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Target 1998

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					WFP CAMBODIA
VAM TARGETING PROCESS 1998




   VAM Targeting Goals:

          “The aim of a WFP food-aid-assisted recovery programme is to enable people to
          restore their livelihoods in order to assure immediate and longer-term food needs.
          WFP can contribute to the process of transforming insecure, fragile conditions
          into durable, stable situations.” (From Crisis to Recovery, WFP 1998)

           To help fulfil this aim, the WFP VAM Unit in Cambodia has been assigned to
   target areas and populations for recovery and rehabilitation with food aid. Targeting has
   three basic goals in mind.

    Strengthen understanding of vulnerability and food insecurity among WFP and
     Counterpart staff
    Build stronger links between targeting and food insecurity
    Support 3 tiered targeting strategy for WFP supported rehabilitation activities:
     area/community/people


   Basic Targeting Concepts in Cambodia
    Food insecurity in Cambodia can be observed in a number of ways:
   1. Normal entitlements are regularly not enough and cause chronic shortages of income
      and food.
   2. Transient food insecurity when a natural disaster or man made event occurs that
      temporarily and precipitously reduces entitlements.
   3. Dependence on entitlements which carry unacceptable risk, such as going to insecure
      or mined areas for livelihood, long term indebtedness for food, and transient
      migration for employment.

   Outcome Indicators: Information from the national 1997 Socio-economic Household
   Survey and the 1997 WFP/MRD rapid rural appraisal have been linked to help establish a
   set of outcome indicators that are used to define the direct results or defining
   characteristics of food insecurity. These include anthropometric measurements for
   children under five years old, total estimated expenditures, % of food to total
   expenditures, and reliance on high risk coping strategies. Regression and correlation
   analysis helped to determine factors closely linked with specific outcomes.
Targeting: Targeting is a resource planning tool, which allows findings of vulnerability
analysis to be combined with operational objectives in order to establish priorities and
allocations. There are two major processes at work in targeting: measuring indicators of
food insecurity relevant to distinct population groups, and monitoring changes which can
change the food security status of people.

Vulnerability: The notion of vulnerability is a relatively new concept in food security
studies, which emphasizes the combination of risks to food availability and people’s
abilities to cope with such risks. By looking at both sides of the vulnerability equation,
WFP is able to gain a more in-depth and sustainable knowledge of trends and events
which affect populations at risk.

Operational Parameters- WFP Cambodia’s targeting methodology is based on the
intervention strategy outlined in the CSO. This strategy was refined when the Country
Office prepared the Protracted Relief and Rehabilitation Programme draft for the period
1999-2000.

The broad goal of the PRRO is:
Sustained food security among the chronically hungry poor, simultaneously with the
promotion of re-emerging social cohesion and support systems.

The objectives - in line with WFP's Mission Statement - will be to:
i)    build and rehabilitate essential assets, facilitate reconciliation and promote self-
reliance among the poor;
ii) contribute to improving quality of life;
iii) provide immediate relief from hunger among specific groups temporarily unable
to meet their basic food needs.


       The specific outputs for reaching this objective are as follows:
       Activity                                              Objective
1.1 Rural road improvement               Economic growth, market integration & food security
1.2 Rural road maintenance               Medium-term sustainment of road improvement
1.3 Pond & well installation             benefits
                                         Time saved; better health; vegetable & livestock
1.4 Water control infrastructure         prodn
                                         Increased yields & security of food production
1.5 Land clearance                       Facilitation of resettlement & reconciliation
1.6 Village wood lots                    Fuel security; time saved & environmental
1.7 Rice/seed banks                      conservation
                                         Credit in support of rice production & food security
1.8 Latrine construction                 Reduced diarrhoea incidence & general improved
1.9 Cultural heritage conservation       health
                                         Development of the tourism industry
General Steps taken by the VAM Unit for 1998 Targeting
1) Establish typology of food security zones in Cambodia, defined by land use,
   entitlements and physical features. Assign zones by district in Cambodia
2) Identify outcome indicators to food insecurity
3) Through analysis of VAM database, identify determinants and proxy indicators
   available at district level for identifying vulnerable districts.
4) Organise results and review findings with field staff and Ministry of Rural
   Development counterparts.
5) Through continued analysis of household information and participatory methods,
   assist the Country Office to target most vulnerable households.


Food Security Zones- In previous targeting exercises, WFP used a standard measure to
target communes throughout the country. In order to make the targeting fair, we used a
wide range indicators, which would help to identify problems in different regions. In most
cases, WFP was able to identify poor communes using this approach. The drawback
however, was a complex index that did not clearly link with causes of food insecurity.

One method for targeting used in other countries by WFP is to describe major types of
household economies of the people who live there. Areas are then grouped into “Food
Security” zones.

Grouping districts by types of food economies accomplishes several things:

 Allows WFP and MRD to target based on appropriate indicators for a particular
  group.
 Makes opportunities and problems about food security more clear and understandable
  to people
 Helps to simplify targeting procedures, by reducing the number of indicators for each
  group.
 Defines a stronger relationship between monitoring events that change food security,
  and more chronic problems faced in “normal” years.

