REMOTE SENSING FOR MANGROVE FOREST MANAGEMENT L Kannan, T. T. Ajith Kumar and A. Duraisamy CAS in Marine Biology, Annamalai University, Parangapettai-608502, Tamil Nadu Introduction Mangrove forests are one of the most important coastal ecosystem in the world in terms f primary production and coastal protection. Distributed in the tropical and sub tropical regions, mangroves reach their maximum development and greatest luxuriance in Southeast Asia. Mangrove forests are now under stress in almost all tropical countries because of natural and demographic pressures. Along the Indian coasts, mangorve have been affected severly due to human induced stresses such as deforestation and other developmental activities. Therefore, there is a pressing need to have integrated approaches for coastal zone (mangrove) management as a means of achieving sustainable resurces development. To study and evolve remedial measures to the extent possible, various organisations have beeen condutiong a variety of research and planning, implementation and monitoring activities. Remote sensing technology is an important tool in this assesment because of its ability to provide synoptic view of the earth which would not be possible from the ground without exhuastive field surveys. Fundamentals of Remote Sensing Remote Sensing is the science dealing with the acquisition, processing and interprtation of images and related data obtained from aircrafts and satellites tthat record the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation. When electromagnetic radiation falls upon a surface, some of its energy is absorbed, some is transmitted through the surface, and the rest is reflected. Surfaces also naturally emit radiation, mostly in the form of heat. It is that reflected and emitted radiation which is recorded either on the photographic film or digital sensor. Since the intensity and wavelengths of this radiation are a function of the surface in question, each surface is described as processing a characteristic "Spectral Signature". If an instrument can identify and distinguish between different spectral signatures, then it will be possible to map the extent of surfaces using remote sensing. Applications of Remote Sensing in Marine Research Remote sensing applications, with the concerted efforts of the space scientist of our country during the past ten years, have proved very useful in resource surveys and management activities. These techniques have been applied successfully in forestry, agriculture, disaster managemnet, flood and drought monitoring, land use and land cover mappng, urban planning, mineral targeting, environmental impact assessment, coastal zone mapping etc. Application of remote sensing techniques to coastal and marine research has been now extended for the identification of Potenial Fishing Zone (PFZ), estimation of primary productivity using ocean colur data, identification of geomorphological changes of beaches, mapping coastal wetlands, distinguishing coral seagrass and mangrove habitats and monitoring marine pollution. The launch of IRS 1D satellite is yet another milestone in the space science history of our country. Different sensors of this satellite offer unique application opportunities and would near time information system for resources including marine wealth. Remote Sensing in mangrove research Wetland mapping should be done for the better understanding of various conditions of the wetlands and for the delineation of areal extent and boundaries of wetland especially coastal wetlands. These maps will serve as baseline data for classifying the coastal zones into preservation, conservation and development zones. Remote sensing dat aderived from different satellite such as Landsat MSS data can provide us information about the areal extent, conditions and boundary of coastal wetlands. IRS LISS II Landsat TM data have also proved extremely useful for wetland mapping as well as for delineation high and low water lines Likewise, it is possible to distinguish mangroves from oyher plant communities (Nayak, 1993). Further, multidate satellite data could be used effectively to find out the changes in the arealextent of mangroves. For example, the 1986 TM and 1993 IRS LISS II data have helped to quantify the changes in the area cover of mangrovessince both the sensors have similar resolution (Krishnamoorthy, 1997). False Colour Composites (FCC) derived from the green, red, and infrared bands of satellite data can be virtually analysd on 1:25000 or 1:50000 scale when information is reuired at the state/ national level. An image interpretation key indicating the tone colour, size, shape, texture pattern, location a nd association can be prepared for each category of vegetation including magroves using ground truth information, topographical maps, aerial photographs etc. The classification accuracy can be tested on a sample basis assuming binominal distribution for the pobaility of success/failure of sample tests. Sample size is decided using trhe look Up Table (LUT), prepared by employing a binominal probability model (Arnoff, 1982). Case studies in Mangrove Using Remote Sensing Estimates of mangrove cover are subjected to several sources of inaccuracy and confusion. If the mangrove canopy is dense, it obscures the treeless patches and channels so that the total mangrove cover is over estimated if the mangroves occur in either small patches or in low density. This is because small mangrove patches may be beyond the sensor’s spatial resolution. Area in sq. km(Govt. of India Area in sq. km(IRS State Status Report) data) West Bengal 4200 1619 Andaman & 1190 770 Nicobar Orissa 150 187 Andhra Pradesh 200 480 Tamil Nadu 150 90 Gujarat 260 1166 Maharashtra 330 138 Goa 200 5 Karnataka 60 19 Kerala Sparse Sparse Total 6740 4474 The total area of mangroves in India was estimated to be 6740 sq km (Status Report, Government of India, 1987). But the Indian Remote Sensing data have shown that the total mangrove area in India is 4474 sq km (Nayak 1993) as detailed below: The National Remote Sensing Agency (NRSA), Hyderabad has recorded a decline of 70,000 ha of mangroves in India within a period of six years from 1975 to 1981 and Vedaranyam/Point Calimere coastal areas of Tamil Nadu have lost 40% of their mangroves with a reduction of 18% of fishery resources within a period of 13 years from 1976 to 1989. Assessment of the degradation of the Pitchavaram mangroves in Tamil Nadu has been possible to a large extentdue to the information obtained from satellites. In 1987, the Pitchavaram mangrove forests were declared as reserve forests with an area of about 700 ha. Of this, nearly 62.8% of the mangrove area has been degraded between 1897 and 1994 as revealed by satellite data. Further, the remote sensing analysis has been much affected. A comparison of the Survey of India (SOI) topo sheet and Satellite imagery of IRS IB-LISS II shows that the breadth of the beach area around Pitchacaram has been reduced by 550m between 130 and 1970 and further about 150m between 1970 and 1992 and the rate of erosion has been calculated as 13m a year. The comparison of toposheet and satellite imagery also shows that erosion and sedimentation occurs simultaneously in the Pitchavaram area, which is a serios problem. If this trend is not changed, mangroves may be completely wiped out from here soon. So, a long term management plan is the immediate necessity to save these mangroves. The information required for mangrove management will be mainly on the distribution and extent of mangrove areas, forest composition, degradation sites, drainage network, spread of coastal villages, other land uses with in and outside the mangroves etc. and it is essential to use high resolution remote sensing data to prepare large scale thematic maps on vegetation cover. For this, both remotely sensed data and Geographic Information System (GIS) can be used with advantage. Conclusion Mangrove ecosystem which is fragile but yet highly productive is constantly undergoing changes (seasonal/ short-term and/ or succesional / long-term) due to its dynamic nature through various natural and biotic influences. Hence, an accurate and up-to-date information base on the status of mangrove vegetation, continually overtime, is a prerequisite for the sustainable management of mangrove forests. The required information cannot be obtained with traditional field surveys to be made inside the mangrove swamps as they are extremely difficult. Hence, Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System serves as valuable aids in providing fast, efficient and accurate information to detect the changes. The information thus gained can be utilised for the effective planning and management of mangrove forests so as to save these delicate and highly valuable ecosystems for posterity and sustainable utilisation. References 1. Ajith Kumar T. T., R. Kannan and L. Kannan, 1995, Remote sensing in mangrove research. Seshaiyana, 3: 46-48 2. Green, E. P., P. J. Mumby, A. J. Edwards, C.O. Clark, 1996. A review of Remote Sensing for the assessment and management of Tropical Coastal Resources. International Journal of Marine Environment, 24: 1-40 3. Krishnamoorthy, R., 1997. Remote Sensing for the assessment and management of mangroves: Indian Experience, (paper presented at the international workshop on "Application of Remote Sensing and GIS for sustainable Development at National Remote Sensing Agency. Hyderabad. 