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					CITIZEN ENGAGEMENT IN ANTI- CORRUPTION PROGRAMS
                IN THE PHILIPPINES:
            THE BUDGET NETWORK CASE


                         Emilia T. Boncodin
                                Professor
         National College of Public Administration and Governance
                       University of the Philippines




                       WORLD CIVIC FORUM
                              Seoul, Korea
                             May 5 – 8, 2009
                            ANTI-CORRUPTION PROGRAMS

             •    many levels: national, regional, local
             •    many areas: elections, government appointments,
                             enforcement, judicial system, use of
                             government funds, collection of government
                             resources, etc.
             •    many manifestations
                      – inadequate, if not lack of, public services (bad roads,
                        dilapidated facilities, etc.)
                      – informal settlers, malnourished children, etc.
                      – unemployment, opportunities for livelihood




Citizen Engagement in Anti-Cooruption Programs in
the Philippines: The Budget Network Case                                          2
                                   Anti-Corruption Program

                                                    through

                              Applied National Budget Work

                  (the monitoring and evaluation of national or central
                       government budget and budgeting system)




Citizen Engagement in Anti-Cooruption Programs in
the Philippines: The Budget Network Case                                  3
                          WHY NATIONAL BUDGET WORK?



             •    all-encompassing reach: National Government programs and
                  activities
             •    “not the usual” area of citizen engagement
             •    CSOs undertake monitoring without in-depth budget
                  knowledge
             •    encouragement from the work of other countries




Citizen Engagement in Anti-Cooruption Programs in
the Philippines: The Budget Network Case                                     4
                  CSO Engagement in National Budget Work



             •    Generally not an area of interest because:
                       – complexity of the national budget process requiring highly
                         technical training
                       – lack of regular data on the budget apart from the annual
                         budget documents
                       – macro level perspective not interesting to the general public
                       – “the national budget mystique”




Citizen Engagement in Anti-Cooruption Programs in
the Philippines: The Budget Network Case                                                 5
                    ELEMENTS OF SUCCESFULL NATIONAL
                             BUDGET WORK


             •    Knowledge of key economic issues
             •    Knowledge of the budget process and the elements of a good
                  budget
             •    Media and dissemination
             •    Accurate, accessible and timely products
             •    Working with policymakers
             •    Open and transparent government financial information
                  system




Citizen Engagement in Anti-Cooruption Programs in
the Philippines: The Budget Network Case                                       6
                      TYPES OF NATIONAL BUDGET WORK



                 •    Budget Literacy Enhancement
                           – Budget Guides
                           – Budget Training


                 •    Assessment of the Budget Process and Budget
                      Systems
                           – Budget process and system studies
                           – Transparency and participation reports
                           – Participatory budgeting




Citizen Engagement in Anti-Cooruption Programs in
the Philippines: The Budget Network Case                              7
              TYPES OF NATIONAL BUDGET WORK . . . cont’d



             •    Analysis of Budget Policies
                       – Government Budget Proposals
                       – Sector Analysis
                       – Effects on Population Groups
                       – Effects on Economic and Social Rights
                       – Revenue and Debt Analysis
                       – General Economic Analysis




Citizen Engagement in Anti-Cooruption Programs in
the Philippines: The Budget Network Case                         8
                         THE NATIONAL BUDGET PROCESS




                                                     Legislation

                                                          2



                       Preparation           1                       3   Execution


                                                           4

                                                       Control
                                                        and
                                                    Accountability




Citizen Engagement in Anti-Cooruption Programs in
the Philippines: The Budget Network Case                                             9
                  SOME OPPORTUNITIES FOR CORRUPTION
                        IN THE BUDGET PROCESS

                Preparation :                  Inclusion of projects that do not have
                                               desired impact or value; projects are
                                               poorly planned or designed; patronage
                                               projects; lack of cost standards

                Legislation :                  Political horse-trading; patronage    projects

                Execution :                    Delays in funds availability; unpredictable
                                               payments scheme; tedious
                                               documentation delaying paper flow;
                                               procurement issues

                Control/Accountability : No results orientation; poor internal control and
                                         reporting systems; inadequate oversight; too
                                         complex accounting system; non-
                                         independence of auditors



Citizen Engagement in Anti-Cooruption Programs in
the Philippines: The Budget Network Case                                                        10
                                 CSO INVOLVEMENT IN
                               NATIONAL BUDGET WORK

