AIRLINE RESERVATION SYSTEM

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					                AIRLINE RESERVATION SYSTEM

PROBLEM DEFINITION
       “Apple Airways” are one of the private airlines in India, which caters
large number of people. It has about 10 planes in which 5 serves for
domestic and 5 for international. As the company is doing good business,
they want to make the reservation system as a computerized Airline
Reservation System. The plane details, their departure and arrival time,
source and destination are as follows.

   S.No         Plane         Source     Destination    Departure       Arrival
                                                          Time           Time
                                DOMESTIC
     1         AAD01         Chennai   Mumbai              10.00         11.00
     2         AAD02         Kolkatta  Chennai             12.00         13.00
     3         AAD03          Delhi   Bangalore            11.15         12.30
     4         AAD04         Mumbai    Chennai             13.30         14.30
     5         AAD05         Chennai    Delhi              15.30         17.00
                             INTERNATIONAL
     1          AAI01        Mumbai     London             00.30         10.30
     2          AAI02         Delhi      Paris             03.20         13.20
     3          AAI03        Chennai   Colombo             19.30         20.30
     4          AAI04        Mumbai   Los Angles           05.00         22.00
     5          AAI05         Delhi      Dubai             04.00         11.00

      The system should get the passengers details such as name, age,
address, passport number, which plane he/she wants to travel and the
destination point.

      The software should provide search options. If the source point and
destination point are entered, then all the planes traveling between these
planes with arrival and departure time should be displayed for the sake of
passenger.

       The software should have option for checking availability of the
tickets. If the ticket is not available, a short message will appear as “ticket
unavailable” will be displayed to the passenger. The software should have
facility to cancel the reservation of the ticket and also can modify the
changes if the customer has some changes in his reservation ticket.
       A small statement regarding cancellation should be displayed to
passenger after cancellation of their tickets. The ticket which is cancelled is
then added up to the available ticket column. The airline software should
have the facility to print the ticket with all the details such as data, name of
the plane, destination with timings and the class along with the passenger
details.

      The price list of the ticket is also put up according to the class the
passenger prefers to travel.
AIRLINE RESERVATION SYSTEM

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS SPECIFICATION

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1. PURPOSE

       The main purpose of this software is to reduce the manual errors
involved in the airline reservation process and make it convenient for the
customers to book the flights as when they require such that they can utilize
this software to make reservations, modify reservations or cancel a particular
reservation.

1.2 SCOPE

       The name of the software is “AIRLINE RESERVATION SYSTEM”.
This software provides options for viewing different flights available with
different timings for a particular date and provides customers with the
facility to book a ticket, modify or cancel a particular reservation but it does
not provide the customers with details of cost of the ticket and it does not
allow the customer to modify a particular part of his reservation and he/she
can modify all his details.

1.3 DEFINITIONS, ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

ARS-Airline Reservation System
LAN-Local Area Network
GUI-Graphical User Interface
OS-Operating System
RAM-Random Access Memory
MB-Mega Bytes
GB-Giga Bytes
Mbps-Mega bits per second
HDD-Hard Disk Drive
1.4 REFERENCES

The books and materials referred during the pre-development stages of the
project include
1. Software Engineering-A Practitioner’s Approach
By Roger S. Pressman
2. Software Engineering-By James Peters

1.5 OVERVIEW

The rest of the document deals about all the main features of this software
each will its purpose and its main functions. It also gives details about the
interface with other products and related functionality of each product.

2. OVERALL DESCRIPTION

2.1 PRODUCT PERSPECTIVE

The “ARS” software is an independent application. It is a self-contained
product. The system interfaces, user interfaces and hardware interfaces
related with this software are defined as follows.

2.1.1 System Interfaces
The client systems should be able to share the data available in the data base
through the network connection.

2.1.2 User Interfaces
The screen formats and menu structure should be in such a way that even
have users will find it easy to use. The product must be use-friendly and very
inter-active. The functionality provided by the system like displaying error
messages should adapt itself to the different users of the software.

