !
    • High and low pathogen
    • Quarantine and depopulation
    b. The other, everyday, pathogens:
    • Myco plasma gallisepticum and M synoviae
    (MGandMS)
    • Laryngotracheitis virus (LT)
    • Newcastle virus
• Gastrointestinal diseases:
  – multiple organism / factor etiology
  – poor feed efficiency
  – flushing/malabsorption syndrome
• Generalized disease:
  – Ecoli
  – Chicken anaemia and Infectious bursal disease
    (IBD)
  – Gangrenous dermatitis
• Viral and Bacterial Diseases of Turkeys:
  – Septicemias:
    • Ecoli
  – Respiratory:
    • Bacterial and viral
  – Gastrointestinal:
    • Spiking mortality
    • Viral and bacterial
• Protozoan:
  – Coccidiosis (Eimeria spp):
    • One of the most expensive disease of chickens and
    turkeys on litter.
    • Controlled with anticoccidials mostly, but some
    vaccination, management, etc.
  – Histomoniasis (Hisiomonas meleagridis):
    • Blackhead disease.
    • Cecal worm (Heterakis gallinarum) as biological
    vector.
    • Control at many levels.
• Helminthiasis:
  • A worm, or set of worms, for every poultry type
  (fig 37)
  • Chickens:
  • ―Young‖ birds get ―roundworms‖.
  • ―Older‖ birds get ―wireworms‖, ―cecal‖ worms
  and tapeworms.
  • Turkeys:
  • All turkeys get ―roundworms‖(figure 36)

• Infestations:
  (1) A touch of mites with laying chickens (moving
  pictures)
• Arthropod pests:
  (1) Litter beetles (fig 38)
  (2) Carpenter bees
  (3) Wasps (figure 33)
  - Mud dauber
  - Yellow Jacket
  - Bald-faced hornet
  - Paper wasp
  (4) Bees (fig 34)
  - Honey
  -Bee
  - African (―killer‖)and Africanized
  (5) Spiders:
  - web problems
  - poisonous (figure 34)
  (6) Flies:
  - House
  - Stable
  - Filth
• Chordate pests:
  (1) Avian:
  - House sparrow
  - Swallow
  (2) Mammalian:
  - House mouse (fig 29)
  - Norway rat
• Predators:
  (1) Norway rat (fig 29)
  (2) Skunk (fig 30)
  (3) Raccoon (fig 32)
  (4) Cats
  (5) Mink (fig 30)
PARASITES
              PARASITES
• Parasites may be insects (wasps, flies, and
  beetles), mites, or nematodes.
• Parasites are usually free-living adults which
  lay eggs on or within a living host which is
  larger and/or stronger than themselves.
• The immature(s) gradually feed on host tissues
  until the host is killed.
              PARASITES
• Parasitic immatures can complete development
  in one host.
• Because they are extremely specialized, they
  often only attack one or a few closely related
  species of insect.
• They DO NOT harm humans or their pets.
Parasitic Wasp laying Eggs in Mexican Bean Beetle Pupa
               PARASITES
• Some parasites have extremely complex and
  wondrous life cycles.
• For example, a eucharitid wasp that is a
  parasite of ants lays her eggs on the leaves of
  trees.
• The eggs hatch into a mobile immature that is
  able to crawl about on the leaf surface.
                PARASITES
• In the spring, worker ants climb into the trees
  in search of aphids and other insects for food.
• The parasite larva attaches itself to any worker
  ant that comes close and, when the worker ant
  returns to its nest, it carries along the parasite.
              PARASITES
• Once in the nest, the parasite drops off and
  attaches itself to a larval ant.
• The wasp larva feeds on the ant larva,
  eventually killing the ant.
• After emergence from the pupa, the adult wasp
  flies out of the ant nest to lay her eggs on
  leaves once more.
               PARASITES
• Other types of parasitic wasps control aphids.
  The female lays an egg inside an aphid.
• The activity of the immature wasp within the
  aphid causes it to form a stiff, immobile form
  called a "mummy."
• Homeowners should leave mummies alone,
  and not wash them off the plant, because the
  new adult wasp will emerge and attack more
  aphids.
Parasitic Wasp Laying Eggs in Aphid
Aphid Mummies
               PARASITES
• Gardeners may encounter caterpillars, such as
  hornworms, suddenly decorated with white
  egg-like structures.
• These are actually wasp pupae within silken
  cocoons.
• The caterpillar should be left alone, because it
  will soon die, and the wasps will emerge and
  attack more caterpillars.
             PARASITES
• Sometimes homeowners may find wasps with
  long projections or what they may call
  "stingers" at the end to their abdomen.
• These are members of another group of
  parasitic wasps called "ichneumonids."
               PARASITES
• The tail is a long tube used for laying eggs, or
  "ovipositor."
• They use the ovipositor to lay eggs in insect
  larvae found feeding deep within plants, or
  even wood.
• They are completely harmless to humans.
              PARASITES
• Bee flies are examples of flies that are
  parasites of other insects as larvae.
• The adult flies mimic bees and may be
  mistaken for the predatory flower flies
  discussed in the previous section.
• The larvae attack the eggs or immatures of
  grasshoppers, beetles, moths, bees, and wasps.
Parasitic Fly
               PARASITES
• Nematodes are hair-like worms found
  naturally in the soil. Many are microscopic in
  size and vary in life-style.
• The parasitic forms generally feed on insects
  that are found in the soil during one or more
  stages of their life cycle, such as white grubs,
  root maggots or weevils.
• Some forms are available commercially for
  insect control.
               PARASITES
• The advantages of using a parasite to control
  an insect is that they tend to be very specific,
  and attack only one or a few closely related
  species.
• Some have short life spans, and can build up to
  high numbers quickly.
• An example of a successful use of parasites is
  to control flies in dairy barns.
                 PARASITES
• The parasitic wasp lays an egg in the pupa of the fly,
  and thus prevents emergence of the adult.
• Dairy farmers must change their management
  practices in order to maintain the wasps, however.
• Because the wasps emerge from the fly pupae, the
  farmer must be aware of where flies pupate and
  reduce insecticide use in those areas.
• Fly predators may be found in those areas as well.
                DISEASES
• All the different disease organisms, including
  viruses, rickettsia, bacteria, protozoa and
  fungi, attack insects.
• Some disease organisms have been grown
  commercially, and sold over-the-counter for
  insect control.
• A classic example is the bacteria, Bacillus
  thuringiensis (also called Bt).
               DISEASES
• This bacteria produces a toxin which disrupts
  the gut of the insect that eats it.
• Commercial preparations are available from
  several nurseries and garden supply companies
  for the control of various pests with chewing
  mouthparts, especially Lepidoptera.
                DISEASES
• A related bacteria, Bacillus popillae causes
  milky spore disease of Japanese beetle larvae
  and other white grubs.
• Although they have yet to be used
  commercially, insect viruses can control pest
  insects successfully.
                 DISEASES
• They are passed from insect to insect in much
  the same way as between humans, but are
  specific to insects.
• Fungal pathogens are also known to attack
  insects, but are often more difficult to grow
  commercially than bacteria.
• Fungi generally require high relative humidity
  to germinate and to infect the target insect, but
  do not need to be consumed to be effective.
             CONCLUSION
• Indirect evidence suggests biological control
  agents may be extremely important for keeping
  pest insects in check.
• When an insect is introduced into a new area
  and leaves its natural enemies behind, it often
  will become a serious pest.
              CONCLUSION
• There are many examples of insects that are of little
  or no importance in their native land, that devastate
  our crops when introduced here.
• One such example is the Russian wheat aphid.
• In Eastern Europe, where it is native, the Russian
  wheat aphid is of little concern.
• But once it was accidentally introduced to North
  America, populations exploded and it became a major
  pest in the mid-west and western wheat producing
  areas.
            CONCLUSION
• In order to control the outbreak, scientists
  visited areas where the pest was native in
  search of predators and parasites that fed on
  the aphid.
• These insects were gathered and shipped back
  to the United States where, after a period of
  quarantine, they have been released.
• There are disadvantages of using solely
  biological control, however.
             CONCLUSION
• First of all, the insect pests do not necessarily
  disappear quickly.
• We have begun to expect instant results in our
  world of microwave ovens and one-hour-photo
  shops, but often biological control agents
  require weeks, months or sometimes even
  years to bring populations of pests under
  control.
             CONCLUSION
• And a "good" predator or parasite never
  completely wipes out its host or prey because
  it would go out of business.
• The idea is to hold pest numbers below the
  level of damage that can be tolerated by the
  consumer or gardener.
• Biological control agents are often successful
  at that level.
• http://www.pestworld.org/
• http://cals.arizona.edu/pubs/garden/mg/entomo
  logy/biological.html#predators
NATURE AND EVOLUTION
      OF WEEDS
 The problem - weeds and humans
• Why study weeds?
  Practically - because weeds are a nuisance by
  being aggressive, troublesome, and undesirable
   The problem - weeds and humans:
          Why study weeds?
• Need to know the role of weeds as we manipulate
  plants to our advantage
   – Man produces crops under conditions of a controlled
     environment - pure culture and in rows which is contrary to
     nature‘s ways, no one species can fully exploit the
     resources of a habitat
   – There is no single operation under the control of the
     producer that can influence the final returns so greatly
   – The universal occurrence of weeds as constant components
     of agricultural environments as opposed to the epidemic
     nature of other pests has delayed recognition of the
     importance of weed control in crop production
   The problem - weeds and humans:
      History of the term ―weed‖
History of the term ―weed‖
• Not a lot of evidence for the origin of the word
• Biblical word ―tare‖ (freely translated as weed)
• Weed - may have been an accident of usage
• Jethro Tull (1731) - was among the first to use
  the word weed as present spelling and meaning
   The problem - weeds and humans:
      History of the term ―weed‖
Definition
• Many have been offered
• Weed - Any plant that is objectionable or interferes
  with the activities or welfare of man (WSSA)
   – More often, a particular weed species is not ―at the wrong
     place at the wrong time‖, but rather very highly specialized
     to fit in a particular created niche
           Evolution of weeds
• Plant succession - is a natural, orderly,
  continuous process resulting from a
  modification of the physical environment by
  the plant community
  – Types (2)
    a. Primary succession - the establishment of plants
    on land that has never been vegetated
    b. Secondary succession - the pattern of change in
    a community after a radical disturbance has
    occurred
           Evolution of weeds
• Phases (3)
  a. Pioneer
  b. Intermediate serial stage
  c. Climax - last stage
           Evolution of weeds
• Plant succession scheme - weeds are pioneers
  of secondary plant succession - man continues
  to force curve towards higher food value crops
          Evolution of weeds:
         Why do we have weeds?
• Agriculture favors invasion by weeds since
  weeds are a highly successful and biologically
  important component of their environment
• Unfortunately, almost all human activity
  results in unstable or disturbed environments
• Plant succession typically proceeds from a
  condition of instability to a condition of
  stability which is in direct contradiction to
  agriculture
          Evolution of weeds:
         Why do we have weeds?
• Crops are in pure culture and in rows which is
  contrary to nature
• Plants (we call weeds) have always been a
  feature of disturbed sites
• The weed flora is in a continual state of flux
          Evolution of weeds:
         Why do we have weeds?
• The bottom line is that regardless of how
  producers change production systems or what
  habitats they create, undesirable plants will
  adapt to the production system or habitat and
  will be recognized as weeds
• Thus, unnoticed weeds today will likely be a
  problem tomorrow
• Also, remember approximately 53% of weeds
  in U.S. are aliens
            Evolution of weeds:
             Weeds in the U.S.
• Before the land was settled
  – Central part largely grasslands and forest
  – Stable vegetation
  – Few weeds were present along streams, animal
    paths, and early native human settlements
            Evolution of weeds:
             Weeds in the U.S.
• With development of agriculture
  – Weeds came from other parts of the world -
    Europe

