Creative Engagement for Digital by pengxiang


									Qualitative Methodologies Workshop

    •Some general principles
    •An example
    •Introducing some methods and techniques
    •Developing a plan
                                   Jo Tacchi
Some resources in the library…

• Questioning Qualitative Inquiry: Critical Essays. Martyn
  Hammersley. London. Sage. 2008.

• Strategies of Qualitative Inquiry. Norman K. Denzin &
  Yvonna S. Lincoln. Los Angeles. Sage. 2008.

• Introducing Qualitative Research: A Student’s Guide for
  the Craft of Doing Qualitative Research. Rosaline S.
  Barbour. Thousand Oaks CA. Sage. 2008.

Quantitative or Qualitative? general principles
•   Large numbers                 •   Small numbers
•   Thin description              •   Thick description
•   Counts how many               •   Explores meanings
•   Closed, with predetermined    •   Open, with clear focus but
    parameters                        flexibility
•   Mode of analysis              •   Allows for reflexive
    predetermined                     interpretation
•   Easy to control – for good    •   Difficult to control – for good
    (generating accurate              (allows interesting and
    information on large              unexpected issues to emerge)
    numbers of people) and ill        and ill (hard to generate
    (may miss important               numbers and include large
    unexpected aspects)               numbers of people)
•   Representative – random       •   Generalisable – purposeful

                                                                        Training workshop, Lapulu
    sampling                          sampling
•   Requires a set of variables   •   Requires reflexivity
•   Produces statistics           •   Produces accounts/
Planning qualitative research

• Each piece of research needs a detailed research plan
• What are your research questions and what approach is
  best suited to answering them?
• Develop a clear methodology
• Use a range of appropriate methods

Workshop outputs

• A clearer idea of the potential relevance to your research
• An idea of a few qualitative methods
• A draft research plan
Finding a Voice

• Aim to explore how           • Established a network of
  technological change might     15 (pre-existing) ICT
  be socially effective          centres
  and culturally empowering        • telecentres
• Funded by Australian             • community radio /
  Research Council Linkage           video
  grant and UNESCO and             • community libraries
  UNDP                             • Community
• Sites: India, Nepal, Sri           multimedia centres

                                                            image courtesy Buddhanagar CMC
  Lanka and Indonesia
Finding a Voice : 2 main activities and outcomes

• Participatory local content   • Ethnographic Action
  creation – a variety of         Research (EAR) – a
  content creation activities     research and
  and a transferable set of       development
  principles and processes        methodology for
                                  improving the
                                  effectiveness of
                                  community-based media
                                  and ICT centres

                                                          image courtesy Buddhanagar CMC
Background – the research need
• Much of the research work in development
  communication is about trying to establish impact
• Much of it follows the hypodermic needle approach, and
  is embedded in modernisation paradigm
• This is despite rhetoric to the contrary – we talk about
• Nevertheless, ‘target audiences’ of development
  communication are often considered to be ‘information
  poor’ – in need of an ‘injection’ of information
• Participation in development often fails to live up to its
  promise – ‘top-down participation’
• How can we make development more participatory?
• Dialogue and debate and multiple knowledges
• Dealing with complexity
EAR: Ethnographic Action Research
Developed specifically for ICT/community media initiatives

Combines three research approaches
1. ETHNOGRAPHY: traditionally used to understand different cultures
   in detail. It is long term and requires researcher to be embedded in
   local cultures.

2. PARTICIPATORY TECHNIQUES help both researchers and
   participants understand complex issues in a rapid and inclusive

3. ACTION RESEARCH used to bring about new activities through
   new understandings of situations.
EAR: Ethnographic Action Research

key features
•   Embedded
•   Ongoing
•   Social mobilisation     Reflect             Do
•   Research culture
•   Participatory
•   Action research cycle
EAR: Ethnographic Action Research
A few of the key methods

• Participant observation & field notes
   – An EAR researcher is both a participant and an observer.
   – Field notes record as much as possible of what EAR researchers
     see and hear and also record their own reactions and ideas as
     they happen.
   – This helps the researcher to think through difficult issues, reflect
     upon and share emerging research themes .
   – Continuous activity.
   – Can also be undertaken by others involved in the project simply
     by reflecting on what they observe and recording this in the form
     of field notes (like a journal/diary).
EAR: Ethnographic Action Research
A few of the key methods

• Interviews: In-depth and group
   – In-depth interviews are detailed ‘conversations with a purpose’.
   – Interviews are guided by an ‘interview schedule’ - a list of a few
     issues to be covered in each interview - while leaving lots of
     room to respond to what is interesting in the conversation.
   – Group interviews are discussions in which researchers set a
     topic and guide discussion but allow the participants to talk to
     each other and develop a conversation.
   – A good group size is between 6 and 10 people.
EAR: Ethnographic Action Research
A few of the key methods

• Participatory techniques
   – Good for getting researchers started in collecting data and
     quickly gaining an understanding of the local area, local people
     and local issues.
   – Can involve local people participating in defining their own
   – A useful way of starting EAR work, and can be drawn upon at
     any time to explore issues in different ways, and to test findings
     or ideas generated using other methods.
   – Generally undertaken with small groups.
   – Includes mapping, grouping, ranking, comparing and
Communicative ecologies
• Reflects ‘ethnographic’ goal of holism, importance of
• Tool for mapping participation in communication –
  ground it in the everyday
• Assumes ICT joins pre-existing communication systems
  beyond mass / community media
• Transport infrastructure
   – roads, buses, trains
• Social communication practices
   – public and private gossip
• Local people often do not use or think about an
  individual medium in isolation from other media
• Communication takes place within an existing
  ‘communicative ecology’ specific to each
  community/group/place… culture
Subject:  Firali
 ComEco1 female householder   Communicative Ecology
Location: Jhuwani, Nepal                   mapping
Date:     24 March 2007
Important Skills
•   Listening
•   Interpreting/describing
•   Checking/sharing
•   Reflecting/questioning

Some roles of a group facilitator
• To focus a group on its purpose and act as ‘guardian of
  the group culture’
• To help a group increase its effectiveness by intervening
  on group process and structure
• To help group members learn and critically reflect

4 facilitators
Exercising some methods: Speed dating
• Participatory techniques
   –   Trees
   –   Community mapping
   –   Gender roles charts
   –   Road blocks and barriers
   –   Ranking lines
   –   Spider diagrams
Research planning
•   Clear research question
•   Methods that will be used
•   The Time Frame for implementing each research activity
•   Documentation – managing and organising data
•   Coding and analysis
•   Production and feedback of results/outputs

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