Remote Sensing for Mangrove Forest Management

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					   REMOTE SENSING FOR MANGROVE FOREST MANAGEMENT
                           L Kannan, T. T. Ajith Kumar and A. Duraisamy
                              CAS in Marine Biology, Annamalai University,
                                   Parangapettai-608502, Tamil Nadu



Introduction
Mangrove forests are one of the most important coastal ecosystem in the world in terms f primary
production and coastal protection. Distributed in the tropical and sub tropical regions, mangroves
reach their maximum development and greatest luxuriance in Southeast Asia. Mangrove forests
are now under stress in almost all tropical countries because of natural and demographic
pressures. Along the Indian coasts, mangorve have been affected severly due to human induced
stresses such as deforestation and other developmental activities. Therefore, there is a pressing
need to have integrated approaches for coastal zone (mangrove) management as a means of
achieving sustainable resurces development.

To study and evolve remedial measures to the extent possible, various organisations have beeen
condutiong a variety of research and planning, implementation and monitoring activities. Remote
sensing technology is an important tool in this assesment because of its ability to provide synoptic
view of the earth which would not be possible from the ground without exhuastive field surveys.

Fundamentals of Remote Sensing
Remote Sensing is the science dealing with the acquisition, processing and interprtation of
images and related data obtained from aircrafts and satellites tthat record the interaction between
matter and electromagnetic radiation. When electromagnetic radiation falls upon a surface, some
of its energy is absorbed, some is transmitted through the surface, and the rest is reflected.
Surfaces also naturally emit radiation, mostly in the form of heat. It is that reflected and emitted
radiation which is recorded either on the photographic film or digital sensor. Since the intensity
and wavelengths of this radiation are a function of the surface in question, each surface is
described as processing a characteristic "Spectral Signature". If an instrument can identify and
distinguish between different spectral signatures, then it will be possible to map the extent of
surfaces using remote sensing.

Applications of Remote Sensing in Marine Research
Remote sensing applications, with the concerted efforts of the space scientist of our country
during the past ten years, have proved very useful in resource surveys and management
activities. These techniques have been applied successfully in forestry, agriculture, disaster
managemnet, flood and drought monitoring, land use and land cover mappng, urban planning,
mineral targeting, environmental impact assessment, coastal zone mapping etc. Application of
remote sensing techniques to coastal and marine research has been now extended for the
identification of Potenial Fishing Zone (PFZ), estimation of primary productivity using ocean colur
data, identification of geomorphological changes of beaches, mapping coastal wetlands,
distinguishing coral seagrass and mangrove habitats and monitoring marine pollution. The launch
of IRS 1D satellite is yet another milestone in the space science history of our country. Different
sensors of this satellite offer unique application opportunities and would near time information
system for resources including marine wealth.

Remote Sensing in mangrove research
Wetland mapping should be done for the better understanding of various conditions of the
wetlands and for the delineation of areal extent and boundaries of wetland especially coastal
wetlands. These maps will serve as baseline data for classifying the coastal zones into
preservation, conservation and development zones.

Remote sensing dat aderived from different satellite such as Landsat MSS data can provide us
information about the areal extent, conditions and boundary of coastal wetlands. IRS LISS II
Landsat TM data have also proved extremely useful for wetland mapping as well as for
delineation high and low water lines Likewise, it is possible to distinguish mangroves from oyher
plant communities (Nayak, 1993). Further, multidate satellite data could be used effectively to find
out the changes in the arealextent of mangroves. For example, the 1986 TM and 1993 IRS LISS
II data have helped to quantify the changes in the area cover of mangrovessince both the sensors
have similar resolution (Krishnamoorthy, 1997).

False Colour Composites (FCC) derived from the green, red, and infrared bands of satellite data
can be virtually analysd on 1:25000 or 1:50000 scale when information is reuired at the state/
national level. An image interpretation key indicating the tone colour, size, shape, texture pattern,
location a nd association can be prepared for each category of vegetation including magroves
using ground truth information, topographical maps, aerial photographs etc. The classification
accuracy can be tested on a sample basis assuming binominal distribution for the pobaility of
success/failure of sample tests. Sample size is decided using trhe look Up Table (LUT), prepared
by employing a binominal probability model (Arnoff, 1982).

