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TRACES OF GREAT DISCOVERIES

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					                        TRACES OF GREAT DISCOVERIES

   Some discoveries are incidental; most of those are results of thinking, observation,
  experimenting and computing; although there are even discoveries that are illegally
                                     appropriated.
Appropriated discoveries in most cases are the worthiest. In newest history those usually
                                  bring Nobel Prizes.

                                      Dr Simo Jelaca


Aristarhos – Copernicus – Kepler

While he worked in Alexandria Library (280-260 BC), well known Greek astronomer
Aristarhos had confirmed that earth rotates around sun, not vice versa, by her heliocentric
path, from west to the east. He described sun’s motion around earth only as an apparent
(1, 2, 3). In addition, he affirmed that annual times are result of the earth’s ecliptic.
Earth’s ecliptic is an apparent motion of sun over the sky during the year. Ecliptic plain
and equatorial plain create an angle, of about 23½º (24, 25). Earth’s ecliptic and sky
equator do cut in two points, so when sun enters those points then begin equinoxes.

Unfortunately for human civilization, teachings of Aristarhos, as well as many others,
were gone in Alexandria Library fire 392 year (3). After that began the period of obscure
middle century, during which time with the beginning of Christianity, Catholic Church
had forbidden publication of all progressive ideas and scientific achievements, except
New Testament, for over fifteen centuries (1, 2, 3).

Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) Polish astronomer, otherwise clergy-man himself, has
published his literary work Commentariolus 1543 while hew was laying on the death bed,
in which he described confirmation that all planets of solar system rotate around sun, but
not vice versa, as it was believed up to that time, according teachings of Aristotelus (384-
322 BC). Before Copernicus work has been published his ideas were circulated among
his personal friends. Copernicus also confirmed that earth, at the same time, rotates
around her axis in duration of 24 hours, while her orbit around sun lasts one year.
Catholic Church had forbidden publication of Copernicus theory up to 1616, even though
it did not reach wide public until 1835, almost three centuries after Copernicus death.
After that his theory has been accepted world wide, but only after Johannes Kepler
(1571-1630) confirmed 1609 that all planets of solar system orbit around sun by elliptical
paths.

If its known today, and it is known, that theories of Copernicus and Kepler are absolutely
identical to theories of Aristarhos, 17½ centuries before them, isn’t it possible to suppose
that both Copernicus and Kepler had an access to Aristarhos findings, at their time?




                                             1
Galilei – Huygens – Hook – Newton

Italian scientist Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) tested the acceleration of bodies thrown
down from leaning tower in Pisa, by which he concluded that all bodies are exposed to
earth’s gravity. That knowledge Isaac Newton (1642-1727) later used for his general law
of Universal gravitation, which had been accepted as the one of greatest human
achievements, while he (Isaac Newton) as one of the greatest intellects of human
civilization (1, 2, 3, 4, 5).

Dutch mathematician and physicist Christian Huygens (1629-1695) first brought out the
confirmation that light obeys as a wave, which he had published 1690 in his literate work
Traite de la Lumiere (Treatment of Light), and it is a word about reflection and dispersion
of light (1, 2, 3). That comprehension had been ignored for the whole one century, until
Thomas Young (1773-1829) reaffirmed it.

Robert Hook (1635-1703) brought out an affirmation after that, which points out that
Isaac Newton first opposed the confirmation of Christian Huygens, and then, later, has
exposed the same thing as his own (1, 2). Hook also states that he (Robert Hook) first
recommended the law of Universal gravitation and delivered it to Isaac Newton for
supervision, and he (Isaac Newton) had published it as his own 1680 (2). And, just that
brought Newton the greatest scientific glory.

Isaac Newton has exposed his proves for the Law of Universal gravitation in his scientific
publication Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Matematica (Mathematical Principles of
Natural Phylosophy), more known under the name as only Principia (6). Newton defines
gravitation as correlative – attractive force of all bodies in nature, proportional to their
masses and inverse to square of their distances. By that Newton has explained Kepler’s
elliptical paths of planets in solar system with exceptional precisions.

On base of Galilei’s findings, Newton also has explained the Law of motion. According
the first Law of motion, bodies in reposition or motion in straight direction with constant
velocity tend to continue those conditions until other forces take them out of those
conditions. According the second Law of motion the force that causes motion is equal to
multiplication of the mass and acceleration, and, according the third Law of motion the
force of action is equal to the force of reaction. It was written that Newton has been very
systematic, and he studied scientific suppositions in details. That way, he gave science an
immense contribution, such as very precise methods of calculation of planet positions in
solar system at any time of the longest past and further future. The science had accepted
Newton as one of the greatest intellect of all times, although there are opinions, which
point out that for his achievements he did not fag away (1, 2, 3, 6).

