Exam 4 Study Guide Principles of Psychology, Fall 2003 The fourth exam in this course will be during finals week, and all students must take the final during the scheduled time period, Thursday, December 11th, from 1:30 to 3 pm. The exam will cover Chapters 15, 4, and 10. Because it is NOT cumulative (i.e., it doesn't cover material from previous tests), you will be given the usual hour and a half to take the exam, and you must come at the start time specified (i.e., because the exams will be collected after 90 minutes). As always, it will include material from both the lectures and the text, and you are responsible for ALL material in the text, whether it was covered in lecture or not. The exam will follow the format that you've all come to know and love: 25 m.c. questions (worth 2 points each), approximately 7 fill-in-the blank questions (worth 2 points each), and several short answer questions (36 points worth). Be sure to review the suggestions for studying and taking tests given in the first study guide (and posted on the web). Also remember that "looking over material" (i.e., having it bounce off your retinas) is NOT the same as encoding the material. During the exam, be sure to read the exam questions carefully and to follow the directions given. (Don’t be afraid to ask me questions during the exam, either). Good Luck! Lecture Review Outline Given below are summaries of the material covered in lecture. They are meant as a supplement to your detailed class notes and as an aid in helping you organize your studying (i.e., in chunks and hierarchically). They are not meant to be comprehensive, nor are they meant to substitute for reviewing your notes (and the book) carefully. I. Social Psychology: Person Perception A. Social psychology: the scientific study of how the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of individuals are affected by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others. B. The process by which we form impressions of other people C. We use several kinds of information in making judgments about others 1. physical appearance (e.g., attractive people are funny, warm, sociable, nice) - exercise: pictures of my friends (and impressions of them) 2. group stereotypes (e.g., jocks, engineers, professors) 3. behavior - we observe it and try to infer the underlying causes - "attribution" - want to understand others' behavior so we can predict and control world - two kinds: internal/dispositional or external/situational - biases - fundamental attribution error - overemphasize internal factors and underemphasize external factors (e.g., Heather Locklear, bad drivers, outgoing professors) - self-serving bias - explain success as internal, failure as external - false consensus bias - overestimate degree that others share opinions - egocentric bias - exaggerate contribution to shared events II. Social Psychology: Attitudes A. One of the most important and central concepts in social psychology B. "An enduring evaluation, positive or negative, of people, objects, and ideas" C. Do attitudes guide behavior? 1. seems obvious, but the link is not as strong as might be expected - LaPiere's (1934) famous traveling study - ex. honest people who cheat on tax returns; smoking despite danger 2. conditions under which attitudes guide behavior - specific (vs. general) attitudes (e.g., birth control study) - attitude strength - influenced by amount of info, personal experience - when there are few outside influences on behavior (ex. costs, pressures) D. Does behavior guide attitudes? 1. Festinger's (1957) cognitive dissonance theory - we strive to maintain consistency between our attitudes & behaviors because dissonance is uncomfortable (e.g., hate Pepsi but drink it) 2. the induced compliance paradigm - when someone persuades us to do something that runs counter to our beliefs - Festinger and Carlsmith's (1959) famous $1 experiment - Zimbardo: Army recruits eat grasshoppers for Mr. Nice or Mr. Nasty - note: being "forced" to do something eliminates dissonance 3. the effort justification paradigm - we come to love what we suffer for - Aronson and Mills' (1959) "psychology of sex" study - e.g., fraternity hazing; satisfaction with therapy III. Social Psychology: Social Influence A. Three forms of influence on a continuum that ranges from least to most pressure B. Conformity - yielding to group pressures when no direct request is made 1. Solomon Asch's (1951) classic experiment [saw videoclip in class] 2. factors that affect conformity - difficulty of the judgment, group size, group unanimity C. Obedience - complying with a direct request from someone in a position of power 1. Nazi war criminals were just "following orders" 2. Milgram's (1963) famous experiment (65% obedience); saw videoclip - students/psychiatrists predicted that 1 in 1000 would go "all the way" 3. factors that reduce obedience - disobedient model, closeness of the authority, closeness of the learner 4. other examples (silly stuff in class: the wave, rubbing head/patting tummy) D. Compliance - yielding to a direct request (e.g., techniques identified by Cialdini) 1. foot-in-the door - comply with small request initially and larger one later - ex. Freedman & Fraser's "drive carefully" billboard study - works because of commitment 2. door-in-the face - start with initial large request and retreat to smaller one - ex. Cialdini's "Youth Counseling Program" study - works because of contrast and because it seems like a concession 3. low ball - commit to a "great deal" but positives removed or negatives added - ex. car salespeople - works because we justify our choices and our decision comes to stand on its own legs (even after initial inducement is gone) IV. Human Development A. Developmental psychologists study the human life span from conception to death, focusing on physical (e.g., newborns walking, puberty in adolescence, declining health in older adulthood), cognitive (e.g., changes in understanding, intelligence, memory), and social development (e.g., relationships with others). B. The competent newborn 1. After the 60s, new technologies and methods that capitalize on what babies naturally do (gaze, suck, turn head) have allowed us to see how competent and active they really are - methods include sucking rate, staring, and habituation (in-class videoclip) - hard-wired to facilitate social responsiveness (e.g., prefer human faces over objects, prefer mom’s voice and smell to others’). C. Cognitive Development—Piaget’s stages (video of Casey to demonstrate) 1. sensorimotor (birth to 2) – learn about world (and cause and effect) through the senses; important landmarks include object permanence and stranger anxiety - research shows that Piaget may have underestimated when object permanence occurs (videoclip with train and blocks; Baillergon’s research) 