Energy Savings Impacts of the Advanced Energy Design Guide: Small Office Buildings Bing Liu, P.E. Research Engineer Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Tel: (509) 375-3710 Bing.firstname.lastname@example.org Energy Use Simulation Approach Scoping Study: Baseline building – Standard 90.1-1999 Advanced building – Off-the-Shelf technology Two Models: 5,000 sf and 20,000 sf office buildings Use eQuest to test run in four climate locations: Miami, Phoenix, Seattle and Duluth Full Study: 15 representative locations in 8 DOE Climate Zones Use DOE-2.2 directly to make 60 parametric runs for full study February 7, 2005 ASHRAE Winter 2 Meeting, Orlando, Fla. 5,000 ft² Office Prototype Square floor plan Single story Frame construction 20% window-to-wall ratio Single tenant February 7, 2005 ASHRAE Winter 3 Meeting, Orlando, Fla. 20,000 ft² Office Prototype Square floor plan 2-story Masonry construction 30% window- to-wall ratio 3 tenants February 7, 2005 ASHRAE Winter 4 Meeting, Orlando, Fla. What is in the Baseline Building? Comply with Standard 90.1-1999 Insulation requirements for roofs, walls, floors and slabs U-Value and SHGC for window glazing U-Value for doors Interior lighting power density Mechanical equipment efficiency Economizer requirement And more… February 7, 2005 ASHRAE Winter Meeting, Orlando, 5 Fla. What is in the Baseline Building? When not specified by 90.1-1999… Room Thermostat: Setpoint: 75°F cooling & 70°F heating Setback/Setup: 80°F cooling & 65°F heating Office Equipment Plug Load Schedules Energy Policy Act Standard analysis Recent research study and peer review comments Fan Static Pressure February 7, 2005 ASHRAE Winter Meeting, Orlando, 6 Fla. Plug Load Schedule - Weekday 20,000 sf Office Building Fraction of Defined Peak Load 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Hour of Day Before After ASHRAE SP102 Advanced Energy Design Guide Modeling Assumptions & Energy Usage - 20,000 sf Office Building Table 5 Baseline Modeling Assumptions (Round 2) – Seattle, WA Characteristic Baseline Model Data Source Architectural Features Configuration/Shape Aspect Ratio 1 Zoning 5 zones per floor (one core + four perimeter zones) Number of Floors 2 Window to Wall Ratio 30% ribbon windows uniformly distributed by SP 102 Recommendation orientation Floor-to-Ceiling Height: 9 ft General practice Floor-to-Floor Height: 12 ft General practice Infiltration Rate - 0.038 cfm/sf of the gross exterior wall - ASHRAE 90.1-1989 §22.214.171.124 - 0.122 air change per hour for entire building - 12 feet high Exterior Wall Infiltration Schedule OFF_M-F_INFIL Off when the HVAC fan is on Roof Structure Steel deck with rigid insulation SP 102 Recommendation Exterior Finish Single-ply roof membrane Insulation R-15 ci ASHRAE 90.1-1999 Table B-14 Overall U-factor 0.063 ASHRAE 90.1-1999 Table B-14 Emissivity 0.87 Grey single-ply membranes from PG&E Solar Reflectance 0.23 (grey EPDM) High Albedo (Cool) Roofs CASE Study Report at http://www.newbuildings.org/downloads/co des/CoolRoof.pdf What is in the Advanced Building? Envelope Cool roofs Better insulations High performance windows and doors Overhangs for windows except facing north Interior Lighting Reduced installed lighting power density Daylighting harvest for WWR 25% or higher Daylighting dimming control on south and north perimeter zones Occupancy Sensor February 7, 2005 ASHRAE Winter Meeting, Orlando, 9 Fla. What is in the Advanced Building? Mechanical System Higher efficiency unitary equipment in some climate zones Motorized outside air damper control Demand