Marine Laws by fjzhangweiqun

VIEWS: 40 PAGES: 53

									        Who Owns the Seas?
• 1609 Hugo Grotius urged for Mare Liberum
  or Freedom of the Sea

• He assumed the seas’ resources (ie, fish) were
  an inexhaustible supply

• 1702 Cornelius van Bynkershoek published
  De dominio maris

• It outlined the concept of Territorial Sea – the
  coastal are that could be defended by
  cannons (3 nm)
         Who Owns the Seas?
• In response to new technology that allowed
  the mining of the sea floor…

• 1958 - United Nations Conference on the
  Law of the Sea

• Mineral mining rights on the continental shelf
  given to the adjacent nation

• But the definition of continental shelf was
  poorly defined
• The law still very ambiguous
          Who Owns the Seas?
• 1973-1982: a new Law of the Sea developed
  – Passed by 130 votes to 4

• US was against the law

• 1993 the Treaty came into force

• Although the US signed the treaty in 1994 it
  has not ratified it….

  i.e. the US has not introduced and adopted the
  regulations etc required by the treaty
   UN Convention on the Law Of
       the Sea (UNCLOS)
• Coastal jurisdiction 12 n. miles
• Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) 200 n.
  miles
  – Mineral & fishing rights
  – Pollution regulation responsibility
• Free passage for shipping
• International Seabed Authority          –
  regulates seabed mining
• Law of the Sea Tribunal
     – arbitrates disputes
EEZs of the world
EEZ of United States
  UNCLOS and Marine Species
• UNCLOS stipulated that the harvesting of fish and other
  "marine living resource" both in EEZs, and on the high
  seas, must be carried out at a sustainable level (Art. 61 &
  119)

  The Convention also highlights migratory species
  conservation (such as marine mammals) stating that:
  members states must co-operate to conserve, manage and
  study such migratory species in the EEZ and the high seas.
  (Art. 64-65 & 120)


• Furthermore, member states should “co-operate with a
  view to the conservation of marine mammals and in the
  case of cetaceans shall in particular work through the
  appropriate international organisations for their
  conservation, management and study” (Art. 65 & 120)
                   MARPOL
• In the first half of 20th century, oil pollution was
  being recognized as an increasing problem,
• In 1954, the UK organized a conference on oil
  pollution.
• This resulted in the International Convention
  for the Prevention of Pollution of the Sea by
  Oil (OILPOL), 1954.
• This was later succeeded by MARPOL
                  MARPOL
MARPOL is the main international
convention covering prevention of
pollution of the marine environment by ships.

It’s a combination of 2 treaties adopted in 1973
and 1978 - although it’s been updated by
amendments through the years.

2 November 1973 - The International Convention
for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships
(MARPOL)
                        MARPOL
17 February 1978 - After a series of oil tanker
accidents “The Protocol of 1978 relating to the
1973 International Convention for the Prevention
of Pollution from Ships” (1978 MARPOL
Protocol) was adopted at a conference on tanker
safety and pollution prevention.

As the 1973 MARPOL Convention had not yet entered into force, the
     1978 MARPOL Protocol absorbed the original Convention.

The combined convention came into force on
2 October 1983 (Annexes I & II only)
                           MARPOL
The Convention includes regulations aimed at
preventing and minimizing pollution from ships - both
accidental pollution and that from routine operations.
It currently has six technical Annexes:
  • Annex I Regulations for the Prevention of Pollution by Oil
  • Annex II Regulations for the Control of Pollution by Noxious
  Liquid Substances in Bulk
  • Annex III Prevention of Pollution by Harmful Substances Carried
  by Sea in Packaged

  • Annex IV Prevention of Pollution by Sewage from Ships

  • Annex V Prevention of Pollution by Garbage from Ships

  • Annex VI Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships
    The 1973 Convention was primarily concerned with oil pollution, especially
    spillages during normal operations rather than catastrophic accidents.

•   The 1973 Convention required ratification by 15 States, with a combined merchant
    fleet of about 50% of the world‟s shipping (by tonnage)
•   But by 1976, only three countries had ratified the convention - Jordan, Kenya and
    Tunisia - <1% of world's merchant shipping fleet.
•   The US would only consider ratify Annexes I (oil) and II (chemicals), and stalled on
    Annex II.
•   It began to look as though the 1973 Convention might never enter into force, despite
    its importance.

