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									                      XECUTIVE SUMMARY
A STUDY OF MOTORCYCLE ENGINE MODIFICATION TO RUN ON GASOHOL E10




                                 Submit to

      Department of Alternative Energy Development and Efficiency (DEDE)
                               Ministry of Energy




                                     By

                 Mechanical Engineering Department
                        Faculty of Engineering
            Rajamangaly University of Technology Thunyaburi
                                                                                                      2

                        EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
  A STUDY OF MOTORCYCLE ENGINE MODIFICATION TO RUN ON GASOHOL E10

         Department of Alternative Energy Development and Efficiency (DEDE),
Ministry of Energy, is now giving precedence on development, promotion and efficient use of clean
energy. The measures and means of the use in many forms of renewable energy have been
accentuated. The strategy plans in using of gasohol as fuel to replace gasoline are set up in order to
solve the problems of vehicle fuel in Thailand. Their goal is to use gasohol to replace the gasoline up
to 80% which will be completely replace all gasoline 95 within 2007 and replace all gasoline 91
within 2012. The government has already approved a plan to build more than 24 ethanol factories
with overall capacity more than 4 million liters per day. Up to the present day, there are more than
3,557 gas stations that provided gasohol in Thailand.
         Even though the amount of sold gasohol was slightly increased, but it is very less than the
amount of sold gasoline in the same year. In 2006, the amount of sold gasoline (91 and 95) is about
20 million liters per day, while the amount of sold gasohol is only about 3.5 million liters per day. It
means that there are not many people prefer use gasohol, in order that they may not be assured of
gasohol instead of gasoline and the government still has no technical data, about the effects of
gasohol on motorcycle engine parts, to insist for the users. Therefore it is important need to study on
the tests of gasohol as motorcycle fuel to address and overcome the problems. Furthermore, by the
testing result, the current motorcycle users can whether decide to use gasohol and manufactures can
cope with this problem.
         In order to increase the confidence of the consumers in using gasohol, DEDE has assigned
the Rajamangala University of Technology Thunyaburi (RMUTT), as a project consultant, to survey
the number of motorcycle and research on the effects of gasohol in motorcycle which has carburetor
in the fuel system. The tests was done both in laboratory and real riding use condition sessions to
acquire the data for comparing analysis between gasoline and gasohol using effects.


Objectives
       1) To study the effect of gasohol using on carburetor-engine -motorcycle.
       2) To find the ways for engine modification or purpose the material of engine part which
           suitable for gasohol using.
                                                                                                  3

Scope of study

    1) Survey the current number of motorcycle which has a carburetion system and try to predict
       this number by the end of 2007 and 2012.
    2) Choose the 2 and 4 strokes motorcycles which have carburetion systems and are currently
       used in Thailand. At lease 24 motorcycles, 4 brands and 2 models form each brand, are
       provided, go along with the manufactures, for the study test. And provide necessary stuffs,
       e.g. fuel, spare parts and tools for work.
    3) Analyze the physic condition of fuel system components of all motorcycles before
       laboratory and field test.
    4) Test and analyze pollution in emission (e.g. THC, CO, NOx and CO2), fuel consumption and
       performance of all motorcycles before field test. Comparative study between the case of
       gasoline 91 and gasohol 95 fuel.
    5) Real riding field test all motorcycles at least 10,000 km.
    6) Test with the same manner in item 4) at the distance 5,000 and 10,000 km. Change engine
       oil and collect oil sample for analysis.
    7) Assess and analyze the physic condition of engine fuel parts of all motorcycles at the end of
       the test.
    8) Confer with motorcycle manufacturers to find the necessary modification and evaluate its
       cost.
    9) Provide a seminar for study result discussion where at least 80 people from government and
       private sectors are invited.