Newton said for himself: “If I saw further than others, it is because I was standing on the
shoulders of giants” (6). Besides all, Serbian scientist Milutin Milankovic wrote the most
beautiful estimation about Newton: “Newton’s Principia by its content occupies the first
position among all scientific literature. It is because in that literary work is published the
general law of nature to what the whole universe submits, and because all sky bodies



                                              2
submit to it with absolute mathematical preciousness so that we can follow those by
calculating to the far future and ancient past. That way Newton’s work represents even
today the top of exact sciences, the model of positive philosophy and pride of humanity,
how far the power of human intellect can reach. Creator of that work is considered as the
most beautiful sample of human genius” (4).


Swan – Edison

Thomas Alva Edison (1847-1931) is considered to be the world recorder in number of
registered patents, 1093. Besides direct current, inscribed to him is the first electrical
bulb, as well (1, 2, 7). Meanwhile, it is less known that English physicist and chemist
Joseph Swan (1824-1914) is a real pioneer in electrical lighting and photography (1, 3,
7). He has made first electrical bulb almost a quarter of a century before Edison, 1860 (1,
3, 7). Twenty three years later Thomas Edison and Joseph Swan have founded mutual
firm Edison & Swan United Electric Lighting Company 1883, and started the mass
production of bulbs (3).

It is known that Edison was workaholic (exceptionally laborious); he was spending 14-16
hours a day in his workshops. He requested similar relation to work from all his
employees, first of all engineers. Since he got rich relatively early, he had a power to
appropriate himself innovations of all his coworkers and registered it all exclusively as
his own. Among others, he used the knowledge of Nikola Tesla, who left him soon, as
Edison’s employee. Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922), founder of AT&T, is one
among many of those, as well. It is evident that Bell’s telephone had been improved by
the addition of Edison’s graphite conductor, for what one can presume that it was Bell’s
innovation (1, 2).


Pupin – Marconi – Roentgen – Tesla

When Pupin commended Dobrowolsky and Brown for practical application of Tesla’s
alternating current, Tesla’s reaction was that those two have stolen it from him (8). When
Tesla announced the possibility of transmitting high frequency currents to unlimited
distance and confirmed possibility of sending telephone message by the transatlantic
cable, Pupin had opposed it. Soon after, on February 10th 1894, Pupin applied for his
multiple telephony patents. That application has been rejected with the explanation of
patent bureau president John Seymour that everything had already been in Tesla’s patent,
therefore Pupin’s application represents only a multiplication of Tesla’s circuits and it did
not have a base for patent recognition (8).

It is known that Tesla had applied for two patents in the domain of radio, on September
2nd 1897 (Nº: 645516 & 649621) and both were recognized in 1900. Tesla, even, has
presented it before Electrical Engineers Association, in New York, where Guglielmo
Marconi (1874-1937) attended, among others. After that, Marconi supplied his patent
application for radio, on November 10th 1900 (Nº 763772)), which has been rejected, too.



                                             3
When John Seymour retired from Patent Bureau Marconi reapplied for patent of radio,
and it turned to be recognized this time. The irony is that he has even been awarded
Nobel Prize in physics 1911, for such a patent and first message sent over the Atlantic.
Finally, by the decision of US Federal Court (Nº 6369 of June 21st 1943) Marconi’s
patent has been annulled in favor of Tesla’s, to whom the priority has been given.
Unfortunately for Tesla the court decision was to late, he died before that, on January 7th
1943 (8, 9, 21). In his book Mark Seifer (8) writes that Tesla was aware of pirate action
of Marconi and Pupin. Tesla called Marconi parasite and microbe of dangerous illness,
and for Pupin he said that Pupin had put himself to Marconi’s service, orienting himself
to the wrong side.

It has been written (8), according Tesla’s accusation before Drury Cooper, that he (Tesla)
has experimentally sent an electrical current wirelessly from Huston to West Point (about
30 miles) at presence of about 3000 guests of all professions, when he also had
demonstrated the first remote control navigation.

There are facts that Tesla had experimented with special rays (x-ray), about what he had
given lecture before Electrical Engineers Association and shown snapshots of his fist and
ankle. To that discovery Tesla did not pay sufficient attention, he closed it to the drawer
at his workshop, and those snapshots burned during the fire in his laboratory. German
physicist Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen (1845-1923) patented discovery of x-ray on
December 28th 1895, for what he had been awarded Nobel Prize in physics 1901 (8, 9,
10).


