ROCHESTER YOUTH CHEERLEADING ASSOCIATION by abstraks

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									  ROCHESTER
    YOUTH
CHEERLEADING
 ASSOCIATION

 CHEERLEADING
    SAFETY
     AND
   STUNTING

    (Revised 2003)
RYCA Cheerleading Safety & Stunting Procedures (Revised 2003)                    Page 1




          CHEERLEADING SAFETY
  THERE IS NO MORE IMPORTANT ISSUE IN CHEERLEADING
 TODAY THAN SAFETY. WE HIGHLY RECOMMEND THAT YOU
 BECOME THOROUGHLY FAMILIAR WITH THE INFORMATION
CONTAINED IN RYCA’S OPERATING PROCEDURES AND IN THE
                AACCA SAFETY MANUAL.


                           THE COACH’S ROLE IN SAFETY

The cheerleading coach has responsibility for the safety of the cheerleaders.
Here are some important points to remember when working with your squad.

1.      CONSTANT SUPERVISION – A survey revealed that 8% of all
        cheerleading injuries occur in practice. The coach must be present at all
        cheerleading practices and make sure the cheerleaders area ware of and
        abiding by safety rules.

2.      SETTING PARAMETERS AND ESTABLISHING ABILITY LEVELS – The
        safety guidelines established by RYCA are broad parameters for
        cheerleading activity. The coach must constantly evaluate her squad
        members to make sure they participate in activities within their ability level.
        An easy way to set specific guidelines for each cheerleader as well as the
        squad as a whole is to establish a qualifying system.

        In other words, before cheerleaders are allowed to perform stunts of skills
        without spotters (when specifically allowed by RYCA operating procedures
        and safety rules) they must do the stunt 5 times without difficulty.
        Qualifying should be done in the presence of spotters. See the qualifying
        sheet enclosed.

3.      STAY CURRENT – Coaches should remain up-to-date on all new
        techniques and safety regulations. If there are questions, a
        knowledgeable cheerleading expert should be contacted. RYCA
        recommends the coach be familiar with safety procedures discussed in
        the AACCA Cheerleading Safety Manual and the RYCA Operating
        Procedures and Safety Rules.
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  CHEERLEADING GENERAL RULES, STUNTING RULES, AND CONDUCT

The following safety rules, recommendations and guidelines are general in
nature and are not intended to cover all circumstances. All cheerleading
gymnastics (including tumbling, partner stunts, and pyramids) should be carefully
previewed, supervised, and reviewed by a qualified and knowledgeable coach.
RYCA makes no warranties or representations whether expressed or implied that
the following guidelines will prevent injuries to individual participants.

A) GENERAL RULES

    1. COACHES AND HELPERS
        a. All cheerleading squads who wish to stunt must be under the
           direction of a Certified AACCA coach.
        b. Anyone giving stunting and tumbling advice or help to an RYCA
           squad must be AACCA certified, unless permission has been
           received from the RYCA president.
        c. An AACCA certified coach must be present at all practices and
           functions.
    2. STUNTING
        a. An AACCA certified coach must be present when stunting is
           attempted.
        b. Absolutely no stunting is allowed without the presence, knowledge
           and approval of an AACCA certified coach.
        c. All partner stunts and pyramids must be mastered according to the
           “Partner Stunt Progressions” section of the AACCA manual. A
           written record of each cheerleader’s mastery of each stunt should be
           kept.
        d. Coaches must recognize the entire squad’s particular ability level and
           limit the squad’s activities accordingly.
        e. Absolutely no stunting while holding pom-pom’s or any other object.
    3. TUMBLING
        a. No RYCA coach or representative may teach, or bring in anyone to
           teach tumbling skills (ex: handsprings, tucks, etc.) without prior
           approval of the RYCA president.
        b. Coaches must recognize the entire squad’s particular ability level and
           limit the squad’s activity accordingly.
    4. SPOTTING
        a. Training in proper spotting techniques is mandatory for ALL members
           of a squad attempting cheerleading gymnastics (ex: tumbling, partner
           stunts, pyramids, and jumps).
        b. Training in spotting is also required for anyone (other adults, parents,
           etc.) who will be used as a spotter AT ANY TIME.
RYCA Cheerleading Safety & Stunting Procedures (Revised 2003)                  Page 3