2.1.3 Hardware Interfaces
Nil

2.1.4 Software Interfaces
Name of the language: Visual Basics
2.1.5 Communication Interfaces
There is an LAN used for communication among the different client systems
to be used.

2.1.6 Memory Constraints
The system would require disk space of 10 GB and a 256 MB HDD and 64
MB RAM for client systems.

2.1.7 Operation
The users can first make a reservation in a particular flight for a particular
date and time. The system provides the customer with a pin code which
gives him access to either make any changes in his reservation or cancel a
reservation. These must also be back up of data to enable any easy recovery
from any features.

2.1.8 Site Adaptive Requirements
The “ARS” software is an independent and self-contained product and no
modification are required to adapt to a particular installation.

2.2 PRODUCT FUNCTIONS

The major functions include
   Providing flight details
   Flight bookings for a particular destination, date and time and also
     providing with a pin code.
   Allowing the customer to modify or cancel his reservation provided
     the correct pin code is given.
   Displaying a report of the number of people flying in a particular
     flight.

2.3 USER CHARACTERISTICS

No technical experience is required basic knowledge of handling system is
sufficient.
2.4 CONSTRAINTS

    Regulatory policies: It is a mandatory that no text book must be left
     empty or contains insufficient data.
    Hardware limitations: There must be a 64 MB on board memory
    Control functions: The software must be very user-friendly and
     display appropriate error messages.
    Interfaces to other applications: Not applicable.
    Parallel operations: It must support many users simultaneously.
    Reliability requirements: Data redundancy and use of special/blank
     characters must be avoided.
    Safety/security considerations: The application must be exited always
     normally.
    Higher order language requirements: VB

2.5 ASSUMPTIONS AND DEPENDENCIES

It is assumed that the details of the cost of ticket are already known to the
customer. Future changes like providing different types of flights with
different classes like business class, economic class will allow the customers
to benefit from one facility.

2.6 APPORTIONING OF REQUIREMENTS

The necessity of providing options to customer to choose their seat or to
choose for economic or business class can be delayed until future versions of
the software are developed.
3. SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS

3.1 EXTERNAL INTERFACE REQUIREMENTS

3.1.1 User Interfaces
The interface must be easy to understand. The user interface includes
    SCREEN FORMATS/ORGANIZATION: The introductory screen
      will be the first to be displayed which will allow the users to choose
      either of the two options, viewing flight detail or booking a ticket.
    WINDOW FORMAT/ORGANIZATION: When the user chooses
      some other option, then the information pertaining to that choice will
      be displayed in a new window which ensures multiple windows to be
      visible on the screen and the users can switch between them.
    DATA FORMAT: The data entered by the users will be alpha
      numeric.
    END MESSAGES: When there are some exceptions raising error like
      entering invalid details, then error messages will be displayed
      prompting the users to re-enter the details.

3.1.2 Hardware Interfaces
The system must basically support certain input and output devices. Their
descriptions are as follows.
Name of Item               Description of Purpose Source of Input/
                                                    Description of output
Key board                  To accept data from      Source of Input
                           user like pin code,
                           personal details, flight
                           details
Printer                    To print the bookings    Destination of Output
                           mode E.g.: Destination
                           chosen with date and
                           timings


3.1.3 Software Interfaces
Not applicable since the product under considerations is an independent one.
3.1.4 Communication Interfaces
Every client system connected through LAN establishes a communication
only with the server and not with any client system. An LAN of 10 Mbps is
used.

3.2 SOFTWARE PRODUCT FEATURES

3.2.1 FEATURE 1
The ability of the software is to provide the details of the flights available
and allow the customers to choose a particular destination and make a
reservation.

      3.2.1.1 PURPOSE
      The purpose of this is to enable the users to view the different flights
      available so as to make it convenient for him to make a reservation.

      3.2.1.2 STIMULUS/RESPONSE
      Once the user chooses the particular option, the web pages
      corresponding to that are to be displayed on the screen i.e., it will
      display the different flights available to their respective destinations
      and allow the customer to book a ticket.

      3.2.1.3 ASSOCIATED FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS

             3.2.1.3.1 FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS
             Once the user makes a reservation, he must be provided with a
             pin code.

