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					       Aquatic Noxious
     Weeds in King County

King County Noxious Weed Control Program
       www.kingcounty.gov/weeds
                Agenda
• Overview – Definitions, Impacts, and Laws
• Priority Aquatic Invasive and Noxious
  Weeds in King County
          What is an Invasive Weed?
   Introduced / non-native
   Ability to out-compete
    native plants
       Lack of predators or natural
        controls
       Ability to modify local
        ecology
       Aggressive ability to
        reproduce
   Not all introduced plants
    are invasive but most
    invasive plants were
    brought here intentionally
                                       Fragrant water lily on Cottage Lake
Impacts of Aquatic Weeds
             • Clog waterways
             • Impede recreation
             • Foul motors
             • Replace native plants
             • No wildlife value
             • Alter water chemistry
      How is a Noxious Weed
             Defined?
• Non-native plant that damages agriculture,
  wildlife, human health, land values or
  natural resources
• Defined and regulated by state law (RCW
  17.10)
  – control required only where weed is
    not widespread
  – goal of law is to prevent spread of
    new invaders to un-infested areas
Two Lists: Growing vs.
Selling Noxious Weeds

• Noxious Weed List (WAC 16-750)
  – Highest priority is where weeds are beginning to invade
  – List set primarily by state weed board; law enforced by
    county noxious weed boards
  – Requires property owners to prevent plants from seeding
• Prohibited Plants List (WAC 16-752)
  – Goal is to prevent spread of new introductions
  – List is determined by WSDA, enforced by state Nursery
    Inspection Program
  – Prohibits sale and purchase of plants and seeds
            State Weed Categories
• Class A (39 on list; 14 found in KC)
   – non-native, invasive, very limited distribution
   – eradication required throughout state
   – control provides statewide benefits (sometimes even greater)
• Class B (51 designated in KC; 28 present)
   –   non-native, invasive, split distribution
   –   where limited, control required by state law
   –   where widespread, county board decides on control
   –   control provides regional or countywide benefits
• Class C (only 3 selected for control in KC, 31 on state
  list; most too widespread to require control)
   – widespread distribution, county decides on control
   – control provides local or site-specific benefits; more if efforts are
     coordinated with neighbors
  Four Most Common Regulated Noxious
         Weeds in King County




Tansy Ragwort   Giant Hogweed     Purple        Garden
                                Loosestrife   Loosestrife
  Other King County Weed List
           Categories
• Non-Regulated Noxious Weeds
  – State-listed Class B and C weeds that are
    widespread in the county; control
    recommended but not required
  – For example: milfoil, knotweed
• Weeds of Concern
  – Not technically noxious weeds according to
    state law; considered invasive vegetation in
    King County; control desirable especially in
    natural or agricultural areas
Meet the LOOSESTRIFES
    and other aquatic

    Noxious Weeds
THE LOOSESTRIFES
Garden Loosestrife Lysimachia vulgaris
            Class B Noxious Weed

                      2-10 foot tall perennial of
                      wetlands and shorelines
                        Flowers: showy yellow
                        primrose-like flowers
                        clustered at top of stem
                        (terminal pannicle)

                        Flowers in July and August

                         Leaves: opposite or
                        whorled (in threes or fours),
                        leaves usually have small
                        orange or black glands
                        visible with magnification
Produces extensive red rhizomes
that will reach out up to 10 feet into
the adjacent open water
                                    Stems have soft
                                    hairs and are round,
                                    occasionally
                                    flattened (fasciated)
Garden Loosestrife Lysimachia vulgaris
            Class B Noxious Weed
 9’
 Shade              Flora of China                2-4 ft
                    University of Wisconsin       to 3.3 ft
                    Connecticut Botanical Society 2-4 ft
                    England                       2-4 ft
                    Germany                       1.4-4.9 ft
                    Australia                     to 4.9 ft
                    Flora of Europe               to 4 ft
                    6’6”
                    Full sun
                                                                                        Snohomish County
                                                                                        King County
                                                                                                                                     Garden
                                                                                                                    Duvall           loosestrife
                                                                                                                                     distribution in
                                                                                                                                     King County
                                             Kirkland
Matthews Beach




                                                                                                           S no
Magnuson Park                                                                                                                        203
                                                                                                             qu
                                                                       Redmond                                    a lm
                                                                                                                      ie
                                                                                                                           Ri
                                                                                                                                ve
                                                        405




                                                                                                                                 r
Union Bay
                                                                                                   202
Montlake Park                  520
                     e W a sh i ng t o n




                                                          Bellevue                  h
Lk Wash. Blvd




                                                                            s
                                                                                                                                                    Rutherford




                                                                        a mm am i
                                                                                                                                                    Slough
                          Lak




Seward Park



                                                                             S
                                                                          ke
                                                              90                    La
                 5                                                                                                                   Fall City
                                                                                                Issaquah          Raging
                                                                                                                  River                             Lake
                                                                                                                                                    Alice




                                           Renton
   Lake
                                                                   4                        0                       4                            8 Miles
   Burien
           Garden loosestrife Impacts
Ecological – displaces native plants
and animals; interferes with wetland
food web and habitat; clogs small
streams

Economic – clogs irrigation systems &
water control structures; dominates
wet pastures
        Garden loosestrife Impacts
                 Outcompetes other aggressive plants


                     Purple loosestrife   Himalayan
                                          blackberry




Common cattail
Purple loosestrife Lythrum salicaria
          Class B Noxious Weed