Number of motorcycle in Thailand

        (1) Number of motorcycle surveying
             Nowadays, there are 16 million motorcycles have been registered to use in the kingdom
of Thailand. In this amount, about 150,000 motorcycles use injection fuel system (about 1% only), so
most of motorcycle (more than 99%) uses fuel carburetion system. From the statistics data of the
Department of Land Transport, picture 1 shows that the first 5 motorcycle manufacturer (market
share) are Honda, Yamaha, Suzuki, Tiger and Kawasaki. Since 1991 until now the amount of a new
motorcycle increases continuously with rate of 11.05% and the amount of accumulation number is
increased with rate of 10.51%. In 2003, the number of motorcycle reached the highest point at 18.21
                                                                                                                                                                                4

million. In 2004, the Department of Land Transport has promulgated the sixth act of Department of
Land Transport legislation 6/2003 which defined that all motorcycles that did not pay for tax exceed 3
years will be automatically sorted out from the register. Furthermore, in 2004, the Pollution Control
Department has promulgated the pollution standard from new vehicle (for motorcycle), the fifth level
(Thai Industrial Standards Institute: 2130-2002), so about 5 million of 2-storke engine motorcycle
production and use were ceased. Because of these reasons, by the end of 2004, the number of
motorcycle then is down to 13.21 million. But, thereafter about 2 million per year of 4-storke engine
motorcycle were produced. The amount of accumulation number is increased with rate of 14.51%. In
2006, the number of motorcycle was increased to 15.78 million.


                                  20
                                                                                                                                                     18.21
                                  18                   จํานวนรถที่จดทะเบียนใหม
                                                         New registered motorcycle
                                                                                                                                            16.58
                                                       จํานวนรถสะสมทั่วประเทศ
                                                         Collected motorcycle
        of motorcycle (million)




                                                                                                                                                                                15.78
                                  16                                                                                               15.24
                                                                                                                                                                       14.55
                                                                                                                          13.82
                                  14                                                                             13.24                                        13.21
  Numberจํานวน (ลานคัน)




                                                                                                        12.46
                                                                                               11.65
                                  12                                                  10.71

                                  10                                          9.31
                                                                     8.25
                                   8                        7.26
                                                  6.31
                                         5.52
                                   6
                                   4
                                                                                                                                                             1.94     2.01     2.00
                                                                                                                                                    1.64
                                   2   0.69     0.72      0.86     1.09     1.34     1.25     0.99                       0.68     0.85
                                                                                                                                           1.19
                                                                                                       0.53     0.50

                                   0
                                       2534 2535 2536 2537  2538
                                       1991 1992 1993 1994 1995                      2539  2540 2541 2542 2543
                                                                                     1996 1997 1998 1999 2000                     2544 2545 2546  2547 2548 2549
                                                                                                                                  2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006

                                                                                                              ป พ.ศ.
                                                                                                               Year

Source: Department of Land Transport
                                       Figure 1: The number of new registered and accumulated motorcycle from 1991 to 2006

                                   (2) Prediction of number of motorcycle in future
              From the prediction result, figure 2 shows that the number of motorcycle will increase
continuously. Approximately means predicted that there will be 16,568,275 and
18,618,144motorcycles by the end of 2007 and 2012 respectively. In addition, with the current
number of motorcycle, it is approximated that all of motorcycles in Thailand consumed about 8.5
million liters per day or 42% of gasoline used in Thailand at 20.17 million liters per day.
                                                                                                                                 5


                                           30



                                           25
     จNumber of motorcycle (million) ัน)

                                                                                                      y = 2.5278Ln(x) + 13.064
      ํานวนรถสะสมทั่วประเทศ (ลานค



                                                                                                             R2 = 0.9817
                                           20



                                           15



                                           10



                                           5



                                           0
                                                2547
                                                2004   2548
                                                       2005      2549
                                                                 2006     2550
                                                                          2007     2551
                                                                                   2008     2552
                                                                                            2009     2553
                                                                                                     2010       2554
                                                                                                                2011     2555
                                                                                                                         2012