             3.2.1.3.1.1 INTRODUCTION
             The user must be provided with the required information within
             10 seconds.

             3.2.1.3.1.2 INPUTS
             The user must enter the destination with date and timings and
             must make reservation by giving his personal details like name,
             address, age, gender, nationality.

             3.2.1.3.1.3 PROCESSING
      Recognizing the correct details are entered that a message is
      displayed confirming his reservation and displays the pin code.

3.2.2 FEATURE 2
The software allows the user to modify an already existing reservation
made by the customer if in case there are any changes that are to be
modified in the reservations of the ticket.

3.2.2.1 PURPOSE
The purpose is to allow the customer to make any changes in his
personal details or flight booking details.

3.2.2.2 STIMULUS/RESPONSE
Once the user requests for changing his reservation, it must be
displayed on the screen prompting the customer to enter his pin code.

3.2.2.3 ASSOCIATED FUNCTIONALITY REQUIREMENTS

      3.2.2.3.1 FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS
      If the pin code provided by the customer does not match, then
      would notify the person by displaying error messages.

      3.2.2.3.1.1 INTRODUCTION
      The system will allow the customer to modify his reservation
      provided correct pin code has been entered by him.

      3.2.2.3.1.2 INPUT
      The user should enter his pin code which gives him access to
      modify his reservation.

      3.2.2.3.1.3 PROCESSING
      The pin code is processed and checked for his validity. If it is
      correct then the user can modify his reservation else an error
      message will be displayed asking the user to enter the correct
      pin code number.

      3.2.2.3.1.4 OUTPUT
      Given the correct pin code, the user can now modify his
      reservation. A new pin code will be generated for the
      customers.
3.2.3 FEATURE 3
The software allows the user to cancel an already existing reservation made
by the customer who has booked the ticket.

      3.2.3.1 PURPOSE
      The purpose is to allow the customer to cancel his reservation if not
      required.

      3.2.3.1 STIMULUS/RESPONSE
      Once the user requests for canceling his reservation, it must be
      displayed on the screen prompting the customer to enter his pin code.

      3.2.3.3 ASSOCIATED FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS

            3.2.3.3.1 FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS
            If the pin code provided by the customer does not match, then it
            would notify the person by displaying error messages.

            3.2.3.3.1.1 INTRODUCTION
            The system will allow the customer to cancel his reservation
            provided correct pin code has been entered by the customer.

            3.2.3.3.1.2 INPUT
            The user should enter his pin code which gives him access to
            cancel his reservation.


            3.2.3.3.1.3 PROCESSING
            The pin code is processed and checked for its validity. If it is
            correct, then the user can cancel his reservation else an error
            message will be displayed asking the user to enter the correct
            pin code number.

            3.2.3.3.1.4 OUTPUT
            Given the correct pin code, the user can now cancel his
            reservation.
3.2.4 FEATURE 4
The software must also give a report on the number of reservations made for
a particular flight.

      3.2.4.1 PURPOSE
      The purpose is to enable the administrator to view the number of
      people in a particular flight.

      3.2.4.2 STIMULUS/RESPONSE
      Once the user requests for this option, all the details of the customers
      who have made reservation will be displayed.

      3.2.4.3 ASSOCIATED FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS

            3.2.4.3.1 FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS
            If no reservations are made, then a message is displayed that no
            bookings have been made.

            3.2.4.3.1.1 INTRODUCTION
            The system will allow the administrator to view all the details
            of the customer who have made reservations.

            3.2.4.3.1.2 INPUT
            The administrator must enter the password so that access is
            given only to him to view the details of all the customers.

            3.2.4.3.1.3 PROCESSING
            The password is processed and checked for its validity. If it is
            not correct, then the administrator is asked to enter the correct
            password.

            3.2.4.3.1.4 OUTPUT
            Given the correct password, the administrator can view all the
            details of customers with date and time of their bookings made.
3.3 PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS

    At any instant, a maximum of four nodes or users will be given access
     simultaneously.
    Since the program handles multiple users, if more than one person
     attempts to same date to the files stored in the data base, the program
     will lock the data file using a 2-phase commit protocol to prevent
     simultaneous access.

