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AP EUROPEAN HISTORY --- Fall 2008 (Murphy) UNIT THREE PLANNER: EUROPE IN THE AGE OF REASON and ENLIGHTENMENT Kagan, ch. 14 (New Directions in Thought & Culture in 16th c.), part of ch. 16 (Mid-Eighteenth-Century Wars) and ch. 17 ( The Age of Enlightenment) EXAM DATE: Thur Oct 30 – FRQ and 10 M.C. (50 points) DBQ ESSAY DUE DATE: _____[TBA] (75 points) QUIZZES: Wed Oct 15 [half day] (Ch. 14) (25 points) Wed Oct 29 (parts of ch. 16 and ch. 17) (25 points) EXTRA CREDIT MOVIE: [TBA] KEY TOPICS: 1) Causes of the Scientific Revolution 2) Consequences of the Scientific Revolution 3) Key Figures in the Scientific Revolution 4) The New Science and Religious Faith / Continuing Superstition & Witchhunts 5) The Age of Enlightenment 6) The Philosophes in the Age of Enlightenment 7) The ―Enlightened‖ Absolutists: Frederick Great of Prussia 8) The ―Enlightened‖ Absolutists: Joseph II of Austria & Catherine the Great of Russia th 9) Mid-18 C. Wars: War of Austrian Succession 10) ART: Baroque, Rococo, Neoclassicism Summaries: CHAPTER 14 - NEW DIRECTIONS IN THOUGHT AND CULTURE IN THE SIXTEENTH AND SEVENTEENTH CENTURIES CHAPTER SUMMARY The sixteenth and seventeenth centuries witnessed one of history's most significant intellectual developments—a sweeping change in man's view of the universe. A proud, earth-centered picture of the universe gave way to one in which the earth was only one of many planets orbiting around the sun—itself only one of millions of stars. Because their scientific view of mankind's place in the larger scheme of things had been transformed, men began to rethink moral and religious matters as well. The new scientific methods and concepts were deemed so impressive that ever since, science has been the measuring stick of all knowledge. The first figure in the new movement was Nicolaus Copernicus, a Polish astronomer in the early sixteenth century. Copernicus was dissatisfied with the traditional, Ptolemaic astronomical system. To account for the observable, non-circular patterns of the planets, Ptolemaic thinkers had to make many clumsy adjustments in their systems. For the sake of mathematical elegance, Copernicus preferred to place the sun in the center of the universe. Tycho Brahe (1571–1630) assembled astronomical data that the German Copernican Johannes Kepler (1571–1630) used to suggest that the orbits of planets were not circular but elliptical. His contemporary, the Italian Galileo Galilei (1564–1642), provided more support for the theory by publishing the first telescopic observations of the heavens. Nature, said Galileo, was totally subject to mathematical laws. Francis Bacon‘s (1561–1626) belief in the authority of empirical observation and induction won prestige thanks to its use by Isaac Newton (1642–1727). Newton explained the movement of all physical objects in the universe through mutual attraction, or gravity. His discoveries provided a new belief for the view that the natural universe was a realm of law and regularity subject to mathematical explanation. The new science provided a new basis for religion. Just at a time when Europeans were tiring of irrational wars of religion, they found grounds for believing in a rational God. To Copernicus's concern for mathematics, Bacon added a desire for scientific thought to conform to empirical observation. Only an amateur scientist, Bacon decried reverence for intellectual authority and advocated innovation, change, and a close examination of empirical evidence. Science had to have a practical purpose and should aid the human condition. The Frenchman René Descartes (1596–1650) believed that deduction and rational speculation could be used to explain the world fully. The most original political philosopher of the age was Thomas Hobbes (1588–1679). An enthusiast for the new science, Hobbes advocated a commonwealth that was tightly ruled by law and order and free from the dangers of anarchy (Leviathan, 1651). A less original, but more influential political thinker was John Locke (1632–1704). Locke opposed Hobbes and denied the argument that rulers were absolute in their power; man's natural state was one of perfect freedom and equality. If a ruler failed in his responsibilities toward his subjects, he violated the social contract and could be replaced. Locke's philosophy came to be embodied in the Glorious Revolution of 1688–1689. The Scientific Revolution is reflected in the works of the great writers and philosophers of the seventeenth century, who knew that they were living in a period of transition. Some embraced the new science completely, some tried to straddle the two ages, and still others opposed the new developments that seemed to threaten traditional morality and had made the universe less mysterious and the Creator less loving than before. The chapter then gives a focused account of the lives and works of Margaret Cavendish and Maria Winkelmann, who creatively contributed to the Scientific Revolution even though women were generally excluded from formal participation in scientific societies and universities. As