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M308.a; HEAT ENGINES LAB MANUAL SNGCE/ME/HEL/LM/E308 DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY MANUAL E308.a; HEAT ENGINES LABORATORY 0:0:2 Name Signature Prepared by P.P. Binu Checked by Prof. Koshy Varugheese Approved by Dr. T. P. Lukose Sree Narayana Gurukulam College of Engineering Kadayiruppu, Kolenchery- 682 311 2003 DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 1 SNG COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KADAYIRIPPU M308.a; HEAT ENGINES LAB MANUAL TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Sl.no. Description of experiment no. 3 1 Load Test on slow speed Diesel Engine 8 2 Load Test on Horizontal Diesel Engine 12 3 Load Test on Vertical Diesel Engine 16 4 Volumetric efficiency test on Vertical Diesel Engine 18 5 Load Test on Twin cylinder Diesel Engine 23 6 Load Test on 2S Petrol Engine 25 7 Load Test on 4S 4cylinder Petrol engine 28 8 Valve Timing Diagram of 4S Diesel Engine 30 9 Port Timing Diagram 2S Petrol Engine 32 10 Determination of COP of Air-conditioning system 36 11 Determination of COP of Refrigeration system 39 12 Performance test on single stage Reciprocating Air Compressor DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 2 SNG COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KADAYIRIPPU M308.a; HEAT ENGINES LAB MANUAL Ex. No: 1 LOAD TEST ON SINGLE CYLINDER SLOW SPEED DIESEL ENGINE OBJECTIVE To evaluate the performance of the given Engine i) Total Fuel Consumption (TFC) ii) Specific Fuel Consumption (SFC) iii) Brake Horse Power (BHP) iv) Indicated Horse Power (IHP) v) Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE ) vi) Indicated Thermal Efficiency (ITE) vii) Mechanical Efficiency (ME) viii) Brake Mean Effective Pressure (Bmep) ix) Volumetric efficiency And to plot the performance curves. ENGINE SPECIFICATION MAKE : FIELD MARSHAL BHP : 6.0 SPEED : 660 RPM NO. OF CYLINDER : ONE BORE : 114.3 mm STROKE : 139.7 mm ORIFICE DIA : 20 mm TYPE OF IGNITION : COMPRESSION IGNITION METHOD OF LOADING : ROPE BRAKE DYNAMOMETER METHOD OF STARTING : HAND START METHOD OF COOLING : WATER COOLED BASICS 1. Brake Power (BHP) 2 NWR BHP 4500 Where, N - Speed in RPM W= W1 – S kg W1 – wt added (including wt hanger) in kg S - Spring balance reading in kg DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 3 SNG COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KADAYIRIPPU M308.a; HEAT ENGINES LAB MANUAL R = (D+d)/2 D - Brake drum diameter D - Rope diameter 2. Total Fuel consumption (TFC) in kg/hr. 10 3600 TFC kg / hr t 1000 Where, t - time for 10cc is volume of fuel consumption in s. ρ - Density (Diesel) in g/cc V = 0.838 g/cc 3. Specific Fuel Consumption (SFC) in kg/BHP-hr. TFC SFC kg/ BHP-hr BHP 4. Brake Thermal Efficiency: BHP 4500 BTE 100 % (TFC ) CV J 60 Where, CV- calorific value of fuel (Diesel) in kcal/kg J - Mechanical equivalent of heat = 427 kgf-m / kcal 5. Indicated Horse Power (IHP) IHP can be calculated by Willans Line Graph method. TFC FHP BHP IHP = BHP + FHP DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 4 SNG COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KADAYIRIPPU M308.a; HEAT ENGINES LAB MANUAL 6. Indicated Thermal Efficiency (ITE) IHP 4500 ITE 100 % (TFC ) CV J 60 Where, CV - Calorific value of fuel (Diesel) in kcal/kg J - Mechanical equivalent of heat = 427 kgf-m / kcal 7. Mechanical Efficiency (ME) BHP ME 100 % IHP 8. Brake mean effective pressure, BHP 4500 Bmep kg/ cm2 LA( N / 2)n Where, L - Stroke length in m, A - Bore area in cm2 N- Speed in rpm, n - no. of cylinders PROCEDURE 1. Find the maximum load that can be applied to the engine using the engine details. 2. Connect water inlet to a constant head water source. 3. Switch on the cooling water supply to Engine Jacket and adjust it to suitable flow rate. (The flow rate can be measured by using the Rota meter). 4. Connect the instrumentation power input plug to a 230V, single-phase power source. Now the digital temperature indicator displays the respective readings. 5. Check the lubricating oil level in the sump with the dipstick provided. 6. Check fuel level in the fuel tank and ensure the supply to engine. 7. De-compress the engine by decompression lever provided near the fuel pump. 8. Insert the starting handle and Crank the engine slowly by rotating in clockwise and ascertain proper flow of fuel into the pump and in turn through the nozzle into the engine cylinder. When maximum cranking speed is attained, pullout the decompression lever, now the engine starts. Allow the engine to run and stabilize. (Approximately 650 RPM. The engine is a constant Speed engine fitted with centrifugal governor). 10. Open the cooling water gate valve and set it for required flow, Now load the engine by applying weights, load the engine in steps of ¼, ½, ¾, full load. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 5 SNG COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KADAYIRIPPU M308.a; HEAT ENGINES LAB MANUAL 11. Before taking the reading allow the engine to run at the set load and speed for few minutes. Note down the readings. Then increase the load by repeating the same procedure up to maximum load. 12. To stop the engine after the experiment is over, remove all the weights applied, then push up the governor lever towards the engine cranking side and hold it till the engine stops and then close the cooling water gate valve. Power Time for 10 cc fuel SFC Sl. Load in kg No. out put consumption in s TFC kg/BHP- FHP IHP ηBTE ηITE ηME Bmep kg/hr hp hp % % % kg/cm2 hr W1 S W BHP t1 t2 t 1 2 3 4 5 6 MAXIMUM LOAD CALCULATION 2 NWR Brake Power, BHP 4500 BHP 4500 W kg 2 N R where, W – Load in kg, RESULTS 1. Maximum Brake Thermal Efficiency = …………………….