Water Saving Challenges and Approaches SUMMARY REPORT

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					ICIS/WATSAVE International Workshop on Water Saving:         Cairo, Egypt, December 7, 2004
 Challenges and Approaches

                   Water Saving: Challenges and Approaches
                                          7 December, 2004

                                 SUMMARY REPORT

1.       Background

      After the WATSAVE Work Team (WT-WATS) was established by
ICID in 1993 as a follow-up of The Hague ICID Declaration, the first
exercise undertaken was to collect preliminary information about the
water saving activities already initiated by the countries that had joined
the team. Objective of the WT-WATS was to learn from the experiences
of these countries. Rather than just summarizing the country papers
received from them, an effort has been made to see if same generic
lessons from these experiences which might help in the promotion of
global WATSAVE programs could be drawn.

      The WT-WAT was established to achieve the objective of
understanding the ongoing conservation programs in member countries
of ICID. Main objectives of such WT-WATS meetings can be
summarized as follows:
- To promote water conservation in member-countries.
- To understand and disseminate water conservation programs and
   lessons learned.
- To provide guidelines on national and regional water conservation
- To promote and enhance partnerships between member-countries.

      The 1st WATSAVE Workshop entitled "Water Saving and
Sustainable Irrigated Agriculture in the Mediterranean Region" was held
on the occasion of 16th ICID Congress held at Cairo, Egypt in
September 1996. The Workshop was jointly organized with CIHEAM -
Bart Institute (Italy).

       Based on a proposal from the ICID's (WT-WATS) and
recommendation of the Permanent Committee for Technical Activities
(PCTA), the International Executive Council of ICID at the 55th Meeting
held in Moscow on 11 September 2004 approved the conversion of the
(WT-WATS) into Working Group on WATSAVE (WG-WATS).

      ENCID has organized the 2nd workshop on “WATSAVE Challenges
in Africa” on the occasion of the 6th International Micro-Irrigation

ICIS/WATSAVE International Workshop on Water Saving:   Cairo, Egypt, December 7, 2004
 Challenges and Approaches

Congress held in Cape Town, South Africa, October 2000. As part of the
WATSAVE activities, ICID instituted the WATSAVE Awards in the year
1997 to recognize outstanding contributions of professionals to water
saving and conservation for sustainable irrigated agriculture.

       The present WG-WATSAVE consists of membership from (22)
countries: Australia, Austria, China, Cyprus, Egypt, France, Germany,
Israel, India, Italy, Jordan, Mauritius, Morocco, Mexico, Pakistan,
Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Thailand, Turkey, United Kingdom, United
States of America, and other countries coming.

2.       Overview

      The 3rd ICID/WATSAVE International Workshop on Water Saving:
Challenges and Approaches that was held in Cairo on the side of the
"Challenges and Opportunities for Enhancing Quality of Life" during the
period 6-9 December 2004.

       A large number of ICID member-countries participated in the
workshop and introduced their experiences at national and regional
levels. The 3rd WATSAVE came up with a set of recommendations for
application. Very useful research papers have been presented in the
workshop. Moreover, the 3rd WATSAVE Workshop provoked constructive
discussions and suggestions among all participants in the direction of
demonstration innovative methods for water saving, strengthening
cooperation between member-countries in all WATSAVE activities, and
raising awareness of all WATSAVE programs, particularly in arid and
semi-arid regions. All participants emphasized their appreciation to the
3rd WATSAVE Workshop's organization Committee and mentioned that
the 3rd WATSAVE Meeting achieved to a great extend the ICID goal and
objectives in the area of water saving technologies.

3.       Third WATSAVE Workshop Objectives

       The main objectives of the 3rd WATSAVE Workshop can be listed
as follows:
• Sharing experience and knowledge gained in the field of water
  conservation at both national and regional levels within the ICID
• Promoting effective training and technology transfer regarding the
  issues of water saving measures adopted in many countries.