2. preoperational (about 2 to 6) – toddlers use language and engage in make-believe play, but they still can’t do sophisticated mental operations like sorting, comparing, etc.; egocentric thought is common (e.g., sun shines to make me warm) - videoclip: DeLoache’s work shows that kids use symbolic thinking earlier than Piaget supposed (model of house to find hidden snoopy) 3. concrete operational (about 6 or 7 to 11) –can organize objects that are physically present and do simple arithmetic; can now understand conservation 4. formal operational (12 to adulthood) – abstract thinking, form hypotheses, solve problems systematically 5. reflections on Piaget’s work (see text also) – very influential (generally correct sequence), but more continuous than stagelike and some underestimation of how early kids acquire skills IV. Motivation (note: played in-class motivation game to review major concepts) Exam 4 Textbook Study Guide This study guide is meant to focus your attention on the most important aspects of the text. You should know everything covered in class including lecture, videos, class discussion, etc. You should always know the bold words in the text. Bold names on this page are names you should know. Other than that you do not need to know names or dates. Chapter 15: Social Psychology I. Social Thinking 1. What is attribution theory? What is the fundamental attribution error (FAE)? Why is the FAE so prevalent? What role does culture play? What effects do attributions have? 2. When do our attitudes guide our actions (3 conditions)? When do our actions influence our attitudes (role playing and Zimbardo’s prison study; Festinger’s cognitive dissonance theory) 3. Note: know the ―foot in the door‖ technique but think of as a compliance technique (i.e., under social influence) rather than as an example of social thinking. II. Social Influence 1. Conformity: what is it, when are we more likely to conform (7 situations), why do we conform (normative vs. information social influence)? Obedience: Milgram’s study, how did the different situations change the level of obedience? What are the broader implications? 2. What are social facilitation, social loafing, deindividuation, group polarization, and group think? (Make sure you really understand these terms – they are related but completely different). When can a minority be influential? What is the self-fulfilling prophecy? III. Social Relations 1. What is prejudice? How much prejudice is there and how is it changing? What is the in-group bias? What is scapegoat theory? How do cognitive errors/simplification lead to prejudice: categorization, vivid cases, and just- world phenomenon? 2. How do genetic, neural, and biochemical influences lead to aggression? What is the frustration-aggression principle (incl. temperature and aggression)? How do we learn to express or inhibit aggression? What are the specific effects of watching violence on TV? How does viewing sexual aggression influence attitudes and behavior? Do video games teach or release violence? 3. Conflict: What is a social trap? How do we view our enemies? 4. Attraction: What is the mere exposure effect? Know the 3 major determinants of attraction: proximity, physical attractiveness, and similarity. What is the difference between passionate and companionate love? Two keys to gratifying relationships: equity and self-disclosure. 5. Altruism: What is the bystander effect? When are we more likely to help? What is social exchange theory? 6. Resolving conflict: How are superordinate goals important? What is GRIT? Chapter 4: The Developing Person IV. Prenatal development and the newborn 1. What role do sex chromosomes and sex hormones play in determining gender? How does prenatal development happen (zygote, embryo, fetus)? What are teratogens? What is fetal alcohol syndrome? 2. How are newborns competent, and how do we know (also see lecture)? V. Infancy and childhood 3. How important is experience in brain development? What factors influence the timing of motor development? Know everything about Piaget’s stages, including reflections (also see lecture). Know the 4 origins of attachment (body contact, familiarity, temperament, responsive parenting) and the effects of attachment and lack of attachment. What are the three parenting styles discussed? Why is it hard to interpret the results? VI. Adolescence 4. What are the major physical changes (incl. menarche)? Be familiar with Kohlberg’s moral stages (preconventional, conventional and postconventional). Be familiar with Erikson’s stages of development for adolescence and young adulthood (see Table 4.2). What consequences do gender differences in connectedness have? What consequences do gender differences in connectedness have? How do ties between parents and children change? VII. Adulthood 5. What are the physical changes in middle adulthood (incl. menopause and the psychological consequences)? How do sensory abilities and health change in later years? How does memory change with age (note differences in recall and recognition)? How does intelligence change with age, including evidence from cross-sectional vs. longitudinal studies and fluid vs. crystallized intelligence? What does research on love (including ―trial marriages‖) and work show? How does well-being change across the lifespan? 6. What factors seem to be stable and which change? Is there more stability or more change? Chapter 10: Motivation I. Motivational Concepts 1. Do humans have instincts? What is drive-reduction theory (incl. homeostasis and incentives)? What is optimum arousal? What is Maslow’s hierarchy of needs? II. Hunger 1. Know the physiology of hunger, including the role of glucose, the hypothalamus, set point, and basal metabolic rate. 2. Know the psychology of hunger including external incentives and taste preferences. Know the boxes on eating disorders and helpful hints for dieters. 3. What are the negative consequences of obesity? What is the physiology of obesity (incl. fat cells, set point and metabolism, and genetics)? How effective are commercial weight-loss programs? III. Sexual Motivation 4. What are the 4 stages of the sexual response cycle, including the refractory period? What role do hormones play in human sexual behavior? How do external stimuli and imaginative stimuli affect sexual motivation? What factors influence teenage sexual behavior? 5. What factors do and do not appear linked with sexual orientation? Explaining sexual orientation: role of the brain, genes, and prenatal hormones. IV. Achievement Motivation 1. What is it? How do you study it? Know the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Know the four ways to motivate people--cultivate intrinsic motivation, attend to people’s motives, set specific challenging goals, choose an appropriate leadership style (task vs. social leadership).