% 2. Maximum Indicated Thermal Efficiency = …………………% 3. Maximum Mechanical Efficiency = …………………………% 4. Maximum Brake Mean Effective Pressure = ………………kg/ cm2 INFERENCE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 6 SNG COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KADAYIRIPPU M308.a; HEAT ENGINES LAB MANUAL Ex. No: 2 LOAD TEST ON FOUR STROKE SINGLE CYLINDER HORIZONTAL DIESEL ENGINE OBJECTIVE To conduct Load test on the given diesel E/N to determine 1. Total Fuel Consumption (TFC) 2. Specific Fuel Consumption (SFC) 3. Brake Horse Power (BHP) 4. Indicated Thermal Efficiency (IHP) 5. Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE) 6. Indicated Thermal Efficiency (ITE) 7. Mechanical Efficiency (ME) 8. Brake Mean Effective Pressure (Bmep) And to plot, 1) BHP Vs TFC 2) BHP Vs SFC 3) BHP Vs ME 4) BHP Vs BTE 5) BHP Vs ITE 6) BHP Vs Bmep ENGINE SPECIFICATION MAKE : KIRLOSKAR BHP : 5.0 SPEED : 1500 RPM NO. OF CYLINDER : ONE BORE : 92 mm STROKE : 95 mm ORIFICE DIA : 17 mm COMPRESSION RATIO : 22:1 TYPE OF IGNITION : COMPRESSION IGNITION METHOD OF LOADING : ROPE BRAKE DYNAMOMETER METHOD OF STARTING : HAND START METHOD OF COOLING : WATER COOLED BASICS 1. Brake Horse Power 2 NWR BHP 4500 DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 7 SNG COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KADAYIRIPPU M308.a; HEAT ENGINES LAB MANUAL Where, W= W1-S W1-Dead weight in kg S - spring balance reading in kg R= (D+d)/2 D- Diameter of Brake drum in meters (300 mm) d- Dia of rope in m (16 mm), N- Speed of the engine in rpm 1. Total Fuel Consumption (TFC) 10 3600 TFC kg / hr t 1000 Where, t - time for 10 cc of fuel consumption - Density of diesel in g/cc 3. Specific Fuel Consumption (SFC) TFC SFC kg / BHP hr BHP 4. Indicated Horse Power (IHP) IHP BHP FHP FHP – Frictional Horse Power; obtained from BHP Vs TFC Graph (X-intercept of the graph) 5. Brake Thermal Efficiency BHP 4500 BTE 100 % (TFC ) CV J 60 Where, TFC - Total fuel consumption in kg/hr. CV - Calorific value of Diesel (11000 kcal/kg) J - Mechanical equivalent of heat (427 kgf-m/kcal) 6. Indicated Thermal Efficiency IHP 4500 ITE 100 % (TFC ) CV J 60 Where, TFC - Total fuel consumption in kg/hr. CV - Calorific value of Diesel = 11000 kcal/kg J - Mechanical equivalent of heat = 427 kgf-m/kcal DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 8 SNG COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KADAYIRIPPU M308.a; HEAT ENGINES LAB MANUAL 7. Mechanical Efficiency BHP ME 100 % IHP 8. Brake Mean Effective Pressure BHP 4500 Bmep kg / cm 2 LA( N / 2)n Where, L – Stroke length in m A – Bore area in cm2 n – Number of cylinder ** N/2 is used since four stroke engine PROCEDURE Initially find the maximum load that can be applied to the Engine. 1).Connect the instrumentation power input plug to a 230 V single phase power source. Now the digital meter indicates the respective readings. 2).Check the fuel supply to the engine. 3). Check the lubricating oil level 4). Switch on the cooling water supply 5). Start the engine by cranking 6). Now adjust throttle so that the engine to run at rated RPM = 1500 7). Load the engine in order of ¼, ½, ¾ and Full Load. 8). In each case note down the time for 10 cc of Fuel consumption 9). Then with the details find the BHP and TFC plot the graph BHP Vs TFC and x- intercept of the curve (Willain’s Line) gives the Frictional Horse Power (FHP). Then BHP + FHP gives IHP. OBSERVATIONS Power Time for 10 cc fuel Sl. Load in kg SFC No. out put consumption in sec TFC kg/BHP- FHP IHP ηBTE ηITE ηME Bmep kg/hr hp hp % % % kg/cm2 hr W1 S W BHP t1 t2 t 1 2 3 4 5 6 DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 9 SNG COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KADAYIRIPPU M308.a; HEAT ENGINES LAB MANUAL MAXIMUM LOAD CALCULATION 2 NWR Brake Horse Power, BHP 4500 Where, W= W1-S ………. kg D = 0.3 m , d = 0.016 m, N=1500, rated rpm BHP 4500 W =…………….kg 2 NR RESULTS 1. Maximum brake thermal efficiency =………………………….. 2. Maximum indicated thermal efficiency =……………………….. 3. Maximum Mechanical efficiency =……………………………. 4. Brake mean effective pressure =……………………………….. INFERENCE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 10 SNG COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KADAYIRIPPU M308.a; HEAT ENGINES LAB MANUAL Ex. NO: 3 LOAD TEST ON FOUR STROKE SINGLE CYLINDER VERTICAL DIESEL ENGINE OBJECTIVE To conduct Load test on the given diesel E/N to determine 1. Total Fuel Consumption (TFC) 2. Specific Fuel Consumption (SFC) 3. Brake Horse Power (BHP) 5. Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE) 6. Indicated Thermal Efficiency (ITE) 7. Mechanical Efficiency (ME) 8. Brake Mean Effective Pressure (Bmep) And to plot, 1) BHP Vs TFC 2) BHP Vs SFC 3) BHP Vs ME 4) BHP Vs BTE 5) BHP Vs ITE 6) BHP Vs Bmep ENGINE SPECIFICATION MAKE : KIRLOSKAR BHP : 5.0 SPEED : 1500 RPM NO. OF CYLINDER : ONE BORE : 80 mm STROKE : 110 mm ORIFICE DIA : 17 mm COMPRESSION RATIO : 17.5 :1 TYPE OF IGNITION : COMPRESSION IGNITION METHOD OF LOADING : ROPE BRAKE DYNAMOMETER METHOD OF STARTING : HAND START METHOD OF COOLING : WATER COOLED BASICS 1. Brake Horse Power (BHP) V I BHP g 736 Where, V - volt meter reading DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 11 SNG COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KADAYIRIPPU M308.a; HEAT ENGINES LAB MANUAL I - Ammeter Reading, g - Generator Efficiency = 80 % 2. Total Fuel Consumption (TFC) 10 3600 TFC kg/hr t 1000 Where, t - time for 10 cc of fuel consumption Density of diesel in gm/cc (0.838) 4. Specific Fuel Consumption (SFC) TFC SFC kg/BHP-hr BHP 5. Indicated Horse Power (IHP) IHP BHP FHP FHP – Frictional Horse Power; obtained from BHP Vs TFC Graph (X- intercept of the graph) 6. Brake Thermal Efficiency BHP 4500 BTE 100 (TFC / 60) CV J Where, TFC - Total fuel consumption in kg/hr. CV – Calorific value of Diesel (11000 kcal/kg) J - Mechanical equivalent of heat ( 427 kgf-m/kcal) 7. Indicated Thermal Efficiency IHP 4500 ITE 100 (TFC / 60) CV J Where, TFC - Total fuel consumption in kg/hr. CV - Calorific value of Diesel (11000 kcal/kg) J - Mechanical equivalent of heat (427 kgf-m/kcal) 8. Mechanical Efficiency BHP ME 100 IHP DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 12 SNG COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KADAYIRIPPU M308.a; HEAT ENGINES LAB MANUAL 9. Brake Mean Effective Pressure (Bmep) BHP 4500 Bmep kg/cm2 LA( N / 2)n Where, N- Speed in rpm L – Stroke length in m A – Bore area in cm2 n – Number of cylinder ** N/2 is used since four stroke engine PROCEDURE Initially find the maximum load that can be applied to the Engine. 1).Connect the instrumentation power input plug to a 230 V single phase power source. Now the digital meter indicates the respective readings. 2).Check the fuel supply to the engine. 3).Check the lubricating oil level 4).Switch on the cooling water supply 5).Ensure the MCB switch provided for engaging and disengaging the loading systems should be in off position 6).Start the engine by cranking 7). Now the engine will run at rated RPM = 1500 8). Switch on the MCB on the resistance Bank and by operating cam switches provided on the load bank; Load the engine in order of ¼, ½, ¾ and Full Load. 9). In each case note down the time for 10 cc of Fuel consumption, Volt meter reading, Ammeter reading 10).Then with the details find the BHP and TFC plot the graph BHP Vs TFC and x- intercept of the curve (Willan’s Line) gives the Frictional Horse Power (FHP). Then BHP + FHP gives IHP. OBSERVATIONS Amm Volt Sl. eter meter Power Time for 10 cc fuel SFC No. readi readin out put consumption in sec TFC kg/BHP- FHP IHP ηBTE ηITE ηME Bmep ng g in kg/hr hp hp % % % kg/cm2 hr amps volts I V BHP t1 t2 t 1 2 3 4 5 6 DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 13 SNG COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KADAYIRIPPU M308.a; HEAT ENGINES LAB MANUAL MAXIMUM LOAD CALCULATION Brake Horse Power; V I BHP g 736 Where, V - Rated Voltage (230 V) I - Current g - Generator Efficiency = 80 % BHP 736 I V g RESULTS 1. Maximum brake thermal efficiency =………………… 2. Maximum indicated thermal efficiency =…………………… 3. Maximum Mechanical efficiency =………………………… 4. Brake mean effective pressure =………………………… INFERENCE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 14 SNG COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KADAYIRIPPU M308.a; HEAT ENGINES LAB MANUAL Ex. No: 4 VOLUMETRIC EFFICIENCY TEST ON 4 STROKE VERTICAL DIESEL ENGINES OBJECTIVE To Find the Volumetric Efficiency of the Given Engine and to Plot the Variation of Volumetric Efficiency with Load BASICS The volumetric efficiency is the ratio between actual volumes of air intake to the theoretical volume of air intake. Actual volume if found by measuring the volume flow rate by using an orifice meter, but the theoretical volume or swept volume is found from the engine details. 1. Actual Volume of air drawn into the cylinder at RTP in m3/s a) Equivalent air column w ha hw ( 1) a Where, hw- water column from differential manometer in m. w - Density of water in kg/m3 a - Density of air in kg/m3 b) Actual volume of air intake Va Cd Ao 2gha Where, Cd - coefficient of discharge for the orifice Ao - area of orifice in m2 G - Acceleration due to gravity in m/s2 2. Swept Volume/ Theoretical Volume LA( N / 2)n Vs m3 / s 60 D2 Where, A - Bore area in m2, A 4 D – Bore diameter in m L – Stroke length in m N - Speed in rpm n - no. of cylinders DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 15 SNG COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KADAYIRIPPU M308.a; HEAT ENGINES LAB MANUAL 3. Volumetric efficiency Va vol 100 % Vs Va – Actual volume of air in m3/s Vs – Swept volume of air m3/s PROCEDURE Initially find the maximum load that can be applied to the Engine. 1. Connect the instrumentation power input plug to a 230 V single phase power source. Now the digital meter indicates the respective readings. 2. Check the fuel supply to the engine. 