the scientific revolution posited increasing authority in empirical observation and reasoning, tension between the emerging sciences and the Catholic Church increased. The church regarded the scientific revolution as a threat to its authority, resulting in a formal condemnation of Copernicanism and Galileo in 1633. French thought can be represented by Blaise Pascal (1623–1662), a mathematician, scientist, and philosopher. Pascal believed that faith and divine grace were more necessary for human happiness than reason and science. According to Pascal, reason was too weak to resolve the problems of human nature and destiny. Reason should drive those who truly heeded it to faith in God and reliance on divine grace. The new science by no means swept away all other thought. Traditional beliefs and fears retained their hold on popular culture and resulted in an outbreak of witch panics in the second half of the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. The chapter then discusses witchcraft and witch-hunts in Early Modern Europe. An estimated 70,000 to 100,000 people were sentenced to death for harmful magic and diabolical witchcraft. Most (about 80%) of these victims were older women spinsters or widows who were insecure, non-productive, and rather vulnerable to accusation. This may have been because of a general fear by men that women were beginning to break away from their control or that women, as midwives, were responsible for the death of children and spouses during birth. The witch-hunts were the result of a general belief in the powers of magic, a belief that died with the rise of a more scientific worldview in the seventeenth century. The chapter concludes with an overview of Baroque art, noting the work of Caravaggio, Rubens, and Bernini. Baroque art came to be associated closely with both Roman Catholicism and absolutist politics. One of the greatest monuments to Baroque art, and political absolutism, is Louis XIV‘s palace at Versailles. OUTLINE I. The Scientific Revolution A. Nicolaus Copernicus Rejects an Earth-Centered Universe B. Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler Make New Scientific Observations C. Galileo Galilei Argues for a Universe of Mathematical Laws D. Isaac Newton Discovers the Laws of Gravitation II. Philosophy Responds to Changing Science A. Nature as Mechanism B. Francis Bacon: The Empirical Method AP Euro – Fall 2008 - Unit III Planner -- page 2 C. Rene Descartes: The Method of Rational Deduction D. Thomas Hobbes: Apologist for Absolute Government E. John Locke: Defender of Moderate Liberty and Toleration III. The New Institutions of Expanding Natural Knowledge IV. Women in the World of the Scientific Revolution V. The New Science and Religious Faith A. The Case of Galileo B. Blaise Pascal: Reason and Faith C. The English Approach to Science and Religion VI. Continuing Superstition A. Witch-Hunts and Panic B. Village Origins C. Influence of the Clergy D. Who were the Witches? E. End of the Witch-Hunts VII. Baroque Art VIII. In Perspective KEY TOPICS – ch. 14: The astronomical theories of Copernicus, Brahe, Kepler, Galileo, and Newton and the emergence of the scientific worldview Impact of the new science on philosophy Social setting of early modern science Women and the scientific revolution Approaches to science and religion Witchcraft and witch-hunts DISCUSSION QUESTIONS—ch. 14 1. What did Copernicus, Brahe, Kepler, Galileo, and Newton each contribute to the scientific revolution? Which do you think make the most important contributions and why? What did Francis Bacon contribute to the foundation of scientific thought? 2. How would you define the term scientific revolution? In what ways was it truly revolutionary? Which is more enduring, a political revolution or an intellectual one? 3. What were the differences between the political philosophies of Thomas Hobbes and John Locke? How did each view human nature? Would you rather live under a government designed by Hobbes or Locke? Why? 4. Why were women unable to participate fully in the new science? How did family relationships help some women become involved in the advance of natural philosophy? 5. Why did the Catholic Church condemn Galileo? How did Pascal seek to reconcile faith and reason? How did English natural theology support economic expansion? 6. How do you explain the phenomena of witchcraft and witch-hunts in an age of scientific enlightenment? Why did the witch panics occur in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries? How might the Reformation have contributed to them? Topics in Depth: 1. The Scientific Revolution: This term is something of a misnomer, for unlike most revolutions, the Scientific Revolution was neither rapid nor did it involve large numbers of people. The "revolution" was AP Euro – Fall 2008 - Unit III Planner -- page 3 the work of a few men employing either of two major methods: the imposition of small changes on existing models of thought or the desire to ask new kinds of questions and to use new methods of investigation. 