       The vulnerability analysis for targeting in 1998, is based on a number of sources:

 The SESC/MICS Survey: Household survey of 5,600 cases, with nutrition and
  income information. UNDP/ADB/Ministry of Planning

 The 1997 Crop Survey: Commune level statistics of rice and other crop production.
  WFP/FAO/Ministry of Agriculture

 The MRD/WFP 1997 Commune and Village Rapid Appraisal: 2751 villages
  looking at a variety of indicators

 Geographic Information Systems: Includes land use, roads, administration
  boundaries. Department of Geography/WFP/UNDP/FAO et al.
1)Lowland rain fed areas: The majority of the population rely on a single non-irrigated
wet season rice crop as a major food and income resource; small independent land
holdings; income is supplemented by a variety of seasonal activities. Terrain is
characterised as relatively flat and under extensive cultivation. 45 districts, 2.9 million
people

2)Scrub/contract labour: People rely mainly on degraded-forest resources and wage
labour for income. Limited cultivation of rice, insufficient to meet annual needs.
Landless households are commonly found in these areas. Vulnerable to reduction of
forest resources through exploitation, and isolation from markets and major roads. 24
districts, 1.2 million people reside in these areas.

3)Riverine: The majority of people rely on cash crops, floating or dry season rice, and
fishing for food security and income. Reside next to major rivers or in communes
adjoining the Tonle Sap. Approximately 1.7 million people in 28 districts.

4)Urban/Market: Rely on cash income jobs and small business in urban government
centres. 17 districts, estimated at 1.3 million people.

5)Forest: Rely mainly on forest products for food and income. Vulnerable to access to
forested areas. Very low densities, less than 8 people per square kilometer. 37 districts,
450,000 people.

Mixed:

 Forest/Rice: Despite meeting the rain fed rice criteria, 4 districts, representing
  229,000 people also have over 20 % of the assessed households report cutting logs for
  income.
 Forest/Riverine: Over 20% of the population are engaged with forest activities, over
  75% of the land area is in forest, and the population meet with the criteria of the
  Riverine districts. 3 Districts, totalling 122,000
 Forest/Scrub: In 9 districts, 230,900 people, families heavily rely on both degraded
  forests in the vicinity of their villages, and on forest resources within their districts.
 Rice/Scrub/Forest: 104,500 people in 3 districts meet the criteria for all three
  classifications.
 Unclear: In 7 districts, representing 565,000 people, households no definite pattern of
  food security emerges, or districts straddle several different zones.

Criteria for Food Economy assignments
Lowland Rain fed meet at least 3 of the four criteria below:
 =>0.8 hectares of rice land to rice farming households
 =>250 kilograms of paddy production per farming person
   =>75% of the households in the district farming rice
   =>30% of village points inside rice lands

Sources: Summary of 1996/1997 crop findings and village-land use analysis. (weighted
by number of rice farming households in 1997. See lowland1.sav)

Riverine:
 => 50% of the population reside within 0.5 kilometre of major rivers identified on
    the RIV_UTM map, or in communes adjoining the Tonle Sap Lake.
 =>.5 hectares of dry season, floating rice, and other crops per farming household.
 Districts report at least 30 % of the hectares for rice farming is dry season farming, or
    secondary cash crop.
Sources:
GIS: a 500 meter buffer was defined for each river channel, using the major river map,
digitized from 1:250,000 maps. Communes were selected next to the Tonle Sap, digitized
from 1:50,000 maps. The Communes were combined into a single polygon. Villages
from Phum_01 were selected using the polygon tool. Not in buffer: 0; Tonle Sap: 1;
Rivers: 2. Populations within buffer were summed, and grouped by district as a field,
(Rivbufpop).

WFP/FAO/MINAG Crop Survey: Communes were calculated for number of cultivated
hectares in dry season rice, floating rice and cash crops. (drycrop), Another field,
planpcdry, is calculated as drycrop/plan_all (all cultivated rice land), indicating the
percent of the crop in the commune falling in these categories. (Extent of farmed land)


Scrub/Contract Labour:
 =>50% of the people reside in villages in shrub/grasslands or upland crop land
   classifications
 AND/OR: >50% of the communes were included in the 1997 targeting exercise, with
   =>40% of households report selected forest products for income activities in 1996.
   (Bamboo, Thatch, Charcoal, firewood, grass)

(Sources: GIS Simplified Land Cover Map, from 1992/1993 Landsat; Village points
with populations were assigned LU class, and calculated as a percentage of total village
populations by district
Village assessment: districts have at least 50% of the communes surveyed were
calculated for the following income activities: Thatch, bamboo, firewood, charcoal, and
grass products. Because of known underreporting tendencies on income, we used a 40%
threshold.)

Forest:
 =>50% of the land area of the district is primary or secondary forest.
AND/OR
 =>30% of the households in village assessment report log cutting or cutting logs for
   income in 1996.
   =<8 persons per square kilometre average density.

Urban/Market:
Urban Province Centers/Urban Phnom Penh
UNFPA designation during the Demographic Survey

Mixed:
Meet more than one food security zone criteria.

Unclear:
Meet none of the food security zone criteria
Targeting districts and communes
        Once Food Economy zones were defined and reviewed by field staff, the VAM
Unit ran a number of exploratory analyses to determine the best sets of predictors for the
different zones. In this step we found that rice crop statistics were a powerful
determinant to outcomes in lowland rice areas, but not in other areas. Cash income
sources and reliance on high risk coping strategies were closely linked to scrub land
zones, while distance from markets and major roads were more closely linked to riverine
outcomes. In all zones, being adjacent to a national highway was one of the single most
important factors to both nutritional and expenditure outcomes.
        After the analyses, a basic set of targeting indicators at district level were selected
and reviewed by the Programme staff. Findings were processed, and field staff again
reviewed and discussed the results. Once districts were ranked and selected, the results of
the 1997 Commune Assessment were used to prioritise communes for targeting.
        In order to ensure that targeting is based on current conditions, a set of criteria
have been adopted to update commune information, which would show significant
changes in reliance on high risk coping strategies, changes in production, and sudden
changes in sources of income.

				
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