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         4 Workshop, Amsterdam, 23 - 25 April 2007




ASAS In The SESAR Ops Concept
               Presentation for ASAS-TN 2

    Andy Barff: EUROCONTROL Experimental Centre

                  Slides prepared by:
   Mike Watson: Thales Air Systems/Strategy Directorate

                Members SESAR Task 2.2.2


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Structure of the presentation



   SESAR Political Goals
A Trajectory Based Concept
   ATM Capability Levels
      ASAS In SESAR
 Application In Operations




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                      The SESAR Political Goals
Increased, sustainable capacity for the end-to-end ATM system with
substantially enhanced safety:
   –   Traffic x 3                            USA: Traffic: x2-3 (NextGen)
   –   Safety x10                             ASIA: Traffic: x4+
                                              (Some areas will be equal to core Europe)
   –   Users ATM Unit Costs -50% per flight
   –   Environmental impact -10% ATM impact per flight


Efficient Gate-to-Gate and Enroute-to-Enroute(1)                                            operations            that
accommodate the user’s requirements and priorities:
   – Maximise capacity and minimise constraints.
   – Minimise uncertainties/maximise economic performance for all stakeholders




          (1) Relating to TMA entry to TMA exit on next flight. Encompasses airport air-side and ground-side operations.


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       A Trajectory
      Based Concept




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                Trajectory Based Operations
Trajectory Based Operations are at the core of the SESAR Concept,
enabling:
    – Enhanced predictive capabilities and reactivity of the network with the
      objective of taking most strategic ATM actions prior to departure.
    – Information sharing and collaborative processes providing more flexibility for
      the airspace users when changes are required.

The Trajectory Management concept:
    – Entails the systematic sharing of aircraft trajectory data between various
      participants in the ATM process
    – Ensures that all participants have a common view of a flight and access to
      the most accurate data available to perform their tasks.

4D Trajectory Management supports a degree of pre-deconfliction of traffic
flows resulting in less tactical interventions during flight execution.

The 4D Trajectory is the principal language for information exchange
supporting CDM, planning and analysis and automation.

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                            The Business Trajectory
   4D Trajectory which expresses the Business/Mission intention of the
   airspace user.

   Fully owned by the airspace user:
         – Changes via CDM processes involving user BUT does not interfere with
           ATC/Pilot tactical decision processes.
         – When constraints are needed the solution is chosen by the user whenever
           possible

   Based on most timely and accurate data available
         – Sources: AOC, Airborne Automation, ANSP, 3rd Party on behalf user.
         – Normally the relevant ANSP will compute trajectory for Military or non-
                        Exists during the planning phase
Exists during Business Development processes.
            capable users during flight.            Trajectory that airspace user agrees to fly and
Internal to the User      „Published‟ by the user and shared by all participants
                                                        the ANSP agrees to facilitate.
                          (User at this time)           (NOT a Clearance)
(Not all users have a Trajectory entry point to process will vary)
   Exists through out all phases of the ATM process
Business Development Trajectory        Shared Business Trajectory      Reference Business Trajectory


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Trajectory Mgt. Requirements
         All “trajectory managed” aircraft have Trajectory
         Management Requirements (TMR) associated to
         the Reference Business Trajectory (as part of
         clearance).
         Defines allowed deviations - time, level, lateral :
         without need for negotiation/notification.
         When avionics detect/predict a deviation outside
         the parameters either a re-conformance action or a
         clearance revision action is initiated.

         Parameters according to separation needs and
         operational context.
              – May be „carried‟ by airspace/route/procedure, or
              – Tailored to specific needs.

         Also specify any periodic trajectory sharing and
         the data content required


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              Trajectories Throughout the Process
      YEARS            6 MONTHS                                 DAYS    HOURS                     MINUTES

                                                        Mid/Short
 Long Term                                                                                Execution
                                                          Term



                                                                                                        C        L


       BDT             SBT         SBT                 SBT      SBT    SBT       RBT                                 F
                                                                                        FLIGHT OBJECT
                                                                                                                S
  Business          Shared                                                    Reference           R
                                                                                                             ASAS
 Development       Business                                                   Business
                                                                                                         D
  Trajectory       Trajectory                                                 Trajectory
                                                                                                      Tactical
                                                                                                      Actions

       ACFT         ATM
                                                                                                 Reclose
                                         Uncertainty




                                                                                                 the loop
AOC                      NETman
             SWIMNet
MIL                          APT

      BA/GA         MET                                                  Time Horizon


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ATM Capability Levels




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                                         ATM Capability Levels (Part)
                       4