3.4 DESIGN CONSTRAINTS

    Requires 256 MB on-board memory.
    Based completely on Windows functionality platform.
    The software should be portable and must be inaccessible to
     unauthorized users.

3.5 SOFTWARE SYSTEM ATTRIBUTES

3.5.2 Reliability
The factors needed to establish the software expected reliability are
    The user inputs should be valid and within the given range.
    Normal termination of the program.

3.5.2 Availability
The factors guarantee the software’s availability includes proper termination
and correct input details. Also the resources used for the project
development are Microsoft Certified which speaks of its high quality
standards.

3.5.3 Security
    It must be ensured that access will be provided to the authorized
       persons through user ID and password.
    Network security will be provided by the use of firewalls.
    Checks can be performed at regular internals to ensure data integrity.
3.5.4 Maintainability
The software will be developed by implementing the concept of modularity
which in turn reduces the complexity involved in maintaining it. The
administrator should have a sound technical knowledge about maintaining
the software and further enhancements will be undertaken by the developer.

3.5.5 Portability
The application is portable which ensures its adaptability for use on different
computer terminals with different operating systems and standards.

3.6 LOGICAL DATABASE REQUIREMENTS

The system requires the use of text files to maintain the customers personal
details and his booking details. An entity must be used to specify the various
departments and the seats available in them. This information will be used
frequently by the authorities for verification.

3.7 OTHER REQUIREMENTS
Nil

4. INDEX
Nil

5. APPENDICES
Nil
DATA FLOW DIAGRAM:
LEVEL 0:
                                             Reservation


 User          Airline
                                                               Display
               reservation
               System

                                              Cancellation



LEVEL 1(a):




              Reservation                   Accept
  User
                                          the details


                             Reserve in                 Passenger
                             the file                   Database


LEVEL 1(b):


              Cancellation                  Accept
  User
                                          the details


                             Cancel in                  Passenger
                             the file                   Database
LEVEL 2:




                     Read            Customer
User       Display                   database
                     Passenger
                     details


                      Display in
                      tabular form
                   FUNCTION POINT ANALYSIS

                AIRLINE RESERVATION SYSTEM

Function point analysis is a structural technique of problem solving. It is a
method to break system into small components so that they can be better
understood and analyzed.

Function point analysis is a unique measure for software.
  1. Data communications-2
  2. Distributed data processing-2
  3. Performance-3
  4. Heavily used configuration-2
  5. Transaction rate-3
  6. Online data entry-0
  7. End user efficiency-1
  8. Online update-0
  9. Complex processing-3
  10. Reusability-4
  11. Installation ease-3
  12. Operational ease-3
  13. Multiple sites-0
  14. Facilitate change-3

 Type of component                   Complexity of the components
                           Count          Low             Function point
    External inputs          9              3                   15
   External outputs          9              4                   16
  External inquiries         3              3                   9
  Internal logic files       1              7                   7
  External interface         1              5                   6
         Files
                                           Count total             33

Function point = count total*[0.65+ (0.01*f(i)]
Where the f(i) [1, 2,…,14] are complexity adjustment values based on the
responses to 14 statements. Scales ranges from 1, 2,3,4,5.
Formula
     FP = count total*[0.65+ (0.01*Fi)]
        =33*[0.65+ (0.01*29)]
        = 31.02
Function point count for Airline reservation system= 31.02

Lines of code=31.02*29=899.5=0.8KLOC
Code developed in ‘C++’

Estimation of effort using Cocomo Model:
a=3.2; b=1.05

Effort =a*(KLOC) b
       =3.2*(0.8)1.05
       =2.5 person-month

Estimation of time using Cocomo Model:
Type of Project = Organic. Then, c=2.5; d=0.38