Case studies in Mangrove Using Remote Sensing
Estimates of mangrove cover are subjected to several sources of inaccuracy and confusion. If the
mangrove canopy is dense, it obscures the treeless patches and channels so that the total
mangrove cover is over estimated if the mangroves occur in either small patches or in low
density. This is because small mangrove patches may be beyond the sensor’s spatial resolution.

                                Area in sq. km(Govt. of India       Area in sq. km(IRS
            State
                                Status Report)                      data)
            West Bengal         4200                                1619
            Andaman &
                                1190                                770
            Nicobar
            Orissa              150                                 187
            Andhra Pradesh      200                                 480
            Tamil Nadu          150                                 90
            Gujarat             260                                 1166
            Maharashtra         330                                 138
            Goa                 200                                 5
            Karnataka           60                                  19
            Kerala              Sparse                              Sparse
            Total               6740                                4474


The total area of mangroves in India was estimated to be 6740 sq km (Status Report,
Government of India, 1987). But the Indian Remote Sensing data have shown that the total
mangrove area in India is 4474 sq km (Nayak 1993) as detailed below:
The National Remote Sensing Agency (NRSA), Hyderabad has recorded a decline of 70,000 ha
of mangroves in India within a period of six years from 1975 to 1981 and Vedaranyam/Point
Calimere coastal areas of Tamil Nadu have lost 40% of their mangroves with a reduction of 18%
of fishery resources within a period of 13 years from 1976 to 1989.

Assessment of the degradation of the Pitchavaram mangroves in Tamil Nadu has been possible
to a large extentdue to the information obtained from satellites. In 1987, the Pitchavaram
mangrove forests were declared as reserve forests with an area of about 700 ha. Of this, nearly
62.8% of the mangrove area has been degraded between 1897 and 1994 as revealed by satellite
data. Further, the remote sensing analysis has been much affected.
A comparison of the Survey of India (SOI) topo sheet and Satellite imagery of IRS IB-LISS II
shows that the breadth of the beach area around Pitchacaram has been reduced by 550m
between 130 and 1970 and further about 150m between 1970 and 1992 and the rate of erosion
has been calculated as 13m a year. The comparison of toposheet and satellite imagery also
shows that erosion and sedimentation occurs simultaneously in the Pitchavaram area, which is a
serios problem. If this trend is not changed, mangroves may be completely wiped out from here
soon. So, a long term management plan is the immediate necessity to save these mangroves.
The information required for mangrove management will be mainly on the distribution and extent
of mangrove areas, forest composition, degradation sites, drainage network, spread of coastal
villages, other land uses with in and outside the mangroves etc. and it is essential to use high
resolution remote sensing data to prepare large scale thematic maps on vegetation cover. For
this, both remotely sensed data and Geographic Information System (GIS) can be used with
advantage.

Conclusion
 Mangrove ecosystem which is fragile but yet highly productive is constantly undergoing changes
(seasonal/ short-term and/ or succesional / long-term) due to its dynamic nature through various
natural and biotic influences. Hence, an accurate and up-to-date information base on the status of
mangrove vegetation, continually overtime, is a prerequisite for the sustainable management of
mangrove forests. The required information cannot be obtained with traditional field surveys to be
made inside the mangrove swamps as they are extremely difficult. Hence, Remote Sensing and
Geographic Information System serves as valuable aids in providing fast, efficient and accurate
information to detect the changes. The information thus gained can be utilised for the effective
planning and management of mangrove forests so as to save these delicate and highly valuable
ecosystems for posterity and sustainable utilisation.