Mileva Maric – Albert Einstein

Tim McCaskey (7) writes that Albert Einstein (1879-1955) by publishing his works in the
Annalen der Physik 1905 had mentioned Italian Michele Besso, who got connected him
with certain industrialist Olinto de Pretto. Such a man (Olinto de Pretto) had published
his work in Italy on June 16th 1903 and February 27th 1904 in Atti of the Reale Instituto
Veneto di Scienze, a year and a half before Einstein, in which he has published the
equation E= m c², which brought the glory to Albert Einstein, as a creator of Theory of
Relativity (5, 11). Dr Umberto Bartocci, professor of mathematics at the University of
Perugia in his book “Albert Einstein e Olinto de Pretto: La vera storia dela formula pin’
famosa del mondo” (Albert Einstein and Olinto de Pretto: Truthful story about the most
important formula in the world) has cited work of Olinto de Pretto in total, bringing out
the affirmation of Olinto de Pretto that one kilogram of any material disposes with huge
energy. Albert Einstein knew Italian and had an approach to the work of Olinto de Pretto,
which he himself commented, questioning about correctness of mentioned formula (7, 11,
22).

Some literature data exist that Mileva Maric worked on her doctor’s dissertation with
professor Friedrich Brown at the Swiss Polytechnicum 1901-1905 (3, 11, 12). Further
quotation shows that such dissertation has disappeared (one can believe that it has been
moved in order not to harm the “genius”). Otherwise, Special Theory of Relativity in



                                            4
science is recognized as Poincare – Einstein’s, considering the fact that Henri Poincar
(1854-1912), French mathematician and physicist is it’s co-author (23).

Based on all the above, possible assumption about priority in the supposition of Theory of
Relativity and famous equation E= m c², between Mileva Maric-Einstein, Olinto de Pretto
and Albert Einstein. One is certain, that Albert Einstein has published all works done
together with Mileva, under his name only, which raised him up to the pedestal of
world’s immortals, as the most glorious intellect of twentieth century. He has been
awarded Nobel Prize in physics 1921 for Photoelectric Effect, for which no dispute, that
Mileva Maric had mathematically defined (3, 5, 7, 11). Mileva Maric exists in scientific
world without corresponding recognition in the shadow of Albert Einstein, in most cases
mentioned as his first wife, only (13, 18, 19, 20).


Lise Meitner – Otto Hahn

Lise Meitner (1878-1968) Austrian-Swedish physicist was first in the world who
experimentally succeeded in fission of uranium atom, followed by the release of huge
energy, according Einstein’s equation E= m c². Her longstanding coworker Otto Hahn
(1879-1968), German physicist and chemist, intentionally had misinformed Nobel
Comity, by not giving to Lise Meitner any credit, and by that way he took the Nobel Prize
in physics 1944 for himself and his coworker Fritz Strassmann (3, 5, 10, 14).

Only in the most recent biography of Lise Meitner written by Ruth Lewin Sime 1996 (15)
her real contribution has been described and element of atomic number 109 of Periodic
system of elements has been named Meitnerium, in her honor.

Based on Lise Meitner’s discovery the first atomic bomb had been made, although Lise
was expecting that it would be used in peaceful purposes. Albert Einstein said for Lise
Meitner that she was German Marie Curie.


Rosalind Franklin – James Watson

Rosalind Franklin (1920-1958) was the first scientist who has defined the structure of
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) 1952, the component of chromosomes, carrier of genetic
information, by which she explained the transfer of hereditary properties by
chromosomes and gave the key explanation of the beginning of life on earth (16).

James Dewey Watson (b. 1928) and Francis Harry Compton (1916-2004) secretly
removed information from Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins (1916-2004) and from Nobel
Comity, by which way they successfully grabbed the Nobel Prize in medicine 1962 for
themselves (17).

To Rosalind Franklin the obliged recognition had never been disclosed, neither during
her life nor after her premature death. Rosalind Franklin was first who applied



                                            5
crystallographic method by x-ray for identification of molecular structure, and by that she
has defined the structure of double helix of DNA (3, 17). When she left her unpublished
results to James Watson and Maurice Wilkins for supervision, they kept it secret and
without her knowledge published as their own 1953 (17). Watson and Wilkins have been
presented the world as authors of double helix of DNA, omitting any recognition to the
real author Rosalind Franklin, even after her death.