4. Narayan L. R. A., 1997. Sentinel in the Sky. 5. Nayak, S. R., M. C. Gupta and H. B. Chawan, 1986. Wetland and shoreline mapping of the part of Gujaratcoast using Landsat data, Scientific note (IRS-UP/SAC/MCE/SN06/86). Space Application Centre, Ahemdabad, 24 pp. 6. Shailesh Nayak, R., 1993. Role of Remote Sensng Application in the management of wetland ecosystems with special emphasis on Mangroves (Lecture deliveredat the UNESCO Curriculum Workshop on "Management of mangrove Ecosystem and Coastal Ecosystem" at the Department of Marine Living Resource, Andhra University, Vishakhapatnam). IIFM has a large multi-disciplinary faculty in its eight faculty areas. The faculty is highly motivated and forms the core of the strength of IIFM providing expertise in a number of areas related to forest and natural resources management. Director N.K. Joshi , I.F.S Currently Additional Director General Forests , Ministry of Environment and Forests ,Government of India Email : firstname.lastname@example.org APPLIED COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY & QUANTITATIVE TECHNIQUES FOR FORESTRY OPERATIONS Chinmaya Singh Rathore Associate Professor M.Sc. (Env. Scs.), Ph. D. (Env. Scs.), M.Sc. Remote Sensing (Aberdeen, UK). Remote Sensing and Digital Image Processing, Geographic Information Systems and Database Management Systems, Artificial Intelligence,Internet Applications,Environmental Impact Assessment and Computer Applications. Email : email@example.com CVRS Vijaya Kumar Assistant Professor Ph.D. in Statistics ( Specialisation in Queueing theory)(1998), Andhra University. M.Sc (Statistics) (1991), Andhra University. Area of academic interest are: Operations Research, Stochastic modelling. Email : firstname.lastname@example.org Dubey, Yogesh Assistant Professor MSc. ( Wildlife Science) PhD ( Wildlife Management) Areas of Interest : Protected Area Management, Natural Resource Management, Environmental Impact Assessment , GIS , Remote Sensing Email : email@example.com Khanna, Asha Lecturer M.Sc. (Mathematics) from Bhopal University, Post B.Sc. Diploma in Computer Science and Applications. Forest based Application packages.DBMS, System Analysis, Simulation modelling. Email : firstname.lastname@example.org Madguni Omprakash D Lecturer M.Sc. (Applied Geology) from Karnataka University, Dharwad. Application of Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System in Natural Resource Mapping and Watershed Management. Email : email@example.com Garde, V.D. Visiting Faculty B.E., Ph.D (Moscow), Special Training in Computer Methods and Applications IIT Kanpur. Area of specialization include Power Systems, Information Technology,CAD/CAM/CAE. Headed the Informatics Centre of BHEL Bhopal from 1981-1995. Advisor to a number of organizations around the country on Information Technology technology matters. Email : firstname.lastname@example.org COMMUNICATION METHODS AND FORESTRY EXTENSION Krishna Kumar, K. N. Associate Professor Ph. D. in Agricultural Extension, PG specialization in Farm Journalism. Recipient of ICAR junior and senior fellowship for PG and Ph. D. programmes. Served as Information specialist in Tamilnadu Agricultural Department, as Assistant Professor (Agricultural Extension) in Tamilnadu Agricultural University. Worked in the projects on Science and Technology Transfer to Farm Women, Rice bio-technology sponsored by International Rice Research Institute, Philippines and Rockfeller Foundation. Also served as Honorary consultant to M. S. Swaminathan Research Foundation for Bio-village project at Pondicherry. Currently working in projects related to forestry extension and Community forestry. Email : email@example.com Kameshwari, V. L. V. Lecturer M. A. (Mass Communication) Application of Communication Methods knowledge in Resource Management. Having three years teaching experience in Communication Methods and Five Years research experience in the field of Communication Methods. Areas of academic interest are culture and communication. Email : firstname.lastname@example.org Kumar Niraj Lecturer Graduate in Agriculture & Animal Husbandry and Post-graduate in Communication & Extension from G. B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar. Recipient of UNDP/ICAR fellowship for Post Graduate Research. Development Communication and Extension Education. Email : email@example.com ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT & TECHNICAL FORESTRY Babu, T. H. ( Currently on study leave) Associate Professor Post Doctoral Fellow, Stanford, USA with specialisation in Land Management and Agroforestry Systems. Ph.D (Forest Entomology), Australian National University, Canberra. Areas of academic interest land management, ecological studies on land use patterns and agroforestry. Bhattacharya, Ajoy I.F.S. Associate Professor Post Doctorate in Environmental Science. Six months certificate course on "Environmental Management and Sustainable Forest Development" from Tasmania University, Australia. Present research interests - Forests and institutions, Ecotourism, NTFP management, Non-conventional energy resources management. Email : firstname.lastname@example.org Bhattacharya, P. Assistant Professor Post Graduate in Botany with specialization in Forest Ecology and Ph. D. in Ethnobotany, Post Doctoral Research experience in Community Forestry. Community Forester by training, involved in Training, Teaching and Consultancy activities on People's participation in Natural Resource Management. Field expertise in Participatory Appraisal Methods, Joint Forest Management, Agroforestry, Ethnobotany and Non-timber Forest Products. Working experience with NGOs and International Projects. Area of interest - Community Forestry, Participatory Appraisal Methods, Forest Ecology, Non-timber Forest Products and Agroforestry. Email : email@example.com Hasan, S.M. Associate Professor B.Sc. , A.I.F.C.