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Social, Political and Economic Effects of by umf86597

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									   Social, Political and Economic Effects of Industrialization –
                             Grade 10

     Ohio Standards             Lesson Summary:
      Connection:               Students will role-play a person living in the United States
History
                                during the 1890s. Students will research their role using
                                focus questions about daily life, including standard of
Benchmark B                     living, and apply this knowledge by analyzing and
Explain the social, political   explaining the social, political and economic realities of
and economic effects of         industrialization. Students will have the opportunity to
industrialization.
                                demonstrate their understanding by sharing their answers
Indicator 2                     with the class and writing letters about the business
Analyze the impact of           practices of the1890s.
industrialization and the
modern corporation in the       Estimated Duration: Three hours and 20 minutes
United States on economic
and political practices with
emphasis on:                    Commentary:
a. Laissez-faire policies;      The lesson allows for students to gain a better
b. Monopolies;                  understanding of the roles, conflicts and challenges of
c. Standard of living.          different people living in the 1890s. Students will assume
                                first person roles and write their opinions, based on factual
                                research, of the economic practices of this period.

                                Pre-Assessment:
                                · Assess prior knowledge by having students complete
                                   Attachment A, Pre-Assessment.
                                · Review Attachment A, Pre-Assessment using Attachment
                                   B, Pre-Assessment Key.

                                Scoring Guidelines:
                                Determine if students have a basic understanding of
                                economics and the relationship between government and the
                                economy during the review of Attachment A, Pre-Assessment.
                                Provide answers to the questions to help guide learning for the
                                unit. See Attachment B, Pre-Assessment Key.

                                Post-Assessment:
                                Using Attachment F, Summary, as a guide, students will write
                                a letter to the editor of a newspaper in 1890. The letter should:
                                · Give reasons for either agreeing or disagreeing with the
                                    laissez-faire policies of the time;
                                · Discuss the role of monopolies;
                                · Discuss the effects of industrialization on the standard of
                                    living.


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    Social, Political and Economic Effects of Industrialization –
                              Grade 10
Scoring Guidelines:
Score the letter according to Attachment D, Scoring Guidelines and Possible Answers.

Instructional Procedures:
Day One
1. Use a chalkboard or overhead projector to preview the benchmark and grade level
   indicator with students and provide some background information on economic
   conditions in the 1890s.
2. Review Attachment C, Student Answer Sheet with students. Address any questions
   students may have.
3. Pass out Attachment E, Roles.
4. Assign groups of students one of the seven roles.
5. Explain to students that they will be allowed to work together to help research answers
   and will also be responsible for completing their own personal answers on Attachment C,
   Student Answer Sheet.
6. Suggest resources where students will find information including books and electronic
   media.
7. Allow students to begin research for homework.

Day Two
8. Take five to 10 minutes to address any issues and questions that are relevant to every
    group. Provide examples of economic situations in which the government plays a role.
9. Allow groups to work together.
10. Observe each group and help them work through any problems or questions they may
    have. Use Attachment G, Key to guide students toward relevant information.
11. Tell students that each group will have to briefly explain its role to the entire class on
    Day Three during the last 15 minutes of class. Tell students to divide the work so that
    everyone has the opportunity to present.
12. For homework have students finish research and prepare to share answers to all four parts
    of Attachment C, Student Answer Sheet, with the other students on Day Three.

Day Three
13. Give each group four to five minutes to explain all four parts of Attachment C, Student
    Answer Sheet, for their role. Time the groups so that every group has a chance to
    participate.
14. Instruct the rest of the class to record answers for every role on Attachment F, Summary.
15. Use Attachment G, Key, to enhance student answers if necessary.
16. Debrief students by asking what patterns they see in the opinions on laissez-faire policies
    and monopolies. Discuss the impact of industry on the standard of living.
17. Collect Attachment C, Student Answer Sheet, from each student to evaluate as a
    formative assessment.
18. Provide feedback from the formative assessment to students.



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    Social, Political and Economic Effects of Industrialization –
                              Grade 10
Day Four
19. Assign students to write a letter to the editor of a newspaper from the perspective of the
    person that they researched on Attachment E, Roles. Students will need to have
    Attachment F, Summary, completed and use it to help them write their letter.
20. Explain to students that the letter should be neat and legible and needs to cover these
    three areas (post on the chalkboard or overhead transparency):
    · give reasons for either agreeing or disagreeing with the laissez-faire policies of the
        time;
    · discuss the role of monopolies;
    · discuss the effects of industrialization on the standard of living.
    Remind students to use specific historical and economic terms when writing the letters.
21. Collect the letters at the end of the class period.