1978 Conference - This allowed countries to become a party to the MARPOL
   convention is they only ratified Annex I (oil). Then they three year period to prepare
   for Annex II.
• This gave the US time to overcome their problems in Annex II - which for some had
   been a major obstacle in ratifying the Convention.
• 2 October 1983 MARPOL came into force (for Annexes I and II only).

•   Annex V, covering garbage, achieved sufficient ratifications to enter into force on
    31 December 1988.
•   Annex III, covering harmful substances carried in packaged form, entered into force
    on 1 July 1992.
•   Annex IV, covering sewage, enters into force on 27 September 2003.
•   Annex VI, covering air pollution, was adopted in September 1997 and entered into
    force on 19 May 2005.
                    MARPOL Annex I
This introduced rules about discharge of oil from tankers.
• E.g. the total quantity of oil which a tanker may discharge in any ballast
  voyage whilst under way must not exceed 1/15,000 of the total cargo
  carrying capacity of the vessel;
• and no discharge of any oil whatsoever must be made from the cargo
  spaces of a tanker within 50 miles of the nearest land.

• Also the 1973 Convention was the concept of "special areas"
  - areas so vulnerable to pollution by oil that oil discharges
  within them have been completely prohibited, with minor
  and well-defined exceptions.
• The 1973 Convention identified the Mediterranean Sea, the Black Sea, and
  the Baltic Sea, the Red Sea and the Gulfs area as special areas.

• Also new oil tankers should have segregated ballast tanks that
  don‟t need the carrying of ballast water in cargo oil tanks.
• Secondly, new oil tankers should have subdivided hulls and
  other structural measures so that they can survive after
  damage by collision or running aground.
             MARPOL Annex II
Annex II: Control of pollution by noxious liquid
  substances (entered into force 6 April 1987)
• Annex II details the discharge criteria and ways to
  control noxious liquid substance pollution
• Some 250 substances were evaluated
• The discharge of these substances is allowed only to
  reception facilities until certain conditions are complied
  with.
• In any case, no discharge of residues containing
  noxious substances is permitted within 12 miles of the
  nearest land.
• More stringent restrictions applied to the Baltic and
  Black Sea areas.
             MARPOL Annex V
  MARPOL Annex V restricts the discharge of vessel
  generated garbage and for the US it means that:

• The discharge of all garbage is prohibited in the navigable
  waters of the United States and, in all waters, within three
  nautical miles of the nearest land.
• Packing materials that float - disposal prohibited less than
  25 miles from nearest land.

• Underground Garbage Disposal prohibited less than 12
  miles from nearest land
• Garbage ground to less than one inch - disposal
  prohibited less than 3 miles from nearest land
   United Nations Convention on
    Biological Diversity (CBD)
• In 1992, 159 nations, met in Rio de Janeiro at the widely
  publicized „Rio Summit‟, to discuss the issue of
  conserving bio-diversity and natural resources.
• The result of this meeting included The Rio Declaration
  on Environment and Development and The United
  Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) 29th
  December 1993
• Several articles in the Rio Declaration are of particular
  relevance to marine conservation - in particular Article 6
  which calls on contracting parties to:
• “Develop national strategies, plans or programmes for
  the conservation and sustainable use of biological
  diversity”
     United Nations Convention on
      Biological Diversity (CBD)
• As an initial step, parties were requested to identify
  important components of biodiversity in terms of
  habitats and species and evaluate and monitor
  both them and the threats that they face (Art 7) –
  this would many marine species such as cetaceans, and
  biologically important habitats such as salt marshes and
  coral reefs

• The CBD goes on to specifically mention the need
  and obligation for contracting parties to establish
  systems of protected areas (or areas where
  special conservation measures are taken) (Art. 8 )
  e.g. the requirement for marine protected areas
                               CMS
• The 1979 Convention on the Conservation of
  Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS),
  sometimes referred to as the Bonn Convention was
  introduced to protect migrating and highly mobile
  species.
• The convention encourages signatories to develop
  multilateral agreements for species that crossed
  national borders.
• Priority species under the convention are under Appendix I
  (migratory species threatened with extinction)
  or Appendix II (migratory species that would significantly benefit
  from international co-operation)