    5. LOCATION
        a. All practice session must be held in a location suitable for the
           activities of cheerleaders (ex: use of tumbling mats when needed,
           away from excessive noise and distractions, etc.)
        b. The cheering surface, location, lighting and weather conditions must
           be taken into consideration before engaging in physical activity.
        c. The sideline area is restricted to registered cheerleaders who are
           cheering for that team, and their coaches.
    6. APPAREL
        a. Accessories and apparel must be conducive to safe performance.
        b. Jewelry, including ANY earrings, is prohibited.
        c. Chewing gum and other food is prohibited while practicing or
           performing.
        d. Safety must be considered in the selection of hair ornaments.
        e. Medical alert tags are acceptable; however, they must be secured to
           the skin using tape.
    7. WARM-UPS AND CONDITIONING
        a. Warm-up exercises and stretching MUST precede all practice
           sessions, parades, games, competitions, and any other physical
           activities.
    8. CHEERS AND CHANTS
        a. No degrading cheers, chants, or profanity are allowed. Please keep
           your cheers within the limits of good taste.
        b. Half-time cheers/performances should be limited to one minute in
           length.


B) GENERAL STUNTING RULES

    1. PROHIBITED ITEMS
        a. Use of mini-trampolines, springboards, or any other height increasing
           apparatus is prohibited.
        b. Absolutely no stunting while holding pom-poms, signs or other
           objects
    2. PROHIBITED FLIPS AND TWISTS
        a. Toe pitch flips are prohibited.
        b. A forward 2/4 clip to the seat or knees is prohibited.
        c. Twists are prohibited.
        d. Free-falling flips or swan dives from any type of toss, partner stunt, or
           pyramid are prohibited.
    3. PROHIBITED JUMPS, DROPS, AND KICKS
        a. Knee drops, front, back and side tension drops and rolls are
           prohibited. The hands MUST support most of the weight before
           contact with the performing surface is made by the knees or seat, or
           before the full split position is achieved.
RYCA Cheerleading Safety & Stunting Procedures (Revised 2003)                 Page 4


        b. Landing for all jumps must bear weight on at least one foot. (Ex: A
           toe touch to a hurdle position, to the seat, knees, or landing with both
           feet back is prohibited.)
    4. PROHIBITED TOSSES AND VAULTS
        a. Helicopter tosses are prohibited.
        b. Basket tosses of any type are prohibited.
        c. Vaults are prohibited.
        d. Extended liberties are prohibited.

C) REGULATIONS
   1. STUNTS
       a. A partner stunts and pyramids are limited to two persons high. “Two
          High” is defined as the base having at least one foot on the ground.
       b. When one stunt is bracing another, one of the stunts must be at
          chest height or below.
   2. SPOTTING
       a. Hands-on spotting must be used while a stunt is being learned.
          There are also certain stunts in each grade level, which REQUIRE
          you to use hands-on spotting at all times.
       b. Unless hands-on spotting is specifically required by RYCA for your
          Grade/Stunt level, general spotting may be used at the discretion of
          the AACCA certified coach, once a stunt has been “mastered” (can
          be performed safely and correctly 10 out of 10 times) by the people
          involved.
       c. Partner stunts and pyramids at or above chest level must have a
          continuous spotter for each person over chest level.
       d. Hanging pyramids must have a continuous spotter each chest level
          or higher flyer that is involved in suspending another person.
       e. Each extended stunt must have a hands-on spotter and an adult
          general spotter.
   3. DISMOUNTS AND CATCHES
       a. Cradle dismounts from all stunts require three catchers. A spotter
          (Scoop), and two basses, or a scoop and two spotters.
       b. All backward dismounts from partner stunts or pyramids must use
          three catchers.
       c. All pendulum flyers must be caught with a minimum of 5 people, 1
          which is responsible for the head, shoulder, and neck of the flyer.
   4. HANGING PYRAMIDS
       a. Any flyer who is involved in suspending another person (ex: Hanging
          Pyramids) must be chest high or lower.
       b. A front and a back spotter must be used when a flyer is changing
          bases.
   5. TRANSITIONAL STUNTS
       a. When a flyer is moving from a cradle position directly to another
          stunt, without coming to a standing position directly on the performing
RYCA Cheerleading Safety & Stunting Procedures (Revised 2003)                    Page 5