Literature:

1             S. Adams, C. Ashe & others: 1000 Makers of the Millenium, DK
              Publishing Books 1999
2             John Balchin: Quantum Leaps, 100 Scientists who changed the world,
              Archturus Publishing Limited 2003
3             Dr      S.    Jelaca:   Velikani     koji   su     obelezili  civilizaciju,
              http://www.Prezimenik.co.yu/Knji`evnesitnice
4             Milutin Milankovic: Kroz vasionu i vekove / Kroz carstvo nauka, Zavod
              za udzbenike i nastavna sredstva, Beograd 1997
5             David Bodanis: E = m c A biography of the world’s most famous
              equation, Walker & Company, New York 2000
6             Stephen Hawking: On the shoulders of Giants, Running Press 2002
7             Tim        McCaskey:        A        letter    to       the     unknown,
              http://www.wam.umd.edu/mccaskey/eresp
8             Mark Seifer: Wizard, The Life and Times of Nikola Tesla, Biography of a
              Genius, Carol Publishing Group 1999
9             Margaret Cheney & Robert Uth: Nikola Tesla, Masteer of Lightning,
              MetroBooks 2001
10            Nobel Prize Winners in Physics 2003-1901, Internet
11            Dr. S. Jelaca: Mileva Maric – Povratak iz anonimnosti,
              http://www.vojvodina.com/Prilozinasihposetilaca
12            Dr Ljubo Vujovic: The Tesla Memorial Society, http://teslasociety.com
13            Dr Desanka Trbuhovic - Djuric: U senci Alberta Ajnstajna, Tragicni zivot
              Mileve Maric, Bagdala, Krusevac 1995
14            Internet: http://www.userpage.chemie.fu-berlin.de/diverse/bib/nobel
15            Ruth Lewin Sime: Lise Meitner – Biography and a Bettle for ultimate
              truth, 1996
16            David Ardell: Rosalind Franklin, The Internet
17            Nobel Prize Winners in Physiology or Medicine 1962, The Internet
18            Ellen Goodman: Out of shadows of “great men”, The Boston Globe, 1990
19            Carolyn Abraham: Possessing Genius, The Bizarre Odyssey of Einstein’s
              Brain, 2001
20            Dr Evan Harris Walker: The Collected Papers of Albert Einstein, 1990
21            Dr S. Jelaca: Credit belongs to Tesla not Marconi, The Windsor Star,
              Jan. 2nd, 2000
22            Famous Italians – Olinto de Pretto: The Italian-American Web Site of
              New York



                                            6
23             Biography of Henri Poincare, Internet
24             Encyclopedia Britannica / Ecliptica, Internet
25             Dr Vladeta Filipovic, Privatna pisma, 2005

Author expresses his gratitude to professor Dr Vladeta Filipovic for useful suggestions.

June 2005




                                            7
                            TRAGOVI VELIKIH OTKRICA

Do nekih otkrica doslo se slucajno, mnoga su rezultat razmisljanja, posmatranja,

eksperimentisanja i racunanja, a ima i onih do kojih se doslo prisvajanjem. Prisvojena

otkrica su najcesce i najisplativija. U novijoj istoriji takva obicno donose

Nobelove nagrade




Dr Simo Jelaca




Aristarhos – Copernucus – Kepler


Dok je jos radio u Aleksandrijskoj biblioteci (280-260 BC) cuveni grcki astronom
Aristarhos utvrdio je da zemlja rotira oko sunca, a ne obratno sunce oko zemlje, po
heliocentricnoj putanji od pravca zapada ka istoku. On je tumacio kretanje sunca oko
zemlje samo kao prividno (1; 2; 3). Takodje je tvrdio da su godisnja doba na zemlji
rezultat zemljine ekliptike (Ekliptika je prividna putanja Sunca po nebeskom svodu tokom
godine. Eklipticka ravan i ekvatorijalna ravan zaklapaju ugao od oko 23½º (24; 25).
Ekliptika i nebeski ekvator seku se u dve tacke, a kad’ Sunce dodje u te tacke nastupaju
ravnodnevnice).

Na civilizacijsku zalost ucenja Aristarhosa nestala su, sa mnogim drugima, u pozaru
aleksandrijske biblioteke 392 godine (3). Iza toga nastupio je period mracnog srednjeg
veka, kada je sa pojavom hriscanstva, katolicka crkva zabranjivala publikovanje svih
naprednih ideja i naucnih dostignuca, svega izuzev Svetog pisma, tokom punih 15 vekova
(1; 2; 3).

Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) poljski astronom, inace i sam svesteno lice, publikovao
je svoje delo Commentariolus 1543 dok je lezao na samrtnickoj postelji, u kome je izneo
tvrdnju da sve planete suncevog sistema rotiraju oko sunca, a ne obratno kako je do tada
vazilo ucenje Aristotela (384-322 BC). Do objave Kopernikovog dela njegove ideje
cirkulisale su samo me|u licnim prijateljima. Kopernik je takodje izneo tvrdnju da zemlja,
istovremeno, rotira oko svoje ose u trajanju 24 sata, dok njeno putovanje oko sunca traje
godinu dana. Katolicka crkva zabranjivala je objavu Kopernikove teorije sve do 1616,



                                              8
mada ista nije dospela u siru javnost sve do 1835, gotovo tri veka posle Kopernikove
smrti. Od tada prihvacena je u celom svetu, ali tek nakon potvrde Keplera (Johannes
Kepler 1571-1630) 1609 godine, po kome se planete suncevog sistema krecu oko sunca
po elipticnim putanjama.

Ako se danas zna, a zna se, da su teorije Kopernika i Keplera potpuno istovetne onima
koje je izneo Aristarhos 17 vekova pre njih, nije li moguca pretpostavka da su i
Kopernik i Kepler imali dostupa saznanjima Aristarhosa?




                          Galilei – Huygens – Hook – Newton

Italijanski naucnik Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) ispitivao je ubrzanja tela bacenih sa
krivog tornja u Pizi, kojom prilikom je dosao do zakljucka da na sva tela deluje privlacna
sila zemljine teze. To saznanje posluzilo je, kasnije, Njutnu (Isaac Newton 1642-1727) da
razradi opsti zakon Univerzalne gravitacije, sto ce biti prihvaceno kao jedno od najvecih
ljudskih dostignuca, a on (Isaac Newton) kao jedan od najvecih umova ljudske
civilizacije (1; 2; 3; 4; 5).

Holandski matematicar i fizicar Christian Huygens (1629-1695) prvi je izneo tvrdnju da
se svetlost ponasa kao talas, sto je objavio 1690 u delu Traite de la Lumiere (Tretman
svetlosti), a rec je o odbijanju i prelamanju svetlosti (1; 2; 3). Takvo shvatanje
zanemarivano je citav jedan vek, sve dok isto nije reafirmisao Thomas Young (1773-
1829). Robert Hook (1635-1703) izneo je, zatim, tvrdnju da se ideji Kristijana Hajgensa u
pocetku protivio Isak Njutn, da bi isto kasnije izlozio kao svoje (1; 2). Huk je, takodje,
tvrdio da je on (Robert Hook) prvi predlozio zakon Univerzalne gravitacije i isti dostavio
Njutnu na uvid, a ovaj (Isaac Newton) ga je objavio kao svoj 1680 (2). I upravo to je
Njutnu donelo najvecu naucnu slavu.

U nauci je ostalo zapisano da se astronomska nauka pela velicanstvenim stepenicama
delima Galileja, Kopernika, Keplera i Hajgensa. Svoje dokaze Univeralnog zakona
gravitacije Njutn je izlozio u delu Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Matematica
(Matematicki principi prirodne filozofije), vise poznato pod imenom samo Principia (6).
Gravitaciju je Njutn definisao kao medjusobno-privlacnu silu svih tela u prirodi,
srazmernu njihovim masama a obrnuto srazmernu kvadratima njihovih rastojanja. Time
je Njutn objasnio Keplerove elipticne putanje planeta oko sunca sa izvanrednom tacnoscu

Njutn je, takodje, na bazi Galilejevih nalaza objasnio zakone kretanja. Prema prvom
Zakonu kretanja tela u stanju mirovanja ili kretanja pravolinijski konstantnom brzinom
teze da nastave ta stanja sve dok ih druge sile ne izvedu iz tih stanja. Prema drugom
Zakonu kretanja sila koja uzrokuje kretanje ravna je proizvodu mase i ubrzanja tela, a
prema trecem Zakonu kretanja sila akcije ravna je sili reakcije. Zapisano je da je Njutn
bio veoma sistematican i naucne postavke izucavao do detalja. Time je nauci dao
ogroman doprinos veoma preciznom metodom izracunavanja planetarnih polozaja u



                                            9
suncevom sistemu u bilo kom periodu najdalje proslosti i buducnosti. Nauka je Njutna
prihvatila kao jednog od najvecih umova svih vremena, mada ima misljenja koja ukazuju
da se za svoja ostvarenja nije bas namucio (1; 2; 3; 6).