ICIS/WATSAVE International Workshop on Water Saving:   Cairo, Egypt, December 7, 2004
 Challenges and Approaches

• Promoting the assessment of the impact of water saving and
  conservation projects.
• Helping evolve effective network among irrigation and drainage
  professionals to share ideas and benefit from others' experience in
  the area of water saving.
• Identifying and reviewing research needs and gaps within the
  activities of the ICID member-countries.
• Suggesting a framework for effective cooperation and partnership in
  WATSAVE activities between the member countries.
• Facilitating data and information dissemination that will benefit all
  the ICID member-countries.
• Reviewing the outlines of the “Revised WATSAVE Scenario
  Document” and procedure for finalizing it.

4.       Topics

      The 3rd WATSAVE Workshop lasted for more than four hours on
two sessions. Number of technical papers submitted to 3rd WATSAVE
Workshop was (22). Due to the large number of technical papers
received from the interested participants, only a collection of them were
presented at the 3rd WATSAVE Workshop due to time limitation.
Therefore, by the end of the second session, the Workshop Raporteaur
presented a summary report including briefing of major findings of all
papers (presented and not presented) and the major conclusions and
recommendations as well. Presentations and full manuscripts are
available in the 3rd WATSAVE Workshop Proceeding.
The 3rd WATSAVE Workshop 2004 chiefly covered the following topics:
•    Management of existing irrigation systems which includes: assessing
     the need for rehabilitation by means of performance indicators and
     norms, selection of cost-effective improvement methods, and
     stakeholders’ involvement in planning, implementation, operation,
     and maintenance of the irrigation and drainage systems.
•    Use of some feasible, economic, and environment-friendly non-
     conventional water sources.
•    Application of high-tech irrigation methods.
•    Reuse of poor quality water.
•    Effective water quality management.
•    Water valuing.

ICIS/WATSAVE International Workshop on Water Saving:   Cairo, Egypt, December 7, 2004
 Challenges and Approaches

•    Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) approach.
•    Public awareness for water saving.
•    Framework for effective cooperation among ICID member-countries
     in 3rd WATSAVE activities.
•    Recommendations for future WATSAVE strategies and plans.

5.       Participation

       Participants from all (22) ICID member-countries attended and
contributed to the discussions of the presented country papers. In
addition, a large number of audience participated in the 3rd WATSAVE
Workshop, although it was on of the longest sessions in the ARCOD
Conference that lasted for about four hours. Papers presented covered
a wide spectrum of experiences gained within the above-mentioned

6.     Third WATSAVE Sessions Summary

6.1    Summary of Technical Papers
       Total of (22) Technical Papers were submitted to 3rd WATSAV
Workshop 2004 from seven Countries: Egypt, India, Italy, Nigeria, the
Netherlands, UK, and USA. Those technical papers were prepared by
scientists and researchers from (13) National and International
Agencies: Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation (MWRI), Ministry
of Agriculture and Land Reclamation (MALR), National Water Research
Center (MWRC), and Egyptian Public Authority for Drainage Projects
(EPADP) from Egypt, World Bank (WB) from United States of America,
Istituto Agronomico Mediterraneo di Bari from CHEAM/Bari, Italy from
Italy, Centre for Ecology and Hydrology from United Kingdom, The
Advisory Panel Project on Water Management (APP), a joint Egypt and
the Netherlands Project, Wilfried Hundertmark from IPTRID, Food and
Agricultural Organization (FAO), CEDARE, UNESCO, CAD/India.

6.2   Topics Presented and Discussed
      It can be concluded that, summary of topics that were presented
and discussed during the 3rd WATSAVE Workshop 2004 can be listed as
• Controlled Drainage
• Non-Conventional methods for water saving
• Planning for Water Saving
• IWRM and Water Saving

ICIS/WATSAVE International Workshop on Water Saving:    Cairo, Egypt, December 7, 2004
 Challenges and Approaches

•   Global Initiative to Water Saving
•   Country Experience, e. g., Nigeria, Egypt …
•   Sub-surface and Modern Irrigation Technologies
•   GIS and Remote Sensing Applications
•   Gender Role for Water Saving
•   Role of Stakeholders partnership for Water Saving

7. Discussions

      The 3rd WATSAVE Workshop was conducted for more than four
hours chaired by Dr. Hussein El-Atfy. Discussions and recommendations
were collected by the Raporteaur of the workshop – Dr. Wael Khairy.