3. Check the lubricating oil level 4. Switch on the cooling water supply 5. Ensure the MCB switch provided for engaging and disengaging the loading systems should be in off position 6. Start the engine by cranking 7. Now the engine will run at rated RPM = 1500 8. Switch on the MCB on the resistance Bank and by operating cam switches provided on the load bank; Load the engine in order of ¼, ½, ¾ and Full Load. 9. In each case note down the manometer reading h1 and h2 also voltmeter reading, Ammeter reading 10. Then with the details find the volumetric efficiency and plot the graph. OBSERVATIONS Net load W Equivalent air Actual Swept Sl. BHP Manometer reading ηVol in kg column volume volume No. h1 h2 hw ha W hp Va m3/s Vs m3/s % in cm in cm in m in m RESULT The maximum value of volumetric efficiency = ………………. INFERENCE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 16 SNG COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KADAYIRIPPU M308.a; HEAT ENGINES LAB MANUAL Ex. No: 5 LOAD TEST ON 4S TWIN CYLINDER DIESEL ENGINE OBJECTIVE To conduct load test on the given Diesel E/N and to find 1. Total Fuel Consumption (TFC) 2. Specific Fuel Consumption (SFC) 3. Brake Horse Power (BHP) 4. Indicated Horse Power (IHP) 5. Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE ) 6. Indicated Thermal Efficiency (ITE) 7. Mechanical Efficiency (ME) 8. Brake Mean Effective Pressure (Bmep) 9. Volumetric efficiency And to plot the curves BHP Vs TFC; BHP Vs SFC; BHP Vs BTE ; BHP Vs ITE BHP Vs ME ; BHP Vs Bmep ENGINE SPECIFICATION MAKE : KIRLOSKAR BHP : 10 SPEED : 1500 RPM NO. OF CYLINDER : TWO BORE : 87.5 mm STROKE : 110 mm ORIFICE DIA : 20 mm TYPE OF IGNITION : COMPRESSION IGNITION METHOD OF LOADING : EDDYCURRENT DYNAMOMETER METHOD OF STARTING : HAND START METHOD OF COOLING : WATER COOLED BASICS 1. Brake Power (BHP) 2 NT BHP 60 1000 0.75 T = Torque in N-m DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 17 SNG COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KADAYIRIPPU M308.a; HEAT ENGINES LAB MANUAL 2. Total fuel consumption (TFC) in kg/hr 10 3600 TFC t 1000 Where, t- time for10cc fuel consumption in s. ρ –Density of Diesel in gm/cc 3. Specific fuel consumption (SFC) in Kg/BHP- hr TFC SFC BHP 4. Indicated power; IHP = BHP + FHP IHP can be calculated by Willans Line Graph method. TFC FHP BHP IHP = BHP + FHP 4. Brake Thermal Efficiency BTE BHP 4500 BTE 100 (TFC ) CV J 60 Where CV- calorific value of fuel (Diesel) in kcal/kg J-Mechanical equivalent of heat = 427 kgf-m / kcal DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 18 SNG COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KADAYIRIPPU M308.a; HEAT ENGINES LAB MANUAL 5. Indicated Thermal Efficiency IHP 4500 ITE 100 (TFC ) CV J 60 Where, CV-calorific value of fuel (Diesel) = 11000 kcal/kg J- Mechanical equivalent of heat = 427 kgf-m / kcal 6. Mechanical Efficiency Mech BHP ME 100 IHP 7. Actual Volume (Va) of air drawn into the cylinder at RTP in m3/s w ha hw ( 1) m a ha - Manometric head in meters of air hw - Manometric head in meters of water.= h1 – h2 ρw - Density of water [ 1000 kg/ m3 ] ρa - Density of air [ 1.293 kg/ m3 ] Va Cd A o 2gha m3 /s Where, Cd = 0.62 Ao - Area of orifice in m g - Acceleration due to gravity [9.81 m/s2 ] 8. Swept Volume (Vs) LA( N / 2)n Vs m3 / sec 60 Where, A - Bore area in m2 L - Stroke length in m N - speed in rpm n - No. of cylinders * N/2 is for four stroke engine DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 19 SNG COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KADAYIRIPPU M308.a; HEAT ENGINES LAB MANUAL 9. Volumetric efficiency Va Vol 100 Vs Where, Va - Actual Volume m3/s Vs - Swept Volume m3/s 10. Brake mean effective pressure BHP 4500 Bmep kg/ cm2 LA( N / 2)n Where L – Stroke length in m , A – Bore area in cm2 N – Speed in rpm, n- no. of cylinders PROCEDURE 1. Connect the cooling water inlet to a constant head water source. 2. Set zero by pressing the arrow button at digital water flow indicator first and Open the inlet gate valves of the engine jacket to suitable flow rate by adjusting the gate valve which is provided before the flow meter. 2. Connect the instrumentation power input plug to a 230V, single-phase power source. Now the digital temperature indicator displays the respective readings. 3. Set zero by pressing the arrow button at digital fuel flow indicator first and fill up the Diesel into the tank. 4. Check the lubricating oil level in the sump with the dipstick provided. 5. Ensure that the Engine is in the no load condition 6. Open the Diesel cock provided from the Diesel tank. 7. Set the fuel flow indicator, water flow indicator & Air flow indicator to zero by pressing the arrow button. 8. De-compress the engine by decompression lever provided on top of the engine (Lift the lever). 12. Insert the starting handle and Crank the engine slowly by rotating in clockwise and ascertain proper flow of fuel into the pump and in turn through the nozzle into the engine cylinder When maximum cranking speed is attained, Pull down the decompression lever, now the engine starts. Allow the engine to run and stabilize. The engine is a constant Speed engine fitted with centrifugal governor. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 20 SNG COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KADAYIRIPPU M308.a; HEAT ENGINES LAB MANUAL 13. Now turn the knob of eddy current drive provided at the panel gradually to load the engine through eddy current dynamometer. The torque ‘T’ is indicated on a digital indicator. Now rotate the knob of eddy current drive in clockwise and set the load to ¼ of the full load. 14. Before taking the reading allow the engine to run at the set load and speed for few minutes. Note down the readings. Time for 10 cc of fuel consumption and load on the Engine and difference of water column level in manometer for finding volumetric efficiency. Then increase the load and repeat the same procedure up to maximum load. 15. To get the readings from the computer click start test, view file and give the file name, then view report. To take print out click print report. 