Overview Letters and Sounds

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Letters and Sounds
      PDM 2
• To have a clear understanding of the
  core criteria which defines an effective
  phonic programme

• To familiarise with the aims and
  expectations of Letters and Sounds
  Core Criteria which Define
an Effective Phonic Programme
           An effective
     phonic programme will….
• present high quality systematic phonic
  work as the prime approach to decoding
• enable children to start learning phonic
  knowledge and skills systematically by
  the age of five with the expectation that
  they will be fluent readers having
  secured word recognition skills by the
  end of key stage one
           An effective
     phonic programme will….
• be designed for the teaching of discrete,
  daily sessions progressing from simple to
  more complex phonic knowledge and skills
  and covering the major grapheme phoneme
           An effective
     phonic programme will….
• enable children's progress to be
• use a multi-sensory approach so that
  children learn variously from
  simultaneous visual, auditory and
  kinaesthetic activities which are designed
  to secure essential phonic knowledge
  and skills
           An effective
     phonic programme will….
• demonstrate that phonemes should be
  blended, in order, from left to right, 'all
  through the word' for reading
• demonstrate how words can be segmented
  into their constituent phonemes for spelling
  and that this is the reverse of blending
  phonemes to read words
           An effective
     phonic programme will….
• demonstrate that phonemes should be
  blended, in order, from left to right, 'all
  through the word' for reading
• demonstrate how words can be
  segmented into their constituent
  phonemes for spelling and that this is
  the reverse of blending phonemes to
  read words
           An effective
     phonic programme will….
• ensure that, as early as possible, children
  have opportunities to read texts (and spell
  words) that are within the reach of their
  phonic knowledge and skills even though
  every single word in the text may not be
  entirely decodable by the children unaided
Letters and Sounds
    Why Letters and Sounds?
• Multi-sensory but tightly focused on the learning goal
• Supports progression in learning and consolidation
  through clearly defined phases
• Sufficiently flexible to take account of differing needs
  and abilities
• Achieves the learning intention within the optimum
• Time-limited programme aimed at securing fluent
  word recognition skills for reading by the end of Key
  Stage 1
The Letters and Sounds pack

The pack contains:
• Notes of Guidance
• Six phase teaching programme
• Poster
 What will Letters and Sounds
• Adhere to key principles of high quality
  phonic work as defined by Rose Review
• Use phonics as the prime approach for
  tackling unfamiliar words
• Engage all children and be fully participatory
• Demonstrate correct enunciation of
• Include both blending and segmenting
         Letters and Sounds
         some key messages
• Making a good start – Phase One
  recognises the important role of
  speaking and listening
• Systematic high quality phonics –
  Phase 2 and beyond
• Multi-sensory learning
• Rich and broad content allows
  fidelity to the programme
• The Letters and Sounds teaching programme is split into
  6 phases in order to aid progression
• The 6 phases support teaching from foundation stage to
  year 2 and beyond
• Phase 1 is both an important initial phase and a
  continuous element of the programme
• Phases 2, 3 and 4 are intended to be taught in
  Reception. Phase 5 is intended to be taught in year 1
  and phase 6 in year 2
• Boundaries between phases are porous
• Use professional judgement for when ready to move on
Alongside Letters and Sounds
• Opportunities to read texts and spell
  words that are within reach of phonic
  knowledge and skills
• Examples of how new learning can be
• By Phase 2 – demonstrate reading and
  writing in context so children can apply
         The role of Phase 1
• Central importance of developing
  speaking and listening skills
• Relies on and complements a broad and
  rich language curriculum
• Promotes the range and depth of
  children’s language experience
• Introduces oral blending and segmenting
• Paves the way for systematic phonic
  teaching to begin
                           Phase 1
•   Adult-led activities
•   Language-rich provision
•   Worthwhile freely chosen activities
•   Seven Aspects: Three Strands in each
•   Modelling speaking and listening
•   Introduces oral blending and segmenting in
    Aspect 7
Typical duration: Up to 6 weeks
• Continues well beyond introduction of Phase 2
 Seven aspects and three strands
Aspects                             Strands

1.   General sound discrimination   1. Tuning into sounds (auditory
     – environmental sounds            discrimination)
2.   General sound discrimination
     – instrumental sounds          2. Listening and remembering
3.   General sound discrimination      sounds (auditory memory and
     – body percussion                 sequencing)
4.   Rhythm and rhyme
5.   Alliteration                   3. Talking about sounds
6.   Voice sounds                      (developing vocabulary and
7.   Oral blending and segmenting      language comprehension)
               Phase 1
DVD - Examples of Aspects

Start with Introduction to Phase 1
          Phase 1 outcome
• Explore and experiment with sounds and
• Listen attentively.
• Show a growing awareness and appreciation
  of ryhme, rhythm and alliteration.
• Speak clearly and audibly with confidence
  and control.
• Distiguish between different sounds in words
  and begin to develop awareness of the
  differences between phonemes.
                   Phases 2 - 6
• Programme of phonic work taught systematically
• Prime approach to teaching how to read and spell words
• Daily – about 20 minutes each session Phase 2 starts with
  learning a selection of letters
• All phases – suggests activities or illustrative examples
• Suggested timetable for each week in phases 2 – 4 and for
  blocks of weeks in phase 5.
• Teaching sequence common to phases 2 – 5
• Within phases 6 the sequence is not defined. Focus is on
  becoming fluent readers and increasingly accurate spellers.
   Model for daily direct teaching of phonic skills and knowledge
                    Objectives and criteria for success