          Budget Cycle                           Potential               Current Philippine
                                                                            Experience
         Budget              Analysis of pre-budget statement       Basic sectors representatives
         Preparation           (i.e., Budget Call)                    sitting in government
                                                                      agencies (NAPC, PARC,
                             Sector analysis for priority setting
                                                                      etc.) get to participate in
                             Project analysis                         budget making
                             Consultations with agencies            Regional Development
                                                                     Councils consultation
                             Project analysis
                                                                    Agency consultations
                             Analysis of budget proposal
                               - fiscal policy
                               - macro assumptions
                               - new initiatives

                             Budget brief notes




Citizen Engagement in Anti-Cooruption Programs in
the Philippines: The Budget Network Case                                                            11
                          CSO INVOLVEMENT IN
                     NATIONAL BUDGET WORK . . . cont’d

        Budget Cycle                        Potential                      Current Philippine
                                                                              Experience
       Budget              General analysis of budget proposal       Alternative budget initiative by
       Authorization                                                   the social watch coalition to
                           Sector budget analysis
                                                                       advocate for higher social
                           Department budget analysis                  services budget
                           Project analysis                          Agency program review for the
                                                                       benefit of individual
                           Budget performance analysis using the       legislators
                             OPIF targets and indicators
                                                                     Ad-hoc budget papers
                           Review of previous year’s audit reports
                           Preparation of a citizen’s budget
                           Analysis of approved budget




Citizen Engagement in Anti-Cooruption Programs in
the Philippines: The Budget Network Case                                                                12
                           CSO INVOLVEMENT IN
                      NATIONAL BUDGET WORK . . . cont’d

       Budget Cycle                         Potential                    Current Philippine
                                                                            Experience

      Budget               Analysis of control policies              Social watch
      Execution/                                                     Pork barrel watch
                           Tracking of mandated activities (e.g.,
      Control
                             issuance of guidelines or IRRs)         Procurement watch
                           Expenditure/budget tracking               Road watch
                           Impact analysis                           ODA watch
                           Analysis of reports (or reporting of NO   Expenditure tracking
                             reports)                                Participation in public
                           Extensive use of complaints desk (COA,      consultations
                             agencies, etc)




Citizen Engagement in Anti-Cooruption Programs in
the Philippines: The Budget Network Case                                                       13
                          CSO INVOLVEMENT IN
                     NATIONAL BUDGET WORK . . . cont’d

       Budget Cycle                         Potential                    Current Philippine
                                                                            Experience
      Budget               Analysis of agency annual reports        Special investigative reports
      Accountability                                                Ad-hoc budget papers
                           Analysis of agency audit reports
                           Budget performance analysis – overall,   Citizen’s audit
                             sector, agency, program, project
                           Budget performance analysis vs.
                             targets
                           Compilation and analysis of external
                            reports (ODAs, etc)
                           Public reporting of non-government
                             representatives in government
                             agencies




Citizen Engagement in Anti-Cooruption Programs in
the Philippines: The Budget Network Case                                                            14
             INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE IN CSO BUDGET
                           MONITORING


           USA : Center on Budget and Policy Priorities (CBPP)

                           - started December 1981, the first year of the Reagan
                             Administration
                           - national and state level
                           - all aspects of budget policy (tax, expenditures, debts, the
                             economy, poverty, etc)
                           - International Budget Project: Open Budget Initiative




Citizen Engagement in Anti-Cooruption Programs in
the Philippines: The Budget Network Case                                                   15
             INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE IN CSO BUDGET
                       MONITORING . . . cont’d


            INDIA : Development Initiative for Social and Human Action
                        (DISHA)

                              - founded 1985 initially as a membership organization
                                working on forest laborers and tribal issues
                              - since 1992, started work on state-level issues through
                                budget analysis and policy advocacy (GUJARAT state)
                              - popular “notes” used by legislators




Citizen Engagement in Anti-Cooruption Programs in
the Philippines: The Budget Network Case                                                 16
             INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE IN CSO BUDGET
                       MONITORING . . . cont’d


             South Africa : Budget Information Service Institute for
                           Democracy in South Africa (IDASA)

                                 - IDASA is a public interest organization committed to
                                    consolidating democratic institutions in South Africa
                                 - BIS established in 1994 after the first democratic
                                   elections
                                 - initially, was a source of alternative information from
                                    legislators; later evolved into an independent source of
                                    critical analysis of the budget
                                 - heavily engaged after announcement of budget proposal
                                   through analysis, reports, budget briefs




Citizen Engagement in Anti-Cooruption Programs in
the Philippines: The Budget Network Case                                                       17
                     PHILIPPINES: THE BUDGET NETWORK