16. To stop the engine after the experiment is over pull the governor lever towards the engine cranking side. OBSERVATIONS Time for 10 cc fuel Torq Power Sl. consumption in s SFC No. ue out put TFC kg/BHP- FHP IHP ηBTE ηITE ηME Bmep N-m kg/hr hp hp % % % kg/cm2 t1 t2 t hr ‘T’ BHP 1 2 3 4 5 6 RESULTS 1. Maximum Brake thermal Efficiency = …………..% 2. Maximum Indicated Themal Efficiency = ……………% 3. Maximum Machanical efficiency = ……………….% 4. Maximum Volumetric efficiency = ………………..% 5. Maximum Brake mean effective pressure = ………..kg/cm2 INFERENCE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 21 SNG COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KADAYIRIPPU M308.a; HEAT ENGINES LAB MANUAL Ex. No: 6 LOAD TEST ON TWO-STROKE PETROL ENGINE OBJECTIVE To determine the total fuel consumption, brake horse power, brake thermal efficiency and brake mean effective pressure and to plot the following graphs. 1. BHP Vs BTE 2. BHP Vs Bmep 3. BHP Vs TFC ENGINE DETAILS 1. BHP = 2.5 , 2. Rated rpm = 2800, 3. Stroke = 57 mm 4. Bore= 57 mm BASICS (1). Brake Horse Power 2 N (W1 S ) R BHP 4500 Where, N -rated rpm W1 - load in kg S- spring balance reading in kg R - Effective radius of brake drum in meters (2). Total fuel consumption (TFC) 10 3600 TFC kg/hr t 1000 Where, t - time in sec for 10 cc of fuel consumption - Density of petrol in gm/cc (3) Specific Fuel Consumption (SFC) TFC SFC kg/ BHP-hr BHP DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 22 SNG COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KADAYIRIPPU M308.a; HEAT ENGINES LAB MANUAL (4) Brake mean effective pressure (Bmep) BHP 4500 Bmep kg /cm2 LAN L - Stroke length in m A- Bore area in cm2 N - speed in RPM (5) Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE) BHP 4500 BTE (TFC / 60) CV J TFC- Total fuel consumption in kg/hr. CV- Calorific value of petrol (10500 kcal/kg) J - Mechanical equivalent of heat (427 kgf-m/kcal) PROCEDURE Initially find the maximum Load 1) Connect the instrumentation power input plug to a 230 V single-phase power source. Now the digital meter indicates the respective readings. 2) Check the fuel supply to the engine. 3) Check the lubricating oil level in the oil sump 4) Start the engine with the help of kick start 5) Now run the engine at rated rpm by adjusting the throttle; take the time for 10 cc of fuel consumption. 6) Now Switch on the cooling water supply to brake drum 7) And load the engine to W = W1-S = 2,4,6 kg and in each case take the time for 10 cc of fuel consumption after adjusting the machine to rated rpm. 8) Then with the details find the BHP, TFC, BTE, and Bmep and plot the graphs. Power Time for 10 cc fuel SFC Sl. Load in kg No. out put consumption in sec TFC ηBTE Bmep kg/hr kg/BHP- % kg/cm2 t1 t2 W1 S W BHP T hr 1 2 3 4 5 6 RESULTS 1. Maximum brake thermal efficiency = …………% 2. Brake mean effective pressure = ………….kg/cm2 DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 23 SNG COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KADAYIRIPPU M308.a; HEAT ENGINES LAB MANUAL INFERENCE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 24 SNG COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KADAYIRIPPU M308.a; HEAT ENGINES LAB MANUAL EXPT. NO: 7 LOAD TEST ON 4 STROKE 4 CYLINDER PETROL ENGINE OBJECTIVE To conduct performance test on the engine and to 1. Total Fuel Consumption (TFC) 2. Specific Fuel Consumption (SFC) 3. Brake Horse Power (BHP) 4. Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE) 5. Brake Mean Effective Pressure (Bmep) ENGINE SPECIFICATION MAKE : HM (ISUZU) BHP : 10 (Derated) SPEED : 1500 RPM (Derated) NO. OF CYLINDER : FOUR BORE : 84 mm STROKE : 82 mm ORIFICE DIA : 25 mm TYPE OF IGNITION : SPARK IGNITION METHOD OF LOADING : HYDRAULIC DYNAMOMETER METHOD OF STARTING : SELF START METHOD OF COOLING : WATER COOLED BASICS 1. Brake Power W N BHP hp 2000 W - load in kg N - speed in rpm 2. Total fuel consumption 10 3600 TFC t 1000 Where, t- time for 10 cc fuel consumption in s. Density of fuel (Petrol) is 0.780 gm/cc DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 25 SNG COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KADAYIRIPPU M308.a; HEAT ENGINES LAB MANUAL 3. Specific fuel consumption (SFC) TFC SFC kg/BHP-hr BHP 4. Brake Thermal Efficiency BHP 4500 BTE (TFC / 60) CV J Where, CV – calorific value of petrol in kcal/kg J – Mechanical equivalent of heat = 427 kg-m/kcal 5. Brake mean effective pressure BHP 4500 Bmep kg/ cm2 LA( N / 2)n Where L – stroke length in m, A – bore area in cm2 N – Speed in rpm, n- no. of cylinders (4) ** N/2 is because 4S engine PROCEDURE 1. Find the maximum load that can be applied to the engine using the engine details. 2. Connect water inlet to a constant head water source. 3. Switch on the cooling water supply to Engine Jacket and adjust it to suitable flow rate. (The flow rate can be measured by using the Rota meter). 4. Connect the instrumentation power input plug to a 230V, single-phase power source. Now the digital temperature indicator displays the respective readings. 5. Connect the battery terminals to a well-charged 12 V battery with the terminals marked (+) (-) respectively to the engine cable terminals. 