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					    Building Surveyors Conference on
“Building a Green and Sustainable Future”

Implementation of Energy Saving
 measures in Existing Buildings

5 September 2009
Energy Efficient / Environmental Friendly Products

During the past years, we have been exploring new
technology and new products for our customers.

The following list shows some of these items which
have been used by our customers.
  Energy Efficient / Environmental Friendly Products
 Air Conditioning           Electrical            Lighting                 IAQ
Water cooled chiller   Variable speed drive    Energy efficiency    Fresh air unit
Cooling tower          Harmonic filter         fluorescent tube     High efficiency
Heat pump desiccant    Capacitor               Compact              filter
dehumidifier           Voltage optimizer       fluorescent lamp     Ultra Violent
High capacity                                  Electronic ballast   Sterilizer
dehumidifiers                                  Leon Lighting        TiO2 Filter
Mobile AC

     Cooking           Hot Water and Steam        Industrial
 Chinese steamer       Electric water heater   High efficiency      Charging Battery
 Steam cabinet         Air link water heater   motor                Cremation
 Automatic rice        Compact sized heat      Heat exchanger       Furnace
 cooker                pump water heater       Infra-red heating    Electric Cars
 Fryer                 High efficiency heat    and Drying           Electric Forklift
 Multipurpose oven     pump (COP>5 , 60oC      Waste                Oven Tunnel
 Induction pot stove   output)                 Incinerator          Arc Furnace /
 Induction wok         High temperature         RTGC for Ports      Smelter
 BBO sets              heat pump (COP>3 ,
                       85oC output)
                       High voltage steam
Energy Efficient / Environmental Friendly
The following slides will show those items which are
most welcomed by our customers, namely, they are:
 1.   Energy Efficient Chiller
 2.   Heat Pump Water Heater
 3.   Energy efficient lightings and Controls
 4.   Induction Cooker / Electric Cooking
 5.   Capacitor Bank
 6.   Solar Hot Water Heating
 7.   Green Roof and Wall
Energy Efficient Chillers
  Four design strategies for an efficient chiller plant

  •    Properly select heat rejection methods
  •    Design efficient water pumping systems
  •    Focus on chiller part load efficiency
  •    Integrate chiller Controls with Building
Energy Efficient Chillers

Heat extracted from air-conditioned spaces and the
work input to the refrigeration machine (chillers) =
Heat rejection, a cooling medium needed for the heat
 • Air – always available
 • Fresh water – can be made available economically only
   if there is a river or lake nearby
 • Seawater – available to buildings nearby the harbour
 • The cooling medium will directly affect the chiller
   refrigerant condensing temperature. One Deg. C lower,
   the chiller COP will be improved by 2-3%.
Energy Efficient Chillers
Refrigerant condensing temperatures for different heat
rejection methods
                         Dry Tower     Air      Indirect    Evaporative Direct
                         (Air-cooled   Cooled   Seawater    Type Cooling Seawater
                         radiator)              Cooled      Tower        Cooled
Air DB Temp              33oC          33oC

Air WB Temp                                                 28oC

Cooling Water In Temp                           28oC                     28oC

Cooling Water Out                               33oC                     33oC
Condenser Water In       40-42oC                33oC        32oC
Condenser Water Out      45-47oC                38oC        37oC
Refrigerant Condensing    48 - 50oC     45oC    41 - 42oC    40 - 41oC     35oC
Energy Efficient Chillers
•    Air-cooled chillers
    • Design condenser air inlet temperature 35°C (Hong Kong)
    • COP in the range of 2.6 to 3.0 (inclusive of the condenser fan power)

•    Water-cooled chillers
    • Design condenser water inlet temperature (direct seawater cooled)
      27°C (Hong Kong)
    • COP in the range of 4.0 to 5.0 (inclusive of the seawater pump power
      or cooling tower power)
                                                   Water-cooled air-
                                                   conditioning systems
                                                   (WACS) consume 20 -
                                                   30% less energy than
                                                   air-cooled air-
                                                   conditioning systems
Energy Efficient Chillers
•   For the other areas cannot use WACS, there still have some
    ways to improve their air-cooled chiller plant efficiency
    -   Ensure sufficient condenser air flow
    -   Avoid condenser air short circuit
    -   Mitigate condenser fin corrosion problem
  Energy Efficient Chillers
   •    For buildings that can adopt water-cooled air-conditioning
        system, congratulations, but still have some points to note
        -       Minimize fouling in the water-cooled condensers
        -       Automatic condenser tube cleaning system

            Refrigerant particle      Refrigerant side
 Cooling water                                                  Cooling water
                                Clean surface of copper tube

                                                               surface of copper tube

         Refrigerant particle      Refrigerant side
Cooling water                                                           Cooling water
Energy Efficient Chillers
    Periodically cleaning the condenser tubers
    Remove the scale which will degrade the performance of
    heat transfer and hence the operation efficiency of chillers.
Energy Efficient Chillers
 Tubes before cleaning

                                          Tube after 300 hours
                                          operation with ATCS

       Tubes just after manual cleaning
Energy Efficient Chillers

  • Chillers operate at low part load condition may have
    very low efficiency
                       Part-load performance of a typical centrifugal chiller

  Load %               100%   90%      80%     70%    60%     50%     40%     30%     20%

  Efficiency KW/RT 0.65       0.647   0.666   0.697   0.749   0.822   0.904   0.973   1.053

 Efficiency change %   100%   99.5%   103%    107%    115%    127%    139% 150%       162%