( PG Diploma in Forest Management ), D.W.M. (PG Diploma in Advanced Wildlife Management). Areas of academic interest include protected area management and animal behaviour. Email : firstname.lastname@example.org Kotwal, P.C. Associate Professor M.Sc. (1970) Botany, Ph. D. (1973), D.Sc.(1989). 27 years of research experience in the field of Botany, Ecology, Forestry, and Wildlife. Recipient of prestigious "Project Tiger Award", Government of India, twice in the year 1983 and 1993 respectively for outstanding and meritorious services. Member of IUCN/SSC/Cat Specialist Group and several other organisations. Participated in Foreign Training Courses on Wildlife Management (Rome) and Biodiversity Conservation (UK). Email: email@example.com Pandey , Deep Narayan Associate Professor AIGNFA Diploma in forestry form IGNFA, Dehradun, SFS Diploma in Forestry from SFS College , Coimbatore, Honours Certificate in Forestry from SFRC, Jabalpur. Indian Forest Service 1988 Batch, Rajasthan cadre. Awarded Indira Priyadarshini Vriksha Mitra Award for 1994. Areas of Interest include Ethnoforestry (indegenous knowledge on forest management), community forestry and tropical silviculture. Email : firstname.lastname@example.org Patnaik, Suprava Assistant Professor Ph.D (Botany), North-Eastern Hill University, Shillong. Areas of interest: Biodiversity Conservation, Non Timber Forest Product Management, Indigenous Forest Management, and Energy Planning. Email : email@example.com Singh R. K. Associate Professor MPS ( SUNY New York), PhD Areas of Interest:Conflict resolution, Human Resource development, Project Formulation & Participatory Approaches to Development. Email : firstname.lastname@example.org Sinha Vinay K. Indian Forest Service (Maharashtra 1983) Associate Professor Ph.D. in Forest Resources Management – Resource Policy & Management (1999; SUNY–ESF, USA) MS in Forest Resources Management – Silvics (1997; SUNY–ESF, USA) MPA in Public Administration (1997; Syracuse, USA) Post-Graduate Diploma in Forestry (1985; IFC, India) Areas of Interest : Natural Resource Policy & Management Participatory Management & Community Forestry Public Administration for Natural Resource Management (NRM) Livelihood issues in NRM Conflict management in NRM Email : email@example.com FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT, ACCOUNTING & CONTROL Poddar, J. N. Associate Professor M. Com. Delhi University. CAIIB (I), Indian Institute of Bankers, Bombay. Areas of academic interest are Management Accounting, Financial Management, Project Management, Working Capital Management, Management Control System, Budgeting (Zero Base Budgeting & Performance Budgeting), Cost Analysis (Cost Reduction & Control), Banking Operations & Laws, Management Audit & Institution Building. Email:firstname.lastname@example.org Pethiya, Bramh Prakash Associate Professor Ph D (Applied Eco. and Busi. Mgt.), MBA(IIM Ahmedabad) and B. Tech.(Ag. Engg.). Professional Experience of 21 years.Was Managing Director of Bhopal Milk Union, Joint Director (Monitoring & Planning) - MP Milk Federation, Faculty- Institute of Rural Management, Anand, Manager (Projects) - Gujarat State Agro Industries Corporation . Resource Faculty at IGNFA Dehradun; AIT, Bangkok and AITCV, Hanoi (Vietnam). Completed number of Consultancy and Research Assignments, including Project Completion Report for World Bank. Areas of academic interest are general management, financial and project management, management control systems, forest-based industries, Non-timber forest produce, project monitoring. Email : email@example.com FOREST RESOURCE ECONOMICS & MANAGEMENT Verma, Madhu Associate Professor Ph. D. (Industrial Economics) Area of interest is Environmental economics Natural resource accounting. Experience: 13 years in academics and planning. Areas of Interest: Environmental Economics and Policy analysis, Forest Economics, Industrial Economics, and Common Property Resource Economics. Email : firstname.lastname@example.org Kumar, Vijay Assistant Professor B.Sc. (Hons.) Ag & A. H., M.Sc. Ag. (Rural Banking & Agril. Economics), Ph. D. (Agril. Economics) from G. B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar. Served at Pantnagar Agricultural University, Birsa Agricultural University, Ranchi as faculty. MBA and LLB from Bhopal University. Having about 21 years of experience in teaching, Research, Consultancy & Academic Administration. Email : email@example.com MARKETING MANAGEMENT Yadav, Manmohan Assistant Professor Ph.D. in International Marketing Management, M.B.A in Marketing Management, Post-Graduate Diploma in Marketing & Sales Management, Bachelor of Journalism & Mass Communication, and B.Sc. (Dairy Technology) Professional Experience of 14 years (Academic 5 years and Industry 9 Years) Interest International Marketing; WTO, Intellectual Property Rights, and Indigenous Knowledge, Agri-business Management, Advertising and Business Communications. Email : firstname.lastname@example.org Dubey, Parag Lecturer M.B.A., B.Sc. (Agricultural Science). NTFPs marketing, Corporate Environmental Management and Green Marketing Strategies. Email : email@example.com PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT & ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR Mehta, B. R. Associate Professor Graduated from Delhi University in Sciences, and MBA from Jodhpur (Rajasthan), with a certificate in Problem Solving Techniques from Winrock Foundation. 