References

    1. Ajith Kumar T. T., R. Kannan and L. Kannan, 1995, Remote sensing in mangrove
       research. Seshaiyana, 3: 46-48
    2. Green, E. P., P. J. Mumby, A. J. Edwards, C.O. Clark, 1996. A review of Remote
       Sensing for the assessment and management of Tropical Coastal Resources.
       International Journal of Marine Environment, 24: 1-40
    3. Krishnamoorthy, R., 1997. Remote Sensing for the assessment and management of
       mangroves: Indian Experience, (paper presented at the international workshop on
       "Application of Remote Sensing and GIS for sustainable Development at National
       Remote Sensing Agency. Hyderabad.
    4. Narayan L. R. A., 1997. Sentinel in the Sky.
    5. Nayak, S. R., M. C. Gupta and H. B. Chawan, 1986. Wetland and shoreline mapping of
       the part of Gujaratcoast using Landsat data, Scientific note (IRS-UP/SAC/MCE/SN06/86).
       Space Application Centre, Ahemdabad, 24 pp.
    6. Shailesh Nayak, R., 1993. Role of Remote Sensng Application in the management of
       wetland ecosystems with special emphasis on Mangroves (Lecture deliveredat the
       UNESCO Curriculum Workshop on "Management of mangrove Ecosystem and Coastal
       Ecosystem" at the Department of Marine Living Resource, Andhra University,
       Vishakhapatnam).

IIFM has a large multi-disciplinary faculty in its eight faculty areas. The faculty is highly motivated
and forms the core of the strength of IIFM providing expertise in a number of areas related to
forest and natural resources management.

Director

N.K. Joshi , I.F.S
Currently Additional Director General Forests , Ministry of Environment and
Forests ,Government of India

Email : director@iifm.org

APPLIED COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY & QUANTITATIVE TECHNIQUES FOR FORESTRY
OPERATIONS

Chinmaya Singh Rathore

Associate Professor

M.Sc. (Env. Scs.), Ph. D. (Env. Scs.), M.Sc. Remote Sensing (Aberdeen, UK).

Remote Sensing and Digital Image Processing, Geographic Information Systems and Database
Management Systems, Artificial Intelligence,Internet Applications,Environmental Impact
Assessment and Computer Applications.

Email : csr@iifm.org

CVRS Vijaya Kumar

Assistant Professor

Ph.D. in Statistics ( Specialisation in Queueing theory)(1998), Andhra University.
M.Sc (Statistics) (1991), Andhra University.

Area of academic interest are: Operations Research, Stochastic modelling.

Email : cvrs@iifm.org

Dubey, Yogesh

Assistant Professor

MSc. ( Wildlife Science) PhD ( Wildlife Management)

Areas of Interest : Protected Area Management, Natural Resource Management, Environmental
Impact Assessment , GIS , Remote Sensing

Email : ydubey@iifm.org

Khanna, Asha

Lecturer

M.Sc. (Mathematics) from Bhopal University, Post B.Sc. Diploma in Computer Science and
Applications.

Forest based Application packages.DBMS, System Analysis, Simulation modelling.
Email : asha@iifm.org

Madguni Omprakash D

Lecturer

M.Sc. (Applied Geology) from Karnataka University, Dharwad.

Application of Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System in Natural Resource Mapping
and Watershed Management.

Email : prakash@iifm.org

Garde, V.D.

Visiting Faculty

B.E., Ph.D (Moscow), Special Training in Computer Methods and Applications IIT Kanpur.

Area of specialization include Power Systems, Information Technology,CAD/CAM/CAE. Headed
the Informatics Centre of BHEL Bhopal from 1981-1995. Advisor to a number of organizations
around the country on Information Technology technology matters.

Email : vgarde@iifm.org

COMMUNICATION METHODS AND FORESTRY EXTENSION

Krishna Kumar, K. N.

Associate Professor

Ph. D. in Agricultural Extension, PG specialization in Farm Journalism.