6. Check the lubricating oil level in the sump with the dipstick provided. 7. Check fuel (petrol)level in the fuel tank and open the Petrol cock provided underneath the Petrol tank and. Also ensure the accelerator knob is in cut off position (idle condition). 8. Insert the ignition key into the starter switch and turn in clockwise, engage the clutch lever [disconnect the dynamometer]. Turn the key further clockwise to start the engine. Now the engine is running at idle speed. (Approx. 750 - 1000 RPM). 9. Increase the speed by turning the accelerator knob clockwise until the speed reaches approx. 1500 RPM. 10. Now put the dead weight provided with hydraulic dynamometer at the back side and coincide the pointers provided at the bottom of the dial balance. Open the dynamometer hand wheel DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 26 SNG COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KADAYIRIPPU M308.a; HEAT ENGINES LAB MANUAL gradually to load the engine through hydraulic dynamometer. The load is indicated on a dial type spring balance in terms of kg. The engine brake power is given by W x N /2000 where ‘W’ is the load indicated on the spring balance and ‘N’ is the speed of engine. Now the engine speed decreases due to the application of load. Operate the acceleration knob simultaneously with the hydraulic dynamometer hand wheel and set the load to ¼ of the full load i.e. 3.5 kg [approx.] on the spring balance. 11. Before taking the reading keep the dynamometer casing horizontal [coincide the pointer] by adjusting the hand wheel which is provided at the top of the dial balance and bring the engine speed to 1500 RPM. Allow the engine to run at the set load and speed for few minutes. Note down the readings. Then increase the load by repeating the same procedure up to maximum load i.e. : 13.5 kg. OBSERVATIONS Time for 10 cc fuel SFC Sl. Load Speed Power No. in kg in rpm out put consumption in s TFC in ηBTE Bmep kg/hr kg/BHP- % kg/cm2 ‘W’ ‘N’ ‘BHP’ t1 t2 t hr 1 2 3 4 5 6 RESULTS 1. Maximum Brake Thermal Efficiency = ……………………….% 2. Maximum Brake Mean Effective Pressure = ………………….kg/cm2 INFERENCE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 27 SNG COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KADAYIRIPPU M308.a; HEAT ENGINES LAB MANUAL Ex. No: 8 VALVE TIMING DIAGRAM OF 4S VERTICAL DIESEL ENGINE OBJECTIVE To plot the valve timing diagram using the given cut model of 4S single cylinder diesel engine and to find i) Period of operation of inlet valve ii) Period of operation of exhaust valve iii) Fuel injection period iv) Scavenging period BASICS Perimeter of the flywheel (P) P 2 R P Radius, R 2 Arc length measured along the surface of the flywheel corresponds to the operation of the valve be ‘L’ , L 180 Angle subtended, rad R Angle corresponds to scavenging period = Angle corresponds to the operation of Inlet Valve before TDC + Angle Corresponds to the operation of exhaust valve after TDC Angle corresponds to Fuel Injection period = Angle corresponds to the operation of fuel Valve before TDC + Angle Corresponds to the operation of fuel valve after TDC 2 N Angular velocity , 60 t t- time period in sec, θ – crank angle DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 28 SNG COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KADAYIRIPPU M308.a; HEAT ENGINES LAB MANUAL 60 t 2 N PROCEDURE Rotate the flywheel in proper direction and mark the position of top dead centre(TDC), Bottom Dead Centre(BDC). Then mark the position of the opening and closing of the valves ie: IVO- inlet valve opening, IVC- inlet valve closing, EVO- Exhaust valve opening, EVC- Exhaust valve closing, FVO- Fuel valve opening, FVC- Fuel valve closing. Then measure the arc length along the periphery of the flywheel and calculate the corresponding angle. Then plot the valve timing diagram using the details. OBSERVATIONS Name of the valve Location Corresponding arc Angle in Degrees length from reference in cm IVO Before TDC IVC After BDC EVO Before BDC EVC After TDC FVO Before TDC FVC After TDC DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 29 SNG COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KADAYIRIPPU M308.a; HEAT ENGINES LAB MANUAL Ex. No: 9 PORT TIMING DIAGRAM OF 2 STROKE PETROL ENGINE OBJECTIVE To plot the PORT timing diagram using the given cut model of 2S single cylinder petrol engine and to find 1. Period of operation of inlet port 2. Period of operation of exhaust port 3. Scavenging period BASICS Perimeter of the flywheel, P 2 R P Radius of the flywheel, R 2 Arc length measured along the surface of the flywheel corresponds to the operation of the valve be ‘L’, L 180 Angle subtended, rad R Angle corresponds to scavenging period = Angle corresponds to Transfer PORT open to Exhaust PORT closed 2 N Angular velocity, 60 t Where, t- time period in sec, θ – crank angle 60 t 2 N PROCEDURE Rotate the flywheel in proper direction and mark the position of top dead centre(TDC), Bottom Dead Centre(BDC). Then mark the position of the opening and closing of the ports ie: IPO- inlet port opening, IPC- inlet port closing, EPO- Exhaust port opening, EPC- Exhaust port closing, Then measure the arc length along the periphery of the flywheel and calculate the corresponding angle. Then plot the port timing diagram using the details. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 30 SNG COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KADAYIRIPPU M308.a; HEAT ENGINES LAB MANUAL OBSERVATIONS Name of the valve Location Corresponding arc Angle in Degrees length from reference in cm IPO IPC EPO EPC RESULTS 1. Period of operation of inlet port =…………..s 2. Period of operation of exhaust port =…………..s 3. Scavenging period =…………..s INFERENCE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 31 SNG COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KADAYIRIPPU M308.a; HEAT ENGINES LAB MANUAL Ex. No. 10 DETERMINATION OF COP OF THE GIVEN AIRCONDITIONING SYSTEM OBJECTIVE To conduct Performance Test on Air Conditioner and to find out the Relative coefficient of Performance. EQUIPMENT The given A/C (duct type) Refrigerant –R22. BASICS The purpose of Air-Conditioning is to supply sufficient volume of clean air containing a specific amount of water vapour and at a temperature capable of maintaining pre- determined atmospheric conditions. The system works on vapour compression refrigeration cycle. Refrigeration effect Theoretical COP = Work done h1 -h 4 = h 2 -h1 where, h1 - Enthalpy corresponding to P1 and T1 h2 - Enthalpy corresponding to P2 and T2 h4 - Enthalpy corresponding to P1 and T4 P1 and T1 - Pressure and temperature of Refrigerant at inlet of compressor P2 and T2 - Pressure and temperature of Refrigerant at exit of compressor T3 - Temperature of Refrigerant at the exit of condenser. Actual COP = Q W where, Q - Refrigeration effect, and W - Compressor input Actual COP Relative COP = Theoretical COP DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 32 SNG COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KADAYIRIPPU M308.a; HEAT ENGINES LAB MANUAL PSYCHROMETRIC PROCESS Cooling and Humidification: Adding of water vapour to the air is known as humidification. This is done by adding steam to the air at the inlet of cooling coil. When air is passed through a spray chamber part of the water will be evaporated and is carried with the air, thus increasing the specific humidity. PROCEDURE 1. Plug in the mains card of the system 2. Switch - On the DP switch so that the digital panel meters indicates corresponding readings. 3. Switch On the condenser fan and the blower 4. Start the system by switching on the thermostat by opening the corresponding valves depending on solenoid and thermostatic expansion valve or capillary expansion device. 5. Allow air flow through the air conditioning chamber and let it stabilize for few minutes. 6. Record T1, T2, T3, P1, P2, V,I and Rota meter reading. Note down wet and dry bulb temperature at inlet and outlet also. Psychrometric process (Cooling and Humidification): 1. Fill the water in the boiler to about half to ¾ th and close the valve. 2. Switch on the boiler for about 45 to 60 minutes. 3. When steam is formed open steam inlet valve and allow it to flow about 10 minutes. 4. Record wet and dry bulb temperature at inlet and outlet. 5. Switch off boiler and after about 5 minutes switch off CF, EF and Mains. 1 2 Evaporator Condenser Compressor Expansion Valve VVALVEDevice Block Diagram of Vapour Compression Cycle DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 33 SNG COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KADAYIRIPPU M308.a; HEAT ENGINES LAB MANUAL OBSERVATIONS Temp at inlet of Temp. at exit of V* I C Co Pressure Pressure at Voltag (W) urrent, Ambient Rotamet Sl. at inlet of inlet of e, V I mpr Con No compress condenser Conde Expansi Temp er esso dens T50 C Reading or P1(psi) P2(psi) (v) nser on Valve (A) r er T20 C T40 C T10 T30 C C CALCULATION h1 - h 4 Theoretical COP = h 2 - h1 From R-22 p-h chart where, h1 - Enthalpy corresponding to P1 and T1 h 2 - Enthalpy corresponding to P2 and T2 h 4 - Enthalpy corresponding to P2 and T3 Refrigeration effect Actual COP = Compressor input DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 34 SNG COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KADAYIRIPPU M308.a; HEAT ENGINES LAB MANUAL Refrigeration Effect = m a c pa Ti -To kJ where, m a - mass of air in kg. - velocity of air × area of flow × density of air. We can find out velocity of air by using Anemometer. c Pa - Specific heat of air = 1.005kJ/kg K Ti - Air inlet temperature. To - Air outlet temperature from duct. Density of air = 1.97 kg/m3 . VxI Compressor input = kJ 1000 Actual COP Relative COP = Theortical COP RESULT Theoretical COP of air conditioner = Actual COP of air conditioner = Relative COP of air conditioner = INFERENCE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 35 SNG COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KADAYIRIPPU M308.a; HEAT ENGINES LAB MANUAL Ex. No.11 DETERMINATION OF COP OF THE REFRIGERATION TEST RIG OBJECTIVE To determine the Relative COP of the given Refrigeration System. EQUIPMENT The given Refrigeration Test Rig with refrigerant R-12. BASICS The system works on vapour compression refrigeration cycle. Refrigeration effect Theoretical COP = Work done h1 - h 4 = h 2 - h1 where h1 - Enthalpy corresponding to P1 and T1 h 2 - Enthalpy corresponding to P2 and T2 h 4 - Enthalpy corresponding to P2 and T3 P1 and T1 - Pressure and Temperature of Refrigerant at inlet of compressor P2 and T2 - Pressure and Temperature of Refrigerant at exit of compressor T3 - Temperature of Refrigerant at the exit of condenser. Heat removed Actual COP = Actual work input Heat removed = mcp dT m - mass of water taken in the chiller in kg cp - specific heat of water dt - drop in temperature of water Actual work input = (E1 - E 2 ) 3600 kJ E1 - Initial energy metre reading in kWh E2 - final energy metre reading in kWh Actual COP Relative COP = Theoritical COP DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 36 SNG COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KADAYIRIPPU M308.a; HEAT ENGINES LAB MANUAL PROCEDURE 1 Fill the chiller with water 2 Switch- On the power 3 Start the system by switching on the thermostat by opening the corresponding valves depending on solenoid and thermostatic expansion valve or capillary expansion device. 