  – Moved with migration of humans to U.S.
    (predominately east to west)
            Evolution of weeds:
             Weeds in the U.S.
• Examples
  (1) Johnsongrass - from Turkey to South
  Carolina, about 1830
  (2) Large crabgrass - U.S. Patent Office
  introduced as forage grass in 1849 - one of the
  first cultivated grains (China, 2700 B.C.)
  (3) Barnyardgrass - from Europe and India - a
  principal weed in rice and noted in China
  around 1590 - introduction into U.S. not
  documented
Characteristics and habits of weeds
• From many definitions, these characteristics emerge
  1. Unsightly
  2. High reproductive capacity
  3. Large populations, rank and extensive growth
  4. Growing in undesired location
  5. Wild and rank growth
  6. Competitive and aggressive habits
  7. Spontaneous growth
  8. Useless, unwanted, and undesirable
  9. Persistence and resistance to control
  10. Harmfull to humans, animals, and crops
Characteristics and habits of weeds
• Not all weeds qualify in all these
  characteristics
  1. Major characteristics
     a. Number of individuals produced
     b. Range of habits
     c. Ability to continue
Characteristics and habits of weeds
• Habits of growth
  1. Thrive under all conditions
  2. Can regenerate lost parts
  3. Perennials can spread vegetatively
  4. Inconspicuous flowers
  5. Protective devices (spines, thorns, etc.)
Characteristics and habits of weeds
• Habits of seed production
  1. Tremendous seed production - 1,000,000
  (mullein),     200,000 (pigweeds), and 7,000
  (barnyardgrass)
  2. Longevity of buried seed
  3. Can mature seed early
  4. Seeds ripen at same time as crops
  5. Seed often same size and shape as crop seed
  6. Special structure for dissemination
    Weed Science as a discipline
• Turning point was WWII with discovery of
  phenoxy acids (2,4-D)
  – Before that, control through mechanical and
    cultural practices
  – After, rapid development of chemical practices
  Weed Science as a discipline
Now, weed science is a full-fledged discipline
– Formation of Weed Science Society of America
  (WSSA) – 1956
– Presently approximately 30 companies of which 8
  are major
– 140 herbicides listed in 1994 WSSA handbook
– Remember, for a pesticide such as a herbicide to
  be sold, it takes 8 to 12 years of testing and
  approximately $90 M invested in research
– Future still looks bright
   WEED IDENTIFICATION AND
   LOSSES CAUSED BY WEEDS
• Weed identification - most important aspect of
  weed science because, in general, weeds must
  be identified at seedling growth stage
  – Means of identification - by sight start at the base
    and work towards top Stages of plant development
   WEED IDENTIFICATION AND LOSSES CAUSED BY WEEDS:

          Means of identification
• Seed- a mature ripened ovule
  (1) Characteristics used in seed identification
      (a) Shape
      (b) Color
      (c) Nature and arrangement of markings on
            surface
   WEED IDENTIFICATION AND LOSSES CAUSED BY WEEDS:

           Means of identification
• Seedling:
  – Types of cotyledons
     • Monocots
        – One cotyledon
        – Leaves parallel veined with entire margins
        – Flower parts are arranged in 3‘s or multiples of 3
WEED IDENTIFICATION AND LOSSES CAUSED BY WEEDS:

          Means of identification
  • Dicots
     –   Two cotyledons
     –   Net veination of leaves
     –   Flower parts are arranged in multiples of 2 or 5
     –   Size and shape
     –   Extremely critical stage due to ease of control
   WEED IDENTIFICATION AND LOSSES CAUSED BY WEEDS:

          Means of identification
• Size and Shape
• Extremely critical stage due to ease of control
• Juvenile plant - other factors come into play
  such as leaf arrangement and stem shape
• Mature plant - taxonomically required for
  accurate identification
   WEED IDENTIFICATION AND LOSSES CAUSED BY WEEDS:

          Means of identification
• Reproductive parts - essential
  – Flower - a stem or branch bearing highly modified
    leaves concerned with sexual reproduction
   WEED IDENTIFICATION AND LOSSES CAUSED BY WEEDS:

          Means of identification
• Receptacle - modified stem tip to which floral
  parts are attached
• Perianth - calyx and corolla collectively
  – Calyx - outermost circle of floral parts - each
    called sepal
  – Corolla - next inner rank - each unit called petal
    and arranged alternately to sepals
  Ordinarily calyx is present but numerous families do
    not have corolla
   WEED IDENTIFICATION AND LOSSES CAUSED BY WEEDS:

       Means of identification: Parts of Flowers

• The stamen has two parts: anthers and
  filaments.
• The anthers carry the pollen.
• These are generally yellow in color.
• Anthers are held up by a thread-like part called
  a filament.
   WEED IDENTIFICATION AND LOSSES CAUSED BY WEEDS:

       Means of identification: Parts of Flowers

• The pistil has three parts: stigma, style, and
  ovary.
• The stigma is the sticky surface at the top of
  the pistil; it traps and holds the pollen.
• The style is the tube-like structure that holds
  up the stigma.
• The style leads down to the ovary that contains
  the ovules.
    WEED IDENTIFICATION AND LOSSES CAUSED BY WEEDS:

   Means of identification: Types       of Flowers:
• If a flower has a stamen, pistils, petals, and sepals, it
  is called a complete flower.
• If one of these parts is missing, the flower is
  designated incomplete.
• If a flower contains functional stamens and pistils, it
  is called a perfect flower. (Stamen and pistils are
  considered the essential parts of a flower.)
• If either of the essential parts is lacking, the flower is
  imperfect.
   WEED IDENTIFICATION AND LOSSES CAUSED BY WEEDS:

  Means of identification: Types     of Flowers:
• Pistillate (female) flowers are those which possess a
  functional pistil(s) but lack stamens.
• Staminate (male) flowers contain stamens but no
  pistils.
• Because cross-fertilization combines different genetic
  material and produces stronger seed, cross-pollinated
  plants are usually more successful than self-pollinated
  plants.
• Consequently, more plants reproduce by cross-
  pollination than self-pollination.
   WEED IDENTIFICATION AND LOSSES CAUSED BY WEEDS:

  Means of identification: Types     of Flowers:
• As previously mentioned, there are plants which bear
  only male flowers (staminate plants) or bear only
  female flowers (pistillate plants).
• Species in which the sexes are separated into
  staminate and pistillate plants are called dioecious.
• Most holly trees and pistachio trees are dioecious;
  therefore, to obtain berries, it is necessary to have
  female and male trees.
   WEED IDENTIFICATION AND LOSSES CAUSED BY WEEDS:

  Means of identification: Types   of Flowers:
• Monoecious plants are those which have
  separate male and female flowers on the same
  plant. Corn plants and pecan trees are
  examples.
• Some plants bear only male flowers at the
  beginning of the growing season, but later
  develop flowers of both sexes; examples are
  cucumbers and squash.
   WEED IDENTIFICATION AND LOSSES CAUSED BY WEEDS:

  Means of identification: How   Seeds Form:
• Pollination is the transfer of pollen from an
  anther to a stigma. This may occur by wind or
  by pollinators.
• Wind-pollinated flowers lack showy floral
  parts and nectar since they don't need to attract
  a pollinator.
• Flowers are brightly colored or patterned and
  contain a fragrance or nectar when they must
  attract insects, animals, or birds.
   WEED IDENTIFICATION AND LOSSES CAUSED BY WEEDS:

  Means of identification: How   Seeds Form:
• In the process of searching for nectar these
  pollinators will transfer pollen from flower to
  flower.
• The stigma contains a chemical which
  stimulates the pollen, causing it to grow a long
  tube down the inside of the style to the ovules
  inside the ovary.
• The sperm is released by the pollen grain and
  fertilization typically occurs.
   WEED IDENTIFICATION AND LOSSES CAUSED BY WEEDS:

  Means of identification: How   Seeds Form:
• Fertilization is the union of the male sperm
  nucleus (from the pollen grain) and the female
  egg (in the ovule).
• If fertilization is successful, the ovule will
  develop into a seed.
   WEED IDENTIFICATION AND LOSSES CAUSED BY WEEDS:

    Means of identification: Types of Inflorescences:

• Some plants bear only one flower per stem and
  are called solitary flowers.
• Other plants produce an inflorescence, a term
  which refers to a cluster of flowers and how
  they are arranged on a floral stem.
• Most inflorescences may be classified into two
  groups, racemes and cymes.
   WEED IDENTIFICATION AND LOSSES CAUSED BY WEEDS:

    Means of identification: Types of Inflorescences:

• In the racemose group, the florets, which are
  individual flowers in an inflorescence, bloom
  from the bottom of the stem and progress
  toward the top.
• Some examples of racemose inflorescence
  include spike, raceme, corymb, umbel, and
  head.
   WEED IDENTIFICATION AND LOSSES CAUSED BY WEEDS:

    Means of identification: Types of Inflorescences:

• A spike is an inflorescence in which many
  stemless florets are attached to an elongated
  flower stem or peduncle, an example being
  gladiolus.
• A raceme is similar to a spike except the
  florets are borne on small stems attached to the
  peduncle.
• An example of a raceme inflorescence is the
  snapdragon.
   WEED IDENTIFICATION AND LOSSES CAUSED BY WEEDS:

    Means of identification: Types of Inflorescences:

• A corymb is made up of florets whose stalks
  and pedicels are arranged at random along the
  peduncle in such a way that the florets create a
  flat, round top.
• Yarrow has a corymb inflorescence.
• An umbel is similar except that the pedicels all
  arise from one point on the peduncle.
   WEED IDENTIFICATION AND LOSSES CAUSED BY WEEDS:

    Means of identification: Types of Inflorescences:

• Dill has an umbel inflorescence.
• A head or composite inflorescence is made up
  of numerous stemless florets which is
  characteristic of daisy inflorescence.
• In the cyme group, the top floret opens first
  and blooms downward along the peduncle.
   WEED IDENTIFICATION AND LOSSES CAUSED BY WEEDS:

    Means of identification: Types of Inflorescences:

• A dischasium cyme has florets opposite each
  other along the peduncle.
• Baby‘s breath inflorescence is an example.
• A helicoid cyme is one in which the lower
  florets are all on the same side of the peduncle,
  examples being freesia and statice
  inflorescences.
   WEED IDENTIFICATION AND LOSSES CAUSED BY WEEDS:

    Means of identification: Types of Inflorescences:

• A scorpioid cyme is one in which the florets
  are alternate to each other along the peduncle.
• Examples are tomato and potato
  inflorescences.
  WEED IDENTIFICATION AND LOSSES CAUSED BY
                   WEEDS:

              Means of identification:
     Weeds of major importance to Arkansas
1. Barnyardgrass
  2. Common cocklebur
      3. Entireleaf morningglory
            4. Johnsongrass
      5. Large crabgrass
  6. Palmer amaranth
   WEED IDENTIFICATION AND LOSSES CAUSED BY WEEDS:

              Means of identification:
       Weeds of major importance to Arkansas
7. Pitted morningglory
       8. Red rice
            9. Sicklepod
                   10. Yellow nutsedge
 Losses and harmful aspects of weeds
• Categories for impact of weeds on agriculture
  1. Economic - either loss, cost, or both
  2. Aesthetic - difficult to measure because
  there may not be a direct economic impact, but
  perception is reality
  Losses and harmful aspects of weeds
• Direct economic losses:
  1. From reduction of crop yields - competition
  2. Increased cost of operations on farms and in industries
       a. Cultivation costs
       b. Increased cost of harvesting and processing
       c. Upset of advantageous rotations
       d. Cleaning drainage and irrigation ditches
       e. Cleaning of equipment
       f. Green weeds delay maturity of crops
       g. Objectionable odors or flavors in final food product
       h. Value of grain or fiber crop, wool, or hide may be
  reduced
 Losses and harmful aspects of weeds
• Depreciation of land values (more aesthetic
  than real)
• Direct harmful aspects of weeds
  – Poisonous plants
     a. Some weed seed harmful in harvested crop seed -
       jimsonweed (alkaloid)

     b. Many plants directly harmful to animals
Losses and harmful aspects of weeds
   Some weeds cause allergic or related
    responses
    a. Pollen-bearing plants and hay
    fever
    b. Plants causing dermatitis - poison
    ivy
Losses and harmful aspects of weeds
   Indirect harmful effects
    1. Hosts for fungal and bacterial diseases
    2. Hosts of viruses - tomato mosaic –
    horsenettle
    3. Hosts for nematodes - hemp sesbania
    4. Hosts for insects
 Losses and harmful aspects of weeds
• Cost of weed losses - can be staggering - up to $20B
  or more annually, including losses and cost of control

   –   Agricultural production $15,220,000,000
   –   Golf, turf, and ornamentals $235,000,000
   –   Forestry $60,000,000
   –   Rights of way, industrial & aquatics $831,000,000
   –   Other $3,654,000,000
       Total $20B
METHODS OF WEED MANAGEMENT AND
      CONTROL STRATEGIES
• Weed management involves the skillful use of all
  methods of control
   – Preventive weed control and regulatory aspects
     a. Preventive control is the prevention of introduction,
     establishment, and spread of specific new weeds in areas
     not currently infested
     (1) People are the key to preventive weed control
     (2) Take out new plant or weed at all costs when first
     noticed
     (3) Limit weed seed production
METHODS OF WEED MANAGEMENT AND
      CONTROL STRATEGIES
• (4) First rule for weed prevention is weed sanitation
  (a) Farm management practices can help prevent the spread of
  weed seed and vegetative parts. Need to recognize or identify
  weeds, including seedlings and reproductive parts, and have a
  knowledge of the plant‘s life cycle
       i) Plant weed-free seed
       ii) Clean farm equipment - tillage and harvest
       iii) Screen irrigation water
       iv) Inspection and cleaning of top soil, gravel, and sand
       v) Pay special attention to fence rows, utility and railroad
  rights-of-way, and roadsides for sources of new weeds
       vi) Improved animal management - feed stuffs, bedding,
  and waste disposal are excellent sources of new weed seed
  which can be spread in the manure and by other means
METHODS OF WEED MANAGEMENT AND
      CONTROL STRATEGIES
• (5) Regulatory measures on local, state, and national
  levels - in general have been too little too late
       (a) Federal Seed Act of 1939
  i) Regulates transport and sale of seed in both foreign
  and interstate commerce
  ii) Requires labeling which includes % weed seed in
  bag
       (b) States have noxious weed laws which
  generally prohibit noxious weed seed in planting seed
  or nursery stock
METHODS OF WEED MANAGEMENT AND
      CONTROL STRATEGIES
• 175 different weed species have been named as
  noxious
• Arkansas State Plant Board enforces crop seed
  regulations.
• Field and laboratory personnel inspect seed fields and
  seed in market channels.
• They often reject fields for certified seed production
  or ―stop sale‖ of seeds
    Noxious Weeds of Arkansas (26)
•   balloonvine            •   purple nutsedge
•   hedge bindweed         •   Darnel
•   bermudagrass           •   seflated tussock
•   Horsenettle            •   dock species
•   buckhorn plantain      •   showy crotalaria
•   Itchgrass              •   dodder
•   cheat                  •   silver nightshade
•   Johnsongrass           •   field bindweed
•   common cocklebur       •   Texas blueweed
•   morningglory species   •   giant foxtail
•   corncockle             •   wild onion / wild garlic
     Noxious Weeds of Arkansas
• When found in rice also includes the
  following:
  – red rice
  – hemp sesbania
  – northern jointvetch
     Arkansas State Plant Board
• Nursery Division inspects nursery stock for
  weeds, seeds, and vegetative reproductive
  organs