2. The Scientific Revolution and the Church: Many of the major figures of this intellectual revolution had to deal with a church that resisted radical ideas that would jeopardize theological doctrine. For years before his condemnation by the Catholic Church, Galileo Galilei had contended that scientific theory and religious piety were compatible. Baruch Spinoza championed freedom of thought, but also believed that everything exists in God and cannot be conceived apart from Him. Such teaching ran the danger of portraying the world as eternal and human actions as unfree and inevitable—divine fatalism. The limitations of science and reason were cautioned by Blaise Pascal, who argued that reason could not in itself explain the existence of God, but that it is more reasonable to believe that God exists and that belief results in the improvement of one's life. CHAPTER 17 - THE AGE OF ENLIGHTENMENT: EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY THOUGHT CHAPTER SUMMARY From the perspective of Europe's future, perhaps the most important development of the eighteenth century was its leading intellectual movement, the Enlightenment. Enlightenment thinkers, called philosophes, believed that change and reform were both possible and desirable. Before 1700, a belief in innovation through rational criticism had belonged to only a few pioneering thinkers. With the Enlightenment, it came to characterize Western society. Despite their name, the philosophes were not so much philosophers as men who sought to apply reason and common sense to nearly all the major institutions and mores of the day. Leading philosophes disagreed on many issues, but they shared a basic unity of thought. They all sought reform for the sake of human liberty. They provided a major source of ideas that could be used to undermine existing social and political structures. The philosophes drew on three main sources for their outlook. Intellectually, they were indebted to the physics of Isaac Newton, which emphasized empirical experience and the rationality of the natural world. They also profited greatly from the psychological theory of John Locke, who had argued that man's nature is changeable and can be improved by his environment. Politically, the philosophes admired Great Britain, which seemed to exemplify a society in which enlightened reform served the common good. Voltaire, by far the most influential of the philosophes, was an admirer of English government and Newton. France, on the other hand, with its decadent absolutism and political and religious censorship, seemed to prove the need for reform. Because many Frenchmen wanted to see changes made, France became the center for the Enlightenment. The philosophes considered established churches, particularly Roman Catholicism, to be the chief obstacle to mankind's improvement and happiness. Instead, the Enlightenment offered its own religious creed, Deism, which favored a rational deity and a rational morality. Although religious toleration was a positive contribution of the Enlightenment, the philosophes’ criticisms of traditional religion often reflected an implicit contempt not only for Christianity, but for Judaism and Islam as well. Two Jewish writers played key roles in the debate over religion and the place of Jews in European life: Baruch Spinoza and Moses Mendelsohn. The publication of the vast Encyclopedia in the mid-eighteenth century spread Enlightenment ideas throughout Europe. This ambitious enterprise, the collective effort of over one hundred authors, set forth the most advanced critical ideas of the day. The project aimed at secularizing learning and replacing the intellectual assumptions of the Middle Ages and Reformation. The philosophes, however, were primarily interested not in religion, but in humanity and secular values. Through reason, man would discover laws in human relationships similar to those of physical nature—an idea that would form the basis for social science in the nineteenth century. The philosophes hoped that by discovering social laws, they could remove inhuman practices and institutions. This attitude is reflected in the legal and economic works of the Enlightenment. Legal reformers such as Beccaria and Jeremy Bentham and the British economist Adam Smith (Wealth of Nations) challenged governmental policies, the latter challenging mercantilist doctrine as selfish and unnatural. The full complexity of the Enlightenment is best revealed in its political thought. The philosophes agreed on the need for reform, but not on its methods. The contrasting philosophies of Montesquieu (aristocracy) and Rousseau (democracy) are here discussed. The chapter then details the influence of women during the Enlightenment and focuses on Mary Wollstonecraft. The philosophes were generally not feminists and argued for the traditional role of women. AP Euro – Fall 2008 - Unit III Planner -- page 4 The text offers an overview of the characteristics of the two major artistic styles of the age. Rococo, which was associated with the aristocracy of the Old Regime, was lavish and placed an emphasis on pastel colors and the play of