4 Note down the initial energy meter reading E1 5 RecordT1, T2, T3, T4, P1, P2, V,I and Rotameter reading. 6 Note down the initial temperature of water Ti 7 After 30 minutes note down the energy meter reading E2 and Temperature of chilled water Tf OBSERVATIONS Pressure Initial Initial Final Pressure Temp at Temp at Temp at Temp at at Inlet Final temp of Energy Energy in inlet of outlet of outlet of outlet of of Temp of water in meter meter Condense Compre Compress Condense Expansio compres water chiller, reading reading r ssor or r n valve. sor Tf Ti E1 E2 P2 T1 T2 T3 T4 P1 (0C) (0 C) (kWh) (kWh) (Psi) (0C) (0C) (0C) (0C) (Psi) CALCULATION Refrigeration effect Theoretical COP = Work done h1 - h 4 = h 2 - h1 where, h1 - Enthalpy corresponding to P1 and T1 h 2 - Enthalpy corresponding to P2 and T2 h 4 - Enthalpy corresponding to P2 and T3 P1 and T1 - Pressure and Temperature of Refrigerant at inlet of compressor P2 and T2 - Pressure and Temperature of Refrigerant at exit of compressor T3 - Temperature of Refrigerant at the exit of condenser. DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 37 SNG COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KADAYIRIPPU M308.a; HEAT ENGINES LAB MANUAL Heat removed Actual COP = Actual work input Heat removed = mCp dT m - mass of water taken in the chiller in kg Cp - specific heat of water dt - drop in temperature of water Actual work input = (E1 - E 2 ) 3600 kJ E1 - Initial energy metre reading in kWh E 2 - final energy metre reading in kWh Actual COP Relative COP = Theoritical COP RESULTS Theoretical COP of air conditioner = Actual COP of air conditioner = Relative COP of air conditioner = INFERENCE DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 38 SNG COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KADAYIRIPPU M308.a; HEAT ENGINES LAB MANUAL Ex. No. 12 PERFORMANCE TEST ON SINGLE STAGE RECIPROCATING AIR COMPRESSOR OBJECTIVE To study the variation of volumetric efficiency and isothermal efficiency of single stage air compressor against various discharge values. EQUIPMENT Single stage air compressor Test Rig, Stop watch. BASICS 1. Volumetric efficiency = Actual volume of air intake / theoretical volume Theoretical volume LAN v TH = m3 /s 60 Where, L- stroke length – 60 mm A-Bore area- (bore= 70 mm) N - Speed in RPM – 1000 Actual Volume (Va) Va = C d x ax 2gha m3/s Where, Cd - Co- efficient of discharge of orifice. – 0.62 A - Cross sectional area of orifice (d=17mm). ha - pressure in terms of m of air. g = 9.8 m/s2 Va ηvol = x100 % Vth ρw ha =hw x -1 ρa w= 1000 kg/m3 , a = 1.17 kg/m3 2. Isothermal efficiency iso = isothermal work input/ Actual work input x 100 DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 39 SNG COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KADAYIRIPPU M308.a; HEAT ENGINES LAB MANUAL Pa +Pd Isothermal work = Pa x Va x ln Pa Where, Pd - delivery pressure in kg/m2 Pa - Ambient pressure in kg/m2 (1.051x 104 ) Va - actual volume of air intake in m3 /s. Pa +Pd = γ, compression ratio Pa The value of isothermal work so obtained is kg-m / sec. Is converted to kW. Actual work input = ηo xElectric power input n x 3600 = ηo x tx K where, t - time in sec for n no. of revolutions of energy meter disc. K- Energy meter constant in rev/ kWh. PROCEDURE Close the outlet from the reservoir and then start the compressor. Then compressed air is stored in tank. Wait till the pressure inside the chamber reaches 8 kg/cm2. Then open the outlet valve and by fine adjustment make air inlet pressure and chamber pressure are equal. Then take reading on U- tube manometer (level difference) and time for 5 rev of energy meter disc. By using the head difference obtained from manometer we will obtain the air discharge. By using energy meter disc revolution input power can be calculated. Find the respective values and plot the curves Pd Vs o and Pd Vs iso OBSERVATIONS DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 40 SNG COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KADAYIRIPPU Sl.No. Delivery pressure ‘Pd’ in kg/cm2 RESULTS Delivery pressure INFERENCE ‘Pd’ in kg/m2 Compression ratio h1 Differntial M308.a; HEAT ENGINES LAB MANUAL manometer reading h2 DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING SNG COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, KADAYIRIPPU Height of water hw column in ‘m’ ha Equivalent air column in m 41 t1 Time for n=3 t2 revolutions of E/M disc t Actual volume ‘Va’ m3/s Theoretical volume 3 2. Isothermal efficiency of the given reciprocating air compressor = ………. Vth, m /s 1. Volumetric efficiency of the given reciprocating air compressor = ……………. Actual work done Isothermal work done Volumetric efficiency Isothermal efficiency

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