     •   Install small chillers to handle system part load period
     •   Chillers with VSD drive compressors may have a better part-
         load performance
     •   Oil-free chiller…
Energy Efficient Chillers
  •    Efficient pumping systems

      • Avoid oversized and then “throttled” to produce
        desired performance
      • Keep the fluid velocity down
      • Keep the temperature differential up
      • Keep the piping system simple
      • Use variable flow configuration and controls
Energy Efficient Chillers

                     •     Integrate chiller controls with Building BMS
                         • Specify am “open” communication protocol (e.g. BacNet)
                         • Apply Chiller Plant “Optimization” Control Logic


 Power Consumption

                                                     No. of Chiller





                         0%     25%          50%     75%        100%
                                      Cooling Load
Heat Pump Hot Water Supply - conventional

  • More energy efficient
    than using other fuel

  • COP ~3 with output
    temperature at 55°C


   Cooled Chilled
Heat Pump Hot Water Supply – new technology
 • Higher Efficiency (COP > 5) using alternative heat
   sources e.g. chiller condensing water

                                          High Efficiency
                                            Heat Pump

               Typical Heat Pump

 •   New type of refrigerant to produce higher temp. output (up to 85oC)
 •   More tailor made products for different types of applications
Heat Pump Hot Water Supply – High Efficiency
• Conventional HPs: using air or chilled water (12 oC ) of chillers as
  heat source. COP < 2.5 - 3.
• High Efficiency HPs: A new HP design using chiller’s condensing
  water (20-35oC) or other similar temp. water as heat sources coped
  by the new design of compressor and refrigerant control, COP>5.

    i.     Heating capacity        :   150kW – 2,000kW
    ii.    COP                     :   > 5 at output temp. rise 40oC
    iii.   Temp. of water source   :   7 to 40oC
    iv.    Max. output temp.       :   ~ 60oC
    v.     Heat Source             :   Condensing water
    vi.    Refrigerant             :   R134a

    vii.   Design Characteristics :    Compressor, Refrigerant Flow
    viii   Application             :   Hot Water Supply /
    .                                  Dehumidification
Heat Pump Hot Water Supply – High Temp
 Heat Pump that can use low grade heat source with temp. ~ 20 to
 60oC to generate high grade energy with temp. up to 85oC.

 i.     COP                 :   > 3.5 at output temp. rise 45oC
 ii.    Input heat          :   ~ 20 to 60oC
 iii.   Max. output temp.   :   ~ 85oC
 iv.    Heat Source         :   Condensing water / Geothermal heat /
                                Waste heat generated from
                                manufacturing process
 v.     Application         :   Hot water supply / Dehumidification /
                                Industrial process drying

  Why is the Output Temperature Higher ?
  Technology developed by Qinghua University / Guangzhou Institute of
  Energy Conservation , using new environmental healthy refrigerants which
  can sustain higher temperature during compression
  Numerous job references on commercial and industrial projects in China,
  no installations in HK
 Heat Pump Hot Water Supply – Integrated Type

 Free cooled air
 produced by the                  Cooled liquid refrigerant is
                                  passed through the
 evaporator or sport              evaporator inside or outside
 cooling                          the unit where heat from the
                                  surrounding is absorbed into
Compressor compress the           vapour.
refrigerant vapour and directs
the hot compressed vapour
refrigerant to the copper tubes
around the water storage tank

Hot water is generated
with much higher                  Heating element is
efficiency resulting from         incorporated in the water
the COP of the heat               tank to supplement the
pump refrigerant cycle            heating if necessary
Heat Pump Hot Water Supply – Integrated Type
Heat Pump Hot Water Supply – Integrated Type

              Temp. of CW ~ 23oC   Temp. of HW ~ 53oC
Energy efficient lightings
Energy efficient lightings - LED
Energy efficient lightings - Ballast

    Electromagnetic ballast    Electronic ballast
Energy efficient lightings - Controls


Induction Cooker

            Induction Cooker
Induction Cooker

                               •   Heats up 30% faster
                               •   Saves 45% fuel cost
                               •   Energy transfer is instantaneous
                                   and highly controllable
                               •   Minimal heat loss - kitchen is
                                   kept cool

     Safety      • No naked flame – fire risk minimized
                 • Harmful combustion pollutants, including
     Health        CO, NOx & carcinogen PAHs, are
                 • Energy efficiency up to 90% - most
   Environment     efficient cooking technology
                 • Local emission is eliminated
Induction Cooker – Different Brands
                       • Various models from 1 to 5-zone,
                         from 2 to 3kW / zone, ideal for
                         Chinese Wok cooking
                       • Sophisticated safety features -
                         ideal for open kitchen
                       • Modular hobs are available for
                         dual-fuel combination
  Induction Cooker – Cookwares

Brands:                          Basics

Electric Cookers

  Electric Heated
                    Steam Cabinet   Electric Automatic
  Chinese Steamer                                          Electric Fryer
                                       Rice Cooker

       Multi-purpose oven      Induction Stock Pot Stove   Induction Wok
Capacitor Bank
   Install capacitor to
   maintain a high power
   Reduce the demand charge            Capacitor

                  PF : 0.84 → 0.94

                  1000 kVA → 894 kVA

                  Reduced by 10.6%
Solar Hot Water Heating

                          Payback or not
                          depends on circuit
                          design and
                          structural support
Green Roof / Wall – many queries from customers



 A HK School                Singapore
Let’s work harder for the
       Environment !


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