             • a network of civil society organizations, including non-
               government organizations, academe, business,
               professional and media groups dedicated to promoting
               national budget literacy and understanding among citizens
             • created in 2008 basically to perform:
                       – advocacy role on national budget issues relevant to the
                         general public
                       – research and analytical services on the national budget
                       – training tof interested groups on budget advocacy
             • 15 CSOs, including 3 of the biggest universities in the
               Philippines and 5 of the biggest CSOs




Citizen Engagement in Anti-Cooruption Programs in
the Philippines: The Budget Network Case                                           18
                                           General Strategy



             •    make the national budget public-friendly by simplifying
                  technical information
             •    close coordination with national authorities to gain
                  cooperation and respect through factual interpretation of
                  budget data
             •    “value-added” services to the Network
             •    open website for members and the public
                  (www.philbudgetmonitoring.com)




Citizen Engagement in Anti-Cooruption Programs in
the Philippines: The Budget Network Case                                      19
                                        MAJOR ACTIVITIES


             •    Needs assessment of Philippine CSOs on national
                  budget monitoring
             •    Conduct of training program for Network members
                       – Basic Budgeting
                       – Advance Training on the Infrastructure Budget
                       – Advance Training on the Security Sector Budget
                       – Advance Training on the Budget of Judicial Administration
                       – Special Training for the Media
             •    Monthly Network meetings on current issues
             •    Budget Bulletins on Specific Budget Areas
             •    Quarterly Network Forum



Citizen Engagement in Anti-Cooruption Programs in
the Philippines: The Budget Network Case                                             20
                                      OTHER CSO GROUPS



               •   Alternative Budget Initiative (ABI): Social Watch Philippines
                        – focus on MDG-related expenditures


               •   National Center for Budget Legislation
                        – consultancy services for legislators




Citizen Engagement in Anti-Cooruption Programs in
the Philippines: The Budget Network Case                                           21
                                SOME ACCOMPLISHMENTS

            •    Conduct of National Forum on the Proposed FY 2009
                 National Budget
                      – well-attended (over 100 network members), with participants
                        from Congress
            •    Advocacy for Budget Transparency gaining ground with the
                 government’s publication of a Citizen’s Budget (Budget-in-
                 Brief)
            •    Analysis of previous year’s budget performance yielded key
                 findings (i.e., over-release of funds to government agencies)
            •    Regular network meetings has developed capacity of CSOs
                 in applied budget work
                     (Note: CSOs self rating is 7, up from 1 in the latest survey)




Citizen Engagement in Anti-Cooruption Programs in
the Philippines: The Budget Network Case                                              22
                       SOME ACCOMPLISHMENTS . . . cont’d



                • Advocacy for Reforming the Budget Law
                • Support to Strengthening of Anti-Corruption Units
                         – Multi Sectoral Council for Anti-Corruption (MSCAC)
                         – Citizen Watchdogs:
                                 • Appointments Watch
                                 • Pork Barrel Watch
                                 • Procurement Watch
                                 • Road Watch
                                 • Election Watch

                • Advocacy for Reforming the Accounting and Audit Systems to
                  Conform with International Standards




Citizen Engagement in Anti-Cooruption Programs in
the Philippines: The Budget Network Case                                        23
                                       FUTURE ACTIVITIES

             •    Training Course on National Budgeting offered annually
             •    Expenditure tracking of key accounts:
                       – “pork barrel” of legislators
                       – other lump sum accounts
             •    Budget performance reports, particularly:
                       – agriculture
                       – public works
                       – environment
                       – security sector
                       – justice adminstration
             •    For a, dialogues, bulletins
             •    Resource institution on budget and budgeting issues



Citizen Engagement in Anti-Cooruption Programs in
the Philippines: The Budget Network Case                                   24
                          LESSONS IN CSO BUDGET WORK


             •    Knowledge and accuracy to gain credibility (DO YOUR
                  HOMEWORK)
             •    Constructive, rather than destructive, approach to budget
                  work (REPORT GOOD + BAD FINDINGS)
             •    Timeliness of Reports (SEIZE THE MOMENT)
             •    Non-academic, but generally understandable language
                  (SIMPLIFY)
             •    Regular distribution to audience, including public
                  presentations (WIDE REACH)
             •    Connect with things that matter (“WHAT IS IN IT FOR ME”)




Citizen Engagement in Anti-Cooruption Programs in
the Philippines: The Budget Network Case                                      25
                                There is tremendous value to
                   National Budget Monitoring and Evaluation.


                              The National Budget is the core
                          of everything that government does.


                   The National Budget matters to all citizens.




Citizen Engagement in Anti-Cooruption Programs in
the Philippines: The Budget Network Case                          26
THANK YOU!

				
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