Time = (Effort) d * c
     = (2.5) 0.38 * 2.5
     = 3.3 months

Estimation of Cost using Cocomo Model:
Cost = 3.3 *10000
     = Rs. 33,000.
                               PROGRAM
#include<fstream.h>
#include<iostream.h>
#include<iomanip.h>
#include<stdio.h>
#include<conio.h>
#include<stdlib.h>
#include<process.h>
#include<dos.h>
#include<time.h>
#include<string.h>
class airline
{
       char name[20];
       char addr[30];
       char email[20];
       long int phone;
       long int passno;
       long int date;
       char source[30];
       char dest[30];
       char dep[20];
       char arrv[20];
       int    pword;
       public:
       void reserve();
       void display();
       void cancel();
}ob;
ifstream fin;
ofstream fout;
int choice;
int size=sizeof(airline);
void line()
{
       cout<<"\n";
       for(int i=0;i<80;i++)
              cout<<"-";
       cout<<"\n";
}
void main()
{
              do
              {
                          clrscr();
                          line();
                          cout<<"\n\t\t\tAIRLINE RESERVATION";
                          cout<<"\SYSTEM\n";
                          line();
                          cout<<"\n\tMENU:\n";
                          cout<<"\n1:RESERVATION";
                          cout<<"\n2:DISPLAY";
                          cout<<"\n3:CANCELLATION";
                          cout<<"\n4:EXIT";
                          cout<<"\n\nEnter your choice :       ";
                          fflush(stdin);
                          cin>>choice;
                          line();
                          switch(choice)
                          {
                                  case 1:   fout.open("nel.cpp",ios::app);
                                            ob.reserve();
                                            fout.write((char*)&ob,size);
                                            fout.close();
                                            getch();
                                            break;
                                  case 2:   ob.display();
                                            getch();
                                            break;
                                  case 3:   ob.cancel();
                                            getch();
                                            break;
                                  case 4:   exit(0);
                          }
              }while(choice<4);
              getch();
}
void airline::reserve()
{
      int     mode,plno;
      char pname[10];
              clrscr();
              cout<<"\nEnter passengers details       :    ";
              cout<<"\nName -           ";
              gets(name);
              cout<<"\nAddress -        ";
              gets(addr);
              cout<<"\nE-Mail ID        -      ";
              gets(email);
              cout<<"\nTelephone no -          ";
              cin>>phone;
              cout<<"\nEnter the date of travelling :      ";
              cin>>date;
              line();
              cout<<"\n\t1:Domestic\n\t2:International\nEnter the mode:";
              cin>>mode;
              if(mode==1)
              {
                      cout<<"\nEnter the plane 1 or 2 or 3 -     ";
                      cin>>plno;
                      switch(plno)
                      {
                            case 1:     strcpy(pname,"aado1");
                                        strcpy(source,"Chennai");
                                        strcpy(dest,"Mumbai");
                                        strcpy(dep,"10:00");
                                        strcpy(arrv,"11:00");
                                        break;

                         case 2:      strcpy(pname,"aado2");
                                      strcpy(source,"Mumbai");
                                      strcpy(dest,"Kolkata");
                                      strcpy(dep,"12:00");
                                      strcpy(arrv,"13:15");
                                      break;
            case 3:     strcpy(pname,"aado3");
                        strcpy(source,"Kolkata");
                        strcpy(dest,"Chennai");
                        strcpy(dep,"17:00");
                        strcpy(arrv,"18:00");
                        break;
      }
}
else
if(mode==2)
{
      cout<<"\nEnter the plane 1 or 2 or 3 -        ";
      cin>>plno;
      switch(plno)
      {

            case 1:     strcpy(pname,"aai01");
                        strcpy(source,"Mumbai");
                        strcpy(dest,"London");
                        strcpy(dep,"00:30");
                        strcpy(arrv,"10:30");
                        break;

            case 2:     strcpy(pname,"aai02");
                        strcpy(source,"Delhi");
                        strcpy(dest,"Paris");
                        strcpy(dep,"03:20");
                        strcpy(arrv,"13:20");
                        break;