28 years experience, in management cadre and academics. An accredited trainer for All India Services. Interest in Behavioural and Management Sciences. Associated with several Universities and academies, and with a number of national and international agencies as consultant. Email : firstname.lastname@example.org Singhal, Rekha Associate Professor D.Phil (Psychology) from Allahabad University. Recipient of Young Scientist Award, 1985 from Indian Science Congress Association. Areas of Research and Academic interest include Group Dynamics, Eco-development, Joint Forest Management, Non-timber Forest Products, Gender and Organisational Development. Email : email@example.com Rishi, Parul Lecturer Post Graduate (1989) and Doctorate (1992) in Psychology from Dayalbagh University, Agra. Awarded doctoral fellowship of ICSSR and young scientist award 1994 of Indian Science Congress. Areas of specialisation include HRD and environmental Psychology. Areas of current academic interests include Stress Management, Behavioural Perspectives in Forestry and Women Issues. Email : firstname.lastname@example.org Singh, Vandita Lecturer Post Graduate in psychology from Devi Ahilya University, Indore. Pursuing Doctorate in Philosophy in Management. Trained in "Managerial Grid" from H. R. Works Pune in collaboration with I.N.C., U.S.A Area of academic interest include assessing and enhancing individual/organisational efficiencies through effective leadership style and Team Management. Email : email@example.com SOCIOLOGY AND SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY Biswas, P. K. Assistant Professor Masters Degree in Sociology from JNU, New Delhi. Acquired special training in Participatory Rural Appraisal and Training of Trainers. In IIFM for last 14 years and have worked with ASCI, Hyderabad. Major area of interests are Rural Development, Tribal Development, NTFPs, Community/ Social Forestry, JFM and Common Property Resource Management. Email : firstname.lastname@example.org Debnath, D Assistant Professor B.Sc. (Hons.) and M.Sc. in Anthropology, Ph. D. in Social Anthropology from Calcutta University Worked as Scientific Staff in Anthropological Survey of India, Govt. of India. At IIFM since 1994. Awarded various national merit and Research scholarship. Total 13 years' working and Research experience. Member of number of FAO and National Consultancy Projects. Current research : Tribal Culture and Development, Community Resource Management, Women's Issues etc. Email : email@example.com Pandey, Amitabh Lecturer M. Phil(Anthropology) Area of academic interest include Traditional Resource Management. Academic Interest - Indigenous Knowledge system & Resource Management, Ecological perspective and N.T.F.P. in smaller societies, Community Based Management systems, Rural poor. Email : firstname.lastname@example.org The M. Phil programme in Natural Resource Management was launched in 1994 with an objective of improving the skills of resource managers, practising professionals and others involved in the use and management of natural resources. The course is first of its kind in Asia and is open to International participants. The course has been especially designed for practising natural resource managers and administrators serving in governmental and non-governmental sectors wishing to develop their knowledge and skills in the field of integrated natural resource management. The programme also provides opportunities for acquiring skills in research methodologies and critical analysis of decision-making options in sustainable management of natural resources. The course structure and pedagogy of the M.Phil. Programme has been structured in a manner that enables participants to : understand the forest and other natural resource systems in terms of the present demands of the beneficiaries; expose the traditional resource managers and administrators to new environment and new thrust areas in resource management; develop skills of the participants of the course to meet the new challenges in resource management; add to the existing knowledge in forest resource management; link the forest development process with the economy of the forest dwellers, especially the tribals and other rural people dependent on natural resources; correlate forest conservation with sustainable utilisation and integrate forest ecology with economics. Participants successfully completing the M.Phil. Programme requirements are awarded Post Master's Diploma in Natural Resource Management. The Diploma has been recognised by the Association of Indian Universities as equivalent to a M.Phil. degree of an Indian University.