Source: Department of Land Transport

                                                       Figure 2: Prediction of number of motorcycle in future

Test format

           In this study, 22 motorcycles, from 5 brands, are provided. The definitions of fuel use for
each motorcycle are as follow:
Brand 1 : model 1: 2 for gasohol 91 + 1 for gasoline 91
            model 2: 2 for gasohol 91
Brand 2 : model 1: 2 for gasohol 91 + 1 for gasoline 91
            model 2: 2 for gasohol 91
Brand 3 : model 1: 2 for gasohol 95 + 1 for gasoline 91
            model 2: 2 for gasohol 95
Brand 4 : model 1: 2 for gasohol 95 + 1 for gasoline 91
            model 2: 2 for gasohol 95
Brand 5 : model 1: 1 for gasohol 95 + 1 for gasoline 91
           At the beginning of the test, the data book for each motorcycle were prepared for
individually record. For used motorcycles, especially for 2-storke engine motorcycle, its engines were
checked and the used engine parts e.g. spark plug, fuel tube, piston and oil were replaced with the
                                                                                                     6

new to make their condition as well as each others. In this study, there were 4 test sessions of the
work as follow:
            1) Analyze the physic condition of fuel system components: The fuel system
components, such as fuel tank, fuel tube, carburetor, spark plug, intake and exhaust valves, etc., were
analyzed on its physical conditions. This condition was comparative studied between the components
of gasoline and gasohol used motorcycles at the end of the field test.
          2) Laboratory test: The pollution in emission (e.g. THC, CO, NOx and CO2), fuel
consumption and performance of all motorcycles were test in laboratory room. The results were used
for comparative study on the effects of gasohol 91 and 95 fuel.
          3) Real riding in field test: After all of motorcycles were tested in laboratory room, all
motorcycles were ridden all together on the public roads at least 10,000 km.
            4) Oil sampling and analysis: To study that whether gasohol using affect to the
lubrication oil, the samples of lubrication oil were collected, analyzed and compared between
lubrication oil of gasoline 91, gasohol 91 and gasohol 95 engines. In addition, the ware metal content
in lubrication oil was also measured.

Results of the test

          Table 1 shows the effect of gasohol 91 and 95 compared with gasoline 91 of each brand of
motorcycles. The results in table 1 can be explained as follow:

           1) The effects of gasohol 91: Because of brand 1 and 2 motorcycles were defined to use
gasohol 91, their results were used to present the effects of gasohol 91 in each parameter as follow:

            Performance: For this parameter, the results form brand 1 and 2 give the same direction.
Their results show that the fuel consumption can be decreased at 1.12% and 26.88% respectively, the
power can be increased 0.27% and 4.83% respectively and the acceleration can be increased 2.22%
and 1.24% respectively. The reasons for these good results come form the amount of oxygen in
gasohol; the combustion will be more complete than gasoline combustion.
                                                                                                                                                                            7

Table 1: Effects of gasohol 91 and 95 compared with gasoline 91 of each brand of motorcycles

                                                       Brand 1                     Brand 2                    Brand 3*                    Brand 4               Brand 5
                Parameters                        Gasohol 91 used     Gasohol 91 used     Gasohol 95 used                            Gasohol 95 used     Gasohol 95 used
                                               Increase Decrease Increase Decrease Increase Decrease                               Increase Decrease Increase Decrease
Performance Fuel consumption                                1.13 %              26.88 %             23.14 %                                     0.37 %             9.33 %
            Max. power                          0.27%                4.83%               2.43%                                                  8.11% 5.18%
            Acceleration                        2.22 %               1.24 %              1.38 %                                                 0.64 %            2.74 %
            THC                                 2.33 %                          17.07 %              3.41 %                                    20.41 %            27.42 %
Emission    NOx                                17.24 %              16.22 %                         12.24 %                                      28 % 35.89 %
            CO                                             15.94 %              18.78 %             29.97 %                        24.83 %                        26.67 %
            CO2                                 9.75 %              12.18 %                          2.02 %                                     8.35 % 6.73 %
Lubrication Viscosity change                    7.46 %              11.39 %              6.34 %                                     6.13 %                         3.10%
oil         Ware metal content                             10.49 % 293.98 %**           139.97 %                                   20.39 %                         8.76 %
Remarks: No engine modification before and during the test
         * This brand has installed catalytic converter
         ** This extremely amount of metal content may caused by wearing out from others parts of engine, should be not taken into account
         The opposite direction of the results, especially for gasohol 95, may caused by:
         1. The different engine design of each brand, some brand has catalytic converter and gasohol 95 has higher octane number than motorcycle requirement
         2. The different quality of material for engine parts production of each brand
                                                                                                      8

