GABARDINE Project Groundwater artificial recharge

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GABARDINE Project Groundwater artificial recharge Powered By Docstoc
					                                                              water sources are surface water surpluses generated
                                                              during rainy seasons, treated effluent, surpluses of
GABARDINE Project                                             desalinated water, that are expected in periods of low
“Groundwater artificial recharge                              water demand or high water availability (from natural
                                                              resources) and exploitation of saline water bodies that
based on alternative sources of water:                        could be used for adequate agricultural practices or
Advanced integrated                                           used a raw material for low-cost desalination.
technologies and
                                                              Main activities
management”                                                   The project has been structured into 8 work-packages as
 th
                                                              follows: WP1: Project Management; WP2: Precipitation,
6 Framework Programme for Research,                           Aquifer Replenishment and Water Budgets; WP3:
Technological Development and Demonstration                   Alternative water sources and artificial recharge
Specific Targeted Research or Innovation Project              (methods of investigation, technologies, operation
                                                              management and utilization); WP4: Operational tools
PhD Thesis                                                    (models, calibration, sensitivity analysis, vulnerability),
                                                              WP5: Test sites; WP6: Integration; WP7: Socio-
                                                              economic aspects and WP8: Dissemination. Four sites
Institutions: LNEC, GZG (Germany), UPC                        have been selected for real experiments of artificial
(Spain), IIT, EWRE e IHS (Israel), ULG (Belgium),             recharge systems: The Llobregat Valley (Spain), the
AUTH, GEOS e EYATH (Greece), UNOT                             Aquifer system of Campina de Faro, in Algarve region
(England), PHG e PWA (Palestine)                              (Portugal), the Coastal Aquifer of Israel and Gaza and
                                                              the Thessaloniki Bay (Greece). These cover a range of
                                                              sizes, climatic conditions, acuteness of the problems
Coordination institution:
                                                              that have to be faced and current management
University of Gottingen (GZG)                                 practices. All of the sites are facing diverse water supply
                                                              problems due to over-exploitation, or saltwater intrusion,
Responsible researchers from LNEC:                            or pollution by agricultural practices, etc. The impact of
J.P. Lobo Ferreira e Catarina Diamantino                      the project to these test sites is obvious: water budgets
                                                              will be evaluated, deficits will be identified and
                                                              alternatives for bridging the hydrologic gaps will be
2005 – 2008
                                                              suggested to the end-users.
Main Objectives                                               Most important scientific LNEC tasks in each work-
The major objectives of GABARDINE project are: (1)            package are:
explore the viability of supplementing existing water         (WP2) Precipitations, Aquifer Replenishment and
resources in semi-arid areas with alternative sources of      Water Budgets: Evaluate the components of aquifer
water that could be exploited in the context of an            replenishment using:        (a)   Predictive     Models   -
integrated water resources management approach, (2)           Sequentially Daily Water Balance Model, which models
investigate the feasibility of using aquifers as the primal   the water cycle using rainfall and evapotranspiration
facility for the large scale storage of these alternatives    demand by the land cover, (b) New methodology for
water sources and investigate techniques for their            distributed aquifer recharge assessment taking into
artificial recharge and injection of the produced             account the reference evapotranspiration of the area
alternative water, including a monitoring of water quality    and the changing land-cover properties that include the
and purification by natural attenuation and filtration        annual cycle of vegetal development, both in terms of
processes, (3) evaluate and quantify the potential            occupied area and in terms of water needs for
impact of degrading factors, such as climate change,          evapotranspiration, (c) Methods based on surface flow
changes in the quality of water, salt water etc. on the       hydrograph separation techniques, where surface flow is
global quality and usability of the resource, by              decomposed as surface runoff and base flow.
developing tools for risk mapping, for modeling and for       (WP3) Alternative water sources and artificial
monitoring, and to propose measures for preventing or         recharge. Identify potential alternative sources of water,
minimizing, and mitigating their impact. The alternative      in all the test sites. Information will be given to LNEC by