  – Federal Noxious Weed Act of 1974:
  – A weed prevention law enforced by Animal and
    Plant Health Inspection Service
    (APHIS) of USDA
METHODS OF WEED MANAGEMENT AND
      CONTROL STRATEGIES
• Plants have been imported into the U.S. or other
  countries for some use and escaped to become very
  noxious
• Majority of our weeds imported by original colonists
  and settlers in their planting seed
   – Mechanical and physical methods of weed management
      • Hand methods: include hand pulling of weeds or use of hoes or
        machetes.
      • Manual methods of weed control are among the oldest practices
        employed lending credence to the observation that weed scientists
        never discard control technologies - they just improve them or add
        new ones.
  Methods of Weed Management
• Hand weeding can be practiced:
  – For home-owners in eliminating occasional weeds
    in lawn or garden
  – In small horticultural operations ―truck farms‖
    where high-priced crops may justify the expense,
    particularly if herbicides are not available, or are
    not completely effective
  – On large field or agronomic crops, hand methods
    are not practical except to supplement other
    control practices
Methods of Weed Management
– In less-developed countries hand methods are still
  common.
– In fact, man expends more energy weeding his
  fields than any other human endeavor
   • Machine tillage:
     (a) Primary tillage - operations used before planting, for
     seedbed preparation - break and loosen soil 6 to 36
     inches
     (b) Secondary til1ae - soil stirring between crop rows,
     primarily to control weeds - usually referred to as
     ―cultivation‖ - work soil less than 6 inches
   Methods of Weed Management
• Advantages to tillage:
  (a) An alternative to herbicides
  (b) Destroys plant residues that harbor insect
  and disease pathogens
  (c) Makes a superior seedbed for planting (safe
  site)
  (d) On soils which crust, cultivation may be
  necessary regardless of weeds
   Methods of Weed Management
• Disadvantages of tillage
  (a) Causes increased soil erosion
  (b) Often an impervious ―plow pan‖ develops from
  frequent machinery traffic causing compaction which
  restricts air and water movement
  (c) Increases weed seedling emergence
  (d) Buries weed seed and increases the weed seed
  bank
  (e) Cultivation can damage crop roots and does not
  control weeds in the crop row
   Methods of Weed Management
• Within the past decade, the trend has been toward
  reduced or conservation tillage, especially a reduction
  in pre-plant tillage and cultivation.
• Herbicides and equipment improvements have
  allowed reduced tillage practices
  (a) Balancing tillage factors of compaction, erosion,
  etc.
  (b) Must control existing vegetation or will not work
  (c) No-till or stale seedbed practices are less labor
  intensive, potentially cheaper, and reduce erosion
• Mowing or cutting
   Methods of Weed Management
• Must be considered of limited value as a weed management
  technique
   – (a) Removes unsightly plant growth and improves aesthetics - as in
     mowing a lawn
     (b) Useful in preventing some weeds from producing seed but many
     still can reproduce under the cut height
     (c) Weeds have already set viable seeds before mowing occurs
     (d) Frequent and close mowing of perennials may weaken root system
   – Burning or flame cultivation - about in the same category as mowing as
     far as weed control effectiveness
   Methods of Weed Management
• Historically, has been used extensively in non-
  cropped areas, such as railroad rights-of-way,
  irrigation canals, drainage ditches, and
  roadsides
• Fire not hot enough to destroy seed or position
  of seed makes method ineffective
• Removes plant residue - double crop soybeans
   Methods of Weed Management
• Selective flaming once practiced extensively in cotton
  and other crops - flame cultivator
  (a) After cotton plants are tall enough the flame is
  directed at the base without injury (bark)
  (b) A supplement to other practices
  (c) Controls very small weeds
  (d) Practice comes and goes depending on cost of
  natural gas
  (e) Generally herbicides are more efficient
• Smothering or mulching
   Methods of Weed Management
• Involves covering soil with a layer of material
  to exclude light, thereby suppressing
  photosynthesis
• Also, changes soil temperatures which may
  destroy seed viability or reduce germination
  – Includes such materials as hay, grass clippings,
    straw, sawdust, wood chips, rice hulls, paper, or
    plastic film
  – Can be done selectively around ornamentals
   Methods of Weed Management
• Quite effective on certain high value crops and
  small areas - strawberries and melons, for
  example
• Use of clear plastic film to cover soil for
  disease and insect control (solarization) - many
  weed seed also destroyed
• Cover or green manure crops prevent weed
  emergence by interference and once killed
  with herbicides leaves a surface mulch
  Methods of Weed Management
• Cover crops also
  (a) Protect the soil from wind and water
  erosion
  (b) Improve fertility (legumes fix nitrogen),
  organic matter, and tilth
  (c) Some produce allelochemicals which aid in
  weed control
   Methods of Weed Management
• Flooding:
• Used extensively in rice
  (a) Rice can withstand a flood, but many weeds
  cannot - a major reason for flooding
  (b) However, the worst weeds in rice can survive -
  barnyardgrass, hemp sesbania, and sedges
  (c) Johnsongrass and other weeds can still survive on
  the levees
  (d) Other flooding spreads more weed seeds than
  control
   Methods of Weed Management
• Cultural weed management - basically good
  farming practices
  a. Practices that improve crop competitiveness
  (1) Optimum planting date
  (2) Optimum seeding rate and row width -
  stand density
   Methods of Weed Management
• Optimizing fertility and irrigation
• Optimizing cultivar selection - actually newer
  cultivars are less competitive due to shorter
  stature resulting in less shading pressure
    Methods of Weed Management:
           Crop Rotations
• Specific weeds associate with specific crops:
  (a) Barnyardgrass in rice
  (b) Common cocklebur in soybeans
  (c) Dandelion in turf
    Methods of Weed Management:
           Crop Rotations
• Widely diverse crops make superior rotations:
  (a) Grass or grain crop followed by broadleaf
  crop
  (b) Flooded crop followed by terrestrial crop
• Advantages of crop rotation
  (a) Control pest in alternate crop
  (b) Improve yield
  (c) Prevent herbicide resistance
    Methods of Weed Management:
      Biological Weed Control
• Biological weed control - a supplemental
  control practice
  a. Involves the utilization of introduced natural
  enemies to maintain a weed population at a
  lower density
  (I) Parasites, predators, or pathogens
  (2) Also, other organisms such as fish or
  grazing animals
  (3) Major limiting factor only controls specific
  organism
    Methods of Weed Management:
             Approaches
• Classical - natural predators introduced and
  become self-sustaining on the host weed
  (a) Prickly pear controlled by a moth borer
  (Cacloblastis cactorum) which was introduced
  from Argentina into Australia
  (b) Curly dock in Europe with fungal rust
  (Uromyces rumicis)
  (c) St. Johnswort in U.S. by leaf-feeding beetle
  (Chrysolina guadrigemina)
  (d) Does not work every time
    Methods of Weed Management:
             Approaches
• Mycoherbicide - annual application of fungal
  spores
  (a) Northern jointvetch in rice controlled by
  Collego (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp.
  aeschymonene) - A dry powder containing
  spores mixed with water and sprayed
  (b) Honeyvine milkweed in orchards by
  Devine (Phytophthora palmivora)
     Methods of Weed Management:
              Approaches
• Feeding:
  (a) White amur (grass carp) introduced to weed-
  choked bodies of water very effective in clearing
  vegetation. The fish feed only on aquatic vegetation.
  However, became illegal until sterile carp were made
  available.
  (b) In 1965, flea beetle (Agasicles cownexa) from
  Argentina for alligatorweed in Florida.
  (c) Goats and sheep graze on brushy species that
  cattle will not eat giving a degree of control
    Methods of Weed Management:
             Approaches
• Herbicides in management systems
  a. Herbicides are effective and cost efficient
  (1) Energy efficient
  (2) Permit control where cultivation impossible
  (3) Reduce number of tillage operations - example
  no-till
  (4) Reduce human effort expended in handweeding
  (5) Control otherwise difficult to manage weeds
  (6) Permits greater flexibility in choice of
  management systems
  (7) Herbicide system presently available to solve
  most weed problems
    Methods of Weed Management:
             Approaches
• Benefit versus risk of herbicide use - an
  extremely important concept
• Benefits greatly exceed risk -
  remember herbicides control
  plants not animals
   Methods of Weed Management:
• Major risks
  (a) Injury to non-target plants
  (b) Drift or soil residues
  (c) Inconsistent weed control
  (d) Resistant weeds
  (e) Improper use
  (f) Improper calibration
  (g) Improper handling (mixing and spraying)
  (h) Belief that herbicides can solve all problems
  Methods of Weed Management:
• Remember, a producer is the most
  environmental conscious person because
  pollution of his land and water directly affects
  his livelihood
    Defamations regarding herbicide
             application
• In relationship to growing season or crop
  development
  (a) Preplant burnclown
  (b) Preplant incorporated
• Pre emergence
  (d) At soil cracking or plant emergence
• Post emergence
  (f) Layby- at last cultivation
    Defamations regarding herbicide
             application
• In relationship to placement in field
  (a) Broadcast
  (b) Banded
  (c) Incorporated
  (d) Over-the-top
  (e) Directed
  (f) Hooded
  (g) Spot
  (h) Rope wick
  (i) Drench
    Defamations regarding herbicide
             application
• Herbicide nomenclature
• Names for herbicides or pesticides
  (a) Chemical
  (b) Common
  (c) Trade
   Defamations regarding herbicide
            application
• Example
  (a) Chemical name: 2-[(2-
  chlorophenyl)methyll-4,4-dimethyl-3 -
  isoxazolidinone
  (b) Common name: clomazone
  (c) Trade name: Command® - FMC
• We are concerned mostly with the common
  name
    Defamations regarding herbicide
             application
• Formulation
• Types:
     Liquid (ml, oz, pt)
            EC - emulsifiable concentrate
            SL - soluable liquid
            ME - microencapsulated
     Dry (lb,g,oz)
            WP - wettable powder
            WDG - water dispensable granules
            SP - soluble powder
    Defamations regarding herbicide
             application
• Direct Application (%)
     G –granule
• Label
     active ingredient (ai)
     product recommendation (amount of
     product IA)
     Calculations for actual herbicide (ai) IA
        Herbicide Classification
• Herbicide classification - ways
  (1) Crop response
      (a) Selective
      (b) Non-selective
  (2) Coverage
      (c) Soil
      (d) Foliar
  (3) Length of soil persistence
      (e) Persistent
      (f) Non-persistent
        Herbicide Classification
• (4) Coverage of target area - band, broadcast,
  etc.
• (5) Application in relation to crop and weed
  development – pre plant, pre emergence, post
  emergence
• (6) Method of soil application - incorporated,
  surface-applied, etc.
       Herbicide Classification
• (7) Pathways of movement in plant
      (a) Symplastic (phloem)
      (b) Apoplastic (xylem)
      (c) Contact (no movement)
• (8) Mode of action in plant
      (a) Auxin type
      (b) Photosynthetic inhibitors
      (c) Metabolic inhibitors
      (d) Bleacher
        Herbicide Classification
• (9) Herbicide family based on chemistry
      (a) Presently at least 40 families
  Such as
      a) Dinitroanilines
      b) Triazines
      c) Imidazolinones
      d) Sulfonylureas
• Most used method because of importance to rotate
  herbicide family in order to prevent herbicide
  resistance
 Integrated Weed Management (IWM)
• Integrated Weed Management (IWM) - the
  integration of effective, environmentally safe,
  and sociologically acceptable control tactics
  that reduce weed interference below the
  economic injury level
 Integrated Weed Management (IWM)
• ―Putting it all together‖ or a ―systems‖ concept
  of managing weeds
      a. Not just a simple combining of practices
  but based on sound prior planning
      b. Total effect of fitting weed practices into
  whole system of crop production should have
  greater impact than just components added
  together
 Integrated Weed Management (IWM)
• Influences other management practices
  (a) Crop rotation sequences
  (b) Insect and disease management practices
  (c) Fertility management
  (d) Irrigation management
  (e) Cultivar selection
 Integrated Weed Management (IWM)
• In order to
      a. Minimize weed losses
      b. And maximize production profitability
• And to provide
      a. Maximum environmental protection
      b. Maximum human safety
      c. Enhanced human existence
• Should be considered before the season starts
      a. Precision farming is coming - computers,
  GPS/GIS, mapping, etc.
      b. But do not forget farming is an art!
 Integrated Weed Management (IWM)
• Management of weeds involves several
  sequential steps
  1. The starting place - ability to identify the
  weed problem
      a. Previous field history
      b. Crop harvested the previous season
 Integrated Weed Management (IWM)
• Will know what was controlled and what was
  not
• Or those that have produced seed or vegetative
  parts
  – Know the threat the weed poses
    a. How competitive?
    b. How much yield loss is to be expected?
    c. What practices are needed for control?
Integrated Weed Management (IWM)
• Crop rotation
• Develop a weed management program
  Four-step approach:
      Weed Management Program:
                 1
• Itemize and evaluate the weed problem
  (1) Including the soil component
  (2) Environmental factors
  (3) Crop management systems
  (4) Past programs and results
  (5) Crop rotation
      Weed Management Program:
                 2
• Evaluate all available control methods
  (1) For effectiveness - label and MP-44
  (2) Consistency and dependability
        Weed Management Program:
                   2
• (3) Potential for integration into the system
  (a) Biotechnology - will be an important part of IWM
       i) Lends itself well to goal of achieving sustainability
       ii) Which, simply, is ability to apply these practices
  (IWM) to farmland without harming it, or the people or
  animals that live on or near it
       iii) Sustainability
                a) Means profitability for farmers
                b) And an abundant and high quality food supply
  for consumers
       iv) Examples
                a) Herbicide-resistant cultivars enable the use of
  some herbicides with crops that might be toxicologically and
  environmentally less damaging than herbicides currently used
  with the crop
       Weed Management Program:
                  2
• (1) Developed in various ways
      (a) Traditional plant breeding
      (b) Site-of-action alteration
      (c) Herbicide detoxification mechanisms
      (d) Transference of genes from unrelated
  organisms
• (2) Soybean and cotton cultivars resistant to
  glyphosate        (Roundup)
      (a) Broad spectrum herbicide
      (b) May be the only herbicide application needed
      Weed Management Program:
                 2
• (3) Cotton - a transgenic cultivar (BXN)
  resistant to bromoxynil (Buctril)
      (a) For control of morningglories /
  cocklebur
      (b) Which are difficult to control with
  existing technology
      Weed Management Program:
                 3
• Select programs based on
  (1) Economics and management goals
  (2) Crop rotation
  (3) Available management, labor, and
      equipment
  (4) Time required to accomplish the program
      Weed Management Program:
                 3
• (5) Value of early season weed control
      program and benefits
      (a) Remember, ―the smaller the weed, the
            easier it is to control‖
      (6) Appropriate follow-up
     Weed Management Program:
                4
• Execute the program
                Introduction:
• Entomology (a biological science) is the
  study of insects
• It is an organized study to obtain knowledge of
  all phases of insect life and the role of insects
  in nature
• Science: study of the universe; Biology: study
  of life; Zoology: study of animals;
  Entomology: study of insects
              Introduction:
• Insects belong to the kingdom Animalia.
• The Animal Kingdom contains many distinct
  groups called phyla.
• Each phylum is divided into a number of
  classes.
• Insects belong to the class Insecta in the
  phylum Arthropoda ("jointed foot").
An example of classifying an insect:


       Kingdom Animalia
      Phylum Arthropoda
          Class Insecta
      Order Hymenoptera
         Family Apidae
          Genus Apis
        species mellifera
    Common name: honey bee
                Introduction:
• The insect class is further divided into orders,
  families, genera, and finally, species.
• A related class in the phylum:
  – Arthropoda is the class Arachnida, the scorpions
    and spiders.
               Introduction:
• Approximately 1 million species of insects
  have been identified to date and probably more
  than 1.3 million different species exist.
• The greatest numbers of these species belong
  to the beetle order (Coleoptera), fly order
  (Diptera) and the wasp-bee-ant order
  (Hymenoptera).
               Introduction:
• Insects are, except for a few common
  structural features, quite different from one
  another.
• Size is one factor that varies considerably,
  ranging from microscopic wasps that are less
  than a millimeter in length, to some of the
  long-horned beetles (such as the palo verde
  borer) which may be as much as six inches
  long.
               Introduction:
• Some insects have horns and spines which
  render them rather bizarre, while others may
  resemble a dead leaf or a stick.
• Some insects are quite attractive, and have
  been used as jewelry or in art.
                  Introduction:
• All of this variability makes the insects a fascinating
  group to investigate, but it also makes the study of
  insects and their classification somewhat complex.
• It is important to learn the main differences between
  insect groups so that we can distinguish one from
  another.
• You must know about insects to be able to suggest
  adequate control procedures and give quality
  management suggestions.
 Insect Structures and Life Process
• Insects, unlike some other types of animals,
  have no backbones.
• They have an outer supporting structure called
  an exoskeleton, rather than the internal support
  structure (endoskeleton) characteristic of most
  large animals.
 Insect Structures and Life Process
• The following characteristics separate the
  insects from other animals:
  – Three distinct body regions - head, thorax and
    abdomen.
  – Many adult insects have wings, and insects are the
    only invertebrates capable of flight.
  – Adult insects possess three pairs of legs attached to
    the thorax.
 Insect Structures and Life Process
• The Insect Body:
  – Tagmosis and the body wall; the grouping of
    segments into functional regions is known as
    tagmosis:
     • Head
     • Thorax
     • Abdomen
 Insect Structures and Life Process
• The head shows few signs of segmentation in
  the adult stage
• The thorax consists of three distinctly
  modified segments (each bearing a pair of
  segmented legs)
• The abdomen (least modified) may have as
  many as eleven segments
 Insect Structures and Life Process
• These insect structures are formed from the
  body wall, which also supplies a support
  system known as the exoskeleton.
• The exoskeleton provides a rigid foundation
  for the body and serves as a point for the
  attachment of muscles, something like the
  internal skeleton of vertebrates.
 Insect Structures and Life Process
• Certain parts of the body wall are hardened, or
  sclerotized, in the form of plates called
  sclerites.
• Between these plates the body is membranous,
  or soft, which allows for movement and
  expansion of the body during eating and egg
  development.
    INSECT DEVELOPMENT
• All insects change shape during growth by a
  process called metamorphosis.
• Related arthropods such as spiders, mites and
  centipedes also undergo metamorphosis.
    INSECT DEVELOPMENT
• However, the changes in shape of spiders and
  lower insects are much less dramatic than the
  complete change in shape of the more highly
  developed kinds of insects.
• This complete change is called complex
  metamorphosis.
    INSECT DEVELOPMENT
• Beetles, moths, butterflies, wasps, ants and
  flies all go through four very different stages in
  order to complete development: egg, larva,
  pupa, adult.
• The larva is usually the damaging stage
  because it is basically a feeding machine,
  although feeding by adults may be destructive
  as well.
    INSECT DEVELOPMENT
• Additionally, the larval and adult stages of
  many species feed on different hosts or
  different parts of the host.
• The pupal stage does not feed and in most
  cases is inactive or inert.
• The lower insects undergo a slight change of
  shape which is called simple metamorphosis.
    INSECT DEVELOPMENT
• True bugs, aphids, grasshoppers, termites,
  earwigs, many aquatic insects, etc., go through
  only three stages in order to complete
  development.
• These are egg, nymph, and adult.
    INSECT DEVELOPMENT
• Nymphs and adults closely resemble each
  other, except the nymphs are smaller in size
  and lack wings.
• In these species, the adults and nymphs usually
  feed on the same host or host parts.
    INSECT DEVELOPMENT
• The most primitive insects go through very
  little change between stages.
• The adults lack wings, so they closely
  resemble the nymphs.
• Most experts refer to this as:
  – nonmetamorphosis.
Figure 3. Life stages of the black cutworm, an example of complex metamorphosis   .