                                                          Trajectory Sharing Air-Air. Met data sharing (Air-Air/Air-Ground)
                                                          Longitudinal Nav Perf Req. Self-Separation


                       3
ATM Capability Level




                                               Trajectory Sharing – ATM Designed. CTA/CTO (Multiple RTA)
                                               Vertical Nav Perf Req. (V-RNP). Cooperative Separation


                       2

                                    ADS-B/IN. Airborne Spacing/Sequencing and Merging
                                    Datalink: Link 2000+


                       1

                           CTA/CTO (Single RTA). 2D-RNP. Vertical/Longitudinal Constraint Mgt. ADS-B/OUT
                           (Output of position/aircraft/MET data. Event reporting/Intent Sharing: Datalink)

                       0
                                                   2010                          2020                             2030

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 ASAS In SESAR




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                     Queue Management (1)
In the real world, there will be circumstances in which, after all possible
optimisations, demand does exceed capacity.
    – Queuing is a natural result of the excess of demand over capacity

Queue management is the tactical establishment and maintenance of a
safe, orderly and efficient flow of traffic.
    – Includes the handling of queues, both in the air and on the ground.
    – Operates on individual flights
    – Closely related to the Separation process.

Queue management will not by itself reduce delays or increase capacity:
    – The goal is a better management of throughput, ensuring that delay is
      managed in the most fuel-efficient and environmentally acceptable manner.




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                          Queue Management (2)

         CTA            (CTAREV)           CTAFREEZE                           Airborne
                                                                               Spacing
                                                                 Tactical
                                                                                 (and
                                                              Fine Spacing
                                                                              Sequencing
          AMAN Horizon                                         ATC/ASAS
                                                                             and Merging)


                                      Sequence „Frozen‟



                  Clearance (TTA Update)
                 TTA

                         DMAN      SEQ       SWIMNet               SEQ/CTA        AMAN
Turn-Around      EOBT
   Activities
  (User and                                          TTA RQ/TTA Issued
Airport Tasks)
                         SMAN


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            Conflict Mgt: Background and Needs
          TMA and En-route capacity is a function of ATC task-load.

                                                       Tactical Intervention
             Task Identification
                                                       to ensure Separation

                                         Task-Load



                       Clearances                      Communications
                                        Coordination
                        Routine Tasks

Provide Automation Assistance                          Reduce the need for Intervention
MTCD/R, Conformance Monitoring …                       Deconfliction, Share Tactical Intervention
                                        Automation




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                          Separation Modes (Part)
                 Mode                          Airspace: Managed ENR
                                               Airspace: Managed ENR
                                               Detection: AIR Separator: AIR
                                               Detection: ANSP Separator: ANSP
Conventional Self-Separation
                                                            Level: 4
                                               Capability Level: 4
                                               Capability Managed TMA/ENR
                                               Airspace:
Conventional Surveillance/Procedural           Airspace: Managed TMA/ENR
                                               Detection:Managed mixed mode operations in
                                               Airspace: ANSP Separator: ANSP
                                               (Debate: Feasibility in TMA/ENR
                                               Containment: Lateral/Vertical/Longitudinal
                                               Detection: ANSP 1+    Separator: ANSP
                                               managed airspace. Timescale – 2021-2030).
                                               Capability Level: for period of contract.
Trajectory Control-Speed Adjust.                            ANSP
                                               Detection:Managed TMA/ENR
                                               Constant accuracy Separator: AIR (ANSP)
                                               Airspace: Managed TMA/ENR
                                               Capability Level: 3
                                               Airspace: Level: 3
                                               Capability ANSP Separator: „fly-ability‟
                                               Aircrew are the containment vs. ANSP/AIR
                                               Debate: „size‟ ofdesignated separator for a
                                               Containment: Lateral – RNP
                                               Detection: ANSP Separator: ANSP
Precision Trajectory-2D                        Detection:
                                               Containment: Lateral/Vertical – RNP/V-RNP
                                               defined segmentremain within TMR. If predicted
                                               Flight adjusts to of a flight during which they
                                               Capability Level: 3
                                               SeparationLevel: 2 routes in dense and for
                                               Capability unmanageable a all other aircraft. a
                                               shall assure Responsibility Delegation
                                               Provides 2D separation with clearance revision
                                               deviation is separated
Precision Trajectory-3D                        Debate: „tubes‟ vs. „cones‟
                                               Combines Precision (interaction).
                                               singleis initiated. and reduces need for tactical
                                               action (multi) aircraft Trajectory-3D and
                                               complex airspace
                                                             Task Delegation
                                               Separation inautomation capabilities (including
                                               intervention separated routes in dense and
Precision Trajectory-4D Contract               Provides 3D all airspace.
                                               Supported by Separation.
                                               Cooperative target aircraft and specifies the
                                               ATC designates
                                               Air-Air Trajectory/Intent exchange and and
                                               Non-Deviating – have priority.capacity specific
                                               complex airspace increasing
                                               scope applications). Management: merging in
                                               TMR apply tomanoeuvre allowing interventionand
                                               In TMAreducing need for tactical the flight crew
                                               further for Queue
                                               ASAS of the ATM-3+.other aircraft.
Cooperative Separation: Visual                 Aircraft fly along separated 3D „tubes‟ with
                                               Will be identifiable to of the arrivalway possible.
                                               to conduct it in the most efficient stream and for
                                               longitudinal spacing
                                               all airspace.
                                               longitudinal airspace of „same route‟ departures.
                                                             spacing ANSP authorises Self-
                                               In managed separation achieved through
Airborne Spacing, Sequencing/Merging           airborne capabilities. other may be:
                                               ANSP responsible forThese separation. impact
                                               Trade-off: fuel efficiency/environmental
                                               separation.
                                               TMR apply.
                                               Also for en-route short periods to resolve
                                               vs. capacity. Used forspacing if airspeeds are
Cooperative Separation (ASAS-Sep)              specific participate conflict situations reducing
                                               To resolve specific fully in the 4D-Trajectory
                                               compatible
                                               Aircraft capacity assigns spacing task but
                                               SPACING: ANSP issues.
                                               controller workload.
                                               management process. min. Goal: FIR/FAB
                                               Effective period of responsibility.
                                               retains separation 20-30
Self-Separation (ASAS-Self Sep)                In Cooperative-3D (indelegates separation
                                                                            of ASAS
                                               SEPARATION: ANSP lieu to return Separation).
                                               In Cooperative-3D.                     to
                                               Aircraft flies RBT. Goal is pre-flight. RBT
                                               NOT used for deconfliction aircraft.
                                               responsibility with preceding
Cooperative-3D                                 following tactical actions.