Control Ventilation (DCV) Lower duct friction rate: 0.08 in/100 ft vs. 0.10 in/100 ft of standard practice Service Water Heater Higher thermal efficiency for gas-fired storage water heater or Gas-fired instantaneous water heater February 7, 2005 ASHRAE Winter Meeting, Orlando, 10 Fla. Energy Savings of Advanced vs. Base Building (Without Plug Load) 50% 30% Goal Over Standard 90.1-1999 Energy Savings, % 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% h on on B a ue bu sco ks Fr his e x a i so tle e o m ut ni or en is g st an q gt at Pa ia ul ca p oe Bo m ci er el ou em n M Se D irb an hi lti Ph rli qu H El H C Bu M Fa n Al Sa 5000 sf Bldg 20,000 sf Bldg Energy Savings, % 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 0% M ia m H ou i st o Ph n oe n El ix Pa M so Sa em n p Fr his an Al c bu isc qu o er q Ba ue lti m 5000 sf Bldg or e Se at tle Bo is (Including Plug Load) C e hi c Bu ago rli ng to n H el en 20,000 sf Bldg a D u Fa luth irb an ks Energy Savings of Advanced vs. Base Building EUI, kBtu/sf 100 120 0 20 40 60 80 M iam i Ho us to n Ph oe ni x El Pa so M em Sa ph n is Fr an ci s Al co bu qu er qu e Base Case Ba ltim or e Se at tl e Bo ise Ch i ca go Bu 5,000 sf Office Building rlin Energy Use Index gt on He le Advanced Case na Du lu th Fa irb an ks EUI, kBtu/sf 0 20 40 60 80 M iam Ho i us to Ph n oe ni El x Pa M so Sa em n ph Fr is an Al ci bu sco qu er q Ba u e Base Case ltim or e Se at tl e Bo is Ch e i ca Bu go rlin Energy Use Index gt 20,000 sf Office Building on He le na Advanced Case Du l Fa uth irb an ks Comparison of Energy Savings 5,000 sf Office Building 60% Average Savings of All the Percentage Savings Over 90.1-1999 Climate Zones = 38% 49.1% 50% 40% 35.6% 36.4% 30% 20% 10% 0% Miami Baltimore Duluth Lighting Cooling Heating Fans SWH Comparison of Energy Savings 20,000 sf Office Building 50% Average Savings of All the Percent Savings Over 90.1-1999 Climate Zones = 38% 43% 38% 40% 35% 30% 20% 10% 0% Miami Baltimore Duluth Lighting Cooling Heating Fans SWH Advanced Simulation Challenges Real windows vs. DOE-2 window library Window Shading Coefficient Method Window Library Method Window Layers Method February 7, 2005 ASHRAE Winter Meeting, Orlando, 17 Fla. Advanced Simulation Challenges Occupancy sensor DOE-2 doesn’t have occupancy sensor module Modify the lighting schedule to estimate the potential energy savings from the occupancy sensors February 7, 2005 ASHRAE Winter Meeting, Orlando, 18 Fla. Lighting & Occupancy Sensor Schedule 1.10 Fraction of Defined Peak 1.00 0.90 0.80 0.70 0.60 0.50 0.40 0.30 0.20 0.10 0.00 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Weekday - Hour of Day Lighting Lighting with Occupancy Sensor Advanced Simulation Challenges Demand ventilation control No CO2 sensor module in DOE-2 Modify the outside air change rate to reflect the average reduction of the outside intake using CO2 sensor – 20% February 7, 2005 ASHRAE Winter 20 Meeting, Orlando, Fla. Advanced Simulation Challenges Motorized outside air damper control Potentially saving cooling and heating energy during nights by closing the OA damper when fans cycle on to maintain space setback temperature Hourly-based simulation may over- estimate the energy savings from the motorized outside air damper in the cold climates February 7, 2005 ASHRAE Winter Meeting, Orlando, 21 Fla. Questions? Bing Liu, P.E. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Tel: (509) 375-3710 Bing.email@example.com February 7, 2005 ASHRAE Winter Meeting, Orlando, 22 Fla.
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