Eggs
                                                          Pupa




Larva

                                                          Adult
          Insect Classification
• There are several methods of separating or
  categorizing insects.
 methods of separating or categorizing
              insects: 1.
• Scientists use body parts for identification and
  observe the differences in these parts through
  the use of a microscope.
• He or she tracks down the identity by using a
  written insect "key."
• The anatomy of an insect will place it into a
  specific insect group called an order.
 methods of separating or categorizing
              insects: 2.
• Insects are also classified by the type of
  damage they cause, for example:
  –   root maggot
  –   twig girdler
  –   wood borer
  –   leaf miner
• Identification of the plant and type of injury
  will often narrow the possibilities and speed up
  the identification process.
 methods of separating or categorizing
              insects: 3.
• Another form of separation is in the manner of
  feeding mechanisms or mouthparts, for
  example:
  – chewing versus sucking mouthparts
Figure 4. Examples of insects with sucking mouthparts (a), and chewing mouthparts (b)




Cicada - Sucking Mouthparts




Grasshopper - Chewing Mouthparts
           Insect Classification
• Although this manner of separation is
  somewhat helpful for identification, its greatest
  value is in determining if a certain kind of
  pesticide will work or not.
• For example, systemic insecticides generally
  do not work as well on chewing insects like
  caterpillars as they do on sucking insects such
  as aphids or whiteflies.
          Insect Classification
• Proper identification is extremely important.
• If a beneficial insect or a non-damaging insect
  is improperly identified as a pest, an
  unnecessary pesticide application may be
  made.
          Insect Classification
• Pesticide applications are costly, and may
  cause more harm because they tend to disrupt
  natural control agents and cause outbreaks of
  other pests.
• For example, scientists have shown that the
  best way to "grow" California red scale insects
  was to spray insecticides which kill natural
  enemies of the red scale.
                      RULE
• DO NOT MAKE RECOMMENDATIONS based
  on the verbal description of a pest by the client.
• Insist on seeing it, or at least its damage, before
  you volunteer a control method.
• There are too many beneficial or non-pest species
  that closely resemble pests, and incorrect
  identifications lead to ineffective control measures,
  the expense of unnecessary pesticide applications,
  or other problems.
          Insect Classification
• In biology, the naming of organisms is referred
  to as nomenclature, and ordering them into
  hierarchy of categories is known as
  classification.
• A related science, taxonomy, involves the
  theoretical basis for classification and are
  referred to as systematists; their overall
  activity, systematics, is the study of the
  diversity and classification of organisms.
          Insect Classification
• Because of the tremendous size of the class
  Insecta, the naming and classification of all
  insects would seem to be a difficult, if not
  impossible, achievement.
• Like the periodic table of chemistry,
  classification allows us to order what we know
  about insects and to compare and contrast
  characteristics.
           Insect Classification
• From the comparisons, we formulate
  predictions about relationships, including those
  with both evolutionary and ecological
  meaning.
  – Example: members of the same species are
    expected to behave similarly in their food habits,
    tolerances to the environmental extremes,
    developmental patterns, and other aspects
         Insect Classification
Example (continued):
– A group of similar species, pet together in a higher
  category called a genus, could be predicted to
  share similar ecologies and to have evolved from
  the same ancestor.
– Moving to higher and higher groupings in
  classification, we expect more and more diversity
  within the grouping.
            Insect Classification
• A major application of classification is in
  identification of insect specimens.
• Identifications of major groups such as insect orders
  can usually be made at a glance; however, finer
  identifications often require the use of keys.
• Many keys exists for orders and families of insects
  (D.J. Borrer, C.A. Triplehorn, and N.F. Johnson: An
  Introduction to the Study of Insects, 1989)
         Insect Classification
• Example Key: page 80
           Insect Classification:
         elements of classification
• The classification of organisms is based on a
  hierarchy of categories, with the most
  inclusive occurring a the top and the least
  inclusive at the bottom.
• The major categories used in animal
  classification are phylum, class, order,
  family, genus, and species.
  – but for added distinction in large, diverse groups,
    many other categories fall between these
        Insect Classification:
      elements of classification
Major categories for the European corn borer:
– Phylum: Arthropoda
– Class: Insecta
– Order: Lepidoptera
– Family: Pyralidae
– Genus: Ostrinia
– Species: Ostrinia nubilalis
          Insect Classification:
        elements of classification
• The scientific name of a species is binomial
  (composed of two names)
SPECIFIC INSECT GROUPS
                           Insect Groups
• Major insect groups are called orders.
• There are between 27-30 orders depending on the authority you read, but
  some of the most common and economically important are:
    –   Coleoptera - beetles and weevils (lady beetles, leaf beetles, June beetles, etc.).
    –   Lepidoptera - moths and butterflies
    –   Diptera - flies
    –   Hymenoptera - wasps, bees, ants
    –   Hemiptera - "true bugs" (stink bugs, big-eyed bugs, plant bugs, assassin bugs)
    –   Homoptera - aphids, scales, whiteflies, leafhoppers, cicadas
    –   Orthoptera - grasshoppers, crickets, cockroaches
    –   Isoptera - termites
    –   Dermaptera - earwigs
               Insect Groups
• Separating the groups of insects may be quite
  difficult unless you have closely studied
  examples of the various types.
  – http://cals.arizona.edu/pubs/garden/mg/entomolog
    y/groups.html#beetles
       ORDER COLEOPTERA:
         Beetles and Weevils
• Adults with one pair of hardened outer wings
  (forewings) giving them a "shell-like"
  appearance, and an inner pair of membranous
  wings.
  – (A few beetles are practically wingless, or lack the
    inner wings).
• Beetles have chewing mouthparts.
       ORDER COLEOPTERA:
         Beetles and Weevils
• Adults beetles have noticeable antennae.
• Larvae are sometimes called grubs.
  – They have a hardened head capsule, and 3 pairs of
    legs on the thorax.
  – (Some weevil larvae lack legs).
• Beetles undergo complete metamorphosis.
       ORDER COLEOPTERA:
         Beetles and Weevils
• The order Coleoptera contains the most species
  of all the insect orders. Over 600,000 different
  species of beetles have been identified.
• Some of the typical beetles that you may see
  are the long-horned beetles and flatheaded
  borers.
• The larvae are elongate grubs that bore into
  trees, logs, firewood, cacti, and lumber.
       ORDER COLEOPTERA:
         Beetles and Weevils
• The long-horned beetles are named for their
  long antennae as adults.
• Examples of long-horned beetles are the palo
  verde borer, and the cactus borer.
• Important beneficial species include the lady
  beetles, ground beetles, and tiger beetles.
       ORDER COLEOPTERA:
         Beetles and Weevils
• Lady beetles are about 1/4 inch long and are
  usually red or orange, generally with spots.
• Lady beetles are beneficial as larvae and
  adults, since they feed on aphids and other
  soft-bodied insect and mite pests.
       ORDER COLEOPTERA:
         Beetles and Weevils
• The agave weevil, which is a destructive pest
  of agave, also is a member of the order
  Coleoptera.
• Darkling beetles are dark-brown or black,
  sluggish beetles that occasionally become
  nuisance pests inside houses.
Figure 5. The developmental stages of beetles



Eggs




Beetle Larvae (Grubs)




Pupa




                                                Adult
      ORDER LEPIDOPTERA:
       Butterflies and Moths
• Adults are soft-bodied with four well-
  developed membranous wings covered with
  small scales.
• The larvae have chewing mouthparts, and are
  voracious feeders.
• Adults have a coiled, sucking tube for feeding
  on nectar or no mouthparts at all.
       ORDER LEPIDOPTERA:
        Butterflies and Moths
• The larvae are called caterpillars. They are
  worm-like in shape and some are quite
  colorful.
• The larvae have three pairs of true legs on the
  thorax and a variable number of fleshy
  appendages called prolegs on the abdomen.
       ORDER LEPIDOPTERA:
        Butterflies and Moths
• Insects in the order Lepidoptera undergo complex
  metamorphosis.
• Butterflies have threadlike antennae with a knob at
  the end, and fly during the day. Moths often have
  feathery antennae, and fly to lights at night.
• Some moths commonly found in the garden are
  cutworms, which feed on many crops.
• The corn earworm larva varies in color from greenish
  to tannish with lengthwise stripes, and it is about 1
  1/4 inch long when fully grown.
      ORDER LEPIDOPTERA:
       Butterflies and Moths
• The cabbage looper is found on cole crops.
• The larva moves its rear end to meet its head
  as it crawls and loops foreword, giving it the
  name "looper.―
• Anyone who has grown tomatoes has
  encountered the tomato hornworm, which gets
  its name from the distinctive horn projecting
  from the rear.
      ORDER LEPIDOPTERA:
       Butterflies and Moths
• The adult moth is a few inches long and
  mottled gray to black with a few yellow bands
  on the sides of its abdomen.
• The adults are sometimes seen around flowers
  or hummingbird feeders at dusk.
• Butterflies which may be found in yards
  include the beautiful black and yellow
  swallowtail called the orange dog.
       ORDER LEPIDOPTERA:
        Butterflies and Moths
• The larvae are brown, gray and white and
  mimic bird droppings.
• They are found on citrus leaves.
• Another butterfly found in yards is the gulf
  fritillary, the larvae of which feed on passion
  vines.
Figure 6. The developmental stages of the tomato hornworm




