Energy Savings Impacts of the Advanced Energy Design Guide Small by guy22

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									Energy Savings Impacts of the
Advanced Energy Design Guide:
Small Office Buildings


   Bing Liu, P.E.
   Research Engineer
   Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
   Tel: (509) 375-3710
   Bing.liu@pnl.gov
Energy Use Simulation Approach
 Scoping Study:
      Baseline building – Standard 90.1-1999
      Advanced building – Off-the-Shelf technology
      Two Models: 5,000 sf and 20,000 sf office
       buildings
      Use eQuest to test run in four climate locations:
       Miami, Phoenix, Seattle and Duluth

 Full Study:
      15 representative locations in 8 DOE Climate
       Zones
      Use DOE-2.2 directly to make 60 parametric
       runs for full study

February 7, 2005         ASHRAE Winter                     2
                       Meeting, Orlando, Fla.
5,000 ft² Office Prototype

    Square floor plan
    Single story
    Frame construction
    20% window-to-wall ratio
    Single tenant




February 7, 2005       ASHRAE Winter          3
                     Meeting, Orlando, Fla.
 20,000 ft² Office Prototype

 Square floor
  plan
 2-story
 Masonry
  construction
 30% window-
  to-wall ratio
 3 tenants



 February 7, 2005     ASHRAE Winter          4
                    Meeting, Orlando, Fla.
What is in the Baseline Building?

Comply with Standard 90.1-1999
      Insulation requirements for roofs, walls,
       floors and slabs
      U-Value and SHGC for window glazing
      U-Value for doors
      Interior lighting power density
      Mechanical equipment efficiency
      Economizer requirement
      And more…


February 7, 2005   ASHRAE Winter Meeting, Orlando,   5
                                Fla.
What is in the Baseline Building?

When not specified by 90.1-1999…
      Room Thermostat:
        Setpoint: 75°F cooling & 70°F heating
        Setback/Setup: 80°F cooling & 65°F heating
      Office Equipment Plug Load
      Schedules
        Energy Policy Act Standard analysis
        Recent research study and peer review
          comments
      Fan Static Pressure


February 7, 2005   ASHRAE Winter Meeting, Orlando,    6
                                Fla.
                                Plug Load Schedule - Weekday
                                                      20,000 sf Office Building
Fraction of Defined Peak Load




                                1.0

                                0.8

                                0.6

                                0.4

                                0.2

                                0.0
                                      1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

                                                                           Hour of Day
                                                                            Before    After
ASHRAE SP102 Advanced Energy Design Guide
Modeling Assumptions & Energy Usage - 20,000 sf Office Building

Table 5 Baseline Modeling Assumptions (Round 2) – Seattle, WA

        Characteristic                          Baseline Model                                     Data Source
Architectural Features
    Configuration/Shape
     Aspect Ratio                1
     Zoning                      5 zones per floor (one core + four perimeter
                                zones)
     Number of Floors            2
     Window to Wall Ratio        30% ribbon windows uniformly distributed by          SP 102 Recommendation
                                orientation
     Floor-to-Ceiling Height:    9 ft                                                 General practice
     Floor-to-Floor Height:      12 ft                                                General practice
     Infiltration Rate           -    0.038 cfm/sf of the gross exterior wall         -   ASHRAE 90.1-1989 §13.7.3.2
                                 -    0.122 air change per hour for entire building   -   12 feet high Exterior Wall
     Infiltration Schedule       OFF_M-F_INFIL                                        Off when the HVAC fan is on
    Roof
     Structure                  Steel deck with rigid insulation                      SP 102 Recommendation
     Exterior Finish            Single-ply roof membrane
     Insulation                 R-15 ci                                                ASHRAE 90.1-1999 Table B-14
     Overall U-factor           0.063                                                  ASHRAE 90.1-1999 Table B-14
     Emissivity                 0.87                                                  Grey single-ply membranes from PG&E
     Solar Reflectance          0.23 (grey EPDM)                                      High Albedo (Cool) Roofs CASE Study
                                                                                      Report at
                                                                                      http://www.newbuildings.org/downloads/co
                                                                                      des/CoolRoof.pdf
What is in the Advanced Building?
 Envelope
         Cool roofs
         Better insulations
         High performance windows and doors
         Overhangs for windows except facing north
 Interior Lighting
      Reduced installed lighting power density
      Daylighting harvest for WWR 25% or higher
      Daylighting dimming control on south and north
       perimeter zones
      Occupancy Sensor