Recipient of ICAR junior and senior fellowship for PG and Ph. D. programmes. Served as
Information specialist in Tamilnadu Agricultural Department, as Assistant Professor (Agricultural
Extension) in Tamilnadu Agricultural University. Worked in the projects on Science and
Technology Transfer to Farm Women, Rice bio-technology sponsored by International Rice
Research Institute, Philippines and Rockfeller Foundation. Also served as Honorary consultant to
M. S. Swaminathan Research Foundation for Bio-village project at Pondicherry. Currently working
in projects related to forestry extension and Community forestry.

Email : knk@iifm.org

Kameshwari, V. L. V.

Lecturer

M. A. (Mass Communication)
Application of Communication Methods knowledge in Resource Management. Having three years
teaching experience in Communication Methods and Five Years research experience in the field
of Communication Methods. Areas of academic interest are culture and communication.

Email : vlvk@iifm.org

Kumar Niraj

Lecturer

Graduate in Agriculture & Animal Husbandry and Post-graduate in Communication & Extension
from G. B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar. Recipient of UNDP/ICAR
fellowship for Post Graduate Research.

Development Communication and Extension Education.

Email : nkumar@iifm.org


ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT & TECHNICAL FORESTRY

Babu, T. H. ( Currently on study leave)

Associate Professor

Post Doctoral Fellow, Stanford, USA with specialisation in Land Management and Agroforestry
Systems. Ph.D (Forest Entomology), Australian National University, Canberra.

Areas of academic interest land management, ecological studies on land use patterns and
agroforestry.

Bhattacharya, Ajoy I.F.S.

Associate Professor

Post Doctorate in Environmental Science.

Six months certificate course on "Environmental Management and Sustainable
Forest Development" from Tasmania University, Australia.

Present research interests - Forests and institutions, Ecotourism, NTFP
management, Non-conventional energy resources management.

Email : ajoy@iifm.org

Bhattacharya, P.

Assistant Professor

Post Graduate in Botany with specialization in Forest Ecology and Ph. D. in Ethnobotany, Post
Doctoral Research experience in Community Forestry.
Community Forester by training, involved in Training, Teaching and Consultancy activities on
People's participation in Natural Resource Management. Field expertise in Participatory Appraisal
Methods, Joint Forest Management, Agroforestry, Ethnobotany and Non-timber Forest Products.
Working experience with NGOs and International Projects. Area of interest - Community Forestry,
Participatory Appraisal Methods, Forest Ecology, Non-timber Forest Products and Agroforestry.

Email : prodyut@iifm.org

Hasan, S.M.

Associate Professor

B.Sc. , A.I.F.C.( PG Diploma in Forest Management ), D.W.M. (PG Diploma in Advanced Wildlife
Management).

Areas of academic interest include protected area management and animal behaviour.

Email : smhasan@iifm.org


Kotwal, P.C.

Associate Professor

M.Sc. (1970) Botany, Ph. D. (1973), D.Sc.(1989).

27 years of research experience in the field of Botany, Ecology, Forestry, and Wildlife. Recipient
of prestigious "Project Tiger Award", Government of India, twice in the year 1983 and 1993
respectively for outstanding and meritorious services. Member of IUCN/SSC/Cat Specialist Group
and several other organisations. Participated in Foreign Training Courses on Wildlife
Management (Rome) and Biodiversity Conservation (UK).

Email: pckotwal@iifm.org


Pandey , Deep Narayan

Associate Professor

AIGNFA Diploma in forestry form IGNFA, Dehradun, SFS Diploma in Forestry from SFS College ,
Coimbatore, Honours Certificate in Forestry from SFRC, Jabalpur. Indian Forest Service 1988
Batch, Rajasthan cadre.

Awarded Indira Priyadarshini Vriksha Mitra Award for 1994. Areas of Interest include
Ethnoforestry (indegenous knowledge on forest management), community forestry and tropical
silviculture.

Email : deep@iifm.org


Patnaik, Suprava
Assistant Professor

Ph.D (Botany), North-Eastern Hill University, Shillong.

Areas of interest: Biodiversity Conservation, Non Timber Forest Product Management,
Indigenous Forest Management, and Energy Planning.

Email : spatnaik@iifm.org


Singh R. K.