Eggs                                                        Pupa




Larva
                                                        Adult
          ORDER DIPTERA:
          Flies and Mosquitoes
• Adults have a pair (2) of wings (di = 2, ptera =
  wings).
• Adults have sponging (house fly) or piercing
  (mosquito) mouthparts.
• Larvae may have mouth hooks or chewing
  mouthparts.
          ORDER DIPTERA:
          Flies and Mosquitoes
• Most larvae don't have legs, or a head capsule
  and commonly are called maggots.
• Diptera have complex metamorphosis.
          ORDER DIPTERA:
          Flies and Mosquitoes
• The flies encountered most frequently around
  households are the house fly, the green or blue
  bottle fly, and the stable fly.
• The grayish adults of the house fly infest
  homes, poultry houses and livestock.
• Fly larvae or "maggots" are generally found in
  manure, spilled feed, and other wet, decaying
  organic matter.
           ORDER DIPTERA:
           Flies and Mosquitoes
• Gnats may live and breed in the soil of houseplants
  within homes.
• They do no damage to the plants, but may become
  nuisances.
• Commercial agricultural insect pests in this order
  include the fruit fly, leafminer fly, onion maggot,
  carrot rust fly and seed corn maggot.
• Some species live in water as larvae and may become
  a nuisance around recreational ponds and lakes.
           ORDER DIPTERA:
           Flies and Mosquitoes
• For example, chironomid midges are feathery
  flies about 1/4 inch long that may emerge in
  clouds and annoy homeowners and boaters
  around waterways.
• The adults do not bite, but may cause allergic
  reactions.
• The larvae of mosquitoes also live in water.
  The adults are slender, long-legged, frail flies.
            ORDER DIPTERA:
            Flies and Mosquitoes
• The adult female is able to suck blood from a number
  of different animals, including humans, and some
  species can transmit diseases such as equine
  encephalitis and malaria.
• Other medically important species, such as bot flies,
  are parasites of animals as immatures.
• The activity of some flies, such as the horn fly,
  disrupt or annoy livestock to the extent that the
  animal stops feeding, causing economic losses for
  farmers.
          ORDER DIPTERA:
          Flies and Mosquitoes
• On the other hand, flies may be beneficial
  because they may be parasites of insect pests.
           ORDER DIPTERA:
           Flies and Mosquitoes
• For example, there is a tachinid fly that lays its
  eggs in gypsy moth larvae.
• The fly larvae feed within their host until they
  reach maturity, and pupate.
• The host is eventually killed. Many flies are
  excellent pollinators of flowering plants,
  including hover, flower, bee and tachinid flies.
Figure 7. The developmental stages of a fly




Eggs
                                              Pupa




Larva
                                              Adult
     ORDER HYMENOPTERA:
         Ants and Wasps
• Adults have two pairs of membranous wings
• The larvae lack legs, except for the sawfly
  larvae which resemble caterpillars.
  – Sawfly larvae have legs on both their thorax and
    abdomen.
• Most have chewing mouthparts both as adults
  and as larvae.
     ORDER HYMENOPTERA:
         Ants and Wasps
• Many adult females have the ability to sting.
• Members of the order Hymenoptera have
  complex metamorphosis.
• This group also contains a large number of
  species.
     ORDER HYMENOPTERA:
         Ants and Wasps
• Many are important pollinators of agricultural
  crops, such as the honey bee, leafcutter bee,
  and alkali bee.
• Some are important predators or parasites and
  scavengers; some of the others may be
  injurious to crops.
• The social species, such as honey bees and
  ants, are highly developed, and exhibit many
  complex behaviors.
     ORDER HYMENOPTERA:
         Ants and Wasps
• An example of a sawfly is the pearslug, which
  is a pest of pear, cherry and plum.
• The immature is slug-like, hence the name.
• It feeds on leaves.
     ORDER HYMENOPTERA:
         Ants and Wasps
• The adults are black with yellow markings.
• The immatures of other sawflies closely
  resemble caterpillars, for example the
  European pine sawfly.
• Larvae feed in groups on pine needles.
     ORDER HYMENOPTERA:
         Ants and Wasps
• The adults are wasp-like, except they have
  heavy bodies that are not constricted at the
  waist.
• Some common wasps include yellow jackets.
• The adults build nests in the ground, or papery
  structures on trees, under eaves, etc.
     ORDER HYMENOPTERA:
         Ants and Wasps
• Stings are painful, and may be dangerous to a
  person who is allergic to them.
• However, these wasps also feed on a number
  of different caterpillars, and other insects, and
  in that manner are beneficial predators.
• Leafcutting bee adults are about 1/2 to 3/4 inch
  long and variable in color.
     ORDER HYMENOPTERA:
         Ants and Wasps
• They are noted for their long tongues, which
  allow them to pollinate crops such as alfalfa.
• The leafcutter bee gets it name from the fact
  that it cuts neat circles from the leaves of
  shrubs and trees.
• It uses these pieces of leaf to create a snug
  chamber for its larvae.
     ORDER HYMENOPTERA:
         Ants and Wasps
• Ants also belong to the order Hymenoptera.
• Some common ants found in houses include
  carpenter ants, the pavement ant, the odorous
  house ant, and the southern fire ant.
• Ants tend to feed on other insects, and thus are
  beneficial predators.
Figure 8. Some examples of insects in the order Hymenoptera

Bumble Bee




                            Carpenter Ant




Sawfly Adult
        ORDER HEMIPTERA:
           TRUE BUGS
• Have simple metamorphosis.
  – The adults and nymphs resemble each other.
• Have two pairs of wings.
  – The top pair are thickened or leathery at the base
    and membranous at the tips (hemi = half, ptera =
    wing).
  – The under wings are membranous.
       ORDER HEMIPTERA:
          TRUE BUGS
• Adults and nymphs both have piercing and
  sucking mouthparts, and both cause damage in
  plant-feeding species. Other species of true
  bugs are predators.
• Many have glands that produce odors when the
  insects are threatened.
        ORDER HEMIPTERA:
           TRUE BUGS
• True bugs have a triangular plate centrally
  located between the thorax and abdomen on
  the back.
  – Kissing bugs or conenose bugs are medically
    important true bugs that feed on blood.
  – Normally found associated with pack rats, they
    may enter houses where they bite humans at night.
        ORDER HEMIPTERA:
           TRUE BUGS
• The proteins in the saliva may cause allergic
  reactions in some individuals.
• Other true bugs that enter houses are often
  mistaken for kissing bugs, and alarm
  homeowners.
        ORDER HEMIPTERA:
           TRUE BUGS
• For example, false boxelder bugs are common
  in Arizona, and frequently enter homes.
• They are gray-brown to black with red lines on
  the under surface and on the lower portion of
  the outer wings.
• But they do not have the distinctive projecting
  "nose" found in all conenose bugs.Leaf-footed
  bugs are common pests of landscape plants.
        ORDER HEMIPTERA:
           TRUE BUGS
• The bugs are pinkish orange with black legs as
  nymphs.
• The adults are up to 1 inch long, with hind legs
  flattened out, resembling a leaf.
• They feed on fruits and nuts, such as pecans,
  tomatoes, pomegranates, and occasionally
  citrus.
        ORDER HEMIPTERA:
           TRUE BUGS
• They may carry a bacteria that causes pocket
  rotting damage to fruit.
• Stink bugs are shield-shaped bugs about 1/2
  inch to 1 inch long, so-named because they
  produce a variety of odors when captured.
         ORDER HEMIPTERA:
            TRUE BUGS
• Some species are predaceous (feed on other
  insects) and others are plant feeders, so it is
  important to have them identified.
• Predatory true bugs include big-eyed bugs,
  minute pirate bugs, assassin bugs, ambush
  bugs and damsel bugs.
Figure 9. The developmental stages of the true bugs

                             Eggs




Nymphs
                                                      Adult
       ORDER HOMOPTERA:
         Scales and Aphids
• Soft-bodied insects with sucking mouthparts
• Some adult forms have wings, others do not.
  – For example, the male California red scale has two
    pairs of wings and resembles a tiny wasp.
  – The adult female California red scale is flattened
    with a waxy covering and has no wings
       ORDER HOMOPTERA:
         Scales and Aphids
• Scales and Aphids have simple metamorphosis
• Many carry plant pathogens which can be
  transmitted during feeding
       ORDER HOMOPTERA:
         Scales and Aphids
• Most species excrete a sugary residue called
  honeydew, which in turn leads to sooty molds.
• Scale insects are often hard to recognize
  because they do not look like insects at all.
• They are flattened, circular or ovoid bumps
  covered by a waxy or hardened scales.
        ORDER HOMOPTERA:
          Scales and Aphids
• Most aren't serious pests, although they may
  cause unsightly blemishes.
• It is interesting to note that shellac is derived
  from the native lac scale.
• The cottony cushion scale attacks shade plants
  such as Pittosporum, Euonymus, and
  sometimes hibiscus.
       ORDER HOMOPTERA:
         Scales and Aphids
• Their numbers can mushroom quickly.
• The cochineal scale grows at the base of
  needles of prickly pear cactus forming a mass
  of stringy whitish globs.
• This insect was highly prized and cultivated by
  early explorers because the crushed bodies
  make a colorfast dye.
        ORDER HOMOPTERA:
          Scales and Aphids
• Oleander aphids are a yellow species that
  appear in the spring on the tips of oleander.
• The pea aphid is a plump, green species found
  on alfalfa, peas, clover, sweet clover and other
  herbaceous legumes.
• Many species of aphids attack roses,
  particularly the new growth.
       ORDER HOMOPTERA:
         Scales and Aphids
• They may cause chlorosis (a yellowing of the
  green tissue).
• Whiteflies are not flies at all, but close
  relatives to scales and aphids.
• The immatures are flattened, scalelike forms
  that suck juices from the undersides of leaves.
• The adults are about 1/16 of an inch long and
  are covered with a white, waxy powder.
       ORDER HOMOPTERA:
         Scales and Aphids
• Mealybugs are oval, flattened insects that
  cluster on the stems of a variety of
  houseplants, and also a few landscape plants.
• They are soft-bodied insects, often pinkish in
  color with a covering of white, powdery wax.
• They suck plant juices, which may slow plant
  growth or cause wilting.
Figure 10. The developmental stages of scales
       ORDER ORTHOPTERA:
        Crickets and Katydids
• Adults with two pairs of wings.
  – The forewings are leathery with many netlike
    veins.
  – The under wings are membranous and fan-shaped
    when expanded.
• The adults are often 1 inch long or longer, with
  appendages at the end of the abdomen called
  cerci.
      ORDER ORTHOPTERA:
       Crickets and Katydids
• Orthoptera have simple metamorphosis, with
  wingless nymphs that resemble the adults.
• Both adults and nymphs have chewing
  mouthparts and cause damage.
      ORDER ORTHOPTERA:
       Crickets and Katydids
• Hind legs of many species (with the exception
  of walking sticks and cockroaches) are
  enlarged for jumping.
• This introduced insect is known for its
  tendency to enter houses.
        ORDER ORTHOPTERA:
         Crickets and Katydids
• The males produce a shrill chirping noise to attract
  females.
• The adults and nymphs are light tan with darker
  brown spots and bands.
• The infamous sewer roach (American cockroach) is
  the topic of conversation each summer.
• These cockroaches build up to great numbers in the
  sewers and then enter homes through drains.
Figure 11. The developmental stages of the grasshopper

              Grasshopper Eggs in Soil




                Grasshopper Nymphs




                 Grasshopper Adult
          ORDER ISOPTERA:
              Termites
• These highly social insects have different
  forms or castes that perform different
  functions, such as workers, soldiers and
  queens.
• Although they are sometimes called "white
  ants," they are not ants at all.
  – They have thick waists and are white or light
    brown in color (ants have thin waists and are often
    black, red or yellow.)
         ORDER ISOPTERA:
             Termites
• Termites have thin straight antennae which
  look like a chain of beads.
  – Ants have elbowed antennae.
• Termites have simple metamorphosis, but the
  nymphs can become different forms.
          ORDER ISOPTERA:
              Termites
• They have chewing mouthparts to chew on
  wood and other plant materials.
• The injurious termites are generally placed in
  two groups, the dry-wood and subterranean
  types.
• Both feed on wood and wood products.
          ORDER ISOPTERA:
              Termites
• The dry-wood termites nest exclusively in
  wood; whereas the subterranean termites nest
  in soil and must maintain a connection with the
  soil in order to survive.
• Both can be found in large numbers in sound
  structures where they may do considerable
  damage if not detected and controlled.
Figure 12. Different termite forms found in a single colony