Njutn je sam za sebe rekao: “If I saw further than others, it is because I was standing on
the shoulders of giants” (Ako sam video dalje od drugih, to je zato sto sam stajao na
ramenima velikana). Ipak, mozda je najlepsu ocenu o Njutnu iskazao nas Milutin
Milankovic, zapisavsi: “Njutnova Principia svojim sadrzajem zauzima prvo mesto medju
svim delima naucne literature. Zbog toga sto je u tom delu objavljen opsti zakon prirode
kome se pokorava cela vasiona, a i zbog toga sto se tom zakonu pokoravaju kretanja svih
nebeskih tela sa apsolutnom matematickom tacnoscu tako da ih racunskim putem
mozemo pratiti u daleku buducnost i drevnu proslost. Zato Njutnovo delo predstavlja jos i
danas vrhunac egzaktnih nauka, uzor pozitivne filozofije i ponos covecanstva dokle moze
da dosegne moc uma. Tvorac toga dela smatra se najlepsim primerom ljudskoga genija”
(4).


                                      Swan - Edison

Thomas Alva Edison (1847-1931) se smatra svetskim rekorderom u broju registrovanih
patenata, 1093. Pored jednosmerne struje pripisuje mu se i izum prve elektricne sijalice
(1; 2; 7). Manje je poznato, medjutim, da je engleski fizicar i hemicar Joseph Swan
(1824-1914) stvarni pionir elektricnog osvetlenja i fotografije (1; 3; 7). On je napravio
prvu elektricnu sijalicu gotovo cetvrt veka pre Edisona 1860 (1; 3; 7). Dvadeset i tri
godine nakon toga, Thomas Edison i Joseph Swan su formirali zajednicku firmu “Edison
& Swan United Electric Lighting Company” 1883 i otpoceli masovnu proizvodnju
sijalica (3).

Poznato je da je Edison bio izuzetno radan, provodio je po 14-16 sati dnevno u svojoj
fabrici. Slicno je zahtevao i od svih svojih saradnika, u prvom redu inzenjera. A kako je
relativno rano stekao dovoljan kapital imao je moc da izume svih svojih saradnika
prijavljuje iskljucivo samo kao svoje. Izmedju ostalih iskoristio je i znanje Nikole Tesle,
koji ga je Tesla ubrzo napustio kao poslodavca. Tu je i Alexandar Graham Bell (1847-
1922), osnivac kompanije AT&T. Evidentno je da je Bell-ov telefon poboljsan
ugradnjom Edisonovih ugljenih provodnika, za cega se pretpostavlja da su izumi samoga
Bella (1; 2)


                          Pupin – Marconi – Roentgen – Tesla

Kada je Pupin u jednom svom govoru pohvalio Dobrovolskog i Brauna za prakticnu
primenu Teslinih naizmenicnih struja, Teslina reakcija bila je da su ga ta dvojica pokrali
(8). Kada je Tesla 1892 najavio mogucnost slanja visokofrekventnih struja na
neogranicene udaljenosti i potvrdio mogucnost slanja telefonskih poruka transatlantskim
kablom istome se usprotivio Pupin. Ubrzo zatim, Pupin je podneo svoj patentni zahtev za
viselinijsku telefoniju 10 Februara 1894. Taj zahtev, medjutim, odbijen je sa



                                            10
obrazlozenjem predsednika patentnog biroa John-a Saymour da je isto sadrzano u
Teslinom patentu i da pretstavlja samo multiplikaciju Teslinih kola, te nema osnova za
priznavanje patenta (8).

Poznato je da je Tesla podneo dva patentna zahteva iz oblasti radia 2 Septembra 1897 (br.
645516 i 649621) i da su isti priznati 1900. Tesla je o istome podneo saopstenje pred
Udruzenjem elektroinzenjera, kome je prisustovao i Guglielmo Marconi (1874-1937).
Markoni je, nakon toga, podneo svoj patentni zahtev (br. 763772) 10 Novembra 1900,
koji je odbijen. Nakon penzionisanja predsednika Johna Saymour, Markoni je ponovo
podneo patentni zahtev za radio, sto je i priznato. Za isti mu je cak 1911 dodeljena
Nobelova nagrada iz fizike. Konacno, odlukom Vrhovnog suda Sjedinjenih Drzava br.
6369 od 21 Juna 1943 Markonijev patent je ponisten, u korist Teslinog, kome je dat
primat. Na zalost za Teslu odluka americkog suda stigla je prekasno, on je preminuo pre
toga, jos 7 Januara 1943 (8; 9; 21). U svojoj knjizi Mark Seifer (8) pise da je Tesla bio
svestan piratskih delatnosti Markonija i Pupina. Markonija je Tesla nazvao parazitom i
mikrobom opake bolesti, a za Pupina je rekao da se stavio Markoniju na uslugu,
opredelivsi se na pogresnu stranu.