Associate Professor

MPS ( SUNY New York), PhD

Areas of Interest:Conflict resolution, Human Resource development, Project Formulation &
Participatory Approaches to Development.

Email : rksingh@iifm.org



Sinha Vinay K.
Indian Forest Service (Maharashtra 1983)

Associate Professor

Ph.D. in Forest Resources Management – Resource Policy & Management
(1999; SUNY–ESF, USA)
MS in Forest Resources Management – Silvics (1997; SUNY–ESF, USA)
MPA in Public Administration (1997; Syracuse, USA)
Post-Graduate Diploma in Forestry (1985; IFC, India)

Areas of Interest : Natural Resource Policy & Management
Participatory Management & Community Forestry
Public Administration for Natural Resource Management (NRM)
Livelihood issues in NRM
Conflict management in NRM

Email : vksinha@iifm.org



FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT, ACCOUNTING & CONTROL

Poddar, J. N.

Associate Professor

M. Com. Delhi University. CAIIB (I), Indian Institute of Bankers, Bombay.
Areas of academic interest are Management Accounting, Financial Management, Project
Management, Working Capital Management, Management Control System,
Budgeting (Zero Base Budgeting & Performance Budgeting), Cost Analysis (Cost Reduction &
Control), Banking Operations & Laws, Management Audit & Institution Building.

Email:jnpoddar@iifm.org

Pethiya, Bramh Prakash

Associate Professor

Ph D (Applied Eco. and Busi. Mgt.), MBA(IIM Ahmedabad) and B. Tech.(Ag. Engg.).

Professional Experience of 21 years.Was Managing Director of Bhopal Milk Union, Joint Director
(Monitoring & Planning) - MP Milk Federation, Faculty- Institute of Rural Management, Anand,
Manager (Projects) - Gujarat State Agro Industries Corporation . Resource Faculty at IGNFA
Dehradun; AIT, Bangkok and AITCV, Hanoi (Vietnam). Completed number of Consultancy and
Research Assignments, including Project Completion Report for World Bank. Areas of academic
interest are general management, financial and project management, management control
systems, forest-based industries, Non-timber forest produce, project monitoring.

Email : pethiya@iifm.org




FOREST RESOURCE ECONOMICS & MANAGEMENT

Verma, Madhu

Associate Professor

Ph. D. (Industrial Economics)

Area of interest is Environmental economics Natural resource accounting. Experience: 13 years
in academics and planning. Areas of Interest: Environmental Economics and Policy analysis,
Forest Economics, Industrial Economics, and Common Property Resource Economics.

Email : mverma@iifm.org


Kumar, Vijay

Assistant Professor

B.Sc. (Hons.) Ag & A. H., M.Sc. Ag. (Rural Banking & Agril. Economics), Ph. D. (Agril.
Economics) from G. B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar. Served at
Pantnagar Agricultural University, Birsa Agricultural University, Ranchi as faculty. MBA and LLB
from Bhopal University. Having about 21 years of experience in teaching, Research, Consultancy
& Academic Administration.

Email : vkumar@iifm.org
MARKETING MANAGEMENT

Yadav, Manmohan

Assistant Professor

Ph.D. in International Marketing Management, M.B.A in Marketing Management, Post-Graduate
Diploma in Marketing & Sales Management, Bachelor of Journalism & Mass Communication, and
B.Sc. (Dairy Technology)

Professional Experience of 14 years (Academic 5 years and Industry 9 Years)

Interest International Marketing; WTO, Intellectual Property Rights, and Indigenous
Knowledge, Agri-business Management, Advertising and Business Communications.

Email : manmohan@iifm.org

Dubey, Parag

Lecturer

M.B.A., B.Sc. (Agricultural Science).

NTFPs marketing, Corporate Environmental Management and Green Marketing Strategies.

Email : parag@iifm.org


PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT & ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

Mehta, B. R.

Associate Professor

Graduated from Delhi University in Sciences, and MBA from Jodhpur (Rajasthan), with a
certificate in Problem Solving Techniques from Winrock Foundation.