                  Winged Reproductive
        ORDER DERMAPTERA:
              Earwigs
• Elongate insects which resemble certain types of
  beetles, except for the presence of a pair of forceps-
  like curved appendages on the rear of their abdomen.
   – The forceps are used for defense and prey handling, and do
     not harm humans.
     Earwig
• They have chewing mouthparts.
• The adults have short, hardened outer wings and
  membranous inner wings.
      ORDER DERMAPTERA:
            Earwigs
• Earwigs have simple metamorphosis and the
  nymphs resemble the adults.
• Earwigs are nocturnal and hide during the day.
  – They do not enter ears, although they were
    occasionally found in powdered wigs
       ORDER DERMAPTERA:
             Earwigs
• The most common species is the European
  earwig.
• It is sometimes a pest of gardens, ornamentals,
  and small trees but it can also be beneficial
  because it sometimes preys upon other insects.
Earwig
     ORDER THYSANOPTERA:
            Thrips
• Wings, if present, are narrow with a fringe of
  long hairs.
• Mouthparts piercing, sucking assisted by a
  single tooth-like mandible which aids in
  rasping the plant tissue.
     ORDER THYSANOPTERA:
            Thrips
• Most are tiny, less than 1/4 inch long.
• Many suck sap from the foliage, flowers or
  fruit of plants such as roses or citrus.
     ORDER THYSANOPTERA:
            Thrips
• Some thrips are predators, and a few feed on
  spider mites.
• Thrips have been known to bite agricultural
  workers, causing a pin-prick sensation.
• Thrips on citrus will cause leaf curl and
  scarring of fruit, but control is not necessary in
  backyard citrus because plant growth and fruit
  quality is unaffected.
Thrips
        ORDER THYSANURA:
            Silverfish
• Adults do not possess wings.
• They have chewing mouthparts.
• Have two or three bristles or tails at tip of
  abdomen.
        ORDER THYSANURA:
            Silverfish
• Thysanura exhibit nonmetamorphosis.
• They are household pests, feeding on such
  items as paste, paper, crumbs, etc.
  – Firebrats gather in the areas that are heated in the
    home, hence the name.
Silverfish
       ORDER COLLEMBOLA:
            Springtails
• Insects less than 1/4 inch long with chewing or
  piercing mouthparts.
      Springtail
• Possess an appendage on their ventral side
  which operates as a spring to aid the insect in a
  quick escape.
      ORDER COLLEMBOLA:
           Springtails
• Build up to high numbers under moist
  conditions.
• Then as environment starts to dry out, they
  move into backyards and swimming pools,
  where they form "rafts" or "moving piles of
  soot.―
      ORDER COLLEMBOLA:
           Springtails
• Feed on decaying organic materials, such as
  rotting plants.
• They will on occasion attack plants,
  particularly in greenhouses.
• Collembola are nonmetamorphosis.
Springtail
OTHER ORDERS OF INSECTS
• There are a number of other insect orders that
  are not pests of the home garden, but may be
  found in yards.
• Fleas of the order Siphonaptera may live in
  yards where pets or livestock are found.
• Other livestock pests include the sucking lice
  (order Anoplura) and the chewing lice (order
  Mallophaga).
•
    Flea


