MLA Citation by pengtt


									       MLA Documentation

 Understanding a Discipline’s Philosophy
 Creating Credibility with Your Readers
 Living a Plagiarism-Free Life

                                 UNO Writing Center
                                 Latest update 2009
     Language of Documentation

 History of Documentation

 Philosophy of MLA
      Why do we cite sources?

 To allow readers to locate and retrieve
  sources used in an essay
 To properly acknowledge another author‟s
  ideas and work
 To build your own credibility as a serious,
  knowledgeable writer
 To avoid plagiarism
        MLA Style: Two Parts

In-text citation (also called
 “parenthetical documentation”)

Works Cited page
           Part I: In-Text Citations
           What needs to be cited?
   Direct Quotes
   Paraphrases
   Another source‟s research, theories or ideas
   Another source‟s argument or opinions
   Facts that are not commonly known
   Another source‟s visuals, e.g., tables, graphs,
    images, statistics
        What does NOT need to be
 Proverbs or sayings
     A stitch in time saves nine.
 Well-known quotations
     “To be or not to be. That is the question.”
 Common knowledge
     Shakespeare wrote Hamlet.
 Your own field research, observations or
     My survey revealed that 15% of the Shakespeare class believes
      Francis Bacon wrote Shakespeare‟s plays.
       How to Use In-text Citations

Include the author‟s last name and the page
  number(s) where you found the quoted,
  paraphrased, or summarized information.

Heiresses know “there‟s a big difference between being fun
  and provocative and being totally over the top and
  gross” (Hilton 8).

Paris Hilton argues an heiress knows “there‟s a big
  difference between being fun and provocative and being
  totally over the top and gross” (8).
         Using Attributive Tags
           (Signal Phrases)
According to Hilton in her
autobiography, “I‟m a fantasy
to a lot of people . . . . They
want to think I‟m „Paris
Barbie‟” (8).

In her autobiography, Confessions of an Heiress,
  Paris Hilton reminds us that “an heiress
  knows how to tread that fine line – in
  stilettos” (8).
          How to Cite a Paraphrase

 Paraphrase specific source material by putting
  the idea into your own words and sentence
 Cite all paraphrases.
Original: “there’s a big difference between being fun and
  provocative and being totally over the top and gross” (Hilton
Paraphrase: Hilton acknowledges the contrast between
  suggestive behavior and coarse, vulgar behavior (8).
                   In-text Rarities

Two Authors with the Same Last Name
Use the first initial of their first name in the parenthetical:
               (C. Hilton 45 ) and (P. Hilton 8)

No Author
Use the first word or words from the title of the source.
Punctuate appropriately: “Paris: The Barest” (“Paris” 12)
             More In-text Rarities
 Same Author, Multiple Works
The author’s last name must be accompanied by the first
  words in the source’s title:
     (Hilton, “Confessions” 8) (Hilton, “Diary” 25)

 Web Sources
 When possible, use (Author page #): (Dionne A21).
 If the source has no author listed, use (“Article Title”
  page #): (“Paris” 17)
 If the article has no page numbers, use paragraph
  numbers provided in the article: (“Paris” par. 17)
           Part 2: Works Cited

 The Works Cited page contains a complete
  list of the sources you used in your paper.

 Each Works Cited entry provides the
  bibliographic information necessary for a
  reader to locate that source.
                  Works Cited Entries

 Most entries should contain the following
                 Author‟s name (last name, first name)
                 Title of work*
                 Publication information
                 Medium of publication marker**
*MLA 2009 Update: All titles that previously could be underlined (book,
journal, newspaper, magazine titles) are now italicized.
**Every entry includes the publication medium, e.g. Print, Web, DVD.
      Works Cited: Some Examples

 Book
Author(s). Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher,
  Date. Publication Medium.

Mair, George. Paris Hilton: The Naked Truth. New York:
  Penguin, 2004. Print.

Collins, Ronald K.L., and David M. Skover. The Death of
  Discourse. New York: Westview, 1996. Print.
       Note: Only the first author’s name is reversed.
        Works Cited: More Examples

 Journal Article
Author. “Title of Article: Subtitle.” Periodical Title
  Volume.Issue (Year): Inclusive Page Number(s).
  Publication Medium.

Howarth, William J. “Some Principles of Autobiography.”
  New Literary History 5.2 (1974): 363-81. Print.

MLA 2009 Update: MLA no longer differentiates between journals with
  continuous and non-continuous pagination. Include the issue number
  whenever available, and separate volume and issue with a period: 5.2
              Works Cited: Even More
 Periodical in an Online Database

Author. “Title of Document.” Print Publication
  Information. Title of Database. Publication Medium.
  Date of access.
Dionne, Jr., E.J. “The Paris Hilton Tax Cut.” The
  Washington Post 12 Apr. 2005: n. pag. LexisNexis. Web.
  10 Sept. 2009.
MLA Update: URLs are no longer required. However, you may provide a
URL if the citation information does not easily lead readers to the source.
        General Format --MLA Style

 No title page
 Page 1 Heading: name, professor‟s name, course, date
 Double spacing: the ENTIRE paper is double spaced (no
  single spaces or more-than-double spacing anywhere)
 Easily readable font and size: Times New Roman 12 pt.
 1” margins top, bottom, and sides
 Left justification
 Header: your last name + one space + page number
 Centered title
                       Page 1 Sample
                                                               Nonimus 1

Ima Nonimus

Professor Bartleby

English 1164-011

9 April 2009

                   Writing for College: Trials and Errors

     We are not alone. While that statement is usually linked to the

search for extraterrestrial life, it also may apply to those of us struggling
      Format for the Works Cited

 Start the Works Cited list on a new page.
 Place the title Works Cited on line 1.
 Include header and page number.
 Alphabetize your list of entries.
 Double space the entire page—no single
  spaces anywhere.
       Sample Works Cited Page
                                                     Nonimus 12

                              Works Cited

Schwartz, Mimi. “Response to Writing: A College-Wide Perspective.”

    College English 46.1 (1984): 55-62. JSTOR. Web. 31 March 2009.

Walvoord, Barbara E., and Lucille Parkinson McCarthy. Thinking and

    Writing in College: A Naturalistic Study of Students in Four

    Disciplines. Urbana, IL: NCTE, 1990. Web. 4 April 2009.
           For more information…

 MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th

 UNO Writing Center

 Modern Language Association

 Purdue On-Line Writing Lab

 St. Martin’s Handbook

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