MB 401 Immunology
Study Guide – Exam II
Ch. 5 – Questions 1-12; 14
Ch. 7 – all questions
Ch. 8 – 1-3, 5-7, 9, 11, 12-17 & 19
Ch. 9 – 1-5, 8-13
Immunoglobulin Gene Expression (Lecture 10 & 11)
1. You should know the following:
a. Tonegawa’s experiment that demonstrated “genes in pieces”
b. Organization of Ig Germline-gene segments for the light and heavy chain
2. Variable Region DNA Rearrangement: understand the functions(s) of the following
in the mechanism of DNA Rearrangement of the L and H chain:
b. 12/23 rule
c. heptamers & nonamers
d. signal joint
e. coding joint
f. V(D)J Recombinase
g. RAG1 & RAG2
i. Productive vs. non-productive gene rearrangements
3. Class Switching: Understand the function(s) of the following in the mechanism of
a. Switch Regions
b. Switch Recombinase
d. Alternate RNA splicing: when it occurs and what is produced
e. Poly-A sites 1-4
f. M1 & M2 exons
4. Secreted vs. Membrane IgG: know the mechanism by which they are generated
5. Allelic Exclusion: what is it, how is it thought to occur; what’s the significance of
6. What is somatic hypermutation? When does this occur?
Complement (Lectures 12 & 13)
1. Be able to Diagram and list all the steps of:
a. the Classical Complement Pathway
b. the Alternate Pathway
c. MBL-lectin pathway
2. Know the function(s) of each of the following complement components:
C1q, C1r, C1s
MASP1 & MASP2
C3, B, D & properdin
3. Know the C3 and C5 convertase of the Classical Pathway and the Alternative
Pathway. What is the significance of the C3 convertase?
4. What is an anaphylatoxin? Which complement components are anaphylatoxins? Where
in the complement pathway are they created?
5. Regulation of the Complement System: know the step of the complement pathway
that each of the following affects:
b. C4bBP, MCP, CR1
c. Factor H
d. Factor I
f. S protein
6. Be familiar with the different types of Complement Deficiencies and the consequences
of each of these deficiencies.
7. What is HANE? What is the cause? What are the consequences? Why?
8. What the 5 biological functions of Complement? Which of the complement
components are responsible for each of these functions?
9. How are each of the 3 Complement pathways activated? At which step in the
Complement pathway do the 3 pathways converge?
MHC (Lectures 14-16)
1. Antigen processing and presentation pathway:
a. How are antigenic peptides generated (processed) in the MHC I pathway? The
MHC II pathway?
b. What are the proteins and compartments involved in MHC I pathway? The
MHC II pathway?
c. What is the outcome of MHC I antigen presentation? MHC II presentation?
What type of antigens are presented via MHC I? MHC II? How are non-protein
d. What is cross-presentation? What is its significance?
2. MHC Complex
a. How is diversity generated in the MHC? How is this different than the diversity
generated in antibodies or the TCR? What’s the role of polymorphism and
polygeny in diversity in the MHC? What’s the significance of promiscuous
binding of the peptide binding cleft? What implications does MHC diversity have
for a) protection against disease or b) susceptibility to disease?
b. What’s the genomic organization of MHC in mice? How is it different in mice
vs. humans. What’s the nomenclature for MHC genes in humans vs. mice? How
many MHC Class I genes? MHC Class II genes? What proteins does MHC III
encode for? Is there diversity in the MHC III genes? Where is β2 microglobulin
encoded? Is there diversity in this protein?
c. What’s a haplotype? Can you interpret a mouse MHC haplotype?
d. What are the non-classical Class I and II genes? What do we know about the
function of the non-classical Class I and II genes?
e. What genes are encoded in the Class III region?
3. MHC Restriction: What is MHC restriction? What experiments demonstrate MHC
restriction? What experiments demonstrated Class I and Class II restriction?
4. What is the cellular expression of MHC I vs. II? What is co-dominant expression?
How many different types of class I genes could be expressed on the surface of a
5. Compare & contrast CD1 family with MHC I and MHC II molecules. Compare and
contrast antigen presentation pathways by the Class I and Class II vs. CD1 family.
6. Know the structure and domains of MHC I and MHC II molecules. Compare and
contrast the antigenic binding cleft of each.
TCR (Lectures 17 & 18)
1. How is diversity created in the T cell antigen receptor (TCR). Compare and contrast
generation of diversity in B cell antigen receptors (antibodies).
2. What is the genomic organization of the TCR? How does this compare to antibodies?
3. Compare and contrast a TCR to an antibody molecule. Know the following domains
of the TCR: Vα, Vβ, Cα, Cβ, TM domain, C terminal.
4. Compare and contrast αβT cells with γδT cells. Mention the differences in the germ-
line organization, diversity, type of antigen they present, MHC involvement in
presentation of antigen, proportion of αβ T cells vs. γδT cells in the blood.
4. Know the interaction of the TCR with MHC-peptide understanding the significance of
the following: the trimolecular complex, CDR1, CDR2 and CDR3 regions.
5. What proteins make up the TCR-CD3? What is the function of each of the proteins in
6. Compare and contrast the amount and mechanisms involved in the generation of
diversity in: Antibodies, TCR and the MHC.