                  Key characteristics:
                  • perennial rhizomatous emergent
                    with showy magenta flower
                    spikes
                  • branched stems are square, can
                    root at nodes
                  • leaves opposite, lanceolate
                  • up to 2.5 million tiny seeds/plant
                  • flowers July and August
              Look-alikes:
Purple loosestrife vs. spirea and fireweed




  Purple loosestrife   Douglas spirea   Fireweed
                       (hardhack)
Purple loosestrife
                                                                                     Snohomish County
                                                                                     King County

distribution in
King County                                                                 Duvall




                                                                  Redmond
                                                      405
                                                520
                                                       Bellevue


                                   Seattle


                                                        Issaquah

                                                                            90
                                             Renton



                                                                             18
                     Vashon
                     Island             5

                                             167


                              Federal
                              Way
                                             Auburn
other common aquatic noxious weeds
     (and native look-alikes)
Iris pseudacorus – Yellow Flag Iris
      Class C non-designate
                     Key characteristics:
                     • perennial monocot to
                       1.5 meters tall
                     • thick rhizomes form
                       solid mats
                     • showy yellow flowers
                     • green seed pods with
                       flat seeds like corn
                       kernels that float
         Nymphaea odorata
Fragrant waterlily – Class C non-designate
                          Key characteristics:
                          • floating perennial
                          • flowers white to pink
                            on separate flexible
                            stalks
                          • thick fleshy rhizomes
                          • round leaves
           Nuphar lutea
spatterdock, yellow pond lily – Native
              Key characteristics:
              • very large heart-shaped leaves
              • ball-shaped yellow flowers
              • stems rigid enough to hold leaves out
                of water when water level drops
        Myriophyllum spicatum
Eurasian watermilfoil – Class B non-designate
                 Key characteristics:
                 • 14 or more leaflet pairs
                 • leaves whorled
                 • usually red stem, branched
                 • leaves generally collapse against
                   stem when pulled from water
                 • flower spike held above water
Eurasian watermilfoil – Myriophyllum spicatum vs.
  the native northern watermilfoil Myriophyllum
                   sibiricum
Eurasian                                  The native
water Milfoil                             has fewer
has 14 or                                 than 14
more leaflet                              leaflet pairs
pairs




  Collapses                                 Holds
  out of                                    shape out
  water                                     of water
     Egeria densa
Brazilian elodea – Class B
        Key characteristics:
        • smooth leaf edges
        • leaves in whorls of 4 (up to 6)
        • relatively showy flower
        • grows in up to 20 feet of water
     Egeria densa
Brazilian elodea – Class B
    Elodea canadensis
American waterweed – Native
       Key characteristics:
       • leaves linear, whorled in 3s (sometimes
         2-4) on the stem
       • leaves sparse toward bottom of plant,
         more bunched together toward top
       • branching stem
   Brazilian elodea vs. our native
American waterweed Elodea canadensis

Brazilian
elodea
usually
has 4
leaflets

                              Native
                              usually has
                              3 leaflets
Dozens of other submerged
natives in Lake Washington
     Potamogeton spp.
Submerged pondweeds – Native
             Key characteristics:
             • many species
             • leaves alternate, grass-like to
               oval, always have at least one
               mid-vein
             • stems branched, flexible, up to
               3m long
             • small flowers/seedheads on
               spikes held above water
A Few Less Common
Regulated Aquatic and Shoreline Weeds
   Glyceria maxima
Reed sweetgrass – Class A
           Key characteristics:
           • Emergent perennial
             grass, sometimes
             variegated
           • Up to 2.5 m (>8 ft.) tall
             in up to 2 m (6 ft.) of
             water
           • Leaves stiff and
             smooth
           • Ligule papery, rounded
             and pointy
           • Flowers in summer,
             inflorescense open and
             branched
      Ludwigia peploides
Floating Primrose-willow – Class A

                   Key characteristics:
                   • prostrate or floating
                     stems
                   • alternate, variable leaves
                   • bright yellow 5-petalled
                     flowers in leaf axils
                   • Grows in up to 10 feet of
                     water, can be up to 2 ½
                     feet tall
        Myriophyllum aquaticum
            Parrotfeather – Class B
Key characteristics:
• emergent up to 1 ft. above water
• leaves in whorls around stem
• leaves feathery like milfoil
• dense mat of brownish rhizomes
  Nymphoides peltata
Yellow Floating Heart – Class B
                Key characteristics:
                • floating perennial
                • small yellow flowers with
                  distinctive fringes
                • 2 to 5 flowers per stalk
                • heart-shaped or round
                  leaves, wavy margins,
                  often purplish underneath
     Phragmites australis
Common Reed – Class C designate
            Key characteristics:
            • 12+ foot tall rhizometous grass
            • hollow woody stems
            • wide stiff leaves
            • large feathery flower head purplish
              when young, brown in seed




         Duwamish: First Avenue South
 Impatiens glandulifera
Policeman’s Helmet – Class B
   Spotted Jewelweed - Impatiens capensis
(control not required but strongly encouraged)
  Invasive Knotweed – Class B Non-Designate
(control not required but strongly encouraged)
Hollow, upright, bamboo like stems often reddish or red-speckled
Grows so thickly that nothing can compete with it…
Except maybe garden
loosestrife!
    King County Noxious Weed
     Control Program Website
            www.kingcounty.gov/weeds
Weed Photo Page:
Search by Common Name or Latin Name




Or click thumbnail picture of
plant for weed information and
photos
Sasha Shaw and Katie Messick
  King County Noxious Weed Program
   201 South Jackson St, Suite 600
         Seattle, WA 98104
     206-296-0290 (program line)
      www.kingcounty.gov/weeds

				
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