• The CMS has helped progress some major regional
  conservation agreements
For example:
• Agreement on the Conservation of Small Cetaceans of the Baltic and North
   Seas and North Seas (ASCOBANS) &
• Agreement on the Conservation of Cetaceans of the Black and
   Mediterranean Seas (ACCOBAMS)
                 ASCOBANS
  As an example of the conservation actions/value of
  a CMS agreement ASCOBANS required members to
  work to:
• “(a) the prevention of the release of substances which
  are a potential threat to the health of the [small
  cetaceans],”
• “(b) the development…of modifications of fishing gear
  and fishing practices in order to reduce by-catches and
  to prevent fishing gear from getting adrift or being
  discarded at sea,”
• “(c) the effective regulation… of activities which
  seriously affect [small cetacean] food resources,” and

• “(d) the prevention of other significant disturbance,
  especially of an acoustic nature.”
The World Conservation Union (IUCN) is
  an international body consisting of
          61 sovereign states,
    128 government agencies and
               416 NGOs
           from 118 countries

  The IUCN assesses the conservation status
  of species and produced Red Data Lists on
     those species that are, or soon will be,
                 endangered
•
                 IUCN Status Categories
    EXTINCT (EX) - A taxon is Extinct when there is no reasonable doubt that the last individual
    has died.
•   EXTINCT IN THE WILD (EW) - A taxon is Extinct in the wild when it is known only to survive
    in cultivation, in captivity or as a naturalised population (or populations) well outside the past
    range. CRITICALLY ENDANGERED (CR) - A taxon is Critically Endangered when it is facing
    an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild in the immediate future.
•   ENDANGERED (EN) - A taxon is Endangered when it is not Critically Endangered but is
    facing a very high risk of extinction in the wild in the near future.
•   VULNERABLE (VU) - A taxon is Vulnerable when it is not Critically Endangered or
    Endangered but is facing a high risk of extinction in the wild in the medium-term future.
•   LOWER RISK (LR) - A taxon is Lower Risk when it has been evaluated, does not satisfy the
    criteria for any of the categories Critically Endangered, Endangered or Vulnerable. Taxa
    included in the Lower Risk category can be separated into three subcategories:
•   Conservation Dependent (cd). Taxa which are the focus of a continuing species-specific or
    habitat-specific conservation programmes - the cessation of which would result in the taxon
    qualifying for one of the threatened categories above within a period of five years.
•   Near Threatened (nt). Taxa which do not qualify for Conservation Dependent, but which are
    close to qualifying for Vulnerable.
•   Least Concern (lc). Taxa which do not qualify for Conservation Dependent or Near
    Threatened.
•   DATA DEFICIENT (DD) A taxon is Data Deficient when there is inadequate information to
    make a direct, or indirect, assessment of its risk of extinction. Listing of taxa in this category
    indicates that more information is required and acknowledges the possibility that future
    research will show that threatened classification is appropriate.
•   NOT EVALUATED (NE) has not yet been assessed against the criteria.
        CRITICALLY ENDANGERED
•   (A) Observed, estimated, inferred or suspected reduction of at least
  80% over the last 10 years or 3 generations.
• (B) Extent of occurrence estimated to be less than 100 km2 or area of
  occupancy estimated to be less than 10 km2, and two of the following:
    – 1)Severely fragmented or known to exist at only a single location.
    – 2)Continuing decline in extent of occurrence & quality/quantity of habitats
    – 3)Extreme fluctuations in occurrence/occupied area/number of animals.
• (C)Population estimated to number less than 250 mature individuals
  and either:
    – 1) An estimated continuing decline of at least 25% within three years or
      1generation, or
    – 2) A continuing decline in numbers of mature individuals and population structure
      is (a) severely fragmented (i.e. no subpopulation estimated to contain more than
      50 mature individuals) (b) all individuals are in a single subpopulation
• D) Population estimated to number less than 50 mature individuals.
• E) Analysis shows the probability of extinction in the wild is at least
  50% within 10 years or 3 generations.
                        ENDANGERED
•   (A) Observed, estimated, inferred or suspected reduction of at least
  50% over the last 10 years or 3 generations.
• (B) Extent of occurrence estimated to be less than 5000 km2 or area of
  occupancy estimated to be less than 500 km2, and two of the following:
    – 1)Severely fragmented or known to exist in no more than 5 locations.
    – 2)Continuing decline in extent of occurrence & quality/quantity of habitats
    – 3)Extreme fluctuations in occurrence/occupied area/number of animals.
• (C) Population estimated to number less than 2500 mature individuals
  and either:
    – 1) An estimated continuing decline of at least 20% within 5 years or 2
      generations, or
    – 2) A continuing decline in numbers of mature individuals and population structure
      is (a) severely fragmented (i.e. no subpopulation estimated to contain more than
      250 mature individuals) (b) all individuals are in a single subpopulation
• D) Population estimated to number less than 250 mature individuals.
• E) Analysis shows the probability of extinction in the wild is at least
  20% within 20 years or 5 generations.
                         VULNERABLE
•   (A) Observed, estimated, inferred or suspected reduction of at least
  20% over the last 10 years or 3 generations….
• (B) Extent of occurrence estimated to be less than 20,000 km2 or area
  of occupancy estimated to be less than 2,000 km2, and two of the
  following:
    – 1)Severely fragmented or known to exist in no more than 10 locations.
    – 2)Continuing decline in extent of occurrence & quality/quantity of habitats
    – 3)Extreme fluctuations in occurrence/occupied area/number of animals.
• (C) Population estimated to number less than 10,000 mature
  individuals and either:
    – 1) An estimated continuing decline of at least 10% within 10 years or 3
      generations, or
    – 2) A continuing decline in numbers of mature individuals and population structure
      is (a) severely fragmented (i.e. no subpopulation estimated to contain more than
      1000 mature individuals) (b) all individuals are in a single subpopulation
• D) Population estimated to number less than 1000 mature individuals.
• E) Analysis shows the probability of extinction in the wild is at least
  10% within 100 years.
In Fall 2004 the IUCN held their 3rd
Congress