light. Neoclassical, embraced by the French Revolution and Napoleon, drew from the Renaissance and the ancient world and was seen as a criticism of the Old Regime. Most philosophes favored neither aristocracy nor democracy as the solution to contemporary problems. Instead, they hoped that enlightened monarchs would reform society from above. The policies of such rulers as Frederick the Great of Prussia, Joseph II of Austria, and Catherine the Great of Russia are detailed in the text; they actually appeared to be carrying out the hopes of the philosophes. But, in reality, the heroes of enlightened absolutism, as the phenomenon was called, did not wish to reform their countries for humanitarian or liberal purposes, but to strengthen them for future warfare. OUTLINE—ch. 17 I. Formative Influences on the Enlightenment A. Ideas of Newton and Locke B. The Example of British Toleration and Political Stability C. The Emergence of a Print Culture II. The Philosophes F. Voltaire—First Among the Philosophes III. The Enlightenment and Religion A. Deism B. Toleration C. Radical Enlightenment Criticism of Christianity D. Jewish Thinkers in the Age of Enlightenment E. Islam in Enlightenment Thought IV. The Enlightenment and Society A. The Encyclopedia: Freedom and Economic Improvement B. Beccaria and Reform of Criminal Law C. The Physiocrats and Economic Freedom D. Adam Smith on Economic Growth and Social Progress V. Political Thought of the Philosophes A. Montesquieu and Spirit of the Laws B. Rousseau: A Radical Critique of Modern Society C. Enlightened Critics and European Empires VI. Women in the Thought and Practice of the Enlightenment VII. Rococo and Neoclassical Styles in Eighteenth-Century Art VIII. Enlightened Absolutism A. Frederick the Great of Prussia B. Joseph II of Austria C. Catherine the Great of Russia D. The Partition of Poland E. The End of the Eighteenth Century in Central and Eastern Europe IX. In Perspective KEY TOPICS – ch. 17 The intellectual and social background of the Enlightenment The philosophes of the Enlightenment and their agenda of intellectual and political reform Enlightenment writers‘ attitude toward religion The philosophes political thought Efforts of ―enlightened‖ monarchs in central and eastern Europe to increase the economic and military strength of their domains The partition of Poland by Prussia, Russia, and Austria DISCUSSION QUESTIONS—ch. 17 AP Euro – Fall 2008 - Unit III Planner -- page 5 1. How did the Enlightenment change basic Western attitudes toward reform, faith, and reason? What were the major formative influences on the philosophes? How important were Voltaire and the Encyclopedia in the success of the Enlightenment? 2. Why did the philosophes consider organized religion to be their greatest enemy? What were the basic tenets of deism? How did Jewish writers contribute to Enlightenment thinking about religion? What are the similarities and differences between the Enlightenment evaluation of Islam and its evaluations of Christianity and Judaism? 3. What were the attitudes of the philosophes toward women? What was Rousseau‘s view of women? What were the separate spheres he imagined men and women occupying? What were Mary Wollstonecraft‘s criticisms of Rousseau‘s view? 4. How did the views of the mercantilists about the earth‘s resources differ from those of Adam Smith in his book The Wealth of Nations? Why might Smith be regarded as an advocate of the consumer? How did his theory of history work to the detriment of less economically advanced non-European peoples? How did some Enlightenment writers criticize European empires? 5. How did the political views of Montesquieu differ from those of Rousseau? Was Montesquieu‘s view of England accurate? Was Rousseau a child of the Enlightenment or its enemy? Which did Rousseau value more, the individual or society? 6. Were the enlightened monarchs true believers in the ideals of the philosophes, or was their enlightenment a mere veneer? Was their power really absolute? What motivated their reforms? What does the partition of Poland indicate about the spirit of enlightened absolutism? TOPICS in Depth: 1. Enlightenment Religion: The philosophes attacked Christianity for its rejection of science, otherworldliness, and belief in man's depravity. Deism, their creed, advocated that God's existence could be deduced from a contemplation of nature. The deists believed in divine reward or retribution in the afterlife for a man's good or bad actions on earth. 2. Montesquieu and Rousseau: Montesquieu and Rousseau agreed on a need for political reform, but they disagreed as to the methods. Montesquieu advocated an enlightened aristocracy that could limit the power of the king and reform the system (Spirit of the Laws, 1748). Rousseau was an advocate of direct democracy in which obedience to the general will would ensure individual freedom (The Social Contract, 1762). 