Designing Effective Instruction by liwenting

VIEWS: 39 PAGES: 34

									Designing the Instruction:
       Strategies

          Chapter
            7
  Instructional Strategies
                         Planning
                         Revision
                        Instructional
        Evaluation        Problems
                                           Learner
       Instruments
                                        Characteristics
Development of
                                                  Task
  Instruction
                                                Analysis
   Designing the                           Instructional
     Message                                Objectives
              Instructional       Content
               Strategies        Sequencing
    Why Instructional Strategies?
      Instructional need and Objectives




 Effective
 Efficient
 Reliable
  Designing an Instructional
          Strategy
          An interactive process




Foundations for the                Instruction
   Prescription                     Strategies
a.k.a. “Heuristics”
 Prescriptions for Instructional
           Strategies

 Fact
 Concept
 Principles and Rules
 Procedure
 Interpersonal
 Attitude
              What it is…
 Learning – an active process
 Learner constructs meaningful relationships
 If well designed, prompts/motivates
 Makes connections – what one knows &
  new information
        Processing Strategies
   Phonemic – looking
    for specifics



   Semantic – seeking
    greater depth of
    meaning
           Foundations for the
              Prescription
                Cognitive Expression
   Recall: Repetition, rehearsal, review and mnemonics
    – Content          Recall      Application


        Fact
        Concept
        Principles and rules
        Procedure
        Interpersonal
        Attitude
     Prescriptions for teaching
                facts

 Concrete
 Abstract
 Lists
    Show, rehearse and
    demonstrate mnemonic
    training
                  Examples
   Factual Content Example        Presentation
    Concrete facts 747 aircraft     Show plane
                    has 4 engines types - identify
    Abstract facts Airport code Show
                     for Orlando luggage tags
                     is MCO
    Lists          Air destinations Show
                                     schedules –
                                     Compare cities
    Prescriptions for Teaching
            Concepts
                 Give examples
 Organization
 Integration
           Teaching Concepts
   A concept is a category used to group similar
    ideas or things (e.g., types of aircraft)
   Performance via recall or application
   Initial presentation includes concept name,
    definition, and best example
   Additional examples refine the category
   Models often used to illustrate abstract concepts
           Teaching Concepts
   Concept          Strategy    Presentation
    Aircraft types Integration Name, definition
                                  best example
                                  Provide pictures
                                  of passenger and
                                  military aircraft,
                                  cite examples of
                                  differences
        Teaching Concepts
Concept        Strategy Presentation
Aircraft types Organization Concept name,
                            best examples
                            Identify
                            characteristics
                            of different
                            passenger
                            aircraft types
      Prescription for Teaching
        Principles and Rules
   Statement that expresses a relationship
    * Rule-e.g.. and integration
    * E.g.-rule and organization
    * E.g.-rule and elaboration
Teaching Principles and Rules
   Statements that express relationships between
    concepts, e.g. passenger aircraft require increased
    in-flight amenities
   Performance can be either via recall or
    application, e.g. passenger aircraft must provide
    meals during international flights
   Application includes both explanation of the effect
    of the rule and prediction of consequences based
    on the rule, e.g., passengers not fed during
    overseas flights will be extremely irritable!
Teaching Principles and Rules
  Rule     Strategy     Presentation
Meals on Rule-e.g.       State rule and make
overseas & integration   table showing
commercial               different types of
flights cannot be        meals provided,
boxed lunches             then compare to
                          military meal types
Teaching Principles and Rules
  Rule      Strategy      Presentation
Boxed meals E.g.-rule Show example, then
on overseas organizational identify visual
flights are                differences
less appealing             Compare meals
to commercial              served on
passengers                 military & commercial
                           flights
Teaching Principles and Rules
 Rule      Strategy    Presentation
Boxed meals E.g.-rule & Develop argument
can cause Elaboration to explain why
food fights              something
among passengers         happened
Prescriptions for Teaching
       Procedures
  The steps used to perform a task
* Demonstration
* Organization
* Elaboration
     Prescriptions for Teaching
            Procedures
  Procedure       Strategy        Presentation
Preparing an Demonstrate, Students view
in-flight meal organization, video of
in First Class elaboration, cabin crew
galley         practice        preparing meal
                           Students visualize,
                           then prepare meals,
                            eat same (immediate
                                  reward! 
        Generative Strategies
   Rehearsal-practice
    – Covertly rehearse by repeating fact mentally,
      i.e., Syracuse has a great ISD
      program…Syracuse has a great ISD
      program…Syracuse has…
   Mnemonics – devises that aid in recall
    – “Every Good Boy Does Fine” = lines of the
      musical staff
            Foundations for the
               Prescription
                 Cognitive Expression
 Recall: Repetition, rehearsal, review and mnemonics
 Integration: transforms information into easily
    remembered form
    – Paraphrasing, putting the idea into your own words
    – Learner generates new questions or examples
      from the new information gained
            Foundations for the
               Prescription
                 Cognitive Expression
 Recall: Repetition, rehearsal, review and mnemonics
 Integration: Paraphrasing
 Organizational: Identify how new
  ideas relate to existing ones
    – Analyzing key ideas, outlining,
      integrating and categorizing
            Foundations for the
               Prescription
                Cognitive Expression
 Recall: Repetition, rehearsal, review and mnemonics
 Integration: Paraphrasing
 Organizational: Analyzing key ideas,
    outlining, and categorizing
   Elaboration: Add new ideas
   Mental images, physical diagrams, and
    sentence elaboration
    Prescriptions for Teaching
       Interpersonal Skills
   Model
    Prescriptions for Teaching
       Interpersonal Skills
 Model
 Develop verbal and imagined model
    Prescriptions for Teaching
       Interpersonal Skills
 Model
 Develop verbal and imagined model
 Mental rehearsal
    Prescriptions for Teaching
       Interpersonal Skills
 Model
 Develop verbal and imagined model
 Mental rehearsal
 Overt practice
    Prescriptions for Teaching
             Attitudes
   Model
    Prescriptions for Teaching
             Attitudes
 Model
 Develop verbal and imagined model
    Prescriptions for Teaching
             Attitudes
 Model
 Develop verbal and imagined model
 Mental rehearsal
    Prescriptions for Teaching
             Attitudes
 Model
 Develop verbal and imagined model
 Mental rehearsal
 Overt practice
                   Finale
 Instructional strategies provide a guide for
  developing the materials presented in the
  sequence you specified in the previous
  chapter.
 Consider the instructional strategy as a
  blueprint for developing your unit of
  instruction.

								
To top