THE IUCN Congress has 2 „houses‟
- a government house and an NGO house

Resolutions must pass by majority in both
houses

There were several resolution of particular
importance to the marine environment
                 CGR3.RES029-REV1

Antarctica and the Southern Ocean


• Stop illegal unreported and unregulated
  fishing around Antarctica
• Preventing seabird mortality from by-catch in
  long-line fishing

• Japan Foreign Ministry had problems with
  this resolution
• Passed by 94% both Gov‟t and NGO houses
            CGR3.RES036-REV1
 IUCN Guidelines for protected areas
      management categories


• Norway added marine component
  amendment to text
• “undertake, as a priority, a review
  and update of the 1994 IUCN
  guidelines on protected area
  management categories, including
  how they can be used marine areas”
               CGR3.RES051-REV1
  The protection of seamounts, deep sea
   corals and other vulnerable deep sea
habitats from destructive fishing practices,
including bottom trawling, on the high seas

• This was the most contentious issue debated
  during the congress
• Calls UN General Assembly for a moratorium
  on bottom trawling of the deep seas
• Canada, Japan, Iceland and Norway publicly
  against the moratorium
• Iceland abstained in voting
• Gov‟t vote: 62 yes, 35 No, 17 abst
• NGO vote: 281 yes, 3 No, 30 abst
                 CGR3.RES053-REV1
          Undersea Noise Pollution
• Monitor for and investigate the impacts on
  marine species
• Consider how to limit the use of powerful noise
  sources until their short-term and long-term
  effects are better understood
• U.S. submitted a statement in writing essentially
  stating that noise wasn‟t a problem
• Gov‟t vote: 51 yes, 0 no, 27 abst
             CGR3.RES057-REV1
  Conservation and sustainable
   management of high seas
          biodiversity
• Create a global representative network
  of Marine Protected Areas by 2012
• Japan publicly against
• Gov‟t vote: 69 yes, 8 no, 9 abst
             CGR3.RES076-REV1
   Urgent measures to secure
     survival of the critically
endangered Western Gray Whales
    (Eshchrichtius robustus)
• Urges all range states (Russian
  Federation, Republic of Korea, China,
  Japan) to immediately develop and
  implement action plans
• Gov‟t vote: 82 yes, 0 no, 9 abst
              CGR3.REC034-REV1
              Shark Finning