             - Emission: For this parameter, the results form brand 1 and 2 give the same direction
except the amount of total hydrocarbon pollution (THC). Theoretically, the amount of THC should
be more decreased in more complete combustion. The amount of carbon monoxide (CO) can be
reduced 15.94% and 18.78% respectively. The more complete combustion, the higher combustion
temperature will be occurred where the oxide of nitrogen will be increased. In addition, the amount
of carbon dioxide can be increased 9.75% and 12.18% respectively.

              - Lubrication oil: For this parameter, the results form brand 1 and 2 give the same and
opposite direction. From result table 1, it can be seen that gasohol using play a good effect on
lubrication oil viscosity, which is beneficial important property of lubrication to decrease the wearing
out of the moving parts, the viscosity can be increased 7.46% and 11.39% respectively. The
disagreement of ware metal amount result may be come from the different quality of each brand
engine parts.

           2) The effects of gasohol 95: From table 1, it can be seen that the results form brand 3, 4
and 5 are not much agree as same as the result from gasohol 91. The reasons for this result may be
come from: the different engine design of each brand, some brand has catalytic converter and gasohol
95 has higher octane number than motorcycle requirement. So, the results should be averaged form
all motorcycles for each fuel as table 2.

            Table 2 shows the effects of gasohol 91 and 95 compared with gasoline 91 on average
result form all brand of motorcycles. The results can be discussed as follow:

           - From the averaged results from table 2, it was found that, at riding speed on
dynamometer at 33.5 km/h, the fuel consumption at average power of engine for gasoline 91, gasohol
91 and gasohol 95 fuel are 37.56 km/l at 4.36 kW, 41.04 km/l at 4.93 kW and 38.68 km/l at 4.66 kW
respectively. Therefore, the use of gasohol 91and 95 are saver than using of gasoline at 18.98 % and
8.58 % respectively.

          - Actually, the maximum power of motorcycle will be decreased after a period of use.
The maximum power after 10,000 km test for gasoline 91, gasohol 91 and gasohol 95 are 151.22
g/kW.h, 118.84 g/kW.h and 139.24 g/kW.h. Therefore the use of gasohol 91 and 95 decreased the
maximum power at 21.41% and 7.92% respectively.
                                                                                                                                                       9

Table 2: The effects of gasohol 91 and 95 compared with gasoline 91 on average result form all brand of motorcycles

                                                        Gasoline 91                   Gasohol 91                                 Gasohol 95
                      Parameters
                                                                              Increase           Decrease             Increase             Decrease
                                   From the test      37.56 km/l                            41.04 km/l                                 38.68 km/l
                Fuel
                                   Difference                                               3.84 km/l                                  1.12 km/l
                consumption
                                   Percentage                                               18.98%                                     8.58%
                                   From the test      151.22 g/kW.h                         118.84 g/kW.h                              139.24 g/kW.h
 Performance Max. power            Difference                                               32.38 g/kW.h                               11.98 g/kW.h
                                   Percentage                                               21.41%                                     7.92%
                                   From the test      1.80 m/s2          1.84 m/s2                                               1.80 m/s2
                Acceleration       Difference                            0.04 m/s2                                               0.00 m/s2
                                   Percentage                            2.18%                                                   0.00 %*
                                   From the test      0.57 g/km                               0.39 g/km          0.57 g/km
                THC                Difference                                                 0.18 g/km          0.01 g/km
                                   Percentage                                                 31.63%             1.24%
 Emission
                                   From the test      0.34 g/km          0.38 g/km                               0.38 g/km
                NOx                Difference                            0.05 g/km                               0.04 g/km
                                   Percentage                            31.61%                                  11.54%
                                                                                                                                         10