Differentiated Instructional Support:
Instruction is differentiated according to learner needs, to help all learners either meet the
intent of the specified indicator(s) or, if the indicator is already met, to advance beyond the
specified indicator(s).
· Provide more time for lesson if students need help with vocabulary, examples or
    research.
· Define vocabulary words found in the benchmarks and indicators with cartoons or other
    visual aids.
· Allow students with limited reading or writing skills to complete the post-assessment
    orally with the aid of a graphic organizer (Attachment F) outlining their presentation.
· Challenge students to write a biography of a person during this time period. Have
    students cite the sources used for the biography.

Extensions:
· Compare and/or contrast the role they were given to roles in the United States today.
   Emphasize the changing economic and political realities.
· Research the connection between minimum wage and poverty for families today.
· Invite a business person from a local industry to discuss the connections to and modern
   perspectives on the information studied in this lesson.

Homework Options and Home Connections:
Have students ask family members about their views regarding the need for government
regulation in the economy.

Interdisciplinary Connections:
English Language Arts
· Writing Applications




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    Social, Political and Economic Effects of Industrialization –
                              Grade 10
   Benchmark C: Produce letters (e.g., business, letters to the editor, job applications) that
   follow the conventional style appropriate to the text and that include appropriate details
   and exclude extraneous details and inconsistencies.
   Indicator 3: Write business letters, letters to the editor and job applications that:
   a. address audience needs, stated purpose and context in a clear and efficient manner;
   b. follow the conventional style appropriate to the text using proper technical terms;
   c. include appropriate facts and details;
   d. exclude extraneous details and inconsistencies; and
   e. provide a sense of closure to the writing.

Materials and Resources:
The inclusion of a specific resource in any lesson formulated by the Ohio Department of
Education should not be interpreted as an endorsement of that particular resource, or any of
its contents, by the Ohio Department of Education. The Ohio Department of Education does
not endorse any particular resource. The Web addresses listed are for a given site’s main
page, therefore, it may be necessary to search within that site to find the specific information
required for a given lesson. Please note that information published on the Internet changes
over time, therefore the links provided may no longer contain the specific information related
to a given lesson. Teachers are advised to preview all sites before using them with students.

For teacher: Chalkboard or overhead projector.

For students: Print and electronic resources.

Vocabulary:
· industrialization
· laissez-faire policies
· monopolies
· trusts
· standard of living

Technology Connections:
· Instead of a group presentation, students could record a performance using presentation
   software. Students could import various images to illustrate their role.
· Use the Library of Congress’ web page http://www.loc.gov/ to help students locate
   primary source materials.
· Students could analyze the change in the distribution of wealth from the 1880’s through
   today using a spreadsheet or chart.




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    Social, Political and Economic Effects of Industrialization –
                              Grade 10
Research Connections:
Marzano, R. et al. Classroom Instruction that Works: Research-Based Strategies for
Increasing Student Achievement, Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and
Curriculum Development, 2001.

       Summarizing and note taking are two of the most powerful skills to help students
       identify and understand the most important aspects of what they are learning.

General Tips:
· Time allocated for the lesson may vary.
· Students may use library resources to find primary source documents.

Attachments:
Attachment A, Pre-Assessment
Attachment B, Pre-Assessment Key
Attachment C, Student Answer Sheet
Attachment D, Scoring Guidelines and Possible Answers
Attachment E, Roles
Attachment F, Summary
Attachment G, Key




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    Social, Political and Economic Effects of Industrialization –
                              Grade 10
                                      Attachment A
                                     Pre-Assessment

Directions: Answer the questions below to determine what you already know about the
topics that you will be studying in this lesson.

1. What factors determine a person’s standard of living?




2. Define laissez-faire.




3. Explain the role of entrepreneurs in the economy.




4. Have you ever played a game about monopolies? What is the goal of the game?




5. How does the government regulate businesses today?




6. Why does the government attempt to regulate the economy?




                                                                                      6
    Social, Political and Economic Effects of Industrialization –
                              Grade 10
                                       Attachment B
                                    Pre-Assessment Key

Directions: Answer the questions below to determine what you already know about the
topics that you will be studying in this lesson.

1. What factors determine a person’s standard of living?

   Income, assets, educational opportunities, quality of housing, availability of health care,
   quantity and quality of consumer goods and services, etc.