• Urges states to support a resolution
  adoption in UN General Assembly for a
  ban on shark finning
• Japan publicly against
• Gov‟t vote: 94 yes, 7 no, 12 abst
                CGR3.RES042-REV1
Adapting to climate change: a framework
        for conservation action

• Requests IUCN to establish a working group
• Gather information on existing strategies,
  plans, and actions to adapt to climate change
• Calls upon IUCN members to adjust and
  incorporate the impacts of climate change
  into their strategies
• Gov‟t vote: 119 yes, 0 no, 13 abst
                      CITES
The international wildlife trade is worth billions of
                       dollars
   and has been responsible for the decline of a
         number of animal/plant species
    The Convention on International Trade in
   Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora
          (CITES) was signed in 1973.
  CITES first entered into force on July 1,1975
 160 nations ("Parties") have signed and ratified
                 the CITES treaty.
• Appendix I includes those species that are
  threatened with extinction and would be affected by
  international commercial trade.
  These species may not be traded internationally for
  commercial purposes.
  e.g. blue & sperm whales, Yangtze & Indian river dolphins
• Appendix II includes those species that, although
  not necessarily threatened with extinction, may
  become so unless trade is strictly regulated.
  International commercial trade in Appendix II
  species is allowed, but is strictly controlled.
  e.g. bottlenose dolphins, great white sharks

• CITES Parties are expected introduce domestic laws to control trade.
US Laws
 ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT 1973

• An "endangered" species is one that is in
  danger of extinction throughout all or a
  significant portion of its range.
• A "threatened" species is one that is likely to
  become endangered in the foreseeable
  future.
The ESA works in two stages:
(1) the government protects a species from possible
  extinction, and
(2) then it takes steps to restore the species' numbers
  to the point where it is no longer threatened.
    ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT 1973
The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (& the National Marine
  Fisheries Service) is required to list a species as
  threatened or endangered if its existence is threatened
  by :
• (A) the present or threatened destruction,
    modification, or curtailment of its habitat or range;
•   (B) over-utilization for commercial, recreational,
    scientific, or educational purposes;
•   (C) disease or predation;
•   (D) the inadequacy of existing regulatory
    mechanisms; or
•   (E) other natural or man-made factors affecting its
    continued existence.
         Magnuson-Stevens Act
• More correctly the Fisheries Conservation and
  Management Act (1976)
• This act governs the management and control of U.S.
  marine fish populations.
• It was intended to protect fish habitat
• Ensure collection of reliable data
• Conserve and help fish stocks to recover
• Establish Regional Fisheries management Councils
• It established that US policy shall be seeking permanent
  ban on the use of destructive fishing practices, in
  particular large-scale driftnets .
• It allows sanctions (in terms of fish imports) against
  countries using large-scale drift nets.
          Magnuson-Stevens Act
• It also allows powers to close depleted fisheries to allow
  them to recover.
• And also introduce controls on increases in fishing
  capacity
• It also introduced requirement for a conservation plan to
  reduce by-catches of all sorts
• An introduce fines of up to $25,000 to reduce by-catch

• Although the act looks great on paper – fish stocks
  have still declined

• The government hasn’t used the Act or its provisions
  neither effectively enough, nor aggressively enough.
   MARINE MAMMAL PROTECTION
            ACT 1972
Under the Marine Mammal Protection Act “Taking”
 marine mammals is prohibited
                    = killing & harassing
       Level A Harassment – activity that has the potential to
    injure a [individual] marine mammal or marine mammal
                         stock in the wild
       Level B Harassment – activity that has the potential to
   disturb a [individual] marine mammal or marine mammal
                        stock in the wild by
          causing disruption of behavioral patterns,
                  including, but not limited to,
     migration, breathing, nursing, breeding, feeding, or
                            sheltering.
MARINE MAMMAL PROTECTION
         ACT 1972
The following acts are also prohibited under the MMPA:
• Importing/Transporting/Purchasing/Selling marine
  mammals or marine mammal products;

Exemptions Under Permit May Be Granted for the
  Following Purposes
• Scientific research.
• Public display.
• Enhancing the survival or recovery of the species or
  stock.