28 years experience, in management cadre and academics. An accredited trainer for All India
Services. Interest in Behavioural and Management Sciences. Associated with several Universities
and academies, and with a number of national and international agencies as consultant.

Email : brmehta@iifm.org

Singhal, Rekha

Associate Professor

D.Phil (Psychology) from Allahabad University.
Recipient of Young Scientist Award, 1985 from Indian Science Congress Association. Areas of
Research and Academic interest include Group Dynamics, Eco-development, Joint Forest
Management, Non-timber Forest Products, Gender and Organisational Development.

Email : rekha@iifm.org

Rishi, Parul

Lecturer

Post Graduate (1989) and Doctorate (1992) in Psychology from Dayalbagh University, Agra.
Awarded doctoral fellowship of ICSSR and young scientist award 1994 of Indian Science
Congress. Areas of specialisation include HRD and environmental Psychology. Areas of current
academic interests include Stress Management, Behavioural Perspectives in Forestry and
Women Issues.

Email : parul@iifm.org

Singh, Vandita

Lecturer

Post Graduate in psychology from Devi Ahilya University, Indore. Pursuing Doctorate in
Philosophy in Management. Trained in "Managerial Grid" from H. R. Works Pune in collaboration
with I.N.C., U.S.A

Area of academic interest include assessing and enhancing individual/organisational efficiencies
through effective leadership style and Team Management.

Email : vandita@iifm.org


SOCIOLOGY AND SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY

Biswas, P. K.

Assistant Professor

Masters Degree in Sociology from JNU, New Delhi.

Acquired special training in Participatory Rural Appraisal and Training of Trainers. In IIFM for last
14 years and have worked with ASCI, Hyderabad. Major area of interests are Rural Development,
Tribal Development, NTFPs, Community/ Social Forestry, JFM and Common Property Resource
Management.

Email : pkbiswas@iifm.org

Debnath, D

Assistant Professor
B.Sc. (Hons.) and M.Sc. in Anthropology, Ph. D. in Social Anthropology from Calcutta University

Worked as Scientific Staff in Anthropological Survey of India, Govt. of India. At IIFM since 1994.
Awarded various national merit and Research scholarship. Total 13 years' working and Research
experience. Member of number of FAO and National Consultancy Projects. Current research :
Tribal Culture and Development, Community Resource Management, Women's Issues etc.

Email : ddebnath@iifm.org

Pandey, Amitabh

Lecturer

M. Phil(Anthropology)

Area of academic interest include Traditional Resource Management. Academic Interest -
Indigenous Knowledge system & Resource Management, Ecological perspective and N.T.F.P. in
smaller societies, Community Based Management systems, Rural poor.

Email : apandey@iifm.org

The M. Phil programme in Natural Resource Management was launched in 1994 with an
objective of improving the skills of resource managers, practising professionals and others
involved in the use and management of natural resources. The course is first of its kind in Asia
and is open to International participants. The course has been especially designed for practising
natural resource managers and administrators serving in governmental and non-governmental
sectors wishing to develop their knowledge and skills in the field of integrated natural resource
management. The programme also provides opportunities for acquiring skills in research
methodologies and critical analysis of decision-making options in sustainable management of
natural resources.

The course structure and pedagogy of the M.Phil. Programme has been structured in a manner
that enables participants to :

  understand the forest and other natural resource systems in terms of the present demands of
the beneficiaries;

  expose the traditional resource managers and administrators to new environment and new
thrust areas in resource management;

 develop skills of the participants of the course to meet the new challenges in resource
management;

 add to the existing knowledge in forest resource management;

   link the forest development process with the economy of the forest dwellers, especially the
tribals and other rural people dependent on natural resources;

 correlate forest conservation with sustainable utilisation and integrate forest ecology with
economics.
Participants successfully completing the M.Phil. Programme requirements are awarded Post
Master's Diploma in Natural Resource Management.

The Diploma has been recognised by the Association of Indian Universities as equivalent to
a M.Phil. degree of an Indian University.

				
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