           surface before performing the second stunt, it is highly recommended
           that a front spotter be used at all time.
        b. A front and back spotter must be used when a flyer is changing
           bases.
    6. LOCATION
        a. Any warm-ups, practices, or performances must be done in a safe
           environment.
    7. DISCIPLINARY ACTIONS
        a. Individuals or squads who do not follow RYCA safety guidelines and
           regulations (general, specific, or grade specific) will be suspended
           from stunting for a period of one week. An RYCA board member will
           attend and critique all squad practices and performances during that
           week.

D) GRADE SPECIFIC STUNTING RULES

    A key to maximizing safety, regardless of the mode or level of participation, is
    that the coach and squad members hold a realistic understanding of their skill
    level and make reasonable judgments about appropriate levels of
    participation and proceed accordingly.

    1. Seasonal RYCA squads are restricted by the following age level
       guidelines: (Remembering that each coach must recognize the entire
       squad’s particular ability levels and limit the squad’s activity accordingly).
    2. Squads are limited to the specific stunts listed under their grade level
    3. See attached sheet to see the legal stunts for each grade level.
RYCA Legal Stunts
***REMEMBER: Absolutely NO STUNTING on the sidelines. During play, you must always be facing the game.

GRADE 4                           GRADE 5                               GRADE 6                                   GRADE 7 & 8
Step-up drill                     Step-up drill                         Step-up drill                             Step-up drill
Arm Stand                         Arm Stand                             Arm Stand                                 Arm Stand
Chair *with approval              Chair *with approval                  Chair                                     Chair
Cradle *with approval             Cradle                                Cradle                                    Cradle
----                              Cradle pop*with approval              Cradle pop                                Cradle pop
Elevator (double-based)           Elevator (double-based)               Elevator (double-based)                   Elevator (double-based)
----                              ----                                  Elevator (single-based w/post)            Elevator (single-based w/post)
----                              ----                                  Extension (double-based) *with approval   Extension (double-based) *with approval
Hitch – ground level              Hitch – ground level                  Hitch – ground level                      Hitch – ground level
Hitch – thigh high                Hitch – thigh high                    Hitch – thigh high                        Hitch – thigh high
Hitch – chest high                Hitch – chest high                    Hitch – chest high                        Hitch – chest high
L stand                           L stand                               L stand                                   L stand
----                              ----                                  Liberty – chest high                      Liberty – chest high
----                              ----                                  ----                                      Liberty heel stretch – chest high
----                              ----                                  Pendulum                                  Pendulum
Pony Sit                          Pony Sit                              Pony Sit                                  Pony Sit
----                              Shoulder Stand*with approval          Shoulder Stand                            Shoulder Stand
Shoulder straddle (sit)           Shoulder straddle (sit)               Shoulder straddle (sit)                   Shoulder straddle (sit)
----                              ----                                  Split extension w/post                    Split extension w/post
Split chest high w/post           Split chest high w/post               Split chest high w/post                   Split chest high w/post
Straddle sit (triple-based)       Straddle sit (triple-based)           Straddle sit (triple-based)               Straddle sit (triple-based)
Swedish roll (1 base, 1 post)     Swedish roll (1 base, 1 post)         Swedish roll (1 base, 1 post)             Swedish roll (1 base, 1 post)
Swedish roll (2 bases, 1 post)    Swedish roll (2 bases, 1 post)        Swedish roll (2 bases, 1 post)            Swedish roll (2 bases, 1 post)
Table Top                         Table Top                             Table Top                                 Table Top
Thigh stand (double-based)        Thigh stand (double-based)            Thigh stand (double-based)                Thigh stand (double-based)
Thigh stand – side                Thigh stand – side                    Thigh stand – side                        Thigh stand – side
Thigh stand – rear                Thigh stand – rear                    Thigh stand – rear                        Thigh stand – rear
Thigh stand heel stretch          Thigh stand heel stretch              Thigh stand heel stretch                  Thigh stand heel stretch
Transitional stunt – same bases   Transitional stunt – same bases       Transitional stunt – same bases           Transitional stunt – same bases
----                              Transitional stunt – changing bases   Transitional stunt – changing bases       Transitional stunt – changing bases