                       REVISIT AND REVIEW
  recently and previously learned phoneme-grapheme correspondences, or
                 blending and segmenting skills as appropriate

new phoneme-grapheme correspondences; skills of blending and segmenting

new phoneme-grapheme correspondences; skills of blending and segmenting

            new knowledge and skills while reading and writing

 Watch the Early Reading Development
  Pilot direct teaching session.
• What impact did the session have on
  the learners?
• How did the teacher plan opportunities
  for children to use and apply the phonic
  skills taught in the session?
                Phase 2
• Introduces 19 grapheme-phoneme
• Decoding and encoding taught as reversible
• As soon as children have a small number of
  grapheme/phoneme correspondences,
  blending and segmenting can start
• ‘Tricky’ words – to, the, no, go, I
Typical duration: Up to 6 weeks
              Phase 2
Letters and Sounds: DVD clips
• Watch – Teaching graphemes
• Watch – Segmenting for spelling
        Phase 2 outcome
• Know that words are constructed from
  phonemes and that phonemes are
  represented by graphemes
• Knowledge of the 19 common
  consonants and vowels
• Blend them together in reading simple
  cvc words and segment them to support
               Phase 3
• Introduces another 25 graphemes
• Most comprising two letters
• One representation of each of 43
  grapheme/phoneme correspondences
• Reading and spelling two syllable words
  and captions
Typical duration: Up to 12 weeks
              Phase 3
Letters and Sounds: DVD clips

• Watch – Oral blending
• Watch – Teaching blending
          Phase 3 outcome
• Link sounds to letters, naming and sounding the
  letters of the alphabet
• Recognise letter shapes and say a sound for each
• Hear and say sounds in the order in which they
  occur in the word
• Read simple words by sounding out and blending
  the phonemes all through the word from left to
• Recognise common digraphs and read some high
  frequency words.
            Phase 4
• Consolidates knowledge of
  Grapheme/Phoneme Correspondences
• Introduces adjacent consonants
• No new Grapheme/Phoneme
Typical duration: 4-6 weeks
              Phase 4

Letters and Sounds: DVD clips
• Watch – Oral segmenting and spelling
• Watch – Writing
         Phase 4 outcome
• Children are able to blend and segment
  adjacent consonants in words and to
  apply this skill when reading unfamilier
  texts and in spelling.
               Phase 5
• Introduces alternative graphemes for
• Introduces alternative pronunciations
  for reading
• Developing automaticity
Throughout Year One
              Phase 5

Letters and Sounds: DVD clips
• Watch – Spelling
• Watch – Reading
           Phase 5 outcome
• Use alternative ways of pronouncing the graphemes
  and spelling the phonemes
• Identify the constituent parts of two-syllable and
  three-syllable words
• Able to read and spell phonetically decodable two-
  syllable and three-syllable words
• Recognise an increasing number of high frequency
  words automatically
• Phonics knowledge and skills will be applied as the
  prime approach in reading and spelling when the
  words are unfamiliar and not completly decodable.
              Phase 6
• Increasing fluency and accuracy
Throughout Year Two (although teaching
  of spelling continues well into KS2)
              Phase 6
Letters and Sounds: DVD clips

• Watch – Word study
• Watch – reading
        Phase 6 outcome
• Children apply their phonics skills and
  knowledge to recognise and spell an
  increasing number of complex words
• They read an increasing number of high
  and medium frequency words
  independently and automatically.
      Phonics in Key stage 2
By the end of year 2 most children should be:
• Well on their way to becoming fluent readers.
• Well on the way to spelling with increasing
  accuracy and confidence.
• This means in year 3 the emphasis will change
  from teaching word recognition to developing
  childrens language comprehension.
They will be moving from learning to read to
  reading to learn.
       Implications for KS2
• Letters and Sounds materials may still
  have a place within Key Stage 2.
Tracking progress
          A progress tracking
          grid is used to
          record the phonic
          phases children are
          current working on
          – i.e. the current
          ‘pitch’ of the
    Phonic progress tracking –
         day to day assessment
• Spans FS and KS1 and therefore notes
  the phases children are currently
  ‘working on’ as part of ongoing
  formative assessment.
• Children’s names are entered into the
  relevant box when they begin to be
  taught that phase
           Assessing Pupils’ Progress

Planning from           Day to day
  objectives           teaching and

Informing planning and teaching and       Periodic
              learning                  assessment
          Phonic progress –
            periodic assessment

• Deciding at which phase the child is
  applying his or her phonic knowledge and
  skills independently and consistently.
• Assessed as ‘secure at’ that phonic phase
             Next Steps
• Are there any implications for current
  organisation of teaching phonics across
  the school?

• Do we effectively track phonic progress

• Do we need more resources to support
  teaching and learning?