Table 2: (continued)

                                                       Gasoline 91                Gasohol 91                          Gasohol 95
                       Parameters
                                                                          Increase           Decrease
                                    From the test    14.65 g/km                         11.63 g/km                          13.45 g/km
                CO                  Difference                                          3.02 g/km                           1.21 g/km
 Emission                           Percentage                                          20.60%                              8.24%
 (continue)                         From the test    37.48 g/km      38.27 g/km                         39.74 g/km
                CO2                 Difference                       0.79 g/km                          2.26 g/km
                                    Percentage                       2.11%                              6.03%
                           From the test             13.39 mm2/s     14.31 mm2/s                        13.59 mm2/s
             Viscosity     Difference                                0.92 mm2/s                         0.20 mm2/s
 Lubrication               Percentage                                0.13%                              4.93%
     oil                   From the test             136.95 mg/kg    137.68 mg/kg                       187.16 mg/kg
             Total ware
                           Difference                                0.73 mg/kg                         50.21 mg/kg
             metal content
                           Percentage                                0.53%                              36.66%

 Remarks:        No engine modification before and during the test
                 * The difference is vary less
             - The acceleration rate of motorcycles which use gasoline 91, gasohol 91 and gasohol
95 are 1.80 m/s2, 1.84 m/s2 and 1.80 m/s2 respectively. Therefore the use of gasohol 91 increased the
maximum power at 2.18 % and the use of gasohol 95 has no effect on the acceleration of motorcycle.

               - The use of gasohol 91 reduced total HC emission at 31.63%, while gasohol 95
increased total HC emission at 1.24%

                - The use of gasohol 91 and 95 increased the NOx emission at 31.61% and 11.54%
respectively.

                - The use of gasohol 91 and 95 reduced the CO emission at 20.6% and 8.24%
respectively.

                - The use of gasohol 91 and 95 increased the CO2 emission at 2.11% and 6.03%
respectively.

               - The results of lubrication oil analysis show that the use of gasoline 91 decreased the
viscosity of oil at 6.32% (compared with new oil). The use of gasohol 91 increased the viscosity of oil
at 0.13%, on the other hand, gasohol 95 decreased the viscosity of oil at 4.93 %.

                - The use of gasohol 91 and 95 increased the ware metal content at 0.53% and 36.66%
respectively.

Effects on fuel system components
           The analysis by assessment from physical condition of fuel system components, before and
after the test, to know about the effects of gasohol on the deterioration of components was conducted.
To know about the effects, the components of gasoline and gasohol motorcycle parts were compared. If
their conditions are the same, means that the gasohol using does not affect obviously on engine parts.
From analysis results, all compared components were not affected obviously by gasohol.

Conclusion and recommendation
        From this study, about the effect of gasohol using on 5-brand motorcycles: Honda, Suzuki,
Yamaha, Tiger and Kawasaki, the 22 motorcycles were tested. The results indicate that, compared with
gasoline 91 using, the fuel consumption rate was decreased, while the acceleration rate was increased;
                                                                                                   12

but the wearing of engine parts were decreased, when the power reduction and ware metal content in
lubrication oil were taken into account. In emission side, the quantities of THC and CO in the exhaust
gas were decreased; but the quantity of NOx was increased. The above results good agree with theory
that the combustion is promoted by oxygen in gasohol, the gasohol combustion will be more complete
than gasoline. The more complete combustion, the higher combustion temperature is occurred. In same
manner, the higher combustion temperature, the higher rate of NOx formation is activated.
Furthermore, compared with gasoline 91 using, gasohol 91 and 95 do not affect obviously on engine
components.
         In summary, gasohol 91 and 95 can be used as fuel in both 2 and 4-stroke-carburetor-engine
motorcycles without any modification. But, for more efficiently use, there are a recommendation that
the high quality of lubrication oil should be used and change regularly.

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