*with approval (must seek approval from Lynette Harberts, RYCA President)
                    STUNTING DEFINITIONS
AERIAL – a stunt performed free of contact with a person or surface (ILLEGAL).
    exception would be an aerial cartwheel.
ARABESQUE – a stunt in which the flyer is standing on one leg, with the other
    leg extended straight behind her.
ARM STAND – a stunt in which the flyer stands on the bases’ forearms. The
    bases’ arms are bent at a 45 degree angle, with the elbow kept tight against
    the torso, with the palm (should be fisted) facing upward.
BACK ARCH – a stunt in which the top person is held by a base(s) in a extended
    position. The top person is face up and is held by the hips, and arches her
    back and lowers her head and shoulders (ILLEGAL).
BASE – a person who is in direct weight-bearing contact with the performing
    surface and provides primary support for another person.
BASKET TOSS – toss involving 3-4 tossers, 2 of which have their hands
    interlocked (ILLEGAL).
BIRDS – a stunt in which the top person is held by a base(s) in an extended
    position. The top person is prone (face down) and is held by the hips
    (ILLEGAL).
BRACER – a person who stabilizes a stunt by direct contact with a top person.
    The stunt should remain stable without the bracer.
CHAIR – an extended stunt in which the flyer is supported by one base whose
    arm is extended over her head. The flyer sits on the base’s extended hand,
    keeping one leg straight, and bending the other leg to bring the foot to the
    other knee.
CRADLE – (cradle catch) – occurs when the catchers, with palms up, catch the
    top person by placing one arm under the back and the other under the
    thighs of the top person (requires 3 catchers)
DIAMOND HEAD – a hanging pyramid in which a shoulder stand flyer is
    supporting two hanging flyers (ILLEGAL).
DIVE ROLL – A forward roll in which the person loses contact with the
    performing surface (jumps, leaps, etc.) before her hands make contact with
    the performing surface (ILLEGAL).
ELEVATOR – (also called an extension prep, or a half) – a stunt in which the
    flyer is supported by two bases, who hold her feet at their chest level. Must
    have a back spotter.
EXTENDED STUNT – one in which the supporting arm(s) for the base(s) is fully
    extended above the head.
EXTENSION – A stunt in which the supporting arms of the bases are fully
    extended above the head and the top is standing in the hands of the bases.
FLIP – an aerial stunt, involving head – over – heal rotation (ILLEGAL).
FLYER – a person on top of a mount.
FRONT DROP – dropping forcefully from an airborne position to a horizontal,
    face-down position on the performing surface (ILLEGAL).
HANGING PYRAMID – a pyramid in which a top person suspends another
    peson in the air who does have the support of her own base(s).
RYCA Cheerleading Safety & Stunting Procedures (Revised 2003)               Page 8