  - Also   Alaskan natives have some exemptions
The MMPA:
• Sets up a management regime to reduce
  marine mammal mortalities and injuries in
  their interactions with fisheries;
• Regulates scientific research in the wild;
• Establishes basic requirements for public
  display of captive marine mammals;
• Addresses issues specific to the tuna fishery
  in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean;
• Creates a management regime for native
  subsistence hunting of marine mammals in
  Alaska; and
• Regulates the import and export of marine
  mammals and their products.
MARINE MAMMAL PROTECTION
         ACT 1972
 [Marine mammal] "species and population
 stocks should not be permitted to diminish
 beyond the point at which they cease to be
 a significant functioning element in the
 ecosystem of which they are a part, and,
 consistent with this major objective, they
 should not be permitted to diminish below
 their optimum sustainable population."
              Section 2(2) of the MMPA (16 USC 1361)
• Optimum Sustainable Population (OSP)
  defined as:
  "the number of animals which will result in
  the maximum productivity of the
  population or the species, keeping in mind
  the carrying capacity of the habitat and the
  health of the ecosystem of which they form
  a constituent element."
               Section 3(9) of the MMPA (16 USC 1362)


If a stock or population/stock is below
   the OSP or listed as endangered
              = DEPLETED
• The primary government agency responsible
  for enforcing the MMPA is the
  National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS)
  [NOAA; Department of Commerce].

• Under the MMPA, NMFS is responsible for the
  management and conservation of whales and
  dolphins (cetaceans) and pinnipeds other than
  the walrus.

• Walruses, sirenians, sea otters, and polar
  bears are under the jurisdiction of the U.S.
  Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS)
  [Department of the Interior].

• The MMPA also established the
  Marine Mammal Commission
  – an independent agency for marine mammal
        conservation & management advice
            Other Relevant US Laws
• Clean Air Act (1970): Sets goals and standards for the
  quality and purity of air in the United States.

• Clean Water Act (1972): Establishes and maintains
  goals and standards for U.S. water quality and purity. It
  has been amended several times, most prominently in
  1987 to increase controls on toxic pollutants, and in
  1990, to more effectively address the hazard of oil spills.

• Coastal Zone Management Act (1972): Provides a
  partnership structure allowing states and the federal
  government to work together for the protection of U.S.
  coastal zones from environmentally harmful
  overdevelopment.
  The program provides federal funding to participating
  coastal states and territories for the implementation of
  measures that conserve coastal areas.
            Other Relevant US Laws
• Comprehensive Environmental Response,
  Compensation and Liability Act (1980): Requires the
  cleanup of sites contaminated with toxic waste. This law
  is commonly refered to as "Superfund."
• Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know
  Act (1986): Requires companies to disclose information
  about toxic chemicals they release into the air and water
  and dispose of on land.
• Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (1938): Is the
  nation's major law regulating contaminants in food
  (including fish) including pesticides.
• Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act
  (1947): Controls the sale, distribution and application of
  pesticides; overhauled by the Food Quality Protection
  Act.
           Other Relevant US Laws
• Food Quality Protection Act (1996): Is designed to
  ensure that levels of pesticide residues in food meet
  strict standards for public health protection. Under this
  act the EPA protect infants and children from pesticides
  in food and water.

• National Environmental Policy Act (1970): Was the
  first of the modern environmental statutes.
  NEPA created environmental policies and goals for the
  country, and established the President's Council on
  Environmental Quality.
  It requires federal agencies conduct thorough
  assessments of the environmental impacts of all
  major activities undertaken or funded by the federal
  government.
• Oil Pollution Act (1990): Enacted a year after the Exxon
  Valdez oil spill. This law requires oil storage facilities and
  vessels to prepare spill-response plans and provide for
  their rapid implementation.
  The law also increases polluters' liability for cleanup
  costs and damage to natural resources and imposes
  measures.
  It also requires a phaseout of single-hulled tankers.

• Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (1976):
  Seeks to prevent the creation of toxic waste dumps by
  setting standards also includes some provisions for
  cleanup of existing contaminated sites.

• Toxic Substances Control Act (1976): Authorizes the
  Environmental Protection Agency to regulate the
  manufacture, distribution, import and processing of
  certain toxic chemicals.

								
To top