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      Application In
       Operations




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               High Density TMA Operations
Allocation of ‘best available’ departure route – 2D or 3D.
    – Clearance at gate: possible revision during taxi

Allocation of ‘best available’ arrival route – 2D or 3D.

4th dimension separation along the 3D routes by ATC using time/speed
control/surveillance, or airborne separation

Conventional SID and STAR for ATM-0 flights

Clearance conformance monitored independently on ground and in the air.

Airborne Spacing, Sequencing/Merging, Cooperative separation

No tactical intervention by ATC for 3D flights (if in conformance)




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         High/Medium Density ENR Operations
PTC-2D/3D with 4D-Contracts/Cooperative-3D used when required.
            PTC-3D/4D-Contracts And Airborne Separation
    – Priority for 4D contract or Cooperative-3D flights. No tactical intervention.
 The PTC-3D/4DC modes address the deconfliction of airborne flights to achieve
Conventional ATC modes for ATM-0/1 aircraft.
 the goals.

  Cooperative separation/Self-separation address the distribution of and in
Clearance conformance monitored independently on groundtactical the air.
  intervention to achieve the goals.
Arrival constraints incorporated in RBT
  Both methods must operate in a mixed (equipped and non-equipped)
  environment.
Airborne Spacing, Sequencing/Merging, Cooperative Separation, Self-
separation
  The two methods can co-exist, with self-separating flights separating
  themselves from 4D contract flights:
      structure retained for TMA transition Separated flights is
Route  Feasibility of mixing these and other ATCand Military needsdoubtful
      Implementation of 4DC and Self-Separation in mixed mode/hi-density is
       likely to wind data through MET
Improved upperbe in the 2025+ timeframe. sharing capabilities
       Some users may push self-separation for high level operations (above
        F410).


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             ASAS Contribution To Goals

Capacity       Positive impact       Potential solution for the high end-
                                     goals.
                                     Cooperative separation in time-
                                     scale. Self-separation outside.
                                              TRADE OFF
Safety                     Pros:
               Positive impact        Scale of benefits may be airspace
                            Maintenance of throughput: Reduced queuing:
                                      dependent.
                            May keep trajectory close to optimum.
                            Cons: Impact on Safety Nets and ACAS
                                      to be studied.
                            Traffic mix/performance compatibility may impact
                                  results.
                       individualMay provide NET System Benefit
Environment Pros and Cons
                                 but not always individual benefits.

Cost           Pros and Cons         May provide NET System Benefit
                                     but not always individual benefits.


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The SESAR operational concept is based on precision trajectories and
             includes advanced ASAS applications

              SESAR proposes a timescale of ASAS:
                      Airborne Separation by 2020




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               End




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