2. Define laissez-faire.

   An economic principle that opposes governmental regulation of or interference in
   economic matters beyond what is needed to maintain peace and property rights..

3. Explain the role of entrepreneurs in the economy.

   Entrepreneurs start businesses by organizing productive resources (human resources,
   natural resources and capital resources) in order to make a profit. If they are successful
   they provide jobs and create wealth.

4. Have you ever played a game about monopolies? What is the goal of the game?

   Answers will vary. The goal is to win by owning all property and forcing opponents into
   declaring bankruptcy.

5. How does the government regulate businesses today?

   Answers will vary and may include minimum wage legislation, safety regulations,
   environmental regulation and tax laws.

6. Why does the government attempt to regulate the economy?

   The government seeks to avoid economic recession or depression, protect workers,
   protect the environment, etc.




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    Social, Political and Economic Effects of Industrialization –
                              Grade 10
                                      Attachment C
                                   Student Answer Sheet

Name___________________
Role____________________

Directions: You will be given a role of someone who was living in America in 1890. You
will be in a group of students who have the same role to help you find answers to specific
questions. Answer the four questions with detailed responses. You will need to look closely
at your focus questions on the Attachment E, Roles, sheet to answer the first question.

1. Address all of the focus questions for your role.




2. How has industrialization affected your living conditions, working conditions and
   standard of living.




3. How have laissez-faire policies or monopolies affected you?




4. How should the government respond to the effects that laissez-faire policies have had on
   your life?




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    Social, Political and Economic Effects of Industrialization –
                              Grade 10
                                     Attachment D
                         Scoring Guidelines and Possible Answers

                         4 points            3 points            2 points              1 point
Agreement or        All parts of the    Most parts of       The viewpoint is     The viewpoint
disagreement        letter              the letter          stated but           is either not
with laissez-       consistently        support the         support is not       stated or not
faire policies      support one         viewpoint           well reasoned or     supported.
                    viewpoint with      chosen with         examples are
                    clear reasoning     clear reasoning     lacking.
                    and specific        and examples.
                    examples.

Discussion of       There is a          There is an         There is a partial   Monopolies and
the role of         clearly             understanding of    explanation of       competition are
monopolies          explained           monopolies and      monopolies and       mentioned but
                    understanding of    competition         competition.         not explained.
                    monopolies and      consistent with
                    competition         the viewpoint
                    consistent with     taken.
                    the viewpoint
                    taken.

Effects of          Standard of         Standard of         Standard of          Standard of
industrialization   living and          living and          living and           living is
on standard of      industrialization   industrialization   industrialization    mentioned but
living              are linked using    are linked using    are linked using     not explained or
                    an abundance of     accurate            information that     explained
                    accurate            information that    is consistent        incorrectly.
                    information that    is consistent       with the stand
                    is consistent       with the stand      taken but may
                    with the stand      taken.              contain some
                    taken.                                  inaccuracies.

Vocabulary          Specific history    Most history        There is a           Ideas are
                    and economic        and economic        mixture of           expressed using
                    terms are           terms are used      specific             vague or
                    included and        correctly.          vocabulary and       general words.
                    used correctly.                         more general
                                                            terms.




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    Social, Political and Economic Effects of Industrialization –
                              Grade 10
                                     Attachment D
                  Scoring Guidelines and Possible Answers (continued)

Letters that support laissez-faire policies may include the following reasons:
1. The government understands that business owners in America need to be in control of the
    decisions that effect whether or not they can profit.
2. If a company does not pay its workers enough, they will find another job. If the product
    of a company is of poor quality, the company will go out of business. In other words, the
    market economy governs itself.
3. Monopolies are a result of competition in which the strongest companies survive.
    Competition is one of the basic principles of the market economy.
4. American businesses are very profitable. This profit translates into the hiring of more
    workers, the building of more factories, and the expansion of cities.
5. Business owners are charitable, returning the wealth they have received from laissez-faire
    policies by building schools, hospitals and museums.
6. People are able to come from other countries or America’s farms and support their
    families by working for businesses made possible by laissez-faire policies.
7. America has grown stronger with the building of railroads, bridges and many consumer
    products that all have a positive effect the standard of living in America.

Letters that disagree with laissez faire policies may include the following reasons:
1. Because the government does not regulate pay or working conditions, workers are forced
    to work for very low wages.
2. The government is not impartial and sides with business owners during strikes.
3. Consumers are hurt by monopolies because once a company has control of a market it
    raises the prices of its goods or services.
4. Monopolies hurt workers across America because companies that are taken over often
    close factories and the workers are then unemployed.
5. While many people find jobs in the factories, working conditions are often unsafe.
6. Poor health care and living conditions lead to injuries and the spread of diseases.
7. Many factory workers cannot afford the new consumer products because the products are
    too expensive due to monopolistic pricing.