February 7, 2005     ASHRAE Winter Meeting, Orlando,    9
                                  Fla.
What is in the Advanced Building?
 Mechanical System
      Higher efficiency unitary equipment in some
       climate zones
      Motorized outside air damper control
      Demand Control Ventilation (DCV)
      Lower duct friction rate: 0.08 in/100 ft vs. 0.10
       in/100 ft of standard practice
 Service Water Heater
      Higher thermal efficiency for gas-fired storage
       water heater or
      Gas-fired instantaneous water heater


February 7, 2005    ASHRAE Winter Meeting, Orlando,      10
                                 Fla.
                    Energy Savings of Advanced vs. Base Building
                                                           (Without Plug Load)


                    50%                                       30% Goal Over Standard 90.1-1999
Energy Savings, %




                    40%

                    30%

                    20%

                    10%

                    0%




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                                                    5000 sf Bldg           20,000 sf Bldg
                                             Energy Savings, %




                                             10%
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                                                         30%
                                                               40%
                                                                     50%




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5000 sf Bldg
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                                                                           (Including Plug Load)




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20,000 sf Bldg


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                                                                                               Energy Savings of Advanced vs. Base Building
                                                EUI, kBtu/sf




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                                                                          120




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                                                                                5,000 sf Office Building




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                                                                                                       Energy Use Index




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                               gt
                                                                   20,000 sf Office Building




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Advanced Case

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                                          Comparison of Energy Savings
                                                      5,000 sf Office Building
                                    60%     Average Savings of All the
Percentage Savings Over 90.1-1999




                                            Climate Zones = 38%                      49.1%
                                    50%


                                    40%     35.6%              36.4%

                                    30%


                                    20%


                                    10%


                                    0%
                                              Miami             Baltimore            Duluth

                                               Lighting   Cooling   Heating   Fans    SWH
                                       Comparison of Energy Savings
                                              20,000 sf Office Building
                                 50%    Average Savings of All the
Percent Savings Over 90.1-1999



                                        Climate Zones = 38%                 43%
                                                            38%
                                 40%
                                           35%

                                 30%


                                 20%


                                 10%


                                 0%
                                           Miami           Baltimore        Duluth

                                         Lighting   Cooling    Heating   Fans   SWH
Advanced Simulation Challenges

 Real windows vs. DOE-2 window
  library
      Window Shading Coefficient Method
      Window Library Method
      Window Layers Method




February 7, 2005   ASHRAE Winter Meeting, Orlando,   17
                                Fla.
Advanced Simulation Challenges

 Occupancy sensor
      DOE-2 doesn’t have occupancy sensor
       module
      Modify the lighting schedule to estimate
       the potential energy savings from the
       occupancy sensors




February 7, 2005   ASHRAE Winter Meeting, Orlando,   18
                                Fla.
                                  Lighting & Occupancy Sensor Schedule
                           1.10
Fraction of Defined Peak



                           1.00
                           0.90
                           0.80
                           0.70
                           0.60
                           0.50
                           0.40
                           0.30
                           0.20
                           0.10
                           0.00
                                  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

                                                       Weekday - Hour of Day

                                            Lighting      Lighting with Occupancy Sensor
Advanced Simulation Challenges

 Demand ventilation control
      No CO2 sensor module in DOE-2
      Modify the outside air change rate to
       reflect the average reduction of the
       outside intake using CO2 sensor – 20%




February 7, 2005     ASHRAE Winter             20
                   Meeting, Orlando, Fla.
Advanced Simulation Challenges

 Motorized outside air damper control
      Potentially saving cooling and heating
       energy during nights by closing the OA
       damper when fans cycle on to maintain
       space setback temperature
      Hourly-based simulation may over-
       estimate the energy savings from the
       motorized outside air damper in the cold
       climates


February 7, 2005   ASHRAE Winter Meeting, Orlando,   21
                                Fla.
Questions?



Bing Liu, P.E.
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
Tel: (509) 375-3710
Bing.liu@pnl.gov


February 7, 2005   ASHRAE Winter Meeting, Orlando,   22
                                Fla.

								
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