       Agreement was reached among all 3rd WATSAVE Workshop
participants on the framework for cooperation and interaction among
the represented ICID member countries in the area of water saving. It
was agreed that with a view to develop a framework for water savings,
conservation activities for effective dissemination, and information
sharing among member countries, emphasis should be on effective
training and technology transfer, assessment of impact of such
measures, sharing of experiences of good projects, identifying research
needs to cover the gaps.

      There was also a consensus on the crucial need for water
resources saving in major suffering regions such as Asia, Africa, and
Latin America. The participants highlighted the need to create
awareness about water scarcity and need to adopt water saving,
conservation measures in arid and semi-arid regions of the world.

8. Concluding Remarks And Recommendations

   As a final product of the 3rd WATSAVE Workshop 2004, the following
conclusive remarks and recommendations were exerted:
• Non-conventional sources of water supply such as: reuse of drainage
  water, treated wastewater, and desalinated brackish groundwater or
  seawater under proper management systems is experienced to play
  a promising role in the foreseen Water Resources Plan of ICID
  countries. Thus tangible actions on the ground need to be taken in
  order to expand the utilization of these sources.

ICIS/WATSAVE International Workshop on Water Saving:   Cairo, Egypt, December 7, 2004
 Challenges and Approaches

• It is a necessity to implement the drainage projects parallel to the
  irrigation development projects especially in the surface irrigation-
  fed regions in order to ensure the environmental sustainability.
• A more successful application of the Integrated Water Resources
  Management (IWRM) requires consequent water supply and demand
  management in addition to significant stakeholders' participation.
  This leads to a growing feeling of stakeholders' ownership.
• Adoption of cropping patterns that have high water-productive
  potential and reasonable water requirements as well as effective on-
  farm water management technologies and practices.
• Focus on conversion from low to high beneficial water purposes
  (such as: from agriculture to industry) is essential for effective water
  saving and income increase.
• Water has an economic value that easy to capture and be benefited
  from. Thus the national policy makers are encouraged to subsidize
  those water uses that have a high economic return value and a high
  ability to pay at the expense of those uses such as tourism and
  industrial sectors.
• Providing farmers with easy-to-apply guidelines for the "Reuse of
  Drainage Water" reduces the environmental negative impacts
• Gender, women, and user’s participation play essential roles when
  implementation new water policies such as: applying the IWRM
  concepts and conducting public awareness campaigns. Moreover,
  education at all levels can also have a substantial positive
• Private-public partnership and investment in new developed lands is
  determined a key for more crop productivity and significant infra-
  structure cost recovery.
• Stakeholder Ownership in water resources management proved to
  be very effective approach that results in a well coordination, sincere
  cooperation, and lasting care from the stakeholders.
• Encourage the international donors and lending agencies as well as
  the developing countries to support more land drainage and
  irrigation water saving project in ICID countries.
• Further research in land/water salinity management needs to be
  included when applying IWRM at the level of farm, irrigation system
  and drainage catchments with the explicit goals of increasing
  agriculture productivity and sustaining long-term production
  potential of land and water resources.

ICIS/WATSAVE International Workshop on Water Saving:   Cairo, Egypt, December 7, 2004
 Challenges and Approaches

• Establishment and supporting of research and training centers for
  testing, introducing, and spreading advanced techniques will help in
  extremely water conservation.
• A comprehensive and reliable data bank relating to basin resources
  is a prerequisite for proper management of water resources. It helps
  in adopting and implementing any extensive water saving program.
  Real time information systems also considerably help to achieve
  dynamic control of water use in agriculture.