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					                                                  Chapter # 9: Cognition

Algorithm        -systemic, mechanical approaches that guarantee an eventual answer
                 to a problem
Heuristic        -intuitive rules of thumb
                 -short cuts in problem solving
Insight          -sudden appearance of an answer or solution to a problem
Prototype        -a model
                 -“best example” of a particular thing
Fixation         - Inability to see a problem from a fresh perspective
Mental Set       -Tendency to approach a problem with the mindset of what has
                 worked previously
Functional       - trapped in seeing one particular prescribed use for some object         ex. Looking for a screwdriver when a dime
Fixedness                                                                                  would turn the screw
Confirmation     -the search for information that supports a particular view
Bias             -hinders problem solving by distorting objectivity
Representative   -judge objects and events in terms of how closely they match the          -ex: high school athletes are less intelligent
Heuristic        prototype of that object of event
Availability     - judged by what events come readily to mind
Overconfidence   -the tendency to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and
Bias             judgments
Framing          -the way a question is phrased
Belief           -a person only sees the evidence that supports a particular position
Perseverance     despite evidence presented to the contrary (Stubbornness)
Belief Bias      -the tendency for our preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning,
                 making illogical conclusions seem valid or logical conclusions to
                 seem invalid
Phoneme          -smallest unit of speech sounds in a given language that are still        -ex: “ch”
                 distinct in sound from each other
Morpheme         -phonemes combines to create these, the smallest semantically             -ex: review consists of 2 morphemes
                 meaningful parts of language
Grammar          -a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and
                 understand others
                                                   Chapter # 9: Cognition

Semantics         -a set of rules we use to derive meaning from morphemes, words, and
Syntax            -set of rules used for appropriate word order
Stages of         -infants make cooing noises (utterance of phonemes)
Language          -babbling (phonemes within infants’ home language)
                  - “holophrases” (one word stage)
Acquisition       - two word stage and telegraphic speech
Holophrastic      -single terms that are applied by the infants to broad categories of things
Telegraphic       -two or three word groups                                                     ex. want juice
Speech            -sounds like a telegram
Critical period   -proposes a window of time during which a child is especially ready to
                  learn language and which further suggests that if that opportunity is
                  missed that it might be too late to catch up
                  -intertwined with nature/nurture themes
                  -refers to a time during which a skill or ability must develop
Chomsky vs.       -Chomsky: Nativist perspective, idea that human brain has an innate
Skinner           capacity for acquiring language (language acquisition device) possibly
                  during a critical period of time after birth; born with universal sense of
                  grammar; “pre wired” for language
                  -Skinner: nurture view, language learned through a shaping process,
                  reinforcement, and imitation
Whorf’s           -speakers of diff languages develop diff cognitive systems as a result of     -ex: people of Burma have many words for rice
Linguistic        differences in language                                                       b/c it’s critical to way of life, it involves more
                  -language guides and determines thinking; language influences thought         categorization and complexity
Relativity        -language determines and limits experiences

Jun Wang Jun Wang Dr
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