Postoji zapis (8) prema Teslinoj tuzbi kod Drury Cooper da je on (Tesla) jos 1897 izvrsio
prvi eksperiment bezzicnog slanja poruke od Hustona do West Point (oko 30 ml) pred
oko 3000 zvanica svih struka, kada je takodje demonstrirao i teledirigovano upravljanje.
Postoje podaci da je Tesla jos 1892 eksperimentisao sa specijalnim zracima (x-zraci), o
cemu je takodje saopstio pred Udruzenjem elektroinzenjera i prikazao snimke svoje sake
i noznog zgloba. Datom pronalasku Tesla nije pridavao odgovarajuci znacaj, snimke je
zaturio u fioku u radionici i isti su izgoreli u pozaru njegove prve laboratorije. Nemacki
fizicar Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen (1845-1923) patentirao je pronalazak x-zraka 28
Decembra 1895, za cega mu je dodeljena Nobelova nagrada iz fizike 1901 (8; 9; 10).


                             Mileva Maric – Albert Einstein

Tim McCaskey (7) pise da je Albert Einstein (1879-1955) publikujuci svoje radove u
Annalen der Physik 1905 pomenuo Italijana Michele Besso, koji ga je doveo u vezu sa
izvesnim industrijalcem Olinto de Pretto. A taj Olinto de Preto publikovao je svoj rad u
Italiji 16 Juna 1903 i 27 Februara 1904 u Atti of the Reale Instituto Veneto di Scienze,
godinu i po dana pre Ajnstajnovog, u kome je objavio formulu E = m c , koja je donela
svetsku slavu Albertu Ajnstajnu, kao tvorcu Teorije Relativiteta (5; 11). Dr Umberto
Bartocci, professor matematike na Univerzitetu Perugia u svojoj knjizi “Albert Einstein e
Olinto de Pretto: La vera storia dela formula pin’ famosa del mondo” (Albert Ajnstajn i
Olinto de Pretto: Istinita prica o najznacajnijoj formuli u svetu) citirao je rad Olinta de
Pretto u potpunosti, navodeci tvrdnju Olinta de Pretto da kilogram bilo koje materije
raspolaze ogromnom energijom. Albert Ajnstajn je znao italijanski i imao je dostup radu
Olinta de Pretto, sto je i sam komentarisao pitanjem potpune ispravnosti pomenute
formule (7; 11; 22).




                                            11
Postoje literaturni podaci da je Mileva Maric radila doktorsku disertaciju kod profesora
Friedrich-a Brown na svajcarskom Politehnikumu 1901-1905 (3; 11; 12). Dalji navodi
ukazuju da je ista disertacija nestala (moze se verovati da je sklonjena kako nebi
naskodila “geniju”). Inace, Specijalna teorija relativiteta u nauci se vodi i kao Poincar-
Einstein-ova, obzirom da je je Henri Poincare (1854-1912), francuski matematicar i
fizicar njen co-autor (23).

Na osnovu prednjega moguce su pretpostavke o prvenstvu u postavci Teorije Relativiteta
i cuvene formule E = m c, izme|u Mileve Maric – Einstein, Olinto de Pretto-a i Alberta
Einstein-a. Jedno je sigurno, da je Albert Einstein sve zajednicke radove sa Milevom
Maric – Einstein publikovao samo pod svojim imenom, sto ga je izdiglo na pijedestal
svetskog besmrtnika, kao najslavniji um dvadesetog veka. Dodeljena mu je i Nobelova
nagrada iz fizike 1921 za Fotoelektricni efekat, za cega nema spora da je isti matematicki
definisala Mileva Maric (3; 5; 7; 11). Mileva Maric ostala je u naucnom svetu bez
odgovarajucih priznanja, u senci Alberta, najcesce pominjana samo kao njegova prva
supruga (13; 18; 19; 20).


Lise Meitner – Otto Hahn

Lise Meitner (1878-1968) austrijsko-svedska fizicarka prva je u svetu eksperimentalno
ostvarila cepanje uranijumovog atoma, uz oslobo|avanje ogromne energije, prema formuli
E = m c. Njen dugogodi{nji saradnik Otto Hahn (1879-1968), nemacki fizicar i hemicar,
namerno je dezinformisao Nobelov komitet, ne pridajuci Lizi nikakav kredit, na koji
nacin je Nobelovu nagradu 1944 prigrabio za sebe i svog saradnika Fritza Strassmann (3;
5; 10; 14).

Tek u najnovijoj biografiji Lize Meitner, autora Ruth Lewin Sime 1996 (15) objasnjen je
pravi doprinos Lize Meitner, a element atomskog broja 109 Periodnog sistema elemenata
nazvan je u njenu cast Meitnerium.