           Flea
OTHER ORDERS OF INSECTS
• The adults of some of the aquatic species may
  be found in yards where they are attracted to
  lights.
• These include the stoneflies (order Plecoptera),
  dragonflies and damselflies (order Odonata),
  and mayflies (order Ephemeroptera).
• Common beneficial insects found in the yard
  are the net-winged lacewings (order
  Neuroptera).
OTHER ORDERS OF INSECTS
• Book lice or bark lice (order Psocoptera) may
  build up in stored products, or books.
• Embioptera, or webspinners, are common
  insects drawn to lights at night.
• Females are wingless and form webbed tunnels
  in the yard under stones or wood. The males
  are sometimes mistaken for termites.
        INSECT RELATIVES:
         CLASS ARACHNIDA
• Spider mites are microscopic or nearly
  microscopic animals with two body regions
  and four pairs of legs.
• They do not have antennae.
• Some common species are the two-spotted or
  red spider mite.
        INSECT RELATIVES:
            Spider mites
• These mites have two spots on the back and
  have tail-end spots in some species.
• They may be clear, orange, or reddish.
• The clover mite is reddish brown or grayish,
  and are flat with long front legs.
        INSECT RELATIVES:
            Spider mites
• Some mites are beneficial because they feed
  on plant mites.
• Predatory mites occur on infested plants, but
  are larger than their prey and move more
  quickly.
• Some may be purchased for biological control.
Spider Mites
         INSECT RELATIVES:
               Spiders
• Spiders resemble spider mites, except they are
  larger and have two clearly distinct body
  regions with a thin waist between.
• Most spiders are predators of insects, and thus
  are beneficial.
• One common poisonous species is the black
  widow spider.
        INSECT RELATIVES:
              Spiders
• Black widows are shy and like dark places.
• They spin a characteristically messy web.
• They are shiny black, moderately sized spiders
  with a reddish or orange hourglass marking on
  the underside of the abdomen.
• Males and immature females can have stripes
  of red, yellow, and black on the abdomen.
Spider
        INSECT RELATIVES:
• Ticks are larger than mites and are important
  because they are parasites of man and animals.
• One of the most prevalent tick is the brown
  dog tick.
• It is specific to dogs and can develop
  infestations in kennels, backyards, and inside
  homes.
• This tick is not known to transmit human
  diseases.
         INSECT RELATIVES:
• Scorpions have two body regions, the
  cephalothorax and the abdomen.
• The abdomen is elongated into a "tail" which
  ends in a bulbous segment called a telson.
• The telson contains the stinger.
• Scorpions are active at night, feeding on
  insects such as cockroaches or house crickets.
Bark Scorpion
         INSECT RELATIVES:
• Millipedes (Class Diplopoda) are elongate
  invertebrates.
• They are generally round in cross section and, with
  the exception of the first four or five, all of the body
  segments possess two pairs of legs.
• They are relatively slow moving, and feed on fungus
  and decaying plant material.
• At times, they can be a pest to vegetables or other
  plants in greenhouses.
Millipede
        INSECT RELATIVES:
• Centipedes (Class Chilopoda) strongly resemble
  millipedes.
• Their antennae are longer, they are more flattened in
  cross section, they have one pair of legs per body
  segment and they can move rapidly.
• They are beneficial in that they are predators of other
  arthropods. Centipedes are nocturnal and actively
  seek dark shelter if exposed.
• The first pair of legs possess venom glands, which
  they use to subdue their prey.
        INSECT RELATIVES:
• Sowbugs and pillbugs (Class Crustacea) are oval
  with a hard, convex outer shell made up of a number
  of plates.
• Sowbugs are highly dependent on moisture, which
  accounts for their common association with damp
  habitats.
• Generally, they feed on decaying plant material.
• They will occasionally feed on young plants in
  greenhouses and gardens but impact in these
  situations is minimal.
Sowbug
       INSECT RELATIVES:
• Garden centipedes or symphylans (Class
  Symphyla) look like tiny centipedes, except
  they have 10-12 pairs of legs.
• They are not common and live under stones, in
  damp soils rich in organic matter, and in
  rotting wood.
        INSECT RELATIVES:
• Phylum Mollusca - Slugs and Snails
• Slugs and snails may also feed on plants and cause
  damage similar to that of insects.
• These creatures are found in moist conditions (can
  build up in places that are watered frequently such as
  greenhouses and nurseries).
• Slugs and snails leave a shiny trail of mucus behind
  themselves, which is a sure sign that insects are not
  the culprit.
Snail
     BIOLOGICAL CONTROL
• Biological control is the use of living creatures
  such as predators, parasites and diseases to
  control pest insects.
• Predators are organisms that kill and feed on
  their prey outright.
• They are generally larger than their prey and
  must consume numerous prey in order to
  complete development.
       BIOLOGICAL CONTROL
• Parasites, on the other hand, are usually smaller and often
  weaker than their prey.
• They lay eggs on or within a host insect and the immature(s)
  use the host for food over time.
• Individual parasites utilize only one or a few insects for food.
• Predators and parasites account for much of the reduction of
  pest insect populations in nature.
• However, in agricultural and sometimes garden situations,
  their effects are often not dramatic enough to satisfy a farmer
  or homeowner.
• There are, of course, exceptions.
       BIOLOGICAL CONTROL
           PREDATORS
• (Organisms that require several prey to
  complete development.)
       BIOLOGICAL CONTROL
           PREDATORS
• Ladybeetles: These rounded beetles come in
  many sizes and colors.
• The beetles are brightly colored with red front
  wings speckled with black markings.
• The adults lay orange eggs in clusters on plants
  near groups of aphids.
       BIOLOGICAL CONTROL
           PREDATORS
• The eggs hatch into tiny black and orange
  larvae which feed on aphids in great numbers.
• As the larvae grow, they resemble tiny beaded
  dragons.
• Once they reach maturity, they form a rounded
  black and orange-marked pupa attached to the
  plant.
• The pupae may be mistaken for bird
  droppings.
        BIOLOGICAL CONTROL
            PREDATORS
• Much has been made of the fact that wild-caught
  ladybeetles sold in garden stores are in diapause (a
  hibernating state where they do not feed or
  reproduce) and will fly away as soon as they are
  released.
• However, most reputable stores now feed the beetles
  before shipment so they are ready to settle down and
  lay eggs as soon as they arrive.
• Of course, they should be released near the aphids
  you are trying to control.
        BIOLOGICAL CONTROL
            PREDATORS
• Thus, it is better to encourage their survival by not
  applying insecticides, than to purchase them.
• Less common species of ladybeetles are smaller
  (about 1/4 inch long), with shiny black front wings.
• Some may have two or more brownish-orange
  patches on either side. Often their head is hidden
  from above.
• They may feed on other insects, such as mealy bugs,
  cottony cushion scales, California red scales or spider
  mites.
Convergent Ladybeetle Life Stages
       BIOLOGICAL CONTROL
           PREDATORS
• Green Lacewings Adult green lacewings are
  delicate, pale green insects from 1/2 to 3/4
  inch long.
• Their wings have many veins, which gives
  them the net-like or "lace" appearance.
• They are attracted to lights at night and may be
  mistaken for moths except they have a
  characteristic fluttering flight when disturbed.
       BIOLOGICAL CONTROL
           PREDATORS
• Lacewings lay their pale green eggs on the tips
  of threadlike stalks on the underside of leaves.
• The immature lacewings hatch within a few
  days.
• They are no longer than 1/8 inch, alligator-
  shaped with large, sickle-shaped mandibles
  and light brown or grayish in color.
       BIOLOGICAL CONTROL
           PREDATORS
• They are ferocious feeders, and consume large
  numbers of aphids and other insect pests, for
  example moth eggs.
• When the larvae mature they form a yellow
  silken cocoon in which to pupate.
• There are two species of lacewings that are
  brown as adults.
• They also feed on small insects and insect eggs
  as immatures.
Lacewing Adult
        BIOLOGICAL CONTROL
            PREDATORS
• Praying Mantises: the praying mantis is among the
  best known of the generalist predators.
• It sits and waits on plants until another insect crosses
  its path, and then it captures its victim with its spiny
  front legs.
• Female praying mantises lay their eggs in one to two
  inch long "cases" made of a dark brownish-gray
  papery material with numerous compartments.
       BIOLOGICAL CONTROL
           PREDATORS
• The egg cases are glued to twigs or branches,
  and are commonly found attached to the
  underside of boards.
• Praying mantis immatures emerge from the
  cases in the spring.
• They look like miniature adults.
       BIOLOGICAL CONTROL
           PREDATORS
• Despite stories to the contrary, the female
  praying mantis does not bite off the male‘s
  head during mating.
• That behavior was only observed when
  starving bugs were placed together under
  artificial conditions in the laboratory.
• A well-fed praying mantis in nature does not
  eat her mate.
       BIOLOGICAL CONTROL
           PREDATORS
• Assassin Bugs: These brown insects are about
  1/2 inch long, and often have spines on their
  legs.
• They are members of the "true bugs" and have
  sucking mouthparts, as do all the following
  bugs.
       BIOLOGICAL CONTROL
           PREDATORS
• Assassin bugs tend to creep over plants in
  search of caterpillars and other insects.
• They use their sharp "beak" to pierce their
  prey, and suck out the juices.
• The nymphs resemble the adults, except they
  lack wings.
Assassin Bug
       BIOLOGICAL CONTROL
           PREDATORS
• Ambush Bugs: these insects are often brightly
  colored and sit and wait on flowers for other
  insects to visit.
• When an unsuspecting fly or wasp stops by the
  flower for nectar or pollen, it is "ambushed."
• They are known for their thickened forelegs,
  and the immatures resemble the adults.
       BIOLOGICAL CONTROL
           PREDATORS
• Damsel Bugs: nabids or damsel bugs are pale
  tan to gray insects about 3/8 inch long.
• They are elongate, and resemble assassin bugs,
  except they lack spines on their legs.
• Damsel bugs are common predators and are
  found in crops, grasses and weeds.
Damsel Bug
       BIOLOGICAL CONTROL
           PREDATORS
• Big-eyed Bugs: these true bugs are about 1/8
  inch long as adults, and are named for their
  strongly protruding eyes.
• The immatures resemble the adults, except are
  light-colored and lack wings.
• Big-eyed bugs are known to feed on
  caterpillars and whiteflies.
Big-eyed Bug
        BIOLOGICAL CONTROL
            PREDATORS
• Minute Pirate Bugs: these smaller relatives of big-
  eyed bugs are important predators of spider mites,
  insect eggs and many other small insects.
• Both the immatures and adults are effective predators.
• They are often found in flowers where they feed on
  thrips.
• When prey is not abundant, some species may survive
  and reproduce by feeding on pollen.
Minute Pirate Bug Nymph and Adult
       BIOLOGICAL CONTROL
           PREDATORS
• Spined Soldier Bugs
• Most members of the family known as "stink
  bugs" feed on plants, but the spined soldier
  bug is an exception.
• It feeds on the eggs, immatures and adults of a
  number of different insects, particularly moths.
       BIOLOGICAL CONTROL
           PREDATORS
• Syrphid Flies or Flower Flies
• We usually associate fly larvae with decaying
  garbage or manure, but the larvae of these flies
  are ferocious predators of aphids.
• The larvae are soft-bodied, tapering in shape
  and spend their lives on plants.
       BIOLOGICAL CONTROL
           PREDATORS
• The mature larva is about 1/2 inch long and
  most are translucent green in color.
• The adult flies are black with yellow markings,
  and may resemble bees, except they have two
  wings rather than four.
• The adults are excellent pollinators and are
  seen in hovering flight around flowers.
Syrphid Fly
        BIOLOGICAL CONTROL
            PREDATORS
• Wasps
• Wasps are generally known for their ability to sting,
  but they are also beneficial because they are predators
  of other arthropods.
• The adult mud dauber wasp captures prey such as an
  armyworm caterpillar.
• If the caterpillar is too large to carry back to her mud
  nest, she may tear off a bite size piece and return
  several times, until the caterpillar is consumed.
• She feeds the caterpillar bits to her larvae in much the
  same way a female bird feeds worms to her babies.
Mud Dauber
       BIOLOGICAL CONTROL
           PREDATORS
• Dragonflies and Damselflies
• These aquatic insects are great aerial acrobats.
• They catch small winged insects such as
  mosquitoes, flies or moths on the wing.
Damselfly
       BIOLOGICAL CONTROL
           PREDATORS
• Spiders:
  All spiders are predators.
• They feed on a wide variety of insects and
  other invertebrates.
• All spiders spin silk, but not all spiders make a
  web to trap their prey.
       BIOLOGICAL CONTROL
           PREDATORS
• Some spiders are active hunters, such as wolf
  spiders, jumping spiders or crab spiders.
• Crab spiders have their legs directed forwards,
  so they resemble crabs.
• They are often brightly colored, and sit and
  wait on flowers for unsuspecting insects to
  visit.
       BIOLOGICAL CONTROL
           PREDATORS
• Other arthropods are also predators of insects,
  including sun spiders, scorpions, whip
  scorpions, centipedes, and predatory mites.
• The importance of these creatures in
  controlling pest insects is often ignored.
Crab Spider
       BIOLOGICAL CONTROL
           PREDATORS
Other Creatures Which Use Insects for Food
  Are:
• Fish - In fact, certain species of fish may be
  added to ponds used in landscapes to feed on
  the larvae of mosquitoes. Every fisherman
  knows to use flies to catch a trout. The best
  "fly" to use is the one that resembles the
  aquatic insect which the trout is currently
  using for food.
        BIOLOGICAL CONTROL
            PREDATORS
• Amphibians - Frogs feed on a number of insects.
• Reptiles - Snakes, some turtles, and lizards all feed on
  insects and other arthropods.
• Birds - Many different kinds of birds are insectivores,
  including owls.
• Mammals - Bats, shrews, moles, etc. all feed on
  insects. Many other types of mammals supplement
  their diet with insects, including humans.
PARASITES
              PARASITES
• Parasites may be insects (wasps, flies, and
  beetles), mites, or nematodes.
• Parasites are usually free-living adults which
  lay eggs on or within a living host which is
  larger and/or stronger than themselves.
• The immature(s) gradually feed on host tissues
  until the host is killed.
              PARASITES
• Parasitic immatures can complete development
  in one host.
• Because they are extremely specialized, they
  often only attack one or a few closely related
  species of insect.
• They DO NOT harm humans or their pets.
Parasitic Wasp laying Eggs in Mexican Bean Beetle Pupa
               PARASITES
• Some parasites have extremely complex and
  wondrous life cycles.
• For example, a eucharitid wasp that is a
  parasite of ants lays her eggs on the leaves of
  trees.
• The eggs hatch into a mobile immature that is
  able to crawl about on the leaf surface.
                PARASITES
• In the spring, worker ants climb into the trees
  in search of aphids and other insects for food.
• The parasite larva attaches itself to any worker
  ant that comes close and, when the worker ant
  returns to its nest, it carries along the parasite.
              PARASITES
• Once in the nest, the parasite drops off and
  attaches itself to a larval ant.
• The wasp larva feeds on the ant larva,
  eventually killing the ant.
• After emergence from the pupa, the adult wasp
  flies out of the ant nest to lay her eggs on
  leaves once more.
               PARASITES
• Other types of parasitic wasps control aphids.
  The female lays an egg inside an aphid.
• The activity of the immature wasp within the
  aphid causes it to form a stiff, immobile form
  called a "mummy."
• Homeowners should leave mummies alone,
  and not wash them off the plant, because the
  new adult wasp will emerge and attack more
  aphids.
Parasitic Wasp Laying Eggs in Aphid
Aphid Mummies
               PARASITES
• Gardeners may encounter caterpillars, such as
  hornworms, suddenly decorated with white
  egg-like structures.
• These are actually wasp pupae within silken
  cocoons.
• The caterpillar should be left alone, because it
  will soon die, and the wasps will emerge and
  attack more caterpillars.
             PARASITES
• Sometimes homeowners may find wasps with
  long projections or what they may call
  "stingers" at the end to their abdomen.
• These are members of another group of
  parasitic wasps called "ichneumonids."
               PARASITES
• The tail is a long tube used for laying eggs, or
  "ovipositor."
• They use the ovipositor to lay eggs in insect
  larvae found feeding deep within plants, or
  even wood.
• They are completely harmless to humans.
              PARASITES
• Bee flies are examples of flies that are
  parasites of other insects as larvae.
• The adult flies mimic bees and may be
  mistaken for the predatory flower flies
  discussed in the previous section.
• The larvae attack the eggs or immatures of
  grasshoppers, beetles, moths, bees, and wasps.
Parasitic Fly
               PARASITES
• Nematodes are hair-like worms found
  naturally in the soil. Many are microscopic in
  size and vary in life-style.
• The parasitic forms generally feed on insects
  that are found in the soil during one or more
  stages of their life cycle, such as white grubs,
  root maggots or weevils.
• Some forms are available commercially for
  insect control.
               PARASITES
• The advantages of using a parasite to control
  an insect is that they tend to be very specific,
  and attack only one or a few closely related
  species.
• Some have short life spans, and can build up to
  high numbers quickly.
• An example of a successful use of parasites is
  to control flies in dairy barns.
                 PARASITES
• The parasitic wasp lays an egg in the pupa of the fly,
  and thus prevents emergence of the adult.
• Dairy farmers must change their management
  practices in order to maintain the wasps, however.
• Because the wasps emerge from the fly pupae, the
  farmer must be aware of where flies pupate and
  reduce insecticide use in those areas.
• Fly predators may be found in those areas as well.
                DISEASES
• All the different disease organisms, including
  viruses, rickettsia, bacteria, protozoa and
  fungi, attack insects.
• Some disease organisms have been grown
  commercially, and sold over-the-counter for
  insect control.
• A classic example is the bacteria, Bacillus
  thuringiensis (also called Bt).
               DISEASES
• This bacteria produces a toxin which disrupts
  the gut of the insect that eats it.
• Commercial preparations are available from
  several nurseries and garden supply companies
  for the control of various pests with chewing
  mouthparts, especially Lepidoptera.
                DISEASES
• A related bacteria, Bacillus popillae causes
  milky spore disease of Japanese beetle larvae
  and other white grubs.
• Although they have yet to be used
  commercially, insect viruses can control pest
  insects successfully.
                 DISEASES
• They are passed from insect to insect in much
  the same way as between humans, but are
  specific to insects.
• Fungal pathogens are also known to attack
  insects, but are often more difficult to grow
  commercially than bacteria.
• Fungi generally require high relative humidity
  to germinate and to infect the target insect, but
  do not need to be consumed to be effective.
             CONCLUSION
• Indirect evidence suggests biological control
  agents may be extremely important for keeping
  pest insects in check.
• When an insect is introduced into a new area
  and leaves its natural enemies behind, it often
  will become a serious pest.
              CONCLUSION
• There are many examples of insects that are of little
  or no importance in their native land, that devastate
  our crops when introduced here.
• One such example is the Russian wheat aphid.
• In Eastern Europe, where it is native, the Russian
  wheat aphid is of little concern.
• But once it was accidentally introduced to North
  America, populations exploded and it became a major
  pest in the mid-west and western wheat producing
  areas.
            CONCLUSION
• In order to control the outbreak, scientists
  visited areas where the pest was native in
  search of predators and parasites that fed on
  the aphid.
• These insects were gathered and shipped back
  to the United States where, after a period of
  quarantine, they have been released.
• There are disadvantages of using solely
  biological control, however.
             CONCLUSION
• First of all, the insect pests do not necessarily
  disappear quickly.
• We have begun to expect instant results in our
  world of microwave ovens and one-hour-photo
  shops, but often biological control agents
  require weeks, months or sometimes even
  years to bring populations of pests under
  control.
             CONCLUSION
• And a "good" predator or parasite never
  completely wipes out its host or prey because
  it would go out of business.
• The idea is to hold pest numbers below the
  level of damage that can be tolerated by the
  consumer or gardener.
• Biological control agents are often successful
  at that level.