HEEL STRETCH – a position in which a person stands on one leg, the other leg
    is held up at least a 45 degree angel from the other leg.
HELICOPTER – a top person in a horizontal position is tossed by the bases,
    then rotates like helicopter blades before being caught by the original bases
    (ILLEGAL).
HITCH – a position in which a person stands on one leg, the other leg is held up
    with the knee being bent at least at a 45 degree angle.
INVERTED – head below the waist.
KNEE/SEAT/HIGH DROP – dropping forcefully to one knee(s), seat or thighs
    onto the performing surface from a jump or stand without first bearing most
    of the weight on the hands/feet which breaks the impact of the drop
    (ILLEGAL).
LIBERTY – a position in which a flyer is supported on one leg. The classic
    liberty position has the other leg being bent with the knees facing forward
    with the foot at the knee of the other leg. 7th and 8th grades may do chest
    high classic liberties and chest high liberty heel stretch.
LOG ROLL – a top person in a horizontal position is tossed then rotates parallel
    to the performing surface before being caught by the original bases
    (ILLEGAL).
MOUNT – any skill in which one or more persons are supported by one or more
    persons.
PENDULUM – a stunt in which the top person falls forward/backward to at least
    a 5 person catch while maintaining constant hands-to-feed/legs contact with
    the base. It shall be performed from shoulder height or below.
POP – a controlled pushing motion upward by a base(s) to release the top to a
    cradle catch.
PYRAMID – multiple mounts.
RUSSIAN – an extended stunt in which a base extends her arms over head.
    The flyer, who is behind the base, is supported, by the base, under the
    armpits. The flyer then raises her legs into a straddle position and supports
    them with her hands.
RUSSIAN JUMP – a jump in which the legs are in a straddle position and the
    arms are brought down in front in the classic “buckets” position. The only
    difference between this jump and a “toe touch” is the position of the arms.
SPLIT DROP – dropping forcefully to the performing surface from a jump or
    stand, landing with legs extended in a split position without first bearing
    most of the weight on the hands/feet which breaks the impact of the drop
    (ILLEGAL).
SPOTTER – a person who is in direct contact with the performing surface and
    may help control the building of, or dismounting from, a mount. This
    person(s) shall not provide the primary support which means that the mount
    or pyramid would remain stable without the spotter(s). The primary
    responsibility of a spotter is to watch for safety hazards. Therefore, an
    inattentive person is not considered the spotter. The spotter shall be in a
    position to prevent injuries with special emphasis on protecting the head,
    neck and back areas.
RYCA Cheerleading Safety & Stunting Procedures (Revised 2003)              Page 9


SUSPENDED ROLL – involved head-over-heels rotation with the top person
    having both hands in a continuous hand-to-hand/arm contact with the bases.
SUSPENDED SPLITS – a top person who is in a split position suspended
    between two bases.
STUNT – any tumbling skill, mounts, or pyramid.
SWAN DIVE – an aerial stunt in which the top person is in a prone (face down)
    position as she comes off the base and is cradled in a prone position
    (ILLEGAL).
SWEDISH ROLL – a stunt in which the flyer is in a prone (face down) position.
    She supports herself on locked arms on a post’s shoulders. Bases then lift
    her hips and legs until she is in a prone position (head may not be below the
    waist). The flyer then raises one leg higher.
SWEEP – a controlled pushing motion forward by a base(s) to release the top
    person to a cradle catch.
TENSION DROP – a pyramid/mount in which the bases(s) and top(s) lean in
    formation until the top leaves the base without assistance (ILLEGAL).
TOE PITCH FLIP – a flip in which the top person places her foot in the hands of a
    base who then tosses that foot upward thereby assisting the top person in
    executing a flip (ILLEGAL).
TOSS/PITCH – is a throwing motion by the base(s) to increase the height of the
    top person with the top person becoming free of contact with the base(s)
    (ILLEGAL).
TOTEM POLE – a multi-base stunt which creates a tiered appearance by
    connecting stunts of increasing height, one behind the other.
TRANSITIONAL STUNTS – involves a top person moving from one stunt to
    another.
TUMBLING – includes rolls, cartwheels, handstands, walkovers, handsprings,
    etc.
TWIST – is an aerial stunt involving rotation perpendicular to the performing
    surface (ILLEGAL).
TWO HIGH PYRAMID/MOUNT – all individuals in the pyramid/mount who are not
    in contact with the cheering surface must be primarily supported by one or
    more individuals who are in direct weight-bearing contact with the performing
    surface.
VAULT – a stunt in which the hands of the top person are used to assist in
    clearing a base or bases. (ILLEGAL).

								
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