Georgia - Caiazzo's Political St by fjzhangweiqun

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									GEORGIA
The “Empire State of the
South”
The “Peach State”
   Population (2004): 8.6 million
       White persons, 65.1%
       Black or African American persons, 28.7%
       Persons of Hispanic or Latino origin, 5.3%
       Asian persons, percent, 2.1%
   Capital: Atlanta
   Economy: retail, service,
    manufacturing, timber/lumber (pine,
    hardwood), fishing (Brunswick &
    Savannah), and agriculture (peanuts,
    cotton, soybeans, tobacco)
State Data
   Motto: Wisdom, justice, and moderation
   Flower: Cherokee Rose
   Bird: Brown Thrasher
   Tree: Live Oak
   Song: Georgia on My Mind
   1 of the Original 13 colonies; 4th of the 13
    to sign the U.S. Constitution (Jan 2, 1788)
   State Fair: Macon (3rd Week in October)
Geography
   Largest state east of the Mississippi
   58,909 square miles of land area
   Borders 5 States and an Ocean:
    Tennessee (NW), North Carolina (NE),
    South Carolina (E), Alabama (W),
    Florida (S), and the Atlantic Ocean (SE)
Major Cities
   Atlanta
   Savannah
   Augusta
   Albany
   Macon
   Brunswick
   Columbus
Georgia: Federal Level
   13 U.S. Congressional Seats
   2 U.S. Senate Seats

   15 Total Electoral College Votes
Constitutional Basis of State
Government
   Georgia has had 10 constitutions since 1777
   There is a Preamble, a Bill of Rights, and 11
    Articles – and begins with the Bill of Rights.
   3 branches of government
       Legislative (general assembly)
       Executive
       Judicial
Legislative Power:
The General Assembly
   Two Chambers: Upper House (Senate)
      56 members

   Lower House (House of Representatives)
      180 members

         236 total in Atlanta

   Elected for unlimited two year terms
   Begin on the 2nd Monday of January (every
    year), and stay for 40 working days
      Governor call special sessions – as in 2004
       to balance state’s budget
Legislature “cont”
   Bills can be introduced in either the Senate or
    the House (bicameral)

    Revenue & appropriation bills, however, can
    only originate in the House

   Senate is responsible for confirming
    governor’s appointments to boards and
    commissions
House of Representatives
   236 Members
   Elected every two years
   21 years old
   U.S. Citizens
   Georgia Citizens for 2 years
   One year resident in their district
Georgia State Senate
   56 Senators
   Elected every two years
   25 years old
   U.S. Citizens
   Georgia Citizens for 2 years
   One year resident in their district
Georgia Executive:
Plural Executive
   Governor
      All are elected to unlimited 4 year terms

      15 Years U.S. Citizen

      6 years Georgia Resident

      30 years old



   Lt. Governor
      15 Years U.S. Citizen

      6 years Georgia Resident

      30 years old
Executive “cont”
   Elected to unlimited 4 years terms
       10 Years U.S. Citizen
       4 years Georgia Resident
       25 years old
   Secretary of State
   Attorney General
       Must have been an active-status member of the State Bar of
        Georgia for 7 years
   State School Superintendent
   Commissioner of Agriculture
   Commissioner of Insurance
   Commissioner of Labor
The Georgia Judiciary
   The state is geographically divided into
    judicial circuits, each of which must represent
    at least one county

   Each county (159) shall have at least one:
       Superior court
       Magistrate court
       Probate Court
       State Court and Juvenile Court (where needed)
Georgia Supreme Court
   1 court, 9 justices
       Elected in a non-partisan election
       Serve unlimited 6 year terms
       Begin on January 1st
       Admitted to practice law for at least 7 years


   1 court of Appeals, 9 justices
       Same requirements apply
Other Courts
   63 State Courts
   159 Probate Courts
   159 Magistrate Courts
   390 Municipal Courts
   2 Civil Courts
   4 Recorder Courts
   1 City Court of Atlanta
Judicial Qualifications
   Superior Court (45)
   Jurisdiction over trials in all felony cases
    (except juvenile offenders)
   Also: title to land cases, divorce, and equity
    cases
   Elected on a non-partisan basis, for unlimited
    4 year terms
       Shall reside in the geographical area where they
        serve
       Have been admitted to practice law for 5 years
       Same qualifications for Juvenile court judges (159)
Qualifications “cont”
   Probate (159 Courts) and Magistrate
    (159 Courts) Judges are elected in non-
    partisan elections
       No law experience required
       General Assembly sets the requirements
Tax System
   Georgia has a state income tax
   It is in theory a progressive tax: the more
    income you earn, the more tax you pay
       Fixed at 6% once income exceeds $7000
            So, someone who makes $1 million a years pays 6%,
             and someone making $40,000 pays 6%

            Georgia also has a sales tax as well as a tax on corporate
             profits
Other Taxes
   Georgia collects revenue from other
    places:
       “Sin” taxes: alcohol and tobacco products
       Severance taxes on lumber products taken
        from state owned lands
       Motor Fuels taxes on every gallon of gas
        sold in the state – which are earmarked for
        building and maintaining the state’s system
        of roads and highways
Georgia Expenditures
   #1 (almost 1/2/ of the entire budget):
    Education (primary, secondary, and
    higher education)
       Two bureaucracies: State Board of
        Education & State Board of Regents
“Cont”
   State Board of Education
       187 School systems (members are either
        appointed or elected – local option)
       159 County school systems
       28 independent school systems (larger
        cities)
“cont”
   Board of Regents
   34 public institutions of higher learning
       Research Universities(UGA)
       Regional Universities (Georgia Southern)
       Four Year Colleges (Armstrong State)
       2 Year Colleges (East Georgia College)

       Budget is not line-itemed
       The General Assembly allocated revenue in a lump
        sum to the Board of Regents, and they allocate as
        they deem proper
Georgia Expenditures “cont”
   Corrections
   Construction
   Human Resources
   Medicaid
   Transportation
   Misc. Other (tourism, environment,
    research, etc)
County/Municipal Government
   159 Counties (2nd to Texas – 254)
   2 Types of Municipal Systems
       Council manager
       Mayor/Council
   Home Rule applies – minimal amount of
    interference from state authorities
City/County Responsibilities
“cont”
   Police and Fire Protection
   Garbage & Solid Waste Collection/Disposal
   Public Health Facilities: Hospitals, emergency
    services, animal control)
   Street & Road Construction/Maintenance
   Parks & Recreational Programs/Facilities
   Storm water, sewage, and disposal systems
“cont”
   Water storage, treatment, and distribution
   Public Housing
   Public Transportation
   Libraries, and arts and science facilities
   Terminal and dock and parking facilities
   Codes for building, plumbing, and electricity
   Air quality control
Georgia Education
   Ranked #50 in High School Graduation
    Rates
   Excellent Higher Education System

								
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