Lecture Exam II Review Sheet Chapter 11- Nervous Tissue 1. Name the 2 major divisions of the nervous system. What (structures/organs) makes up each system? Name the subdivisions of the PNS. 2. Where do you find gray and white matter? What do they consist of? 3. Compare and contrast leakage and gated ion channels. 4. Describe the events that occur at a chemical synapse. How is neurotransmitter removed from the synaptic cleft? Do all neurotransmitters cause excitement of the post-synaptic neuron? 5. List some neurotransmitters. 6. Discuss the ability of the CNS and PNS to repair and regenerate neurons. What is needed for repair in the PNS? 7. What is multiple sclerosis? Chapter 11b- Sensory and Motor Pathways 1. How many types of stimuli can each type of sensory neuron respond to? 2. What are the types of structural classification of sensory receptors? Give examples. 3. What are proprioceptors? What are their functions? What do nociceptors, mechanoreceptors, chemoreceptors detect? 4. Describe adaptation of sensory receptors? Do all sensory receptors become adapted to the same degree? 5. Name the order of neurons in a somatic sensory pathway. Why is this pathway important? 6. List the neurons found in the motor neuron pathway. What part of the brain monitors intended movements and compares them with actual movements? Chapter 12- The Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves 1. What division of the nervous system does the spinal cord belong to? Spinal nerves? 2. List the order of the connective tissue meninges that line the spinal cord. Are they also found around the brain? 3. In the adult does the spinal cord extend through all vertebrae? What is the conus medullaris and caudae equinae? 4. Describe the 2 roots that make up each spinal nerve. What types of cells do you find in each? What is found in the dorsal root ganglion? What is a ganglion? 5. What is a spinal reflex? Name the 5 components of a reflex arc. Give examples. 6. What is the difference between a nerve and a neuron? Chapter 13- The Brain and Cranial Nerves 1. Name and describe the function of the principal parts of the brain. 2. Where does CSF come from? What is its purpose? What are ventricles? Name them and know their location. 3. What 3 parts make up the brain stem? Where do over 90% of the motor neurons cross over from one side of the body to the other? 4. What is the white matter in the cerebellum called? 5. In what principal part of the brain are the thalamus and hypothalamus found? What is the function of the thalamus? List some functions of the hypothalamus. Which division of the PNS does the hypothalamus control? 6. Describe the anatomy of the cerebrum. What is its function? Chapter 15- The Special Senses 1. List and describe the tunics of the eyeball. 2. What 2 structures of the eye are involved in refraction of light? Are they vascular? What is the white part of the eye called? 3. What part of the eye secretes aqueous humor? What type of tissue is the iris made of? What is the function of the pupil? 4. What happens during accommodation of the lens? Why is this important? 5. Describe the layers of retina. What are the functions of rods and cones? Describe the pathway of nerve signal in the retina. Are photoreceptors active in the dark or in the light? 6. What 3 processes are involved in image formation? 7. What makes up the external, middle and inner ear? 8. What nerve innervates the inner ear? What is the function of the cochlea and the vestibular apparatus? 9. Describe the physiology of hearing? How does it work? What are the purposes of the oval and round window? Where are the actual hearing receptors? 10. What structure detects static equilibrium? Dynamic equilibrium? Describe the anatomical structures involved with each. Chapter 14- The Autonomic Nervous System 1. Contrast the somatic and autonomic nervous systems. Which one is under voluntary control? 2. What is found between a preganglionic and postganglionic neuron? 3. What are the 2 divisions of the ANS? Are most organs innervated by both divisions? Which division has a longer postganglionic neuron? 4. What are the physiological effects of the parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions? 5. What part of the brain is the main regulator of the ANS? Chapter 9- Muscle Tissue 7. Name, describe and locate the 3 types of muscle tissue. What are the functions of muscle? 8. Name and locate the connective tissue layers found in and around a muscle. 9. Describe the anatomy of a skeletal muscle fiber/cell. What is the function of T tubules, sarcoplasmic reticulum, sarcolemma, and myofilaments. 10. What is a sarcomere? Describe the arrangement of proteins in a sarcomere. How does a sarcomere work? Why do we see striations in muscle tissue when viewed with a light microscope? 11. What are thin and thick filaments made up of? Does contraction of a muscle involve shorten or folding of any proteins? 12. Describe what happens during muscle contraction beginning with a nerve impulse. What role does Ca2+ play in muscle contraction? How is ATP involved in muscle contraction? 13. Describe the events that occur at the Neuromuscular Junction. 14. What are the 3 sources of ATP production within the muscle? 15. What makes up a motor unit? Are they all the same size? Do they all fire at the same time within a given muscle? 16. Contrast twitch contraction, wave summation, unfused and fused tetanus. Which one results in the strongest contraction? 17. Can adult skeletal muscle fibers be replaced? Cardiac? Smooth? The Cardiovascular System: The Heart- Chapter 18 1. Where is the heart located? Describe the 2 layers of the pericardium. What are the three main layers of the heart? Describe them. 2. What are sulci? What is found within these structures? 3. List the 4 chambers of the heart in the order in which blood flows through the organ. Which valve connects the left atrium and ventricle? What is the fossa ovalis? Describe chordae tendinea and papillary muscle. 4. Describe the function and location of the 2 semilunar valves. 5. Where does the right atrium receive blood from? Left atrium? 6. Which chamber has the thickest wall (myocardium)? Why? 7. Describe 3 types of circulatory pathways in the body? Do pulmonary veins contain oxygenated blood? Where do coronary veins drain to? 8. Describe the conduction system of the heart. 9. What is congestive heart failure?
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