Na osnovu otkrica Lize Meitner napravljena je prva atomska bomba, iako se Liza nadala
da ce isto biti iskorisceno iskljucivo u mirnodopske svrhe. Za Lizu Meitner je Albert
Ajnstajn rekao da je ona bila nemacka Marie Curie (3).


                           Rosalind Franklin – James Watson

Rosalind Franklin (1920-1958) prva je odredila strukturu desoksiribonukleinske kiseline
(DNA) 1952, cime je objasnila prenos naslednih osobina pomocu hromozoma i dala
kljucno objasnjenje nastanka zivota na zemlji (16).

James Dewey Watson (r.1928) i Francis Harry Compton Crick(1916-2004) tajno su
uklonoli informacije od Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins-a (1916-2004) i Nobelovog
komiteta, cime su uspeli da prigrabe Nobelovu nagradu iz medicine 1962 za sebe (17).




                                           12
Rosalind Franklin nije odato duzno priznanje za zivota, pa cak ni nakon njene prerane
smrti. Ona je u svom istrazivackom radu prva primenila kristalografsku metodu
odre|ivanja strukture molekula pomocu x-zraka i na taj nacin definisala strukturu duplog
heliksa DNA (3; 17). Kada je svoje nepublikovane rezultate istrazivanja predala na uvid
Dzemsu Vatsonu i Morisu Vilkinsu ovi su ih zadrzali i bez njenog znanja publikovali kao
svoje 1953 (17). Votson i Vilkins su svetu pretstavljeni kao autori duplog heliksa DNA,
izostavivsi bilo kakvo priznanje istinitom autoru Rosalind Franklin.




                                      Literatura

1             S. Adams, C. Ashe & others: 1000 Makers of the Millenium, DK
              Publishing Books 1999
2             John Balchin: Quantum Leaps, 100 Scientists who changed the world,
              Archturus Publishing Limited 2003
3             Dr     S.   Jelaca:    Velikani     koji   su  obelezili   civilizaciju,
              http://www.Prezimenik.co.yu/Knji`evnesitnice
4             Milutin Milankovic: Kroz vasionu i vekove / Kroz carstvo nauka, Zavod
              za udzbenike i nastavna sredstva, Beograd 1997

5             David Bodanis: E = m c A biography of the world’s most famous
              equation, Walker & Company, New York 2000
6             Stephen Hawking: On the shoulders of Giants, Running Press 2002
7             Tim        McCaskey:       A       letter      to      the      unknown,
              http://www.wam.umd.edu/mccaskey/eresp
8             Mark Seifer: Wizard, The Life and Times of Nikola Tesla, Biography of a
              Genius, Carol Publishing Group 1999
9             Margaret Cheney & Robert Uth: Nikola Tesla, Masteer of Lightning,
              MetroBooks 2001
10            Nobel Prize Winners in Physics 2003-1901, Internet
11            Dr. S. Jelaca: Mileva Maric – Povratak iz anonimnosti,
              http://www.vojvodina.com/Prilozinasihposetilaca
12            Dr Ljubo Vujovic: The Tesla Memorial Society, http://teslasociety.com
13            Dr Desanka Trbuhovic - Djuric: U senci Alberta Ajnstajna, Tragicni zivot
              Mileve Maric, Bagdala, Krusevac 1995
14            Internet: http://www.userpage.chemie.fu-berlin.de/diverse/bib/nobel
15            Ruth Lewin Sime: Lise Meitner – Biography and a Bettle for ultimate
              truth, 1996
16            David Ardell: Rosalind Franklin, The Internet
17            Nobel Prize Winners in Physiology or Medicine 1962, The Internet
18            Ellen Goodman: Out of shadows of “great men”, The Boston Globe, 1990
19            Carolyn Abraham: Possessing Genius, The Bizarre Odyssey of Einstein’s



                                          13
               Brain, 2001
20             Dr Evan Harris Walker: The Collected Papers of Albert Einstein, 1990
21             Dr S. Jelaca: Credit belongs to Tesla not Marconi, The Windsor Star,
               Jan. 2nd, 2000
22             Famous Italians – Olinto de Pretto: The Italian-American Web Site of
               New York
23             Biography of Henri Poincare, Internet
24             Encyclopedia Britannica / Ecliptica, Internet
25             Dr Vladeta Filipovic, Privatna pisma, 2005

Zahvaljujem se profesoru Dr Vladeti Filipovic za strucne savete i sugestije.

Mart 2005 (7513)




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