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responsible partners of the test sites to be combined into     the framework of the Portuguese test site, regarding the
a deliverable. Information regarding the Portuguese            development of these two last WPs.
case study will be gathered and analyzed. Contribution
with the information concerning the artificial recharge        General overview
system proposed for the Portuguese test site in Algarve
region.                                                        One of the main objectives of this Project is the
(WP4) Operational tools. Develop a rating                      optimized rehabilitation of groundwater quality through
methodology for a preliminary identification of candidate      the implementation of aquifer artificial recharge
areas for artificial recharge. Develop an index of             methodology, minimizing the diffuse pollution effects
vulnerability to seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers        caused by intensive agricultural practices. This purpose
that may encompass the impact of both the climatic             will be achieved in a Portuguese case study area where
changes, such as the rise of the sea level, and the            groundwater quality problems are well known, the
artificial recharge. Vulnerability assessment and              aquifer system of Campina de Faro, in Algarve region.
mapping methods will be used to study the sensitivity of       In September 2004 this aquifer system was declared by
the groundwater resources to contamination.                    Portuguese legislation as a Nitrate Vulnerable Zone
(WP5) Test Sites. LNEC is coordinating this WP. LNEC           (Portaria nº 1100/2004, DR 208 SÉRIE I-B of 2004-09-
tasks include gather all data relevant to characterization     03). This is a credible reason, together with the “good
of all the test sites. These data will be collected,           quality status” aimed by the Water Framework Directive,
compiled and organized into computerized database              to select this aquifer and to implement the necessary
layers and integrated into GIS systems (for each test          measures that aim the improvement of groundwater
site). In all these sites severe water supply problems         quality in a section of this aquifer, allowing also to
exist, due to over-exploitation, and therefore, artificial     increase the groundwater availability in this region. The
recharge may prove to be a viable solution. Four test          main purpose of the artificial aquifer recharge
sites have been selected, each representing a different        experimental plan proposed is to store surplus of
aspect of the problem: (1) the aquifer of Thessaloniki         surface water for subsequent groundwater recharge,
area, in which artificial recharge is being considered for     while improving groundwater quality (decreasing the
controlling seawater intrusion and storage of treated          nitrates level) by recharging the aquifer with better water
effluent (Greece); (2) the Lower valley of the Llobregat       – this will be achieved using infiltrations ponds. This
river, where the objective is to mitigate the aquifer from     procedure has two positive effects: on the one hand it
seawater intrusion by means of artificial recharge of          avoids the loss of water to the sea by surface runoff,
effluent and or runoff water (Barcelona-Spain); (3) the        also avoiding further soil erosion, and on the other hand
Campina de Faro aquifer, in Algarve region where the           it gradually diminishes the groundwater pollution and
objective is achieving groundwater quality improvement         suspended solid transport. Groundwater pollution rates
by injecting surface-water (Portugal); (4) the Coastal         will diminish due to two reasons: the effect of washout of
aquifer shared by Israel and Palestine (Gaza). In Israel       the pollutants in the aquifer towards the sea (once
most of the recharge technologies are implemented but          nitrates and chlorides are conservative pollutants, i.e.
the quality and mixing aspects need to be investigated         not reacting with the aquifer soil) and the groundwater
and quantified. In Portugal small-infiltration ponds will      higher dilution due to the increase of recharge rate.
be built in the test site. One of the aims of the artificial
recharge in this test site will be the rehabilitation of       Results: LNEC 1st Year Progress Report
groundwater polluted by the excess of fertilizers in
Campina de Faro agricultural area by using surplus flash       and DIAMANTINO, C. (2005) – “Metodologias de recarga
flood water of better quality. The following tasks will be         artificial de aquíferos”. 7º SILUSBA. Universidade de
developed: (1) Selection of the artificial recharge                Évora, 30 de Maio a 2 de Junho de 2005, 15 pp.
technique and propose a full design of the project; (2)
Monitoring the aquifer system in terms of piezometric
level distribution and groundwater composition,
performed before and after the artificial recharge of the
aquifer; (3) Modeling tools for simulation groundwater
flow and solute transport will be used before and after
the artificial recharge system is performed.
(WP6) Integration
Collaboration      in    the   Computerized      Database
management system DBMS (Based Decision and
management support system) structure and deliverable
data characteristics, groundwater modeling aspects and
decision-making tasks concerning the Portuguese case
study for integration of the various test-sites.
Collaboration in the Decision Suport System tools and
application of examples to the test site of Portugal
(WP7) Socio-Economic aspects
(WP8) Dissemination
LNEC will contribute with the necessary information, in                         A artificial recharge bas

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