            case 3:     strcpy(pname,"aaio3");
                        strcpy(source,"Chennai");
                        strcpy(dest,"Colombo");
                        strcpy(dep,"19:30");
                        strcpy(arrv,"20:30");
                        break;
      }
}
           randomize();
           pword=random(1000);
           cout<<"\nPASSWORD\t"<<pword;
           getch();
           line();
           clrscr();
}
void airline::display()
{
                     cout<<"\n\n\t1:Passenger Reports\n";
                     line();
                     cout<<"RESNO"<<setw(12)<<"NAME"<<setw(12) ;
                     cout<<"ADDRESS"<<setw(12)<<"SOURCE";
                     cout<<setw(16)<<"DESTINATION\n";
                     fin.open("nel.cpp");
                     line();
                     while(fin.read((char*)&ob,size))
                     {
                             cout<<pword<<setw(12)<<name;
                             cout<<setw(12)<<addr<<setw(12);
                             cout<<source<<setw(16)<<dest<<"\n";
                     }
                     line();
                     fin.close();
}
void airline::cancel()
{
      int     login,p=0;
              fin.open("nel.cpp");
              fout.open("tempfile1.cpp");
              cout<<"\nEnter your password :          ";
              cin>>login;
              while(fin)
              {
                     if(login==pword)
                             p=1;
                     if(login!=pword)
                             fout.write((char*)&ob,size);
                     fin.read((char*)&ob,size);
              }
    fin.close();
    fout.close();
    remove("nel.cpp");
    rename("tempfile1.cpp","nel.cpp");
    clrscr();
    if(p==0)
           cout<<"\nNo match found";
    else
           cout<<"\nReservation cancelled";
}
                                        OUTPUT

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


                 AIRLINE RESERVATION SYSTEM

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


     MENU:

1:RESERVATION
2:DISPLAY
3:CANCELLATION
4:EXIT

Enter your choice          :     1
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Enter passengers details          :
Name -       ABC

Address -       100,USMANROAD,CH-17

E-Mail ID        -     ABC@YAHOO.CO.IN

Telephone no -           1111111

Enter the date of travelling :           1
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      1:Domestic
      2:International
Enter the mode:1

Enter the plane 1 or 2 or 3        -     1

PASSWORD              131
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

                 AIRLINE RESERVATION SYSTEM

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      MENU:

1:RESERVATION
2:DISPLAY
3:CANCELLATION
4:EXIT

Enter your choice          :     2
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

      1:Passenger Reports

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

RESNO NAME              ADDRESS                    SOURCE DESTINATION

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

131        ABC         100,USMANROAD,                Chennai          Mumbai
                            CH-17

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


                 AIRLINE RESERVATION SYSTEM

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      MENU:

1:RESERVATION
2:DISPLAY
3:CANCELLATION
4:EXIT

Enter your choice         :     3

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Enter your password :              131
Reservation cancelled
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

                 AIRLINE RESERVATION SYSTEM

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      MENU:

1:RESERVATION
2:DISPLAY
3:CANCELLATION
4:EXIT

Enter your choice          :     2
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

     1:Passenger Reports

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

RESNO NAME              ADDRESS                    SOURCE DESTINATION

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

                 AIRLINE RESERVATION SYSTEM

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      MENU:

1:RESERVATION
2:DISPLAY
3:CANCELLATION
4:EXIT

Enter your choice         :     4
                    TEST CASES


        INPUT        PROCESSING                      OUTPUT
Reservation:    Reservation system:         Enter the passenger
reserve            Input the details        details:
{               about the passenger and     Name-abc
  ……..          the flight in which they    Address-
  ……..          are willing to travel. It   100,umanroad,ch-17
  ……..          generates a password        E-Mail id-
  ……..          for the passenger.          abc@yahoo.co.in
}                                           Telephone no-1111111
                                            Enter the date of
                                            traveling-
                                            1:domestic
                                            2:international
                                            Enter the mode: 1
                                            Enter the plane 1or2or3-1
                                            PASSWORD 131

Cancellation:   Cancellation:               Enter the password:131
cancel              Input the Password      Reservation cancelled
{               of the passenger to be
  ……..          deleted. And cancels
  ……..          the flight.
  ……..
  ……..
}
ERROR TRACKING:

Errors per requirements specification page : denoted by Ereq-3
Errors per component –design level : denoted by Edesign-5
Errors per component –code level : denoted by Ecode-0