3. Islam in Enlightenment Thought: The philosophes generally portrayed Islam as a false and promiscuous religion. Indeed, because Muhammad had not performed miracles, he was considered to be a false prophet. Many Christian authors ignored the basic Islamic understanding of Muhammad‘s mission and implied that he was divine, a blasphemous suggestion in Muslim eyes. Writers such as Voltaire and Montesquieu saw Muslims as religious fanatics whose political passivity subjected them to despotism. Yet others like John Toland, Edward Gibbon, and Lady Mary Wortley Montagu argued for tolerance and even admired Islam‘s imperial success and the brilliance of its architecture. Enlightenment philosophes, therefore, spoke with two voices regarding Islam. AP Euro – Fall 2008 - Unit III Planner -- page 6 KEY TERMS: scientific revolution Aristotle/ Aristotelian universe scholasticism great chain of being Ptolemaic universe / geocentric Nicholas Copernicus On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres Copernican system Tycho Brahe Johannes Kepler Galileo Galilei experimental method law of inertia Pope Urban VIII telescope Dialogue on the Two Chief Systems of the World Newton Principia scientific method Newtons‘ Laws of Thermodynamics law of universal graviation natural philosophy Royal Society of London Francis Bacon Novum Organum empiricism induction deduction Rene Descartes Cartesian dualism //religion and science Discourse on Method Cogito, ergo sum! (I think, therefore I am! ) Harvey Pascal Pensees Royal Society of London French Royal Academy of Sciences Margaret Cavendish Maria Winkelmann witchhunts misogyny The Enlightenment rationalism/reason laws of human society progress skepticism Thomas Hobbes Leviathan ―…life is nasty, brutish and short..” John Locke Essay Concerning Human Understanding tabula rasa Two Treatises on Government philosophes the enlightened public salons Baron de Montesquieu The Persian Letters Voltaire Candide deism John Toland, Christianity Not Mysterious Denis Diderot Encyclopedia Cesare Beccaria On Crimes & Punishments System of Nature David Hume Inquiry into Human Nature Progress of the Human Mind Jean-Jacques Rousseau Emile Social Contract general will popular sovereignty Baron de Montesquieu Spirit of the the Laws enlightened monarchs/absolutism Frederick II (the Great) Maria Theresa Charles VI War of Austrian Succession Silesia Pragmatic Sanction Seven Years‘ War War of Austrian Succession Treaty of Paris (1763) Moses Mendelssohn Jewish Enlightenment Baruch Spinoza Peter III of Russia Catherine the Great Elizabeth I of Russia Gregory Orlov Pugachev Rebellion partition of Poland the Caucuses Joseph II of Austria Leopold II Louix XV Parlement of Paris Rene de Maupeou Louis XVI Candide mercantilism physiocrats Adam Smith The Wealth of Nations capitalism supply and demand free markets ―invisible hand‖ Scottish Enlightenment economic liberalism public goods AP Euro – Fall 2008 - Unit III Planner -- page 7 Potential Exam ESSAY QUESTIONS: 1. ―Nature and nature‘s laws lay hid in night, God said, ‗Let Newton be,‘ and all was light.‖ The couplet above was Alexander Pope‘s way of expressing the relationship between the scientific revolution and Christianity. What was the effect of science on Christianity and how did the two react to each other? 2. Discuss the relationship between the Reformation and the Scientific Revolution in terms of the following: a) their common origins; b) their influence on economic developments; c) their creation of political tensions. 3. Describe and analyze the economic, cultural, and social changes that led to and sustained Europe‘s rapid population growth in the period from 1650 to 1800. 4. Describe and compare the political beliefs of the 18th Century French philosophes Rousseau, Voltaire, and Montesquieu. 5. Both Jean-Baptiste Colbert (1619-1683) and Adam Smith (1723-1790) sought to increase the wealth of their respective countries. How and why did their recommendations differ? 6. To what extent did the Enlightenment express optimistic ideas in eighteenth-century Europe? Illustrate your answer with references to specific individuals and their works. 7. Evaluate the extent to which THREE of the following could be considered enlightened monarchs: Catherine the Great, Maria Theresa, Joseph II, and Frederick II (the Great). 8. Explain the development of the scientific method in the 17th Century and the impact of scientific thinking on traditional sources of authority. 7. Describe and analyze the influence of the Enlightenment on both elite culture and popular culture in the eighteenth century. 8. Explain why Europe had no lasting peace between the Peace of Westphalia (1648) and the Peace of Paris (1763). 9. Compare and contrast two theories of government introduced in the period between 1640 to 1780. 10. Assess the impact of the Scientific Revolution on religion and philosophy in the period 1550 to 1750. 11. Account for the growth and decline of European witch hunts in the period 1500 to 1650. 12. Compare and contrast the goals and major policies of Peter the Great (ruled 1682-1725) with those of Frederick the Great of Prussia (ruled 1740-1786)? 13. Analyze the intellectual foundations of religious toleration in eighteenth-century Europe. AP Euro – Fall 2008 - Unit III Planner -- page 8