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    Social, Political and Economic Effects of Industrialization –
                              Grade 10
                                      Attachment E
                                          Roles

Directions: The year is 1890. You are responsible for completely answering each focus
question for your role. Yes/no answers are not acceptable. Explanations must be given as
well.

Roles
Pennsylvania coal miner
Illinois meat packer
John D. Rockefeller
New Jersey oil refinery owner
U.S. senator from New York
California railroad owner
Labor union representative

Focus questions (for all roles)
Describe your work.
How has industrialization influenced your work?
What federal laws or policies directly influence how you do your work?
How does your work benefit society?




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     Social, Political and Economic Effects of Industrialization –
                               Grade 10
                                        Attachment F
                                         Summary

                 How has                   How have laissez-faire   How should the
                 industrialization         policies or monopolies   government respond
                 affected your living      affected you?            to the effects that
                 conditions, working                                laissez-faire policies
                 conditions and                                     have had on you?
                 standard of living?
Pennsylvania
coal miner


Illinois meat
packer


John D.
Rockefeller



New Jersey oil
refinery owner



U.S. senator
from New York




California
railroad owner



Labor union
representative




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     Social, Political and Economic Effects of Industrialization –
                               Grade 10
                                          Attachment G
                                               Key

                How has                     How have laissez-faire How should the
                industrialization           policies or monopolies government respond to
                affected your living        affected you?          the effects that laissez-
                conditions, working                                faire policies have had
                conditions and                                     on you?
                standard of living?

Pennsylvania    I am able to use some       The government does         The government should
coal miner      new products, but           not regulate coal mining.   set minimum wage laws,
                generally I have a low      Wages are low and work      shorter work days and
                standard of living, a       is unsafe.                  weeks, child labor laws
                dangerous working                                       and safety regulations. It
                environment, threat of                                  should support labor
                black lung disease and                                  unions.
                low wages.
                I live in a company-run
                town.

Illinois meat  I am able to use some        The government does         The government should
packer         new products, but            not regulate factory        set minimum wage laws,
               generally I have a low       safety; the workers         shorter work days and
               standard of living, little   receive low wages and       weeks, child labor laws
               education, low wages         work in unsafe              and safety regulations. It
               and unsafe working           conditions.                 should support labor
               conditions. I live in a                                  unions.
               tenement building.
               I have a very high           Laissez-faire policiesThe government should
John D.        standard of living           allowed me to become  refrain from regulation of
Rockefeller    including the finest         wealthy. I was able tobusiness. It should not
               food, clothing, several                            regulate monopolies
                                            create the Standard Oil
               homes and medical care.      Trust.                because they allow for
               I help manage the                                  survival of the fittest in
               Standard Oil Company.                              business.
               I have a comfortable         The Standard Oil      The government should
New Jersey oil standard of living.          monopoly may drive my refrain from regulation of
refinery       I live in safe and           company out of        business but it should
owner          pleasant environment.        business.             make owning monopolies
               I can afford medical care                          illegal.
               and buy fine consumer
               products.


                                                                                                13
    Social, Political and Economic Effects of Industrialization –
                              Grade 10
                                          Attachment G
                                         Key (continued)


U.S. senator     I have a high standard     Increasingly, I am        The government should
from New         of living with the         hearing from people       hear from businessmen,
York             finest food, clothing      who want businesses       laborers and consumers
                 and medical care and       regulated.                about the need for
                 buy fine consumer                                    business regulation.
                 products.


California       I have a very high         Railroad owners have      The government should
railroad         standard of living         become successful. We     refrain from regulation
owner            including the finest       have benefited from       of business. The
                 food, clothing and         some government           government should not
                 medical care. I own        policies supporting the   regulate monopolies.
                 vast interests in the      development of            They promote survival
                 transportation             railroads. We make        of the fittest.
                 industry in                profitable decisions
                 California.                without government
                                            interference.


Labor union      My standard of living      The government does       The government should
representative   is similar to the          not support unions and    set minimum wage laws,
                 factory workers.           sides with the owners     eight hour work days,
                                            during strikes.           child labor laws and
                                            Monopolies hurt           safety regulations. It
                                            consumers who pay         should support labor
                                            more in the long run.     unions.




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